WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspects energia nuclear

  1. Nuclear energy - some aspects; Energia nuclear - alguns aspectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-15

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy.

  2. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são discutidos alguns aspectos comerciais e políticos do problema. São também examinadas as estratégias de vendas da indústria nuclear no Brasil.This article reviews the history and describes the experience on nuclear energy in Brazil, showing that nuclear technology applied to biomedical sciences, industry and agriculture has been largely developed in this country, from the year 1950 on. Then the paper shows that Brazil can cover its electricity consumption with only renewable energy sources, without nuclear power plants. Finally the arguments usually employed in the press, pro and against nuclear power plants are analyzed and some commercial and political aspects of the problem are commented. The sales strategy of the nuclear industry in Brazil is also commented.

  3. Fusione nucleare: l’energia delle stelle

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Francesca; Sandrelli, Stefano; Gizzi, Leonida Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Intervengono Leonida Antonio Gizzi, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR, sede di Pisa, associato INFN Francesca Matteucci, docente di Astrofisica, Università di Trieste, accademico dei Lincei Modera Stefano Sandrelli, divulgatore e astrofisico, INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera E = mc2, diceva Einstein. Ovvero: la materia si può trasformare in energia e viceversa. Ma se per produrre energia bastasse solo un po’ di materia, non avremmo risolto ogni possibile crisi energe...

  4. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são dis...

  5. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  6. Energia nuclear: Uma solução para Portugal?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cosme Costa Vieira

    2006-01-01

    As pessoas receiam a energia nuclear por diversas razões. Foi desenvolvida no contexto de uma guerra mundial, é a base da “destruição mútua garantida”, houve o acidente de Chernobyl e é necessário guardar o combustível utilizado durante vários séculos. Mas Portugal não tem recursos energéticos e precisa de energia para se desenvolver sem aumentar a emissão para a atmosfera de dióxido de carbono. No sentido de informar sobre a solução nuclear, neste trabalho explico a tecnologia e apresento um...

  7. Energia nuclear em um cenário de trinta anos Nuclear energy over a 30-year scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Feu Alvim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A perspectiva da Energia Nuclear no Brasil é analisada sob os aspectos demanda, custos, ambiental, tecnológico e estratégico. A demanda energética projetada, mesmo para crescimentos abaixo dos desejados e considerando algum esforço de redução da intensidade energética, mostra a necessidade de adicionar energia térmica à geração elétrica, hoje predominantemente hídrica. A energia nuclear deve ter participação nessa geração por motivos econômicos, ambientais, tecnológicos e estratégicos.The perspectives of nuclear energy in Brazil is analyzed regarding demand, costs, environmental, technological and strategic aspects. The projected energy demand, even for a growth rate below the desired one and considering some efforts relative to energy intensity reduction, shows the need of adding thermal energy to electricity generation, now predominantly hydraulic. Nuclear energy should have a share in this generation due to economical, environmental, technological and strategic reasons.

  8. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2003 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous.

  9. Nuclear Energy in Brazil; La energia nuclear en Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranjan Filho, A.

    2011-07-01

    This article deals with the fact that sustainable development requires the use of all forms of primary energy for electricity production and particularly of those which are environmental friendly, as nuclear. Any strategy to counterbalance the greenhouse effect will mean curtailing the use of fossil fuel and in that regard nuclear technology, the only one that manages to isolate safety its wastes, is a feasible alternative to protect the environment. Currently, hydropower is the major source of electricity generation in Brazil, but according to the expected increase of demand up to 2030, it will need to be complemented by thermal units, that in fact are currently needed to compensate for reservoirs fluctuations. In that scenario, nuclear appears as one of the most competitive options for base-load operation and in the case of Brazil, nuclear energy could have the support of important uranium reserves and technological mastering of the nuclear fuel fabrication. (Author)

  10. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  11. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  12. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  13. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  14. Nuclear energy and climate change; Energia nuclear y cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, A.

    2002-07-01

    Energy is one of the essential motives for social and economic development of the humanity. Nuclear energy is a feasible option to stand up to a larger demand of energy, and it is playing, and will continue playing in the future, a decisive role in the debate about climate change and sustainable development, and in the efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions. (Author)

  15. Reactores a tório: o futuro da energia nuclear de fissão

    OpenAIRE

    Vilares, João Pedro Martins

    2015-01-01

    A geração de energia eléctrica a partir de energia nuclear sob a forma de fissão afigura-se cada vez mais importante uma vez que a utilização de combustíveis fósseis terá necessariamente um fim, relacionado sobretudo com a crescente dificuldade de acesso a reservas desses combustíveis. Com o presente trabalho pretende-se discutir as vantagens e os inconvenientes da utilização do tório em reactores nucleares relativamente aos reactores tradicionais a operar a urân...

  16. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG)

  17. Nuclear energy and sustainable development; Energia Nuclear y desarrollo sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.

    2005-07-01

    To sustain decent environmental conditions, it is essential to contain the emission of greenhouse gases. to a great extent, this can be achieved by reducing the almost exclusive dependence of fossil fuels for producing electricity and by championing nuclear energy and the renewable, which in the end are the least contaminating. Specifically, operation of the European nuclear fleet avoids the yearly emission of 700 million tons of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. The need to combat climate change is very serious and increasingly imminent, especially if we remember that the World Health Organization has said that climate change could eventually cause 300,000 deaths. The different social players are aware of the problem. In fact, the European Union's Cabinet of Ministers approved the post-kyoto Environmental Strategy, which underlines the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by the year 2050. It seems obvious that, in the long run, technological research and development will be fundamental pieces in the battle against environmental change and in the effort to one day provide 2,000 million people with access to electricity. (Author)

  18. Análise de um projecto de investimento na energia nuclear em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Pedro Tiago Marques

    2011-01-01

    Face ao aumento do consumo anual de electricidade verificado em Portugal e ao aumento dos preços dos combustíveis fósseis, é imperativo diversificar as fontes de energia disponíveis. A energia nuclear, no que concerne ao efeito de estufa, é menos nociva para o ambiente e constitui uma solução alternativa à dependência dos combustíveis fósseis. A energia nuclear continua a ser uma interessante área de pesquisa e estudo, não só para melhorar ainda mais a segurança, mas também para mino...

  19. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  20. Energia nuclear em um cenário de trinta anos Nuclear energy over a 30-year scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Feu Alvim; Frida Eidelman; Olga Mafra; Omar Campos Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    A perspectiva da Energia Nuclear no Brasil é analisada sob os aspectos demanda, custos, ambiental, tecnológico e estratégico. A demanda energética projetada, mesmo para crescimentos abaixo dos desejados e considerando algum esforço de redução da intensidade energética, mostra a necessidade de adicionar energia térmica à geração elétrica, hoje predominantemente hídrica. A energia nuclear deve ter participação nessa geração por motivos econômicos, ambientais, tecnológicos e estratégicos.The per...

  1. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses

  2. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  3. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  4. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)

  5. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  6. Viabilidade económica da implementação de um reactor nuclear para a produção de energia eléctrica em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Miguel António de Morais

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo avaliar economicamente e determinar a viabilidade da implementação de um reactor nuclear para produção de energia eléctrica. Faz-se uma abordagem a aspectos da energia nuclear no mundo e em particular a energia nuclear na união europeia, faz-se uma análise sobre a estrutura do sector nuclear em Espanha e o futuro da energia no mundo. É realizada uma análise sobre a energia nuclear em Portugal, são abordados aspectos como o planeamento energético, a local...

  7. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection process, both engineering and environmental resources must be identified and evaluated. Environmental resources include areas that support agricultural or aquatic commercial activities, habitats for commercial or endangered species, population centers, transportation systems, and recreational areas. Also, during the site selection process, the potential impacts of both construction and operating activities must be considered. In addition to the area actually disturbed by construction, construction activities also affect local services, such as transportation systems, housing, school systems, and other social services. Since nuclear power plants use a 'clean fuel,' generally the most significant operating activity having a potential environmental impact is the discharge of cooling water. The potential effect of this discharge on commercial activities and sensitive habitats should be thoroughly evaluated. Lastly, the method of decommissioning can affect long-range land use planning and should therefore be considered during the planning process. With appropriate planning, nuclear power plants can be constructed and operated with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  8. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  9. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  10. Public communication and nuclear energy; La comunicacion publica y la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornado, A.

    2006-07-01

    The article tries to explain why on occasion the public's perception of nuclear is more negative than of any other form of electricity generation or issue related to this field, when in reality public opinion has been gradually losing interest in nuclear in recent years. In fact, we could say that as nuclear loses its interest, its presence in the media grows in relation to the environmental aspects of electricity generation, of which nuclear form a part. Of the accusations directed at the nuclear industry, probably the most frequent one concerns the lack of transparency and lack of information on its activities. This article shows how the nuclear sector is probably one that generates more and better information on its own business. However, the lack of social acceptance of this activity, and of the energy business in general, is recognized. To solve this, mention is made of the example of France and Finland, where a well planned communication policy, implemented on a sustained basis over time, and the invitation to society to take part in these issues have favored a substantial improvement of public acceptance of electric generation sources, and specifically the nuclear option. The article ends with some recommendations that could be applied to Spain. (Author)

  11. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  12. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author)

  13. Tactical aspects of nuclear strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of nuclear weapons at the end of the Second World War, caused a revolution in warfare. The article discusses the nature of nuclear warfare and the defense measures that can be employed in the event of a nuclear attack

  14. Special aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how, with almost 300 nuclear power plants operating worldwide, the safety of nuclear power will soon be better known. Over the next decade we will learn whether or not the lessons learned from these accidents have made nuclear power safer. In the meantime, we must be well prepared to take care of patients injured in accidents at normally operating and at malfunctioning power plants. It would be tragic if lack of preparation and/or fear of radiation resulted in mistreatment of patients

  15. Nuclear energy - some regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is often perceived by the public as being uniquely hazardous. As a consequence, the demands placed upon a nuclear regulatory agency invariably include sorting out the valid from the invalid. As the public becomes better informed, more time should become available for regulating the industry. The Canadian nuclear safety philosophy relies upon fundamental principle and basic criteria which licensees must show they are meeting at all stages in the development of a nuclear facility. In reactors, the concept of defence in depth involves the use of well-qualified personnel, compliance with national and international engineering codes and standards, the separation of process and safety systems, frequent testing of safety systems, redundancy in monitoring, control and initiation systems, multiple barriers against fission product release, and strict enforcement of compliance measurements. The Atomic Energy Control Board is writing a set of licensing guides to cover the whole nuclear fuel cycle; however, these will not lead to the impsition of a 'design by regulation' approach in Canada. (LL)

  16. Ethical aspects on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an ethical assessment of how we shall deal with nuclear waste, one of the chief questions that arises is how to initiate action while at the same time taking into consideration uncertainties which are unavoidable seen from a long-term perspective. By means of different formulation and by proceeding from various starting-points, a two edged objective is established vis-a-vis repository facilities: safety in operation combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible. Prerequisites for the realization of this objective are the continued advancement of knowledge and refinement of the qualifications required to deal with nuclear waste. The ethical considerations above could be the bases for the future legislation in the field of nuclear energy waste. (author)

  17. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  18. Physical aspects of nuclear ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of edge enhancement and computer motion display improves the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities in the LV. Improved gating and processing techniques should improve the accuracy of ventricular volume vs time measurements. It is hoped that the simulations described will aid in the development of new instrumentation for the collection and analysis of nuclear ventriculographie data

  19. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background (scope of paper is a consideration of the radioactive by-products that arise from normal operation of nuclear power generating facilities; how regulated and their relative significance); legislation and regulation; the fuel cycle - fuel fabrication; use (of the fuel in the reactor; wastes from a typical CEGB Magnox power station); reprocessing (wastes from reprocessing); other wastes; disposal (including sea disposal). (U.K.)

  20. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government's plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB)

  1. Professional aspects of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and operation of nuclear facilities in Ontario are performed by professionals who have more at stake in the nuclear scene than the average resident of the province. Their technical expertise is constantly under scrutiny by their employers, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the dissenting factions in the community. They and their families live close to nuclear facilities. It is highly unlikely that these professionals would assume a less than cautious approach to their work. The professional staff at both AECL-CANDU Operations and at Ontario Hydro have employee associations that date back many years. The presence of these associations has helped professional employees to divorce their labour-related concerns from their technical responsibilities to the advantage of the public. With the backing of their associations, the professional employees have encouraged the employers to sponsor career development programs to help them maintain state-of-the-art expertise. Employers have sponsored attendance and participation at technical seminars, many of them international. These benefits and privileges have contributed to improved standards in design, but most importantly the protection afforded by collective agreements to professional integrity has permitted engineers and other professionals to insist on the highest possible design standards

  2. Some aspects of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the BBGKY hierarchy of equations is presented; the method developed here lies on a reduction procedure of a many body density distribution function. From the equations, Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations are deduced, and time dependent Hartree-Fock equation. Then two derivations of a nuclear reaction kinetic equation are presented: the Woldmann-Snider equation and the Botermans-Malfliet equation. The Wigner transformation is used and the Landau-Vlasov equation is studied. (Or Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck or Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation). Keypoints of approximate solutions are mentioned. Simulation calculations of phenomenological collisions are shown. Then dynamics of heavy ion reactions is studied from results presented

  3. Communication techniques and nuclear energy; Tecnicas de comunicacion y energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  4. Order of 28 March 1980 on the transfer to ENUSA of duties of the Junta de Energia Nuclear connected with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In implementation of the Royal Decree of 7 December 1979 the Minister of Industry and Energy made this Order regulating the transfer to ENUSA (National Uranium Undertaking) of the Junta de Energia Nuclear's duties relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. The Order sets up, within the Ministry of Industry and Energy, a Transfer Commission responsible for establishing the directives prior to the measures to be taken by the Ministry concerning the transfer to ENUSA of the duties, personnel and establishments of the Junta connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. It will also determine the dates of such transfer, according to the order of priority laid down in the Order. (NEA)

  5. Nou enfocament per a l’anàlisi de la controvèrsia no resolta sobre l’energia nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Maurin, François; Kovacic, Zora

    2015-01-01

    Un equip d’investigadors de l’ICTA-UAB ha desenvolupat un nou enfocament per estudiar les controvèrsies sobre la governança de les tecnologies, centrant-se en el cas de l’energia nuclear, una de les tecnologies més controvertides i, al mateix temps, més desplegades dels últims 60 anys. Segons els investigadors, la controvèrsia sobre l’energia nuclear pot ser entesa com una sèrie de desajustos entre les expectatives i l’experiència, resultat del desafiament de fer front als alts nivells d’ince...

  6. Nuclear energy for environmental protection; A energia nuclear para protecao do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-12-31

    In 1990 nuclear energy supplied about 17% of the total electric power produced in the world, what makes it the third most used power source after coal and hydropower. In this paper the advantages of using nuclear power for generating large quantities of electric power are presented 18 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Environmental aspects of nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper estimates the future dangers from the nuclear industry. Historically, the occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents has not been a hazard to the U.S. population, because of relatively limited reactor deployment and because of relatively safe operation. Some factual inputs were taken from the Rasmussen Report, ''An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' It is noted that data on nuclear power plant accidents follow a curve about four orders of magnitude below that for persons on the ground killed by air crashes. Data show that coal mining produced about ten times as many disabilities as uranium mining and milling per 106 MW(e)h of energy recovered, while the number of injuries per 106 man-hours of work was roughly comparable for these two types of occupations. Information on the following subjects is then presented: radiation protection standards, radiation exposures; radiation emitted from nuclear reactors under normal operating conditions; accidents involving nuclear fission reactors; fuel reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; estimates of environmental and safety aspects of fusion power; licensing of nuclear reactors; nuclear safeguards: diversion of nuclear materials, sabotage, and subversion; and nuclear energy and trade deficits in which data are presented estimating a timetable expressing the economic power of OPEC, or the time required for OPEC wealth to purchase the world's major assets

  8. Teaching simulator for divulgation of the nuclear energy; Simulador docente para divulgacion de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega B, M.G.; Gutierrez F, R. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: cchavez2@cableonline.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    To solicitude of the authorities of the 'Universum' sciences museum of the UNAM, it develops a highly interactive computational system, to provide of information to the population in general about basic principles, uses and benefits of the nuclear energy. The objective is to achieve a better understanding and acceptance of the nuclear technology in our country. The system allows the visualization and simulation of nuclear processes as well as of its applications. The system is divided in three levels: basic, intermediate and simulation. In the basic level multimedia information is included on diverse basic concepts of the nuclear energy. The intermediate level includes the description and operation of some systems of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (CNLV). Finally the simulation level contains representative scenarios that the user can control by means of virtual control panels of the main systems of the CNLV. Inside the system a part of interactive games is included with the purpose that the user remembers with more easiness all the concepts and advantages of the nuclear energy mentioned during the previous levels. The system contributes, by means of the development of multimedia computational tools and of simulation, to the popularization of the use and applications of the nuclear energy in Mexico. (Author)

  9. Benefits of using nuclear energy; Os beneficios do uso da energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Elda Vilaca

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present, especially for high school students, the benefits of the use of nuclear energy, promoting a deeper knowledge of this technology, encouraging critical thinking of students and society around them.

  10. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  11. Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan was outlined. In 1952 Prime Minister Yoshida asked to prepare production of weapons for rearmament and to establish Science and Technology Agency such as to overcome lack of science research budget and inefficiency of research and cooperation. Kaya and Fushimi proposed establishment of Atomic Energy Commission as recommendation of Science Council of Japan. In 1954 Nakasone proposed budget for nuclear energy with yen 235 million to construct reactor. In 1955 Japanese delegation participated in international conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy at Geneva and nonpartisan members proposed Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limited the use of nuclear technology to peaceful purposes, ensured three principles - democratic methods, independent management, and transparency - as the basis of nuclear research and promoted international co-operation. In 1956 Atomic Energy Commission and Science and Technology Agency were established with other organizations under this law. According to internal report in the age of Prime Minister Sato, nuclear policy in Japan would be (1) no holding nuclear weapon for the time being, (2) maintaining economic and technical potential of nuclear weapon production and (3) considering no restraint for this policy whether Japan participated in NPT or not. Fuel cycle program of Monju reactor and reprocessing for power production seemed to be deployed corresponding to (3) above. Irradiated blanket of Monju reactor could be reprocessed to produce highly purified plutonium suited for nuclear bombs. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Perception of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Percepcion de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J.V.; Alonso V, G.; Gomez T, A.M.; Palacios H, J.C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marqesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vxm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    From their beginnings the Nuclear Energy has generated a lot of polemic, since on one hand it was seen as something completely harmful, due to the making of atomic weapons and those effects of the radiation (Hiroshima and Nagasaki). But on the other hand it has been saying that it could be the 'Panacea' of the humanity like an inexhaustible source of energy, this brought that a countless of reactors was built for the electric power production at world level, unfortunately some accidents as that of Chernobyl (Former Soviet Union 1986) as well as the contribution of the media of the fear toward the nuclear energy made that it was formed a barrier of the public opinion toward all that has to do with the nuclear energy, the construction of new power stations one came below and even in some countries the environmentalist organizations achieved their governments to close some power stations. In the last years the concern for the global heating and the climatic change has put in the world calendar the use of the nuclear energy again, by means of the new designs of advanced reactors with more safety measures, more efficient and economic. In several countries the public opinion is looking to the nuclear energy with good eyes, reason by a resurgence is glimpsed from the nuclear energy to great scale, so it is so several countries they have already begun the construction of new advanced reactors ones (Japan, China, Finland) and some included one already has them in operation. In Mexico, it is ignored to certain science which is the real posture of the public opinion with regard to this topic so controversial, reason why it was carried out this study to know the perception of the public in general with regard to this topic, as well as the convenience of enlarging the infrastructure of electric power generation in our country by means of this energy type. (Author)

  13. Kinematics of low-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de baja energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  14. Kinematics of high-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title:Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  15. Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications; Energia Nuclear I, Aplicaciones no energeticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H. [Facultad de Quimica, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( {approx} 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion ({approx} 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( {approx} 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)

  16. Nuclear fission, the energy of the future; La fision nuclear como energia del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Fernandez, J. A.; Leon, P. T.

    2002-07-01

    The design of new-generation nuclear power stations incorporates approaches and control systems which significantly reduce risk and waste generation, while enhancing an installation's performance. This article reviews current programs involving the world's advanced reactors,and other future systems such as rapid reproduction reactors, or those operating in sub-critical conditions as energy amplifier. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Nuclear energy. Social-humanitarian aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is aimed at identifying the main social-humanitarian aspects and giving grounds for the imperative of humanitarian reflection of nuclear energy, development of the concept of 'human dimension' in this sphere. Historical-philosophical and futurological as well as rational-irrational approaches are used. There are suggested several possible chains to consider the interrelation between some global phenomena with the nuclear one, as well as their impact on the fate of humankind. There is shown the meaning of cultural, historical and religious perspectives as tools for reaching better understanding on the issue of possession of nuclear energy and improving the contemporary communication nuclear technosphere - society. There is determined the humanitarian task of the nearest future and designated the cultural-historical potential of Germany, Japan and Russia to increase international cooperation on the issue. (author)

  18. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T

    2010-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...

  19. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  20. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  2. Nuclear energy through Philately; La energia nuclear a traves de la filatelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de la Pena, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    Postage stamps, apart from being signs of postage, are a valuable means of communication that reproduces, in mary ways, milestones of history. Postatge stamps have different formats and values, can be printed with different systems (offset, gravure or intaglio) and can also have several uses. Countries have used them to record important cultural, social, historical and scientific events that are often unknown, and generally to promote the image of a country. For this reason, postage stamps disclose international development in different disciplines; in this case, science and nuclear technology. (Author)

  3. Nuclear energy and safety of supply; Energia nuclear y seguridad de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    According to all kinds of studies, the demand for energy grows more rapidly than population. And it also happens that the consumption of electric energy grows more rapidly than consumption of other primary energies. In view of the spectacular growth of some developing countries, the question is: what type of energy source will we use to cover the growing demand for electric power? If energy should be cheep, reliable and clean, nuclear power should be one of the source used to cover the growing demand. In this respect, it is important to analyze the nuclear fuel cycle to ascertain the reliability of the nuclear power supply. From this perspective,there are three important stages of the front-end of the fuel cycle: uranium concentrate fabrication, enrichment and manufacturing. In recent years, mining production has barely covered half of the demand for uranium, while the rest has been covered by the so-called secondary sources: inventories, strategic reserves, dilution of highly enriched uranium from military weapons, or reprocessing. The known reserves today are enough to cover 65 years of operation of the current fleet. These reserves are much larger if we include those not currently available, or if natural uranium is used directly or reprocessing is included. In the enrichment stage, there is a needed to start operation before the end of the decade of the new plants that are planned. The entry into the market of highly enriched military uranium distroit this market. There is 30% excess capacity in manufacturing which is concentrated in one supplier that accounts for 50% of this excess. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the fuel assembly is not a commodity, which means that the excess capacity cannot be used directly by the market. To conclude, it can be safety said that, although uranium is not exempt from the tensions to which other raw materials are subject and, as all the fossil fuels, it too could be depleted, the advance of technologies and the

  4. ICT security- aspects important for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid application growth of complex Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in every society and state infrastructure as well as industry has revealed vulnerabilities that eventually have given rise to serious security breaches. These vulnerabilities together with the course of the breaches from cause to consequence are gradually about to convince the field experts that ensuring the security of ICT-driven systems is no longer possible by only relying on the fundaments of computer science, IT, or telecommunications. Appropriating knowledge from other disciplines is not only beneficial, but indeed very necessary. At the same time, it is a common observation today that ICT-driven systems are used everywhere, from the nuclear, aviation, commerce and healthcare domains to camera-equipped web-enabled cellular phones. The increasing interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral aspects of ICT security worldwide have been providing updated and useful information to the nuclear domain, as one of the emerging users of ICT-driven systems. Nevertheless, such aspects have also contributed to new and complicated challenges, as ICT security for the nuclear domain is in a much more delicate manner than for any other domains related to the concept of safety, at least from the public standpoint. This report addresses some important aspects of ICT security that need to be considered at nuclear facilities. It deals with ICT security and the relationship between security and safety from a rather different perspective than usually observed and applied. The report especially highlights the influence on the security of ICT-driven systems by all other dependability factors, and on that basis suggests a framework for ICT security profiling, where several security profiles are assumed to be valid and used in parallel for each ICT-driven system, sub-system or unit at nuclear facilities. The report also covers a related research topic of the Halden Project with focus on cyber threats and

  5. Nuclear regulatory aspects of reliability and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unscheduled shutdown, on June 28, 2007, of the 2 nuclear power stations of Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel in the state of Schleswig-Holstein aroused nationwide attention for weeks and greatly influenced the debate about using nuclear power. The public debate in this case mainly was about the information policy of the Vattenfall Group. In the light of nuclear regulatory aspects, questions came up also about communication among the members of the operating crew in the control room during shutdown of the Kruemmel plant. Questions were raised about the reliability of the operators of the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations and about revocation of the operating permits. In the light of these events, the article first raises the general point of reliability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for purposes of the Atomic Energy Act and the corresponding question of revocation of an operating permit in a proven case of unreliability. On the basis of this situation, problems of communication and the interaction of communication, safety, and reliability are treated in more detail. In this process, also findings made about other technologies involving risk are taken into account. The article finishes with some thoughts about improved communication in control rooms. The introduction of audio or video monitoring of chains of events in the control room is discussed in depth. In summary, the author wants control room communication to be improved by the introduction not only of 3-way communication during switching actions but also of audio monitoring of the control room. (orig.)

  6. Safety aspects of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there are about ten plants in operation for reprocessing of nuclear fuel in the western countries. Some further plants are out of operation, and others are in construction or planned. In the FRG the WAK works since 1971. On and after the year 1997 the German reprocessing plant proposed at site Wackersdorf with an annual average capacity of 350 tons should be available. This report describes not only the technical process for reprocessing nuclear fuels but deals especially with operational experiences. Most emphasis is put on safety related requirements. So legal requirements, safety goals, and preventing measures, e.g., are dealt with under technical as well as organizational aspects. Radioactive waste management and transports of radioactive material is included. As a result of risk related investigations one may assume, that the total risk of a reprocessing plant only amounts to a small part of the radiation risk from nature and civilization. (orig.)

  7. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  8. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO2, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO2, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies

  9. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  10. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-01

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

  11. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahin, Sümer, E-mail: ssahin@atilim.edit.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, ATILIM University, 06836 İncek, Gölbaşı, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-09-30

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG‐PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ∼ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ∼ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG‐PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ∼160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission

  12. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG‐PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG‐PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG‐PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG‐PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG‐PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG‐PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ∼ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ∼ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG‐PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ∼160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ∼1.3

  13. Independent particle aspects of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization of the independent particle model from nuclear statics to nuclear dynamics is sought. Attention is centered on the average behavior of nuclear dynamics, as opposed to detailed behavior, such as that characteristic of shell effects in nuclear statics. In many situations, all that is needed is a model of dissipation in nuclear dynamics. 56 references

  14. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Aspects on caring in pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    puncture or inability to lie still. It is concluded, that in the rapidly evolving field of pediatric nuclear medicine it is very important that aspects on patient care are applied, recognizing the possibilities provided by traditional methods and novel developments.Thus, patients and families can be informed prior to an examination via electronic media, topical anesthesia is available as well as short term sedation. Training of staff will furthermore secure application of modern care principles like 'Guided Imagery'

  16. Some aspects of the nuclear fission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the following report one can find first a short general view on the present situation of our knowledge concerning the nuclear fission process, namely on the nucleus going through the saddle-point. Then there are some aspects connected with the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. The measurements made at Saclay on the fast neutron fission cross-section of U233, U235, Pu239, U238 are described at the beginning of this work. It appears that for U233 there is some characteristic shape modulation of the cross-section curve, in relation with the collective excited state of the deformed nucleus at the saddle-point. Good evidence of this is also given by the study of the relative fission rate with emission of long-range particles; it appears also that this ternary fission rate does not change substantially for neutron between thermal energy and 2 MeV, but that is very lower for the compound nucleus U239 than for even-even compound nuclei. At the end there are some experiments on the strong 4,5 MeV gamma-ray originated by slow neutron absorption in U235. Time-of-flight device is used to establish that this 4,5 MeV gamma-ray seems mostly connected with radiative capture. (author)

  17. Economical and strategical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategical and economical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement are analyzed in three aspects: 1) The nuclear agreement in the context of the Brazilian economic - and social development process, considering the availability of energetic resouces of the country. Political implications. Considerations about creation and transfer of technology. 2) The economy aspects involved in the agreement. Comparison costs of electrical energy generated in a nuclear power plants and hydroelectric plant in Brazil. Impacts on the industrial development. 3) Strategical aspects. (E.G.)

  18. Selected Chemical Aspects of Nuclear Power Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Marcin Brykala; Tomasz Smolinski

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident consequences are a new challenge for nuclear power development; however the sequence of the event has illustrated importance of radiation- and radiochemistry processes on the safe operation and shut down of nuclear reactor and decontamination of formed liquid and solid wastes. A chemistry program is essential for the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It ensures the integrity, reliability and availability of the main plant structures, sys...

  19. Human and positive aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the beginning of the exploitation of nuclear energy by over fifty years experience, a new kind of human disasters which were not known by all world languages were included as new terms not audible before such as radiation protection and risk issues. This was given the attention of people at all levels in view of nuclear terror by bombing the first nuclear bomb on Hiroshima-Japan on 6 August 1945 and the second nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945. At the end of World War II scientists and officials realized the political and military risks of nuclear energy and its destructive side with benefits and positive repercussions. Atomic energy is produced from great power that God placed in the nucleus of the atom, where nuclear energy is liberated when a change in the structure of the atom and its formations happens or so-called nuclear reaction. (author)

  20. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Preliminary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  2. Nuclear energy and energy outlook to October 2011; Panorama energetico y energia nuclear a octubre de 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, A. de la; Mansilla, J. L.; Lopez Jimenez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This article shows a general overview about the nuclear in the world and in Spain. It is also presented a summary on the primary and electrical energy consumption and the nuclear part in the global and in the Spanish energy mix. Data on behaviour of nuclear power plants, emission saving, life extension, the planned and proposed new nuclear plants, etc., are also included. (Author)

  3. Act No 84 of 5 March 1982 amending Act No 1240 of 15 December 1971 concerning the restructuring of the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amended substantially Act No. 1240 of 1971 restructuring the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare - CNEN. The amendments concern the reorganisation of the CNEN into a new body, the National Commission for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), which in addition to nuclear energy, will also be responsible for R and D in alternative energy sources, with the exception of hydrocarbons. In order to facilitate the ENEA's tasks, the new Act gives it a great degree of flexibility and administrative autonomy. The staff of ENEA will also be granted a legal status closely related to that of the industrial sector. It will also retain temporarily the previous CNEN's regulatory tasks in nuclear safety and radiation protection. (NEA)

  4. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Perry, Katia da Silva Peixoto, E-mail: pereira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rrrg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kspp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teruya, Dirceu Yoshikazu, E-mail: teruya@inpi.gov.br [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  5. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  6. Interview in Radio Educacion on the applications of nuclear energy; Entrevista en Radio Educacion sobre las aplicaciones de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M

    1991-01-15

    The objective that presides over this interview, is to show before the public the diverse applications that can have the nuclear energy, apart from the warlike aspect and the electric power generation. (Author)

  7. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA)

  8. Energetic panorama and nuclear energy at October 2015; Panorama energetico y energia nuclear a octubre de 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Torre, A. de la

    2015-07-01

    This article shows a general overview about nuclear energy in the world and in Spain in 2014; some results are updated until October 2015. A summary on the primary and electrical energy consumption and the nuclear contribution in the global and in the Spanish energy mix is also presented. Data on behaviour of nuclear power plants, emissions saving, ong term operation, planned and proposed new nuclear plans, etc., are also included. (Author)

  9. Energy overview and nuclear energy updated October 2010; Panorama energetico y energia nuclear a octubre de 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.; Torre, A. de la

    2010-07-01

    This article shows a general overview about the nuclear energy in the world and in Spain in 2009 and up to October 20010. This information complements this given in the last April number of this magazine, regarding nuclear power reactors in the world in 2009. It is also presented a summary on the primary and electrical energy consumption and the nuclear part in the global and in the Spanish energy mix. Data on behaviour or nuclear power plants, emission savings, life extension, operation licences, the planned and proposed new nuclear plants, are also included. (Author).

  10. Legal aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of Chapter VIII of SOLAS Convention, Brussels' Convention on Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its impact on national laws and bilateral treaties. Problems encountered with informal agreements on port visits. Prospects and problems of future legal development

  11. Geometrical aspects of relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useful reactions are presented allowing completely analytic calculations of various differential cross sections in the firestreak, rows-on-rows, and knock-on models, but limited by the unrealistic assumption of sharp nuclear surfaces. They may be extended by using an approximation in which the projection of the diffuse nuclear density distribution onto a plane is represented by a circle smoothly joined to an exponential. (orig./AH)

  12. Special aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very strict safety and quality requirements as well as the necessity of strengthened schedule and investment control make good project management even more important to the construction of nuclear power plant than conventional projects. For developing countries, to increase the extent of local participation becomes an essential way to reduce the construction costs and improve the nuclear competitiveness. Modular construction approach and design for construct ability are discussed as viable means to further reduce construction time and costs

  13. Macroeconomic aspects of the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear programme is a boost both to economic and industrial activity and to research and development: it provides 120 000 jobs in France and has a positive influence on the national economic situation. After illustrating this statement, the author draws up a balance sheet for the nuclear industry, demonstrating the positive contribution of this form of energy compared with the results which would have been obtained by a different policy founded on electricity derived from coal

  14. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

  15. Geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of exploitation of nuclear energy is becoming increasingly actual in the present time in connection with frequently discussed question of 'renaissance of nuclear energetics'. The work is aimed at research of geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy for military and civil purposes on the territory of Europe. The base of work represents the analysis of theoretical aspects of research of energy, mainly of nuclear energy. The work examines the historical development of exploitation of nuclear energy since its discovery, through development of military nuclear industry in Europe, big attention is paid to spreading of nuclear energetics on the territory of Europe from its beginnings up to the present time. The main part of the work represents the analysis of the present situation of exploitation of nuclear energy for civil purposes in Europe. The attention is paid to so-called nuclear fuel cycle as complex chain of several reciprocally interconnected operations of nuclear fuel treatment. The monitoring of spatial relations among individual countries within their nuclear fuel cycles is emphasised. The analysis of historical development and of the present state of nuclear energetics finished up in the outline of the perspectives of its further development in Europe. The analysis of the tendencies of evolution of world energetic economy mentions on the trend of growth of energy consumption in the world and Europe, as well as on the important position of nuclear energy in the structure of energy sources. Summary in English language is included. (author)

  16. Aspects of social psychology in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the example of nuclear energy, the crisis of people in the modern industrial society is analysed by means of six themes, 1) the fear-envy syndrome; 2) the identity crisis; 3) projection and identification; 4) citizens initiatives; 5) information policies 6) group aims. The author infers that in reality, almost too much information has already been given, it is already difficult for the recipient to still get a clear picture. In his opinion, it is not a question of deficit of information but rather a deficit of confidence. The ever more abstract and non-transparent industrial society combines to produce fear in people. This fear might have found a field of activity in citizens' initiatives to prevent nuclear power plant construction. Accordingly, it is necessary before anything, to develop a relation ship of confidence between citizens' initiatives, nuclear power plant builders and operators as well as politicians. (HP)

  17. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination; La energia nuclear en la desalacion de agua de mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants - safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stages of decommissioning a nuclear power plant are presented in popular form. There exist two alternatives: Safe containment of activated and highly contaminated components within the nuclear power plant unit or dismantling of all components and buildings. Stage 1 provides for safe containment in a) previously sealed buildings without any dismantling; b) containment resp. reactor building; c) underground structures. Stage 2 provides for partial dismantling with safe containment of the remaining parts a) within the biological shield, b) underground, after dismantling the parts above ground level. Stage 3 provides for total dismantling. (orig.)

  19. Legal aspects of french nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By proceeding with underground nuclear tests, France does not intend to abandon its legal position concerning the right to possess nuclear weapons. The author - a specialist on international law in these matters - discusses this position and clarifies its nuances. He goes on to deal with the problem of jus cogens, the restrictive law which certain circles would like to draw from the resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations and from common law. France rejects this process as one which opens new possibilities for argueing against its tests, albeit underground

  20. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  1. Subcontracting in nuclear industry - legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the legal framework of subcontracting in France. Subcontracting is considered as a normal mode of functioning for an enterprise: an enterprise contracts another enterprise to do what it can not do itself or does not want to do. According to the 1975 law, cascade subcontracting is allowed but subcontractors have to be accepted by the payer. In some cases the payer can share responsibility when the subcontracting enterprises do not comply to obligations like the payment of some taxes. The main subcontractor who is the one who contracted with the payer is the only one responsible for the right execution of the whole contract. In nuclear industry there are 2 exceptions to the freedom of subcontracting. The first one concerns radiation protection: in a nuclear facility the person in charge of radioprotection must be chosen among the staff. The second concerns the operations and activities that are considered important for radiation protection, it is forbidden to subcontract them. In some cases like maintenance in nuclear sector the law imposes some qualification certification for subcontracting enterprises. The end of the article challenges the common belief about subcontracting in nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  2. Fifty years of nuclear energy in Mexico 1945-1995; Cincuenta anos de energia nuclear en Mexico 1945-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Programa Universitario de Energia. Coordinacion de Vinculacion. Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This book presents the state of development of the nuclear energy in Mexico during the period 1945-1995, its benefits, advances and failures. It is related in a pleasant and informed way about the past decisions, the vision of the initiators of the nuclear development in Mexico, their successes and that its were followed the present advances and future problems to confront. (Author)

  3. Some aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostova, M. S., E-mail: marinakhvostova@list.ru [St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University (Sevmashvtuz), Severodvinsk Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    The major factors influencing the choice of a national concept for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are examined. The operating lifetimes of power generating units with nuclear reactors of various types (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK-1000, EGP-6, and BN-600) are analyzed. The basic approaches to decommissioning Russian nuclear power plants and the treatment of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are discussed. Major aspects of the ecological and radiation safety of personnel, surrounding populations, and the environment during decommissioning of nuclear installations are identified.

  4. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contains the full texts of 18 papers which all tall under the INIS Subject Scope. They deal with the general aspects of nuclear safety including the risks ensuing from the misuse of nuclear materials and installations, and with operating reliability of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Attention is devoted to the human factor, the specialist training of personnel as well as to the operating reliability of nuclear power plant components. Discussed are the major failures which have occurred in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  5. Safety aspects of nuclear plants coupled with seawater desalination units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to address the safety and licensing aspects of nuclear power plants for which a significant portion of the heat energy produced by the reactor is intended for use in heat utilization applications. Although intended to cover the broad spectrum of nuclear heat applications, the focus of the discussion will be the desalination of sea water using nuclear power plants as the energy source for the desalination process

  6. Quantum nuclear many-body dynamics and related aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, D.

    2011-01-01

    This review article is devoted to a compilation of recent advances in the nuclear many-body dynamical problem. The building block of any microscopic model is the nuclear mean-field theory, designed to provide proper description of one-body observables. Important aspects related to mean-field and its relation to observables evolutions are presented. Currently applied nuclear mean-field theories are formulated within a Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework, the so-called Energy Density Func...

  7. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: the societal participation; information and opinion research surveys; historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  8. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure and collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existence of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne. (author)

  9. Clustering Aspects in Nuclear Structure and Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existense of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne.

  10. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  11. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  12. Some global aspects regarding nuclear spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization means the worldwide extension of certain aspects of social or economic processes, structural or environmental changes, or concerning working methodologies, technical activity, industrial production, etc. At present the emergence of global aspects is more frequently observed, being determined by the rapid development of computerized systems and of transfer of information, by the development of big transnational companies and due to the increasing international co-operation. Some of the manifested global aspects could be beneficial for the development of the human society, other could be not. It is necessary to perform an adequate analysis from this view point and to promote appropriate measures to enhance the positive global aspects and to mitigate the negative global aspects. These measures can have a good efficiency only if they are pursued at global level, but for this it is necessary to build an adequate international coordinating body, having the corresponding instruments for action. The global aspects identified in the field of nuclear power may be divided into two categories, namely: - related to the main features of nuclear power; - regarding the specific features of some subdivisions of the field, as for example, spent fuel management. In the paper both categories are discussed. The influence of the global aspects on the development of nuclear power and particularly on the back end activities of the fuel cycle, is also presented. At the same time, some possible actions for enhancing nuclear power development are proposed

  13. Political aspects of nuclear test effects at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes tense struggle of Kazakhstan people for closure of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. It reveals major foreign policy aspects and nuclear test effects for both Kazakhstan and the world community. (author)

  14. Global nuclear structure aspects of tensor interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct fit of the isoscalar spin-orbit and both isoscalar and isovector tensor coupling constants to the f5/2 - f7/2 SO splittings in 40Ca, 56Ni, and 48Ca requires (i) a significant reduction of the standard isoscalar spin-orbit strength and (ii) strong attractive tensor coupling constants. The aim of this paper is to address the consequences of these strong attractive tensor and weak spin-orbit fields on total binding energies, two-neutron separation energies and nuclear deformability. (author)

  15. Financing aspects of nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses economic scenarios and trends toward deregulation in India. Growth of the power sector must precede economic growth. Nuclear power growth, now at a rate lower than the average growth of other power, is expected to accelerate over the next two decades. Capacity growth would be funded through equity and debt in the ratio of 1:1. While a substantial portion of the equity capital would be mobilized internally, the initial flow of equity for this growth must come from the Government. The debt capital is to be substantially funded by the domestic capital market and part would flow from external sources. (author)

  16. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements

  17. Public perception of nuclear power in Mexico after Fukushima; Percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Mexico despues de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J. C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R., E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This section presents some of the results of four studies on international public opinion about nuclear energy, the first one made several years before the Fukushima accident, conducted in 2005 by the IAEA through the company Globe Scan Inc. The second study was conducted by the same company in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima accident, including also corresponding results to two studies conducted by the British firm Ipsos Mori (of years 2011 and 2012 respectively). Finally three studies conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in 2006, 2008 and 2013 are presented. From the results of these studies was determined that the Fukushima accident itself had a negative effect on public opinion in Mexico, as throughout the world, but this trend is reversing. Also it found that public opinion in Mexico on using reactors to generate electricity is favorable, although not still has much support from the government for the construction of new nuclear power plants. (Author)

  18. The peaceful use of nuclear energy: National legal implications; El uso pacifico de la energia nuclear: implicaciones juridicas nacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadarrama A, M.E

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses in broad sense the legal regime about the use, exploitation and improvement of the nuclear energy in Mexico and its relationship with the International confines . It was realized the study of the elemental concepts referred about the subject and it is described briefly the evolution of the figure in the frame of as National as International laws. The objective of this work finds its basis on the provisions which contemplate the in force statutory law of the 27 Constitutional article concerning Nuclear energy but before considering the legal nature and the main characteristics of this normative instrument. (Author)

  19. Nuclear waste disposal: radiological protection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on the potential radiological consequencies of the geological disposal of vitrified high level waste which have recently been published (Preliminary Assessment of the Radiological Protection Aspects of Disposal of High Level Waste in Geologic Formations. Hill M.D. and Grimwood P.D. NRPB-R69 1978 (H.M.S.O.)) are discussed. The four main barriers which can prevent the return, or influence the rate of return, of radioactivity to man's environment from a waste repository are considered. The radionuclides which the study suggests would give rise to the highest doses and the predicted peak individual doses which would arise from these nuclides are quoted. The study indicates areas in which major uncertainties exist including; prediction of geological events which might lead to a failure of geological containment; events and processes due to the presence of the repository itself which could lead to loss of its integrity; the behaviour of vitrified waste under expected disposal conditions; and rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water. The results of the preliminary study suggest that there is no reason to rule out geological disposal, but there is considerable work to be carried out before a decision can be taken on the acceptability of this disposal option. (U.K.)

  20. Packaging design and qualification: The experience of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, the Nuclear Technology Development Center, has been designing, testing and qualifying radioactive materials packagings. These packagings are used for the transport of radioisotopes and disposal of spent sealed sources, wastes generated in the nuclear fuel cycle and the wastes produced in the radiological accident occurred in the city of Goiania. For radioactive tracers and medical/industrial radioisotopes, the used packagings are cardboard and wood boxes, while the spent sealed sources are conditioned preferably in metal drums containing lead shielding and a gas absorber material. To condition and transport the wastes from the various nuclear cycle activities, metal drums and boxes are used in Brazil. For the higher active wastes from the nuclear power plant Angra I, a metallic drum in a concrete overpack is used. The wastes generated in the accident were first conditioned in the readily available packagings, like commercial drums, square boxes and large shipping containers. Later on, more appropriate packagings were designed by the CDTN staff: a metal cylindrical container for conditioning the broken 137Cs source, a concrete overpack for 14 drums and a metal cylindrical box for 14 drums. In order to evaluate the durability of commercial drums used for waste conditioning, CDTN has performed a program since 1983. In the first part of this study two drum types, with different internal/external coating, were stored inside a hall and in the open. After a period of 8 years, one of them had a failure in the lid, thus allowing water penetration. In the second phase the drums were sectioned and representative sections of their body, in contact with pure grout or with cemented simulated wastes were stored in a laboratory and in the open. The results obtained point out that the drums are not adequate for an outdoor storage and that their internal coating has a poor resistance to the cemented wastes. (author). 4

  1. New aspects for nuclear renal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive nuclear methods of examination have gained great importance in renal diagnosis because they can be carried out without discomfort to the patient. Unilateral clearance is valuable in cases of unilateral renal damage where the impaired functioning of one kidney may be mashed by the compensatory action of the other, contralateral kidney. This is offen the case with chronic pyelonephritis, ureteral stenosis, and nephrolithiasis. In ectactic renal pelves, unilateral clearance should be obligatory, as functional assessment on the basis of the excretory urogram is impossible. The pathological X-ray picture often leads to false conclusions in this type of disease. Due to the low radiation exposure involved, close-meshed control examinations are possible which indicate functional changes early enough for the necessary therapy. The emphasis in scintiscanning has shifted to dynamic investigations. The main fields of application for sequential scintiscanning are unilateral and segmental renal diseases, differential diagnosis of anuria, traumatic changes, and emergency diagnoses in infants. Suspected growing and displacing processes are only an indirect indication for scintiscanning today. (orig.)

  2. Some aspects of automation in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations with radioactive materials (radioactive solutions, irradiated nuclear fuels, waste, etc.) need very specialised remote handling equipment. There is an increasing tendency to automate jobs that can clearly be planned. These include a surprisingly large number of tasks - especially if one considers using flexible robotic systems that can be performed automatically, remotely safely. One such system, namely, a computer controlled robotic radioactive sample solution handling system is described. It basically consists of a cylindrical co-ordinate type robot (LABOT), a computer controlled storage vault of chemical samples, decapping-capping device for bottles and software. An attempt is being made to give the technician a menu of possible operations and help him for coherent chain of operations. The computer, in addition to operating the robot, the storage vault and other accessories, will also log the operations performed and maintain records. The operations carried out by the robot are that of a chemical laboratory technician like sampling, aliquoting, weighing, storage and recovery of samples, maintenance of records, etc.. The electronic control system and system software are described. (author)

  3. Information dissemination in nuclear energy: ideology, speech and language; Divulgacao da informacao em energia nuclear: ideologia, discurso e linguagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Marcos Goncalves

    1992-07-01

    The social impact of Goiania nuclear accident is analysed from a semiotic investigation upon papers issued on popular magazines, newspapers and scientific periodicals. Also the communication of Science Information is discussed through three basic models: diffusionist, bibliometric and cultural perspectives. Divulgation and diffusion process of scientific information are reviewed on the bases of theory of representation and theory of sign. The relationship between energy and society is discussed though a compared analysis upon the information sources available to public and scientific community. (author)

  4. The Nuclear and Safety Council and the Nuclear Energy Agency; El Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear y la Agencia de Energia Nuclear. Una estrecha colaboracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ten, C.

    2008-07-01

    On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of creation of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the President of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), summarizes the activities of the NEA throughout its life up to now. Since it started up, the CSN has worked closely with this international organization, as a reflection of the strong commitment, shared by both institutions, each one in its field, to reach the highest levels in the regulation which contributes decisively to the nuclear safety of the Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author)

  5. Environmental aspects of nuclear power: state- of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is an environmentally benign source, as it does not contribute either to global warming or acid rains.However, nuclear power plants do release radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents, and dispose solid wastes. Nuclear power currently provides 6% of global energy and about 16% of global electricity supply. Up to March 2006 there were 441 nuclear power reactors in operation representing a total capacity of more than 368 gigawatt electricity .World Energy Council projects growth of global use of electricity will increase from 1990 levels by 50% to 75% by the year 2020. At the same time, there are indications that the continued use of traditional fissile fuel will have undesirable impacts on the world climate Nuclear power will have to play an increasingly impact role in long-term energy of the world to achieve the objectives of sustainable develop .This paper presents the recent environmental aspects of nuclear power

  6. A brief comparative study of the wind and nuclear energy; Um breve estudo comparativo entre as energias eolica e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Tarcisio Santos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    It is apparent the human need to use electricity in the current globalized world. And along with the social and industrial and beyond the everyday comfort evolution came the abuse of power. Aware that Brazil is used as an energy source originating from hydroelectric and that it does not include all domestic demand, should be studied energy sources that can assist it. Two clean and cheap energy alternatives which can contribute to reducing the environmental impacts such as global warming and water shortages are wind and nuclear energy. Which again, exhibit ideal characteristics to serve as alternative sources for electricity production, mainly in the dry season. (author)

  7. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry which is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified

  10. Nuclear aspects of neutral current non-standard $\

    CERN Document Server

    Papoulias, D K

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear aspects of flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes, predicted by various new-physics models to occur in the presence of nuclei, are examined by computing the relevant nuclear matrix elements within the context of the quasi-particle RPA using realistic strong two-body forces. One of our aims is to explore the role of the non-standard interactions (NSI) in the leptonic sector and specifically: (i) in lepton flavour violating (LFV) processes involving the neutral particles $\

  11. Health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present publication is to give a generic description of health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Primarily the report is meant to stand alone; however, because of the content of the publication and in the context of the DECADES project, it may serve as a means of introducing specialists in other fuel cycles to the nuclear fuel cycle. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Percursos da física e da energia nucleares na capital portuguesa : ciência, poder e política, 1947-1973

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Maria Júlia Neto

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, História e Filosofia das Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Os contornos da relação entre ciência e poder político no período da Guerra Fria durante o Estado Novo de António de Oliveira Salazar e do seu sucessor Marcelo Caetano são analisados nesta tese através dos percursos da Física e energia nucleares na capital portuguesa, entre 1947 e 1973. Discute-se a construção do panorama científico e tecnológico português desde as contribuições da ...

  13. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.)

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Huberts, P

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Summer School on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics took place in the style that by now has become a tradition: a series of lectures by well known scientists on modem topics of nuclear physics, where special emphasis is placed on the didactic aspects of the lectures. In the past few years, we have witnessed a rapid evolution of the field of nuclear physics towards novel directions of research. This development is accompanied by the construction of some of the largest experimental facilities ever built for nuclear research. The subjects covered by the Summer School focussed on two main issues currently under active investigation and which will be pursued with the new facilities: the transition from nucleonic to quark degrees of freedom in the decription of nuclear reactions, and the behavior of nuclear matter as one approaches extreme densities and temperatures. These topics in many respects go beyond traditional nuclear physics and the speakers therefore also included high energy physicists. From the re...

  15. Unconsciously against it. Psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book deals with the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy. An attempt is made to describe, in psychological terms, arrange, explain and, in this sense, 'comprehend' the phenomenon of the nuclear controversy in the light of the following facts: - individual and archetypal spectra of associations arising in the minds of many people in combination with the term 'nuclear power plant', the existence of different psychological types; the suggestion and psychological regression in the group. Especially the nuclear opponents, more or less successfully, have used the individual and archetypal association spectrum as an instrument to further their own ends and have thus contributed to the erection of psychological barriers against nuclear power in the minds of many people. (orig./RW)

  16. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  17. Quality and Reliability Aspects in Nuclear Power Reactor Fuel Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decrease costs and increase competitiveness, nuclear utilities use more challenging operational conditions, longer fuel cycles and higher burnups, which require modifications in fuel designs and materials. Different aspects of quality assurance and control, as well as analysis of fuel performance have been considered in a number of specialized publications. The present publication provides a concise but comprehensive overview of all interconnected quality and reliability issues in fuel fabrication, design and operation. It jointly tackles technical, safety and organizational aspects, and contains examples of state of the art developments and good practices of coordinated work of fuel designers, vendors and reactor operators

  18. Impact of accidents on organizational aspects of nuclear utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgin, A. J.; Stupples, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the Beer Viable Systems Model (VSM) approach to the study of nuclear accidents. It relates how organizational structures and rules are affected by accidents in the attempt to improve safety and reduce risk. The paper illustrates this process with reference to a number of accidents. The dynamic cybernetic aspect of the VSM approach to organizations yields a better understanding of the need for good decision-making to minimize risk and how organizations really operate.

  19. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.)

  20. Behavior of the Energy Secretary in working matter: the case of workers exposed to nuclear energy (ionizing radiations); Actuacion de la Secretaria de Energia en materia laboral: el caso de los trabajadores expuestos a energia nuclear (radiaciones ionizantes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, G

    2006-07-01

    Mexico, as many other countries, it gives to this energy resource multiple uses in such activities as: the electric power generation in nuclear central, the industry, the medicine and the research. In the one acting of the referred activities intervenes individuals that, in reason of their work, they have contact with this energy type, which is potentially dangerous for the health in reason of the radioactivity flight. Although those workers are 'aided' for a series of relative standards to the observance of safety, hygiene and protection measures in the event of work risks, the technicity that is required to determine the potential risk that it is generated with the handling of radioactive products it makes that single specialized in the matter authorities can evaluate and, therefore, to watch over the safety conditions in those that work is developed. In that virtue, with this investigation it is sought to demonstrate that the Secretary of Energy, through a dis concentrated specialized organ and endowed with technical autonomy denominated National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, it is a dependence that in their performance like Regulator Organ in the matter, intervenes in the labor relationships circles, being, therefore, an authority in work matter. By this way, the development of the present study is made in the following manner: In the first chapter indispensable aspects are approached to locate to the authorities inside the mark of the power exercise by the part of the State through their diverse organs; topics like jurisdiction and competition are treated for later to analyze the structure, according to the Mexican Administrative Law, of the Federal Executive Organ, referring a brief analysis of the application of work standards for diverse administrative authorities to determine of their multiple intervention and important performance in the labor relationships. In the second it is analyzed the structure of the National Commission of

  1. Nuclear energy and environment: legal and institutional aspects in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental control and sanitary surveillance of nuclear and radiological activities are incumbent upon the Federal Union, the States, Federal District and the Municipalities in Brazil. The performance thereof falls under the Environmental National System (SISNAMA) and the Unified Health System (SUS) respectively. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) controls the radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects of those activities. This paper analyses the division of competency on nuclear energy control as well as the necessity of harmonising the nuclear licensing proceedings with the environmental licensing proceedings, i.e., the ''Environmental Impact Assessment'' (EIA) and its respective ''Report on Environmental Impact'' (RIMA) provided for in the new Federal Brazilian Constitution. Public participation in the environmental control is also discussed as well as the constitutional and legal requirements for environmental protection applicable specifically to nuclear power plants. In the specific case of the final disposal repository for the radioactive waste generated from the radiological accident in Goiania, the procedures for its licensing are reported. (author)

  2. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  3. Environmental aspects of nuclear energy in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines environmental aspects of nuclear energy in a sustainable development perspective. The method used in generating data is documentation analysis. The result revealed that technology employed to generate nuclear energy is very critical to the environmental, social and economic lives of people, so also the energy generated. In the process, there are some environmental issues of concern such as impact of radiation on the people, the problem of safety of the land, other habitats and that of toxic waste or waste management in general. Therefore, to generate and use nuclear for sustainable development, there should be government legislation for safety and waste management. In additions regulatory bodies should be set-up to monitor, regulate and intervene when necessary to ensure no disastrous thing happens.

  4. Social and economic aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are facing the task of decommissioning and dismantling their commercial nuclear power plants. The three major components of a decommissioning project are the: regulatory framework, including safety regulations; technological developments and the environmental implications; and socioeconomic aspects.The first two have global, national, regional and local dimensions, but the socioeconomic impact is restricted to local environment, affecting mainly the local communities living around a nuclear power plant.These plants contribute, during their construction and operation, to the social and economic development of the region around the sites; the shut down of the reactor and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant facilities will have negative consequences on the life and economy of the local communities. The type of socioeconomic impact varies according to the phase of the dismantling project: (a) the transition period; (b) preparation for safe enclosure; (c) safe enclosure; and (d) final dismantling. Among the issues of concern are: (1) the negative impact on the local demography, resulting in a decrease in the population; (2) decrease of economic activity in the area; (3) loss of jobs (unemployment, anticipated retirement); and (4) reduction in local incomes. Additionally, success in decommissioning nuclear facilities is linked to the ability to demonstrate that the actions taken, both by the licensee and the nuclear regulatory authority, are protective of public health and the environment. Therefore, it is important to stress the need to build public confidence as a key component of the decommissioning effort. The paper analyses the socioeconomic impacts on the local communities around the site and proposes some practical recommendations to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of a decommissioning project from a generic perspective. It also offers conclusions and recommendations based on the experience and information gathered on the

  5. Design aspects and conservation of roads in the saving of energy; Aspectos de diseno y conservacion de carreteras en el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cajun, Carlos S.; Aguerrebere Salido, Roberto [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the effects that on the fuel consumption the roads have for their slopes and roughness are presented. A mathematical model is presented which shows the relationship between the slope, the roughness coefficient and the required power to overcome the corresponding resistance; the former in order to predict the fuel consumption and therefore, the potential level of energy saving corresponding to this item. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los efectos que sobre consumo de combustible se tienen, debido a las pendientes y rugosidades de las carreteras. Se presenta un modelo matematico que muestra la relacion entre la pendiente, el coeficiente de rodamiento y la potencia requerida para vencer las resistencias correspondientes; lo anterior con el fin de predecir el consumo de combustible y, por lo tanto, los niveles potenciales de ahorro de energia correspondientes a este rubro.

  6. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population; Analisis de opinion sobre la energia nuclear y sustentabilidad en una poblacion de nivel superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: angie2esa@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and

  7. A AIEA - agência internacional de energia atômica e a efetividade de suas medidas no cumprimento dos dispositivos do tratado de não-ploriferação nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Leandro Dalalibera

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Esta dissertação de mestrado pretendeu, por meio do método do estudo de caso, aferir a efetividade das medidas de fiscalização e de contenção do uso da energia nuclear para fins bélicos, adotadas pela Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica, no caso específico da República Islâmica do Irã. Optou-se pela metodologia do estudo de caso por se entender que seria a melhor e mais completa forma de detalhar o trabalho e a atuação da Agência num caso especifico, neste caso o Irã. No primeiro...

  8. Annual report of Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - 1996; Relatorio anual da Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the research activities coordinated by the Planning and Development Directorship of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Brazil, in 1996, relating the works achieved in its three research institutes: Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN). It describes the institute actions through the following topics: radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes production - production data and new products development; environmental and social applications in nuclear energy - environmental and occupational radioprotection; instrumentation and control; bioengineering and agriculture; health and environment; and physics, chemistry and industrial processes; reactors technology and fuel cycle -nuclear fuel, reprocessing and radioactive waste; reactors and nuclear safety; operating and research reactors maintenance; and advanced materials and technologies; human resources development - training, publications and participation in events; another themes - special projects and cooperation with another institutions; financial resources - distribution and income. 14 figs., 13 graphs., 46 photos, 21 tabs.

  9. Safety aspects of foundations of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide discusses the geotechnical engineering aspects of the subsurface conditions and not the geological aspects except where these directly affect the foundation system. It discusses the geotechnical analyses required for the design of the nuclear power plant and indicates, in general, the site characteristics or geotechnical parameters that are required for these analyses. The parameters and site characteristics then form the subsurface design profile that allows geotechnical analyses to be performed in a consistent and compatible manner. There are many methods of field exploration, in situ testing and laboratory testing which allow the establishment of geotechnical parameters. These methods are discussed in this Guide together with their application to the siting and design phases. The type of information to be collected and investigation to be performed should be based on the analytical methods to be used in the proposed design. A brief indication of these methods is therefore included in this Guide

  10. Strategic aspects of nuclear safety in Eastern and Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the economics of nuclear safety in Europe. It focuses on the potential damage to a neighbouring country in the event of a major accident: the disaster in Chernobyl made public not only the fatal consequences of a nuclear accident but also the hazardous state of the nuclear industry in the East. Here, game theory is used to analyse the crossborder hazards of a major nuclear accident. The expected damage in the event of a major nuclear accident is to this end interpreted as transboundary pollutant. In Part 1, scientific, economic and political aspects of nuclear safety in East and West are reviewed. Taking this discussion into consideration, Part 2 develops a static nuclear power game. Two actors, East and West, adjust their nuclear safety in response to the risk in the neighbouring region. If both regions cooperate, more risk abatement is undertaken than under the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium. If the West acts as a Stackelberg leader, it does less risk abatement than under Nash. Using data from Part 1, it is shown that total welfare gains are highest when transfer payments can be made as under full cooperation. If differentials in damage valuation and to a lesser extent transborder spillovers are high, total welfare is highest when both regions fully cooperate. Without the possibility of side payments only a Pareto dominant outcome can be reached, which yields very low benefits. This is due to the highly asymmetric setting of the nuclear game. Part 3 develops an optimal control model in order to examine safety capital accumulation and the interaction between players over time. It is shown that under communism safety levels were set at the technically lowest level, as target fulfilment had overriding priority. Current levels of safety are also shown to be inadequate for reasons which include limited liability in the West, and high discount rates and low quality workers and morale in the East. A differential game setting confirms the static

  11. Statistical and dynamic aspects of nuclear multi-fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author reports an investigation of the statistical and dynamic aspects of nuclear multi-fragmentation. He presents the experimental methods (detector, event selection, characteristics of multi-fragmentation events), discusses the statistical approach (characteristics of sorted events, hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium, characteristics of primary fragments, discussion of results) and the dynamic approach (initial conditions, comparison between the AMD model and experimental results, fragment production mechanism, other constraints for the AMD model), and finally addresses the multi-fragmentation since its appearance threshold (event selection, characteristics of central collisions and of reaction products, extension to all energies)

  12. O Processo de Avaliação de Estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN: focalizando seu instrumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Márcia Rocha Lidington

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo avaliativo e os resultados da avaliação do instrumento utilizado para a avaliação de estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, denominado Avaliação do Estágio pelo Supervisor. A avaliação se concentrou na definição dos cinco Conceitos utilizados para avaliar os nove Aspectos que compõem o instrumento, buscando estabelecer Padrões capazes de minimizar o efeito das interferências subjetivas capazes de comprometer a avaliação do estagiário. Foram utilizadas as abordagens Centrada nos Consumidores, Centrada em Especialistas e Responsiva. Participaram do processo avaliativo os três públicos interessados: Ex-estagiários, Orientadores/Supervisores de Estágio e profissionais da área de Recursos Humanos que atuam no gerenciamento do Programa de Estágios, na Instituição. Os resultados do estudo englobam sugestões de ordem quantitativa e qualitativa para cada um dos Padrões propostos no instrumento.

  13. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was just thirty years ago, when Japan started her extensive R and D efforts to develop peaceful use of nuclear energy. And twenty years ago, when a nuclear power reactor commenced its commercial power generation. There are 32 commercial power reactors whose total capacity is 24,521 MWe, and another 16 reactors are under construction of planned. The outline history and on-going programs of nuclear fuel cycle technologies development are reviewed at first. Fuel rods failure even as a minor pin-hole leakage has an effects on stable reactor operation and also it has closely related to the safe management of low-level wastes, whose improvements by fuel fabricators and research organizations in Japan are refered. Some practical aspects of safety control in each step of nuclear fuel cycle are discussed together with Japanese experiences. Finaly the auhors's view on safe operations of fuel cycle industry is described as well as personal observation on possible international cooperation in the Asian Region, as a conclusion

  14. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  15. Quantal and dissipative aspects in nuclear structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the description of both quantal and statistical aspects in a coherent theoretical framework that goes beyond a mean-field approximation. It is shown that among the possible methods, the Extended mean-field theory (ETDHF) is able to describe relaxation by including correlation effects. This theory is first applied to cold and hot giant resonances. After having developed a extended version of the linear response theory the effect of collisions on the response of 40Ca is studied. It is shown that collisions contribute to the spreading width of giant resonances and become a dominant decay channel at high temperature. The generalization of these methods through the modelization of the Hamiltonian as a series of couplings in cascade has enabled to go beyond ETDHF. Thus, phenomena as multi-scale Ericson fluctuations and interferences in the nuclear response are predicted. The study of larger amplitudes requires the introduction of transport theories for the nuclear dynamics. Thus the deexcitation of hot and compressed nuclei has been studied with mean-field theories. This analysis has clarified the link between the equation of state and the dynamical expansion in finite Systems. A comparison with semi-classical has further shown the importance of quantum effects and has demonstrated the necessity to take into account nucleon collisions in a quantum framework. The possibility to apply ETDHF to nuclear dynamics in the general case is then discussed. A rapid and reliable method, tested on a schematic model is proposed to solve the extended mean-field. The application of ETDHF to the monopolar expansion of 16O has finally demonstrated the interesting perspectives of this theory for describing dissipative aspects in quantum dynamics. Finally, the introduction of quantum stochastic approaches is discussed. (author)

  16. Radiological aspects of site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological aspects of siting criteria for nuclear power plants are often expressed as some form of population distribution criterion. The current criteria for nuclear power stations in the UK were established in the late 1960s, and involve limiting distributions of weighted population density, where the weighting used is a function of distance and is related to the dispersion characteristics of a release of radioactive material. Two classes of site are defined: remote and semi-urban. The population distribution of a prospective site is compared with the limiting distribution for the class of site deemed acceptable for the type of reactor proposed. The development of sophisticated computer programs for reactor accident consequence modelling, such as the NRPB's code MARC, permits a more comprehensive examination of radiological impacts than was available in the past. For any postulated accidental release from a given site, the incidence of various health effects which might result can now be estimated. Results of recent studies on the application of MARC to the examination of the radiological impact of a range of releases of radioactivity for a number of existing and potential nuclear sites in the UK indicate that whilst such studies provide deeper insights into site-specific aspects they can greatly complicate decisions involving the choice of preferred sites. In addition to the huge volume of results generated, the ranking of sites can be highly dependent on the magnitude of the release, the type of consequence and the characteristic quantity of the probability distribution of consequences adopted. Account must also be taken of the likelihood of occurrence of the accidental release considered. Given the complex nature of these problems, further work will be required to develop methods for evaluating accident consequences analyses in a form which aids decision-making

  17. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  18. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  19. The Instituto de Energia Atomica (Brazil) in the context of the research and development nuclear centers conjunture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to situate the present development of IEA relatively to similar foreign institutions, a survey was made of the functions and activities of the relevant centers in different countries. Those institutions were selected in view of their importance in the respective countries, and of the information on them available at IEA. Among them are especially included nuclear centers of countries with economical and social development levels similar to Brazilian ones, like Argentina, Australia, India and Spain

  20. Aspects of unexpected events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unexpected events in nuclear power plants (NPP) may lead to upset conditions or even accidents. Events such as these affect not only safety, but also the economic viability of NPP operation. Another facet of such events, virtually irrespective of their degree of severity, is the generally negative impact on public acceptance of nuclear power, such as was seen as a direct result of the Three Mile Island (USA - 1979) and Chernobyl (Ukraine - 1986) accidents. The operators of NPPs are responsible for their safe operation, whilst regulators ensure that NPP operating practices (e.g. start-up, shut-down procedures, inspections, monitoring, and compliance with technical specifications (TS)) are such that the highest possible levels of safety are a priori present at all times. As a matter of engineering principles, designs of NPPs feature safety margins and they are based on conservative assumptions, mostly to allow for material response to the operating conditions and environment (e.g. neutron embrittlement, fatigue usage). Inspections and monitoring have the purpose to check whether systems structures and components (SSC) are behaving according to the design with regard to compliance with safety requirements even when 'aged'. The paper examines aspects concerning events or accidents in NPPs, despite generally high levels of SSC monitoring and inspection and regulatory oversight. The importance of materials selection at the design stage, and the need for vigilance and questioning attitudes is stressed. The necessity to learn from accidents or events that have occurred in other NPPs is shown to be an important tool and source of information for NPP designers, manufacturers, operators and regulators. (author)

  1. Moviments opositors a infraestructures energètiques. Cas particular de l’energia nuclear i possibles alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga, Josep

    2012-01-01

    L’objectiu final d’aquest projecte és la proposta d’una alternativa a les centrals nuclears ubicades en territori català. Una alternativa a una font tan fiable però també amb certes característiques que la fan veure amb recel per part de diversos sectors de la societat ( un exemple: la certa alarma social ocasionada per alguns successos com ara el recent de Fukushima ) , requereix fonts energètiques consolidades i no excessivament cares. Per a ferho, es tindran en compte els mo...

  2. Nuclear Data for Safe Operation and Waste Transmutation: ANDES (Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability); Datos nucleares para la operacion segura y la transmutacion de residuos: Andes (Datos Nucleares Precisos para la Sostenibilidad de la Energia Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear research within the 7th Framework Program (FP7 and FP7+2) of EURATOM has devoted a significant fraction of its efforts to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles and reactor concepts, mainly fast reactors, aiming to improve the long term sustainability by reduction of the final wastes, optimal use of natural resources and improvement of safety in the present and future nuclear installations. The new design need more accurate basic nuclear data for isotopes, like minor actinides, potentially playing an important role in the operation, fuel concept, safety or final wastes of those reactors and fuel cycles. Four projects, ANDES, ERINDA, EUFRAT and CHANDA, supported by EURATOM within the FP7 and FP7+2, have put together most of the European Nuclear Data community to respond efficiently and in a coordinated way to those needs. This paper summarizes the objectives, and main achievements of ANDES, the project responsible for most of the measurements and technical achievements that was coordinated by CIEMAT. Indeed, CIEMAT has coordinated the nuclear data R and D projects within EURATOM during the last 7 years (NUDATRA domain of EUROTRANS, and ANDES) and will continue this coordination in the CHANDA project till 2017. (Author)

  3. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  4. Energy and environmental aspects in building construction. Joint seminar of the LVIS-2000 and ETRR research programmes; Energia- ja ympaeristoetietoinen rakentaminen; LVIS-2000 ja ETRR -tutkimusohjelmien yhteisseminaari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, R.; Naeraekkae, S. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    A joint seminar was arranged by ETRR or `Energy-efficient buildings and building components` and LVIS or `Future building services`. The main topics of the seminar included environmental and energy conservation aspects in building construction; Concepts of industrial house building; Energy conservation and ventilation solutions in residential buildings; The prototype METOP for low energy office buildings and development of other model solutions and programs

  5. The youths in the impulse of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Los jovenes en el impulso de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A. [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez J, J., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Around the world the industry and the nuclear development have taken a very important paper in different boundaries like: the medicine, the research, the industry and the electric power generation. However, during the decade of the 90s the technology and the nuclear industry had suffered a decrement in their popularity. After the accident of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl and the most recent event in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima this popularity has been affected. For all this is that the work of informing to the people on the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy taking relevance. Visualizing this necessity the Young Association for the Nuclear Energy in Mexico, is founded in March 8, 2003 having a mission: To unite the enthusiastic youths professionals and students that believe in the development of the research and that they want to work in a joined way in the problems involved with the technological and scientific development of the country in the nuclear ambit, as well as in their personal achievement. The association has always impelled the related topics with the nuclear development in Mexico and in the world, imparting courses and chats in several universities and institutions, by means of a simple language to be able to go to children and the people in general. In the diffusion work that carries out the association, has an important collaboration and representation with the Mexican Nuclear Society, the North American Young Generation in Nuclear, the International Youth Nuclear Congress and the World Nuclear University. (Author)

  6. The public perception of the nuclear energy in Eastern Europe: past and present; La percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Europa del Este: pasado y presente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Jimenez, G.

    2010-07-01

    In Eastern Europe, people associate nuclear energy to the idea of progress, and prestige of the nuclear industry is very high. This article sets the use of nuclear technology to produce energy in a historical context that is particular to these countries. Results of interviews and surveys are analyzed in order to provide an insight on the level of acceptance among population. (Author)

  7. Mis on Roheline Energia? / Kadi Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Kadi, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Tuule- ja vee-energia kasutamisest Rohelise Energia osalussüsteemiga liitunud kuues Hiiumaa ettevõttes ning Kärdla linnavalitsuses. Kommenteerivad Toomas Jõõts, Ari Hannula ja Ants Vahtras. Lisa: Rohelise energia ostjad Hiiumaal praegu

  8. Nuclear safety, legal aspects and policy recommendations for space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Roger X.

    2006-07-01

    This paper represents a chapter of the International Astronautical Academy's Cosmic Study on safety, legal and policy aspects of advanced (specifically nuclear) power and propulsions systems; it is divided into several sections. The first section covers a series of findings and develops a set of recommendations for operations of space reactor systems in a safe, environmentally compliant fashion. The second section develops a generic set of hazard scenarios that might be experienced by a space nuclear system with emphasis on different methods under which such a system could be engaged, such as surface power, in-space nuclear electric or nuclear thermal propulsion. The third section develops these into test and analysis efforts that would likely be conducted. Risk areas with engineering judgment set toward frequency and consequences. The fourth section identifies what probable technology limits might be experienced by nuclear propulsion systems and the exploration limitations these technology restrictions might impose. Where the IAA recommends a change, the IAA leadership should be prepared to work with national and international bodies to implement the desired modifications.

  9. Proceedings of the meeting on nuclear law held by the Centro Italiano di Studi di Diritto dell'Energia Nucleare in Rome, Italy, 24 November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with usual practice the Italian Centre for Study of Nuclear Law (CISDEN) organised a meeting on nuclear law in Rome. A series of papers were presented dealing in particular with the respective legal positions of operators and constructors of nuclear power plants in Italy, the requirements and standards, national and international, imposed on users of radioactive materials and equipments. In addition, a series of conclusions are drawn from the Inter Jura' 75 Congress organised by the International Nuclear Law Association, as well as from the 1974 London Conference on Nuclear Insurance and Indemnity which dealt in detail with nuclear insurance problems for nuclear equipment and materials and their transport, in Europe and the United States. Finally, it is made clear from the III Symposium on German Nuclear Law organised in Goettingen in 1974 that the Federal Republic of Germany is concentrating on further developing its nuclear legislation in step with nuclear developments, in particular regarding compensation for possible victims of a nuclear incident. (NEA)

  10. Nuclear and non-nuclear safety aspects in nuclear facilities dismantling. The example of a PWR pilot decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities, and in particular of nuclear power plants, involves new challenges for the nuclear industry. Although the dismantling of various activated and contaminated components is nowadays considered as almost industrial practice, the safety aspects of decommissioning bring some specific features which are not always taken into account in the operation of the plants. Moreover, most of the plants and facilities currently decommissioned are rather old and were never foreseen to be decommissioned. The operations involved in dismantling and decontamination, often imply new or unforeseen situations. On the nuclear, or radiological side, the radioprotection optimisation of the operations involved often requires to model the environment and to analyse different scenarios to tackle the operation. Recent 3-D software (like the Visiplan software) allowing representation of the actual environment and the influence of the various sources present, is really needed to be able to minimise the radiological impact on the operators. The risk of contamination spread, by opening loops and components or by the dismantling process itself, is also an important aspect of the radiological protection study. Nevertheless, the radiological aspects of the safety approach are not the only ones to be dealt with when decommissioning nuclear facilities. Indeed, classical industrial safety aspects are also important: the dismantling can bring handling and transporting risk (heavy loads, difficult ways, uneasy access, etc.) but also the handling of toxic or hazardous materials. For instance, the removal of asbestos in contaminated areas can lead to additional hazard; the presence of alkali metals (like Na or NaK), of toxic metals (like e.g. Beryllium) or of corrosive fluids (acid,...) have to be tackled often in unstructured environment, and sometimes with limited knowledge of the actual situation. This leads to approach the operations following the ASARA principle (As

  11. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  12. Strategic aspects of nuclear and radiological emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, as well as experience from national emergency management programmes. Additionally, experience from the INEX-3 exercise (2005-2006) has shown that longer-term consequence management and the transition to recovery remain particularly challenging. As such, the WPNEM also focused on the development of strategies for countermeasures for managing the longer-term consequences of an emergency. As decision-making is at the core of emergency management, the WPNEM developed a strategic framework to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision-making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The outcomes are presented in the report 'Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management'. The report provides insights into and a strategic basis for decision-making as an integral part of emergency management. Such a guiding strategic view, applied during preparedness, will enhance the management of complex emergency situations involving many organisations and stakeholders at the local, national and international levels

  13. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Wasteless’ Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Anggraita

    2008-01-01

    The problem associated with the current NPP is the generation of nuclear waste and some elements in the waste have very long time of radioactivity. This paper reviews some concepts of nuclear energy generation with less nuclear waste. A concept of accelerator driven system (ADS) or energy amplifier (EA) was proposed by Carlo Rubbia, recipient of 1984 Nobel Prize in particle physics. The system is supposed to generate nuclear energy with radioactive waste of much less and shorter lifetime than...

  14. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant automation and robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question being considered in this report is the extent to which the following aims are promoted through the use of robotics and automatic plant systems: nuclear power is safe (nuclear power plants and related facilities will not be constructed or allowed to continue operating if they are not perceived as being safe); nuclear power is economic (in comparison to other forms of electricity production once the environmental costs have been fully considered and as part of a unified energy policy); nuclear power is conservative (using nuclear fuel does not waste natural resources, damage the atmosphere, or produce unmanageable waste). Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Legal aspects of merchant ships with nuclear propulsion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status and prospects of using nuclear power plants for merchant ship propulsion are considered. Standard acts adopted in the USSR concerning nuclear power application on merchant ships and the problems of responsibility fo damage caused by utilization of nuclear power plants on sea ships are discussed. Nuclear ships compare favourably with ships using the traditional types of fuels in performance. At the same time despite high degree of nuclear ship reliability and safety extremely strict requirements making severe their legal status are specified to them

  16. Weak-interaction and nuclear-structure aspects of nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weak-interaction and nuclear-structure aspects of double beta decay are reviewed. Starting from effective electroweak lagrangians, decay rates for the two-neutrino and neutrinoless modes of the nuclear double beta decay transitions are defined and second-order perturbative expressions for the nuclear decay amplitudes are given. Nuclear matrix elements of the relevant operators are presented, as extracted from data and from shell-model and QRPA calculations as well as from other theoretical approximations. The analysis is performed both for the two-neutrino and neutrinoless modes of the decay. The expressions for ground-state-to-ground-state and ground-state-to-excited-state transitions are presented. Updated experimental and theoretical information on β-β- decays in 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 116Cd, 124Sn, 128Te, 130Te, 136Xe, 150Nd, and on β+β+, β+ EC and double EC decays in 78Kr, 92Mo, 96Ru, 106Cd, 124Xe, 130Ba, 136Ce is analyzed and compared with theoretical results. The relevance of single-beta-decay transitions feeding some of the nuclei where double-beta-decay transitions occur is pointed out. The systematics of various phase-space factors and extracted matrix elements is presented. (orig.)

  17. Safety aspects of station blackout at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal focus of this report is on existing light water reactor nuclear power plants. However, many of the considerations discussed herein can be equally applied to new plants, i.e. those not yet in construction. This report is organized to provide a description of design and procedural factors which safety assessments and reviews of operating experience have shown to be important. These are divided into the off-site power system, the on-site AC power systems and alternate (or nearby) sources of power. The latter may be used in the unlikely event that both normal off-site and on-site sources fail. It must be emphasized that first priority should be placed on designing and maintaining high reliability of both the off-site and on-site AC power systems. This basic concept also applies to the capabilities for restoring power sources which failed and making use of all available alternative and nearby power sources during an emergency, to restore AC power in a prompt manner. Discussions on these aspects are provided in chapters 2 and 3 of this report. Because the expected event frequency and associated confidence in such estimations of station blackout are uncertain, preparations should be made to deal with a station blackout. The nature of those preparations, whether they be optimizing emergency procedures to use existing equipment, modifying this equipment to enhance capabilities, or adding new components or systems to cope with station blackout, must be made in light of plant-specific assessments and regulatory safety philosophies/requirements. Discussions on these matters are provided in chapter 4. General and specific conclusions and recommendations are provided in chapter 5. Appendix A provides a description of several case studies on station blackout and loss of off-site power. Abstracts of papers and presentations are provided in Appendix B with authors and affiliations identified to facilitate personal contact. The References and Bibliography contain a

  18. General and regulatory aspects of nuclear waste disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy decision concerning nuclear waste management was made by the government of Finland in April 1978. The decision defines the principal functional and financial responsibilities for waste management. Preparations for specific nuclear waste management legislation were only recently initiated. Research and development activities are under way in a limited scale, geological storage and disposal are included. Licensing of nuclear facilities is the responsibility of the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Practical evaluation and control measures are performed by the Institute of Radiation Protection. General legal framework for nuclear waste disposal is included in atomic energy and radiation protection legislations. So far there are no technical criteria or regulations for waste disposal. Licensing process for waste repositories, although not yet formulated, will evidently contain elements similar to the existing procedure for nuclear power plants. Particular emphasis should be put on site selection and approval. Disposal into deep crystalline rock formations is regarded as the realistic nuclear waste disposal alternative in Finland. (author)

  19. Socio-politics aspects of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes some topics that should be taken into account when a country desires to introduce the nuclear power into its electricity generation energy grid. This makes a description about the estimation of risk perception, giving a proposal for a combined information and educational programme. The present work was based on a survey of a nuclear research team at the Nuclear Center in Juelich, West Germany

  20. Nuclear liability in the course of transport - some insurance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with some legal and practical problems in the transport liability field, problems the author has met over the years as an insurer of nuclear risks. The intention is not to give a presentation of the nuclear liability rules as such, which should be familiar to the reader, neither to give an overall survey of the insurance procedures as regards transport of nuclear substances. It will just point out a few questions that are typical for this kind of business and that might be of interest for those who in one way or another might be involved in the insurance of nuclear transports

  1. Legal aspects of the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper stresses the importance of nuclear technology transfer and describes the legal instruments for transfer of technical and scientific technology, particularly from the contractual viewpoint. A description follows of the setting-up of national joint ventures for nuclear power plant projects with emphasis on technological know-how to enable operation of plants in compliance with safety standards. The possibility is discussed of the export of nuclear technology, and finally mention is made of a proposal for a 'code of conduct' on such transfers in the framework of the United Nations, having regard to the 'London agreements' on nuclear exports. (NEA)

  2. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  3. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects; Energie nucleaire: sortie ou relance? Aspects internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  4. The economic and financial aspects of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has studied the viability of sea water desalination using nuclear energy compared with fossil fuelled and renewable energy plants. The studies have shown that nuclear energy would be competitive with fossil energy for desalination in a range of situations. This applies in particular to countries that lack cheap indigenous energy resources, need large amounts of desalinated water, and have the means and infrastructure to install medium or large sized nuclear power plants. Concerning financing, the availability of funds at reasonable terms is a key factor for the feasibility of every large power/desalination project in particular for nuclear power. The relevant characteristics of commercial nuclear desalination projects that make arrangements for adequate financing difficult include high investment costs, long construction periods, a relatively high degree of uncertainty with respect to costs and scheduling, and potentially significant public opposition. These characteristics imply significant financial risks. It is thus essential that the uncertainties and risks of a nuclear desalination project be reduced. A helpful step towards realizing this goal would be the prior implementation of a demonstration project. Other relevant actions and policies to successfully implement a nuclear desalination project are summarized. The IAEA is ready to assist interested Member States, upon request, in building an adequate basis for a nuclear desalination programme as a prerequisite to sound economic assessments and in obtaining financing for a well defined project on reasonable terms. (author)

  5. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Wasteless’ Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anggraita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the current NPP is the generation of nuclear waste and some elements in the waste have very long time of radioactivity. This paper reviews some concepts of nuclear energy generation with less nuclear waste. A concept of accelerator driven system (ADS or energy amplifier (EA was proposed by Carlo Rubbia, recipient of 1984 Nobel Prize in particle physics. The system is supposed to generate nuclear energy with radioactive waste of much less and shorter lifetime than those generated by present generation of nuclear power reactors. Less radioactive waste will also be generated by fusion reactions, either in hot fusion of high temperature plasma confined in a very strong magnetic field, or in cold fusion conceptually happens in muon-catalytic and lattice-trap fusions. A concept of neutronless nuclear reaction, hence activating no radioisotopes, to generate nuclear power was proposed. Present nuclear power reactors based on fission are also the source of very large number of electron neutrinos, which can be used to study neutrino oscillations.

  6. Reclaiming some moral high ground - Ethical aspects in nuclear communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public communication about nuclear energy needs to relate to the cultural undercurrents which determine how people perceive the environment. The paper discusses some of these and suggests ways of responding to them. It also outlines major ethical considerations relevant to uranium mining and nuclear energy and hence which are relevant to communication about both. Competent discourse about values is fundamental. (author)

  7. The nuclear fuel cycle, Economical, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy part in the durable development depends of many factors, bound to the fuel cycle. This document describes the developments and the tendencies in the fuel cycle domain, susceptible of improve the competitiveness and the durability of the nuclear energy systems at moderate and long-dated. Evaluation criteria and indicators illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nuclear power in France: economic aspects and international prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the number of employees, nuclear industry is the third industrial sector in France behind car industry and aeronautics. Despite the Fukushima accident nuclear power keeps its prospects high. The huge need for electrical power of emerging countries makes China and India, today's leading countries for the development of nuclear power. China launches a coal plant every week and a reactor every 4 weeks. This Chinese development must be seen as an opportunity for the French nuclear industry that has a long history of cooperation with its Chinese counterpart. In the westernized world the very low growth of the power demand and the development of renewable energies have reduced the nuclear challenge to the life-extension and safety upgrading of today operating reactors. Only 2 European countries: United-Kingdom and Poland have nuclear programs. It is a necessity for the French nuclear industry to contribute to the international development of nuclear power for 2 reasons: first to stay innovative by using up-to-date technologies in building reactors and secondly to be ready and competitive for the future replacement of the French fleet of reactors. (A.C.)

  9. Germany: of the nuclear energy expansion to the structure for their gradual abandonment; Alemania: de la expansion de la energia nuclear a la estructura para su abandono gradual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mez, L. [Frei Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work exposes a panorama of the German nuclear industry, where the investment in this sector began around the fifty, having great peak during the period 1968 at 1989. Causes like a poor electricity demand, the over capacity and a persistent controversy among the public opinion for the nuclear energy use, stop the expansion from this industry to the little time of established. In contrast with the legal situation in most of the countries, in Germany the operation licences were granted without it limits of time. Nevertheless, the operation expectation was estimated inside a range of 20 to 40 years, depending in particular on the service life of the renovation parts. Taking into account these data, seven nuclear power plants of those that have already operated for 20 years or more, are about to confront expensive reconstructions or the closing in the following five years; while other seven will be closed in the subsequent 10 or 15 years. While the federal politicians and their directive went favorable until recent time in general to the extended use of nuclear energy, some authorities of the states became more restrictive when interpreting the allowed forecasts, what has generated continuous differences and regulatory uncertainty. In consequence, the facilities in operation gradually have shown interest in reaching agreements with the government about the nuclear politics, by means of the regulations reestablishment and one calculus linked at the costs. In spite of the many and constant judgments of the public opinion, the federal nuclear politics was up to 1998 on the side of the alliance pro nuclear and back to the industry by means of multiple fiscal and regulatory privileges. This official position was reverted by first time after the federal elections of that year, when a new red-green federal government announcement the gradual retirement of the nuclear energy of Germany. That coalition pact among the Democratic Social parties (red) and green

  10. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA)

  11. Eesti Energia unustas Toomas Lumani andmed / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia jurist Heili Raudkivi palus rahandusministeeriumilt infot, mis tähtajaks on rahandusminister nimetanud Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmeks Toomas Lumani. Eesti Energia pressiesindaja selgitus

  12. Hospital nuclear pharmacy survey: preliminary aspects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Marcelo Pau; de Barros, Marcio Paes; Antunes, Leila Jorge; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are special drugs that in the composition preserve one or more radionuclides which can be used as diagnostic or therapeutic tools in Nuclear Medicine Units. This study evaluated hospitals and clinics which have nuclear medicines services at the city of Rio de Janeiro from August to November 2010. The data were obtained through a longitudinal research. The results showed that most of the hospitals (>80%) did not have pharmacist and all them (100%) considered that a pharmacist in the nuclear pharmacy is not required. PMID:23493051

  13. Corrosion engineering issues in environmental aspect. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, all nuclear power plants were stopped at this time (2013 Dec.), because of an application to new regulatory requirements of Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA). It is, however, recognized to one of the important energy source in some foreign countries after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. The running costs are much smaller than the other energy sources, especially renewable energy sources. Also, the emission of CO2 is very low level compare to the fossil fuels. In this report, some issues of nuclear power plants from the viewpoint of corrosion are noted and the expected research activities at near future on corrosion are documented. (J.P.N.)

  14. The renewable and nuclear energies in the basquet of energy supply; Las energias nuclear y renovables en La cesta del suministro energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Corcoles, F.

    2008-07-01

    The share of nuclear and renewable sources in the energy portfolio yields great benefits to all stake holders and that both sources are not exclusive each other but offer multiple complementary features and synergy's, therefore both technologies should be part of the present and future energy mix. This portfolio should be enough and reliable all the time, guarantee the security of supply, protect the environment and give competitive prices. All these features are to a great extent met by nuclear and renewable technologies and therefore they should play an important role on world and national energy supply. (Author)

  15. Regulatory aspects of emergency action in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in detail, on the basis of French national legislation and international recommendations and agreements, emergency schemes to be implemented in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident. (NEA)

  16. General and regulatory aspects of nuclear waste disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minister of Trade and Industry has recently appointed a committee to review the legislation in the nuclear energy field. The mandate of the committee includes the formulation of a law on nuclear waste management, which problem is also the subject of a current research and development programme. Licensing and control measures for nuclear installations already exist and these do include general safety measures relating to the management of nuclear waste. There are three types of licence - construction licence (including site approval), operating licence and fuel licence - given by the Ministry of Trade and Industry after consultation with various bodies, notably, the Institute of Radiation Protection. Conditions may be imposed on granting a licence, and periodic inspections are carried out during the operation of the installation. This licensing procedure, modified when necessary, could be applied to waste disposal facilities. (NEA)

  17. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  18. New aspects regarding to radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and objectives: The society has been concerned about nuclear energy usage and nuclear environment pollution for ages. The necessity of using radiation and its applications in modern life especially in medicine is undeniable. Some interesting properties such as the potential for non-destructive tests, detection simplicity, and penetrability into substances and having reactions with them cause radiation to be known as a useful tool for peace purposes. Nuclear weapons' experiments (1945-1973) and nuclear accidents in Three-Mile Island in USA, Goiania in Brazil and Chernobyl in Ukraine Republic have enhanced man's worries towards nuclear radiation and radioactivity in environment, and founding associations and groups which are against nuclear energy, such as green peace society, can be related with above mentioned concerns. Today, nuclear medicine has rapidly been developed so that in some cases plays a unique role in diagnosis but unfortunately in spite of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages, the term NUCLEARcan induce worries in patients and society. In this article, base on new documents we intend to show that this worries has no scientific basis. Material and Methods: To produce a realistic view, regarding to radiation protection we used several ways such as natural origin of radiation, high natural background radiation areas' data non-linear dose-effect model, risk versus benefit, use of arbitrary unit for measurement of radiation, radio adaptive response and radiation hormesis. Discussion and conclusion: Harmful effects of radiation on biologic systems has obviously been shown, but most of related documents are based on receiving high doses in nuclear and atomic accidents and explosions and radiation protection regulations are based on this observations. So, it sometimes causes patients are afraid of low doses of radiation in medical diagnostic procedures so that some of them even resist against performing this procedures. Thus, being aware of

  19. Contractual aspects of the establishment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the complexity of the system for establishing nuclear power plants in Italy, in the light of ENEL's experience and provides a thorough description of the types of contract involved, the respective rights and obligations of the parties concerned and the problems encountered. Reference is made to the legislation governing the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants and the competent authorities in this respect. (NEA)

  20. Hospital Nuclear Pharmacy Survey: Preliminary Aspects In Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Brasil, Marcelo Pau; de Barros, Marcio Paes; Antunes, Leila Jorge; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are special drugs that in the composition preserve one or more radionuclides which can be used as diagnostic or therapeutic tools in Nuclear Medicine Units. This study evaluated hospitals and clinics which have nuclear medicines services at the city of Rio de Janeiro from August to November 2010. The data were obtained through a longitudinal research. The results showed that most of the hospitals (>80%) did not have pharmacist and all them (100%) considered that a pharmac...

  1. Rewriting the history: a new future for the nuclear energy in United Kingdom?; Reescribiendo la historia: un nuevo futuro para la energia nuclear en Reino Unido?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)

  2. Some Aspects of Research Reactor Nuclear Safety Regulation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents general structure of regulatory documents on research reactor nuclear safety in Russia along with the main directions of further activities. General regulatory approach realizing in this structure takes into account peculiarities of nuclear research installations. The main peculiarities include neutronics and thermal power of NRI. Within the regulatory approach general requirements significant for all nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities) are extended to NRI, and some specific requirements are developed. These general requirements are primarily associated with such general issues as radiation safety standards (e.g., exposure rates) for workers and publics, siting requirements, strength requirements, etc. Specialized safety regulatory documents relate to nuclear and radiation safety, emergency preparedness. Hierarchical approach is used for the specialized NRI safety documents. General safety rules are applied to all NRI, and nuclear safety regulations are developed for research reactors, pulsed research reactors, critical and subcritical assemblies. Specific regulations concern decommissioning issues, emergency preparedness and response, requirements to SAR and investigation of events also. (author)

  3. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear power plants. Results achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main factors are discussed which affect the safety of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovak conditions. In order to assure the quality of components important for nuclear safety and to maintain it throughout their service life, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission issued a Decree in 1979 whose essence was in that already the safety report should identity components with a view to nuclear safety. Individual programmes of quality assurance are then drawn up for these components. At present, an amendment is being prepared for the Decree. The second factor is the quality of operating personnel of all categories, and especially of the so-called selected categories. In 1979 a unified system was introduced of nuclear power plant personnel training. Since 1984 the training institution has been provided with a full-size simulator. The third factor is the quality of the operation management of the facility, especially as concerns the observance of limits and conditions of safe operation. The respective document has been available for V-213 reactors since 1982, for V-230 units of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice since 1988. A system has been introduced of data collection, evaluation and distribution relating to failures in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants, based on IAEA recommendations. It has a very low threshold for reporting failures so that on average some 80 failures are reported for every operating unit. (Z.M.)

  4. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel shipment from 'Vinca' Institute to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main safety aspects were analyzed and possible radiation impact on the personnel, population and environment during spent nuclear fuel preparation for shipment to the Russian Federation was estimated. Basic safety principals in elaborating repackaging technology are specified. (author)

  5. Safety Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management in Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policies, a Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing demand of energy worldwide, and due to the depletion of conventional natural energy resources, energy policies in many countries have been devoted to nuclear energy option. On the other hand, adopting a safe and reliable nuclear fuel cycle concept guarantees future nuclear energy sustain ability is a vital request from environmental and economic point of views. The safety aspects of radioactive waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle is a topic of great importance relevant to public acceptance of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle safety evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), this study evaluates the radioactive waste management policies and radiological safety aspects of three different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The once-through fuel cycle (OT- fuel cycle) or the direct spent fuel disposal concept for both pressurized light water reactor ( PWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR or CANDU) systems and the self-generatedor recycling fuel cycle concept in PWR have been considered in the assessment. The environmental radiological safety aspects of different nuclear fuel cycle options have been evaluated and discussed throughout the estimation of radioactive waste generated from spent fuel from these fuel cycle options. The decay heat stored in the spent fuel was estimated and a comparative safety study between the three fuel cycle policies has been implemented

  6. Technical aspects of innovative nuclear systems including reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Accidents at Three-Mile Iceland and Chernobyl demonstrated the high level of hazardous of existing nuclear-power industry. The two important theses were put forward: future nuclear reactors shall have distinction in kind with the existing one (Alvin Weinberg); nuclear technology shall be the 'forgiving' one, i.e. that some single errors of operator shall not cause high probability of accident severe consequences. 2. However, during the next nearly 20 years there were no any new design proposed and produced that could introduce fundamental changes. The safety improvements have been reached by means of increasing number of safety systems installed and corresponding rise in price of nuclear facilities. It has been resulting in and still continues to lead to decrease of nuclear power competitiveness. 3. The decrease of competitiveness of nuclear power, the anxiety with regard to nuclear accident, luck of acceptable technologies for nuclear spent fuel and waste management have led to credibility gap of community followed by decisions taken to reduce the extent of nuclear power usage in Sweden and Germany and slowing down in development of nuclear power industry in other countries. 4. The will to find a way out of such a situation is clearly defined by Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei, the present IAEA Director General: 'In my view, a solution to this dilemma may depend heavily on the development of new, innovative reactors and fuel cycle technologies. To be successful, the new technology must be inherently safe, proliferation resistant and economically competitive'. Recognizing the necessity to take thoroughgoing decisions has brought the IAEA to a decision to develop the 'User Requirements'. The final first version of those Requirements became available in May of this year. 5. 'User Requirements' mean that innovative nuclear reactors and their fuel cycles shall meet the advanced standards related to safety, environment protection, radioactive waste management and be

  7. Analysis considerations in the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Consideraciones de analisis en el futuro de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Mexico requires for legal command reducing the participation of fossil energy for the electric power production to not more than 65% for 2024, the other 35% will be covered by sources of clean energy, among which are the renewable sources and the nuclear energy. Inside the National Strategy of Energy 2012-2016 3 possible scenarios are outlined to give execution to this command, in this work is made an analysis of these scenarios and its implications in energy safety. (Author)

  8. Regulatory safety aspects of nuclear waste management operations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy in India as part of its programme to harness the nuclear energy for generation of nuclear power has been operating a whole range of nuclear fuel cycle facilities including waste management plants for more than four decades. The waste management plants include three high level waste immobilisation plants, one in operation, one under commissioning and one more under construction. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is mandated to review and authorise from the safety angle the siting, the design, the construction and the operation of the waste management plants. The regulatory procedures, which involve multi-tier review adopted for ensuring the safety of these facilities, are described in this paper. (author)

  9. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  10. Aspects of medium-energy nuclear physics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cowley

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has participated in basic research on medium-energy nuclear physics for the past eight years since the completion of the cyclotron facility of the National Accelerator Centre. The research projects that have been conducted during this period have had a major influence on the development of the discipline of nuclear physics. This review of a selection of projects that have been completed to date illustrates the advance of knowledge and how this work has contributed towards a further understanding of the atomic nucleus. The possible impact of these studies on future application is alluded to by means of two important illustrative examples.

  11. Engineering - a key aspect of the UK nuclear policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindon, J.L.; Butcher, Sally (Nuclear Electric plc (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    In anticipation of the forthcoming nuclear review, a forum on issues relevant to the industry was held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers HQ in London, in association with the Institute of Energy and the Watt Committee on Energy. The forum was divided into five sections, dealing with energy policy, the environment, industry, economics and safety. (author).

  12. Aspects of economic ethics in the use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If we are honest we must accept the use of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany for an indefinite period of time, as there seems to be no realistic alternative, at least for the time being. Politicians of all parties as well as the responsible leaders of trade unions (who often only echo party opinions in political discussions) should make this point clear beyond any doubt, for otherwise the public will have difficulties to understand the need for a reprocessing plant or a fast breeder reactor. Opportunism to suit the political needs of the day and hypocrisy of many politicians in all camps unfortunately have become facts of social policy. Confidence in the acceptance of nuclear power also depends on the confidence shown in politicians. As long as they go on doubting the need for a long term use of nuclear power, and as long as such statements are eagerly disseminated by the media, it is not surprising to see the public having second thoughts about the need for nuclear power, for a reprocessing plant and a fast breeder. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear development for peaceful purposes: legal and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the 17 lectures and reports presented at the regional course on legislation and regulation of nuclear safety for Latin American countries organized by the IAEA on 15-20 October 1984 in Montevideo, Uruguay. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Also reproduced are some legal documents related to the subject

  14. Past, current and future aspects of nuclear medicine in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine in Malaysia began initially with the use of radioiodine and radiophosphorous for the investigation and treatment of thyroid and blood disorders around 1960. Following this we went through a phase of organ imaging using radioiodine and radiogold using an early generation Phillips Scanner. In terms of Medical usefulness this proved a big step forward in Malaysian Medicine, basic though the techniques were. The third phase of this speciality came on in the 1970s with the availability of generator scanners. A tremendous spurt in Nuclear Imaging and thyroid function studies took place. We have now together with the University Hospital Gamma Cameras which have considerably widened the scope of Nuclear Medicine especially in the field of cardiovascular studies. Further advances are expected in the future with the availability of medical cyclotrons, positron cameras and emission tomography. However yesterdays problems have not disappeared completely and the training of personnel and provision of up to date Nuclear Medicine laboratories with the latest equipment should be given top priority so as to assure progress in this speciality. (author)

  15. Stochastic aspects of multiparticle production in relativistic nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midrapidity multiparticle production process in ordinary hadron and heavy-ion induced reactions at sufficiently high incident energies are analyzed. It is shown that stochastic aspects of multiparticle production process in relativistic range plays a dominating role in understanding the observable phenomena. The basic idea and the main results of the multisource model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown. The concept of the NES (number of effective sources) scaling is discussed. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  16. Legal aspects of search and mining of nuclear ores under Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of mining in the Brazilian law its general principles, the basic concepts and rules established in the constitution of Brazil, in the mining code and in special laws are analysed. The rules for mining and usage of nuclear ores and other ores of interest to the nuclear field are emphasized. (A.L.)

  17. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  18. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  19. Some aspects of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing in the Russian Federation scheme for handling SNF from power reactors, research and transportation units allows safe storage and partial reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The present report illustrates the role of enterprises affiliated to Minatom's Department of Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The RT-1 complex of the 'Mayak' Production Association carries out radiochemical reprocessing of SNF from WWER-440 reactors in Russia and Ukraine, BN-600 reactor, SNF from research reactors and nuclear power plants of sea vessels; The Mining and Chemical Complex carries out centralized intermediate storage of SNF from WWER-1000 reactors in Russia and Ukraine; some SNF from WWER-1000 and RMBK-1000 is currently stored in water medium in on-site pools. Therefore we could state that the Russian Federation has actually implemented two nuclear fuel cycles for different types of reactors: Closed nuclear fuel cycle for SNF from WWER-440, BN-600, research reactors and ship's nuclear power plants - the cycle includes radiochemical reprocessing of fuel and partial use of the recovered products (uranium, plutonium and other nuclides) and different techniques for waste treatment and storage; Deferred nuclear fuel cycle for SNF from WWER-1000, RBMK-1000 and some other activities. The annual volume of SNF unloaded from a single NPP unit and cumulative volume of SNF generated by Russian NPP's. It is clear that the total volume of SNF generated in the Russian Federation is relatively small (below 10% of the world SNF). The capacity of the existing repositories for SNF from WWER-1000 will be sufficient for 6 to 8 years, and the capacity of the repositories for SNF from RBMK will be exhausted in 3 to 5 years. Some fuel from research reactors and criticality test beds is located on site of large Russian nuclear centers, e.g. Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors (NIIAR), Physics Energy Institute (FEI) and Kurchatov Institute. Creation of a dry repository at the Mining and Chemical Complex

  20. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones

  1. Safety aspects of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent years design-principles of underground-sited nuclear power stations have been investigated mainly in the USA and the Fed. Rep. Germany. It was hoped that the consequences of extremely remote accidents could be generally reduced by such designs. It is pointed out in this article that underground-siting, however, does not only lead to many disadvantages, some of them also safety-related, but at best results in only slight reductions of the consequences of internal accidents. It is the author's impression that, due to high additional cost and important delays of licensing- and construction-times underground-siting of nuclear power stations is no meaningful and suitable safety measure. (orig.)

  2. Economic and industrial aspects of French nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This account starts with a general survey of energy needs and resources, so as to situate in this context the development of the fifty nuclear power stations planned for operation in France by 1985. Then the increasing competitivity of nuclear generated electrical power is demonstrated. The article deals with problems involved in the fuel cycle: uranium supplies, enrichment, fuel element fabrication and reprocessing. In this area, as in that concerning the more distant future of fast breeder reactor plants, and thanks to the efforts of the scientists and technicians of the CEA and French manufacturers, France occupies a significant place among competitors in the field. With the cooperation of other European countries, this should make it possible for Europe to increase its independence from the current American monopoly, which is of considerable proportions

  3. Nuclear Structure Aspects of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B A; Sen'kov, R A

    2014-01-01

    We decompose the neutrinoless double-beta decay matrix elements into sums of products over the intermediate nucleus with two less nucleons. We find that the sum is dominated by the J^pi=0^+ ground state of this intermediate nucleus for both the light and heavy neutrino decay processes. This provides a new theoretical tool for comparing and improving nuclear structure models. It also provides the connection to two-nucleon transfer experiments.

  4. Some current aspects of the staff protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses some specific questions of irradiation of workers in various professions on typical nuclear medicine workplace in connection with the performance of their specific tasks. There are also given the results of the monitoring of individual doses, which show the significant differences in exposure of personnel groups. Special attention is paid to the protection of workers and others who come into contact with patients who received high-level radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes. (authors)

  5. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  6. Analysis of nuclear energy in Brazil. Aspects related to environmental damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present assignment objectives to demonstrate the evolution of the Environmental Law, aiming the research of the healthy life's quality, bringing to our reality concepts previously ignored, defining situations that started to occur only with the technological improvement, such as the advent of the nuclear activities. Aspects of great importance are considered, like the nuclear power plant's security, the identification with the environment and, majorly, the necessity of the awareness of prevention as a presupposition for an eventual reparation and the aspects of the civil liability, facing the subject of the nuclear damage. (author)

  7. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  8. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  9. Safety Aspects and Economic Impacts of Spent Fuel Management Policies in PWR Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the decision to introduce nuclear power for electricity generation in Egypt, the assessment of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies is of great importance. In this context, safety and economic aspects of nuclear fuel cycle options are topics of global importance relevant to the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, NCNSRC-AEA, this paper evaluates the safety and economic aspects of PWR nuclear fuel cycle options. The once through or direct spent fuel disposal and the ''self-generated recycle'' fuel cycle concepts have been considered in this assessment. Effect of increasing reactor fuel irradiation level on nuclear fuel cycle requirements as well as its impact on the radioactive waste volumes arising have been estimated. The results showed a remarkable decrease in uranium requirements, while radioactive waste volumes increased. Fuel-reprocessing costs have been estimated as functions of the spent fuel disposal costs and the natural uranium prices to determine the justifiable fuel reprocessing costs. Environmental safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle with the two options have been evaluated and discussed. (author)

  10. Agricultural Aspects of Nuclear and/or Radiological Emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the Proceedings of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The Workshop discussions (20 contributions) were grouped in the following six sessions: 1.Introduction (3 papers); 2. Evaluation and management of agricultural questions (8 papers); 3. Economical and social aspects of the agricultural questions (1 paper); 4. Information exchange mechanisms (3 papers); 5. National strategies in agricultural emergency situations (4 papers); 6. Conclusions and recommendations (1 paper). Summarizing, conclusions were drawn to the following issues: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. As significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly of forests and their effect on agriculture

  11. Application of the nuclear energy in the improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Aplicacion de la energia nuclear en el mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz T, E., E-mail: eulogio.delacruz@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Mexico is a diverse country that contains to 10% of the flora and fauna of the world, is also a place of domestication of diverse cultivations like the corn, the bean, the pumpkin, the vanilla, the cocoa and the avocado that constitute some samples of the vast contribution from our nation to the agriculture. Two species highlight inside the cultivations that Mexico contributed to the world and that at the present time they take place in small cultivated surfaces by means of traditional methods: the amaranth (Amaranths hypochondria cus) and the huauzontle (Chenopodium berlanideri sbp. nuttalliae). Both sub-utilized species the amaranth and the huauzontle possess a high nutritious value in accordance with the foods classification established by the FAO, and given its tolerance to adverse conditions is considered like an alternative to contribute to reduce the malnutrition in marginal agricultural areas. At the present time their improvement is searched with respect to some characteristics as: reduction of the fall of the seed in field; great seed size; cob (spike) big and compact and of smaller height, with what they would become more productive and more handling. To achieve these diverse stages are proposed that include the morphological characterization of the species, the study of the available phyto genetics resources, the characterization with regard to the nutritional components and until the cytogenetics and molecular characterization; all these aspects are essential to structure a strategy of genetic improvement for radio induced mutagenesis. (Author)

  12. Aspects of nuclear collectivity studied in projectile Coulomb excitation experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Projectile Coulomb excitation experiments have been performed on the nuclei 130,132Ba, 154Sm, and 194,196Pt. A detailed description of the experiments and the data analysis is given. The results on absolute decay rates of the low-lying collective states of these nuclei allow for a comparison with predictions from different theoretical models of nuclear quadrupole collectivity. For the nucleus 154Sm the data on the decay rates of the states of the first K=0 band support the assignment of this ...

  13. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  14. Selection rule and energetic stability. Complementary aspects of nuclear clusterization

    OpenAIRE

    Algora, A.; Cseh, J.; Darai, J.; Hess, P. O.

    2006-01-01

    La dependencia de la clusterización de la deformación nuclear ha sido estudiada. En particular las configuraciones de cúmulos permitidas y prohibidas de algunos nucleos ligeros y pesados ha sido estudiada utilizando una regla de selección microscópica (U (3) real y efectiva). En el caso de los nucleos ligeros, la simetría U (3) real ha sido utilizada para caracterizar el nucleo padre y los cúmulos. En el caso de los nucleos pesados, nuestro estudio se basa en la aplicación de la simetría U (3...

  15. Discussion about some aspects on iodine prophylaxis after nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodine prophylaxis is one of the main interventions for public protection after a nuclear accident. Due to the differences in iodine side effect, contraindication, crowd's sensitivity, iodine supplies, ect., various countries have very big difference in plan and implementation of iodine prophylaxis. The paper applies the domestic and foreign experiences, discusses iodine prophylaxis intervention level, the dosage and opportunity of taking stable iodine, stable iodine storage and provision, expense of iodine prophylaxis and so on. Some suggestions such as expert decision based on intervention level, the stable iodine expense share are also made. (authors)

  16. Safety aspects of geological studies around nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of geological studies of about forty french nuclear sites allows to set out the objectives, the phases and the geographic extensions of workings to be realized for confirming a site. The data to be collected for the safety analysis are specified; they concern the local and regional geology, the geotechnical characteristics and the essential elements for evaluating the hazards related to the soil liquefaction, the surface fracturing and in some cases the volcanic risks. It is necessary to follow up the geology during the installation construction and life. 8 refs. (F.M.)

  17. Probabilistic analysis of safety of a production plant of hydrogen using nuclear energy; Analisis probabilistico de seguridad de una planta de produccion de hidrogeno utilizando energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores F, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    The present work makes use of the Probabilistic Safety analysis to evaluate and to quantify the safety in a plant producer of hydrogen coupled to a nuclear reactor of high temperature, the one which is building in Japan. It is had the description of systems and devices of the HTTR, the pipe diagrams and instrumentation of the plant, as well as the rates of generic faults for the components of the plant. The first step was to carry out a HAZOP study (Hazard and Operability Study) with the purpose of obtaining the initiator events; once obtained these, it was developed a tree of events by each initiator event and for each system it was developed a fault tree; the data used for the quantification of the failure probability of the systems were obtained starting from several generic sources of information. In each tree of events different final states were obtained and it stops each one, their occurrence frequency. The construction and evaluation of the tree of events and of failures one carries out with the SAPHIRE program. The results show the safety of the shutdown system of the HTTR and they allow to suggest modifications to the auxiliary system of refrigeration and to the heat exchanger helium/water pressurized. (Author)

  18. Optimization method concerning target conflicts between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplified cost-benefit analysis has not been considered for applications in nuclear engineering with complex decisions between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects. The extended cost-benefit analysis encounters problems with non-monetary criteria. Solutions are in sight, however with a subjective element. A major problem in implementing the method is the psychological barrier as against an evaluation of human life. The multi-attribute utility analysis overcomes the difficulties of the extended cost-benefit analysis, however, it also creates new problems on account of the complicated construction of the utility functions. The problems are solved most elegantly with the multi-criteria outranking analysis, the only disadvantage possibly being less transparency at first sight. (orig./HP)

  19. Aspects of operational life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest priority key component of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) that contains the reactor core. It has to be, by definition, fit for its operational purpose. That is, it has been designed, constructed and tested to meet the operational requirements of pressure, temperature and exposure but also it has to meet the appropriate standards for safe operation. The vessel is designed to appropriate Codes and built from good quality materials using established techniques and practices and operated to the design intent. Undue service degradation of the start of life mechanical properties, or operation outside the initial design assumptions, can lead to the requirement to re-evaluate the RPV operational life. In the last years, the internals components of the RPV have gained consideration. To ensure their essential functions, it is absolutely vital to maintain the integrity of the internal structures throughout the life of the nuclear power plant, so that this can be operated safely and with the highest level of availability. This paper comments on the scope of RPV and internals life management, and provides an overview of the current situation on ageing and structural integrity evaluation. (author)

  20. Conditions of a new development of the nuclear energy: the new imperatives of the electric competition; Condiciones de un nuevo desarrollo de la energia nuclear: los nuevos imperativos de la competencia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this work firstly, it is present a panorama that it makes mention to the energy and environmental aspects of long term for which the reactivation of the nuclear sector could be one of the main answers in the electric industry. Next, we will determine the specific imperatives that weigh on the nuclear investment in a market environment. Later on we will examine the way in that the general problem of the investments in the liberalized electric industries takes progressively to abandon the competitive pattern of reference in diverse countries, that which allows to establish a field most favorable for the nuclear investment. Finally, we will analyze the viability of the public areas that the states could apply to create a specific mark dedicated to organize the nuclear investments in the electric industries where the competition continued being very strong. (Author)

  1. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante energia nuclear, un escenario sostenible en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: iqoren@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  2. Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva

    2015-09-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This

  3. Societal aspects of nuclear energy: food and water security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and clean potable water is essential ingredient/or a good quality life. The scientific techniques are required to enhance the food productivity and to explore fresh, clean and contamination free portable water. Mutation breeding, using radiation techniques is one best used techniques for the development of higher yields new varieties of seeds for increase the food productivity. Environmental and radio-isotopes are used for finding new water resources, aquifers, their interconnectivity etc. Nuclear desalination is also used for providing potable water from brackish and sea water. This is likely to be a scenario if we do not address the issue of food and walter security seriously. Future wars will be fought for water sharing and management and food distribution. (author)

  4. A ''New Generation'' of Nuclear Power Plants- Electric Utility Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in the next 20 years is anticipated, due to the global population growth and to higher standards of living. Meeting these energy demands with the fossil energy sources such as coal. gas and oil may lead to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, resulting in global warming of several degrees with catastrophic climatic consequences. Implementation of various energy conservation measures may bring only insignificant reduction in demand levels. Hopes that the renewable energy sources (such as hydroelectric, solar, wind power, biomass and geothermal) may supply the growth in the demand - are unrealistic. Only nuclear power (providing already 16% of world electricity) may meet all the energy demand growth with negligible greenhouse emission

  5. Physical aspects of laser applications to modern nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been presented by the author to obtain his HDR (accreditation to supervise research). After a brief presentation of his domain of skills, of his education, of his professional experience, and his awards, the author gives an overview of his work performed in the field of laser applications to modern nuclear technologies. Notably, he reports experimental studies dealing with the following topics: radiation source for uranium isotope separation by MLIS method, laser isotope separation in atom vapour, laser plasma diagnostics in strong magnetic field, laser ablation-time of flight mass spectrometry for low uranium isotope ratio measurements, laser ablation-optical emission spectroscopy for surface analysis. The report is completed by many published scientific articles

  6. Technical aspects of reactor core unloading of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unloading technique is dominated by the need to transfer the fuel from the reactor vessel to a storage facility which (according to the OMCI regulations now being worked out) must not be on board. This transfer has to take place in perfect safety conditions given the residual power and the still high activity of the fission products when the operation is being effected. There are several possible solutions which boil down to the following cases: (a) either connect the on-board confinement vessel to the storage area so that this transfer is carried out without breaking the confinement or (b) establish a mobile confinement around the fuel whilst it is being moved. At all events, such an operation can only be conceived in a special base nuclear installation

  7. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP)

    OpenAIRE

    Glauco Arnold Tavares; José Albertino Bendassolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumpti...

  8. Positioning of a Peaceful Use of Nuclear Technology in National Security Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cases have shown that a peaceful use of nuclear technology should play an important role in national securities such as energy, economic and science and technology securities, etc. It would be interesting to know what the positioning of the peaceful use of nuclear technology is in the national security aspects. In this paper, a positioning of nuclear power on various national security components is intended by using a positioning process that has been widely used for marketing. Findings can be used for directing further R and Ds to develop nuclear power technology

  9. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  10. Aspects of electromagnetic nuclear physics and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is a continuation of the material presented in a previous Summer School. Some of the basic formalism needed in discussions of parity-conserving and parity-violating electron scattering is repeated here to make the notes reasonably self-consistent, although in several instances the main results are merely summarized and the reader is encouraged to find the details. This chapter is organized in the following way. In Section 2 the nature of the leptonic tensor is reviewed and extensions to include both incident and scattered electron polarizations incorporated. The general problem was treated. Here the author has chosen to present some new results for the leptonic polarization transfer process. In Section 3 the nature of the hadronic tensor and the electromagnetic hadronic (nuclear) response functions are again discussed. Recent work on the inclusive process A(e,e') is reported in the first part of the section, after repeating the familiar arguments leading to the unpolarized inclusive electron scattering cross section. The subject of inclusive scattering from polarized targets, on the other hand, is not discussed here and the reader is referred to treatments of those concepts. 45 refs., 5 figs

  11. Nuclear-structure aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of nuclei is a process that requires the neutrino to be a massive Majorana particle and thus cannot proceed in the standard model of electro-weak interactions. Recent results of the neutrino-oscillation experiments have produced accurate information on the mixing of neutrinos and their squared mass differences. The 0νββ decay takes place in atomic nuclei where it can be observed, at least in principle, by underground neutrino experiments. The need of nuclei in observation of the 0νββ decay bears two facets: The nucleus serves as laboratory for detection but at the same time its complicated many-nucleon structure interferes strongly with the analysis of the experimental data. The information about the weak-interaction observables, like the neutrino mass, has to be filtered from the data through the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). Hence, exact knowledge about the NMEs is of paramount importance in the analysis of the data provided by the expensive and time-consuming underground experiments.

  12. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  13. The nuclear reactor accident at Windscale - October, 1957: Environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature and cause of the nuclear reactor accident at Windscale in October, 1957, have been described in the summary report of the Committee of Inquiry set up by the Atomic Energy Authority. This report was published in a Command Paper Atomic Energy Office, 1957). The events leading up to the accident occurred on the 8th October, during a routine release of the energy which had become stored in the graphite moderator as a result of the normal operation of the reactor. The Committee concluded that the accident had been caused by local overheating of the uranium fuel elements, the canning of which then failed exposing the uranium and allowing it to oxidize. The temperatures in the affected channels continued to rise, leading to the combustion of the graphite. The amount of radioactivity released during the accident is not known precisely, but approximate estimates were made from the measurements of the radioactive iodine deposited on the ground in this country, and from measurements on air filters obtained both in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe

  14. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of nuclear power plants needs design codes (e.g. ASME or RCC-MR) to allow save and reliable design and operation. To meet the requirements of advanced future plants either existing codes have to be amended or new codes have to be developed. Future Generation IV plants like the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) or the sodium fast reactor (SFR) are currently in this stage of code development. Some important issues to be considered in this context are: design curves (lower bound scatter bands), creep-fatigue, negligible creep, crack growth (fatigue, creep, fast fracture), damage monitoring. The paper will provide some insight into the materials problems behind design rules. Examples will be taken from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Possibilities for the replacement of the linear life fraction rule with advanced creep-fatigue damage assessments will be discussed. Specific emphasize will be put on the role of cyclic softening. Damage assessment and propagation of cracks from flaws under creep and fatigue will be touched upon. Some results from creep at low temperatures (irradiation creep, negligible creep) will be presented. (author)

  15. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are still many problems in the field of measurement and control of neutron flux. The present studies in connexion with high flux reactors contribute to the solution of these problems which concern specialists in reactor control. The present state of this investigation and the results of different studies carried out in France by the C A and the EDF are pointed out: A - In the nuclear instrumentation field, work is at present devoted to the technologies used to develop detectors and cables, which have to work at high temperature and in a high γ background; fast electronic techniques are applied to fission counters to measure low neutron fluxes in a high γ background (10 Rh). B - In the control and safety field, there is a real need for studies on the behaviour of reactors in the subcritical state. This increases the margin of security during restarts when poison effects must be overcome The perturbations due to control rod movements necessitate a new organisation of power level safety and control assemblies, in connexion with thermal or activation measurements. Two methods of fast start-up are described. They are related to the fission rate measurement as a function of time. This is done either continuously by a constant and high reactivity change, or step by step. The application of automatic techniques to detector motion seems to give the answer to control and safety in normal start-up. C - The scope of these studies covers the methods used for the control of E.D.F. 3, which are described. (authors)

  16. Political aspects of nuclear non-proliferation: a north-south divide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on important political and regional aspects of nuclear proliferation and the effectiveness of non-proliferation measures, notably the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Regional issues are covered within the report by different authors looking at Iran and Iraq, plutonium and nuclear weapons in north-east Asia, nuclear programmes in Japan and North Korea, Pakistan's attitude to the NPT, India and the post-Cold War nuclear order, Israel and the nuclear non-proliferation regime, whether Israel's fissile material production can be capped, and US policy-making on non-proliferation. Other contributions address the negotiating process, the extension of the NPT and government statements. Appendices deal with the NPT and fissile materials in nuclear weapons. (UK)

  17. Safety aspect of high temperature nuclear reactor application for natural gas steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the safety aspect of high temperature nuclear reactor application for natural gas steam reforming has been carried out. The basic safety aspect associated with nuclear coupling to chemical process is to prevent the release of radioactive materials to the environment and or the chemical process. In utilizing nuclear heat for chemical process, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is used as an interface that separates nuclear and non nuclear zones. IHX is helium-helium heat exchanger in which the primary helium (905oC) coming out from the reactor, and transfer its heat to the secondary helium gas (890oC). To prevent possible release of radioactive materials from nuclear zone, balanced pressure is applied. The pressure of chemical process (4.5 MPa) is designed to be higher than the pressure of secondary helium (4.1 MPa) or primary helium (4 MPa). The design of balance pressure and the use of IHX cause some inferior condition of the nuclear heated reformer since the lower temperature (~800oC) reaches catalyst tube of reformer. This condition gives impact on lower thermal efficiency (~50%) compared to the fossil-fuelled plant (80-85%). Some modification in design and operation, such as: selecting the bayonet type of reformer equipped with orifice baffle, and enhancing heat utilization, can improve the lack of condition and are capable to increase the thermal efficiency of nuclear heated natural gas steam reformer to reach about 78%. (author)

  18. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  19. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  20. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  1. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ji Hye; Lee, Chan Suh [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  2. Nuclear energy Agency (NEA) of OECD: 50 years of contributions to nuclear safety; La Agencia de Energia Nuclear (NEA) de la OCDE: 50 anos de contribucion a la seguridad nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reig, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article describes the evolution of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) from its inception to today, when they have just commemorated its 50th anniversary. The Agency's contribution in the fields of nuclear safety, regulation, radiation protection and waste management are presented. The article refers to the impact in the Agency's activities of the two accidents occurred in Chernobyl and three Mile Island, as well as the influence of the moratorium at the end of the 80's and the renaissance happening these past years. Special emphasis is given to two key programmes of the Agency, like the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) and the Generation IV Forum (GIF). The conclusion presents the Agency decision to continue contribute contributing to the use of nuclear energy in a safe, economic and environmentally friendly manner. (Author)

  3. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the Foratom Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of the nuclear power programme from the experience of the Foratom Member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of the nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over, and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle a distinction can be made between areas of high (economic) risk such as in the prospecting and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered. (author)

  4. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the FORATOM member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of nuclear power programme from the experience of the FORATOM member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement, the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle, a distinction can be made between phases of high (economic) risk such as in the prospection and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered

  5. Aspects and progresses of the Program for Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear Medicine in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to show the advances in the Nuclear Medicine auditing field performed by the Nuclear Medicine Group of the Division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine of the Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The main aspects observed during the auditing are presented as well as the evolution of the non-conformities. It is shown that the occurrence of these non-conformities decreases year by year, primarily as a function of the severity of the auditing and the consciousness of the personal of Nuclear Medicine Services. Results point clearly to the importance of the coercion actions to guarantee a radiation protection level in compliance with the standards established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. (author)

  6. Engineering Safety Aspects of the Protection of Nuclear Power Plants Against Sabotage (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA helps to identify threats and vulnerabilities related to the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is the responsibility of States to provide for the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and the associated facilities, to ensure the security of such material in transport, and to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of radioactive material. This publication provides guidelines for the assessment of the engineering safety aspects of the protection of nuclear power plants against sabotage, including standoff attacks. This publication is the result of extensive dialogue between safety and security specialists within and outside the IAEA. It also takes into account feedback from regulatory agencies and design organizations. It expands on more general concepts concerning the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities against sabotage

  7. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout; Verfassungsrechtliche Aspekte eines Ausstiegs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossenbuehl, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    1998-12-01

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government`s plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die gegenwaertige Ausstiegsdiskussion betrifft vor allem die Frage, mit welcher zeitlichen Dimension die generelle Stillegung von Kernkraftwerken durch foermliches Gesetz angeordnet werden kann. Aus verfassungsrechtlicher Sicht haengt die Antwort vor allem vom Umfang der grundrechtlichen Eigentumsgarantie gem. Art. 14 GG und von dem allgemein anerkannten rechtsstaatlichen Vertrauensschutz ab. (orig.)

  8. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility

  9. Nuclear safety in Slovak Republic. Regulatory aspects of NPP nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory Authority (UJD) is appointed by the Slovak Republic National Council as an Executive Authority for nuclear safety supervision. Nuclear safety legislation, organisation and resources of UJD, its role and responsibilities are described together with its inspection and licensing functions and International cooperation concerning improvements of safety effectiveness. Achievements of UJD are listed in detail

  10. An introduction to safety aspects of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors figure out the main issues of the nuclear controversy, the theoretical approaches of the debate about nuclear safety, the dimensions of the safety concept at various levels, i.e. at individual level in the basic rights context, at the governmental policy, and at social level. Other aspects referred to include the nuclear industry, its basic organisational structures and its interlacements with the state, which make it a so-called 'neo-corporate cartel'. The introduction sets out the purposes and limits of the book which deals with risk assessment and safety philosophies, hazardous potentials of technologies, problems of the nuclear fuel safeguards, - both from the political point of view and with respect to technical supervision and measuring -, and with effects on the legal situation on the level of constitutional rights. (HSCH)

  11. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: public involvement and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities undertaken to provide information to the public about the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program as well as the opportunities for public involvement in the direction and development of the disposal concept through government inquiries and commissions and specific initiatives undertaken by AECL. Public viewpoints and the major issues identified by the public to be of particular concern and importance in evaluating the acceptability of the concept are described. In addition, how the issues have been addressed during the development of the disposal concept or how they could be addressed during implementation of the disposal concept are presented. There is also discussion of public perspectives of risk, the ethical aspects of nuclear fuel waste disposal, and public involvement in siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  12. Population distribution, food production and other aspects in the vicinity of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some of the results of the pre-operational studies carried out in the vicinity of the site of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station, which is being built in the Province of Cordoba, Rio Tercero, next to the lake Embalse. The studies cover population distribution, food production, and other local aspects. The low population in the vicinity of the site increases in summer due to tourism. Main use of the land is grazing and cereal production. Milk production is small, but some is produced near the site. Other aspects of the study are presented in other papers of the Seminar. (author)

  13. Eesti Energia kokkuhoiupoliitika / Kaarel Aluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aluoja, Kaarel

    2002-01-01

    Eesti Energia Rapla-Järva piirkonnas töötanud Tiit Trampas toimetas firmast kõrvale üle 4 mln krooni. Kohtuasja lihtmenetluse käigus sõlmiti kokkulepe, et Trampas maksab endisele tööandjale iga kuu vähemalt 1000 krooni

  14. Lahtimuukimata tume energia / Dennis Overbye

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Overbye, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Salapärase tumeda energia avastamisest on möödas kümme aastat, ent teadmatus, millega on tegu ja kuidas seda üldse teada võiks saada, ajab teadlased endiselt meeleheitele. Lisaks joonis: Laiali kihutavad galaktikad

  15. Aspects and features of the effects of Chinese nuclear explosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the characteristics of the environmental effects of Chinese nuclear explosion tests done during 1973-1980, measured by Ge semiconductor detectors in Fukui prefecture, a coastal area faced to Japan Sea. The earlier explosions 1960's and 1970's are also taken into considerations. Fukui prefecture has reported all these investigation results and provided information especially on radionuclide analysis results. In this review paper, fallout amounts of days to years living radioactive nuclides, maximum and average concentration values for each environmental materials examined, and evaluation of internal and external radiation doses are presented in tables, thus aspects and features of Chinese nuclear explosion tests are described. (S. Ohno)

  16. Central nervous system assessment in nuclear medicine. Clinical aspects: tracers and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear neuroimaging techniques allow the study of functional and neurochemical aspects of the human brain in vivo. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) as well as PET (Positron Emission Tomography) are non-invasive techniques which present two modalities: functional and biochemical. The functional one provides information about neuronal activity measured through metabolism (PET) or regional brain perfusion (SPECT, RMN f). Biochemical neuroimaging provides information on the chemical substrates involved in neurotransmission (receptors, transporters and enzymes) and allows the study of the synaptic activity through imaging of the different brain regions. This information about neurochemical aspects of neurotransmission is an exclusive field of nuclear neuroimaging techniques SPECT and PET. In this paper we discuss the tracers used for each modality of brain SPECT as well as their main clinical uses. (author)

  17. The legal aspects on the environmental impact assessment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been conducted by Kemakta Consultants Co. and Mannheimer Swartling law firm under contract from Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The study aims at focussing on the environmental impacts assessment of nuclear facilities in terms of legal matters, and to what extent this procedure itself is regulated by Swedish law. The study also intends to introduce a general manner to address environmental disturbances caused by the construction of nuclear facilities, accounting for short term and long term (post closure phase) effects. This is done with the aid of flow sheets where possible undesired environmental effects are identified, which subsequently are traced back to the source. The legal aspects and the environmental technical aspects are addressed in parallel

  18. Proceedings for the symposium on public health aspects of peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory is very pleased to have sponsored this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. The primary purpose of the Symposium was to disseminate and document current information and data on the public health aspects of this promising new technical field. In addition, it served to identify potential problem areas, stimulated discussion, and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas and rapport between and among various individuals and groups sharing interests in various facets of Plowshare technology. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a resource of relevant information which may be used to evaluate what is presently known and unknown in the public health and safety area of the technology for peaceful applications of nuclear explosives

  19. Eesti Energia gets lower than hoped for price hike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Konkurentsiamet ja Eesti Energia leppisid kokku elektritariifi tõusu põhimõtetes. Elektri hinna tõus on kolm korda väiksem kui Eesti Energia lootis. Eesti Energia on huvitatud tuumaelektrijaamast

  20. Eesti Energia tahab elektrit toota Pihkvas / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia ja Venemaa ettevõte RAO Rossija võivad koos rajada Pihkvasse ühise gaasielektrijaama. Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Lembit Vali kommentaare. Lisa: Fortum ja Eesti Energia otsivad koostöövõimalusi

  1. Aspects for selection of materials and fabrication processes for nuclear component manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For components of the Nuclear steam supply System of Light Water Reactors an extremely high safety standard is required. These requirements only can be met by adequate selection of materials and fabrication processes and their proper application in combination with strict quality assurance and control measurements. A general overview of the basic aspects to be considered in this connection is presented together with an indication of the present state of art for the main materials and fabrication processes. (author)

  2. Transient behaviour and coupling aspects of a hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARC is setting up a 6300 M3/day (1.4 MGD) hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant for sea water desalination at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) coupled to a 170 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The transient behaviour and coupling aspects of this dual purpose plant has been discussed. A hybrid desalination plant appears to offer high availability factor. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant life management: Materials and components, research, human resource, radwaste and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects concerning nuclear power plant (NPP) life management (PLiM) programmes are examined. The objectives of PLiM and their influence on safety and operation are presented in terms of potential gains in safety, reliability and performance of systems, structures and components (SSCs) by giving due emphasis to social and economic considerations. A nuclear plant implementing a PLiM programme needs state of science and technology information and approaches as well as availability of well trained personnel in sufficient numbers to achieve safe and optimized operating life of the NPP. Accordingly, the importance of succession planning for assuring trained human resources, knowledge management and the need for continued research in all fields of nuclear power generation are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  4. Regulatory aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations in some OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several OECD countries engaged in an active nuclear programme now have detailed regulatory provisions in this field or are on the point of publishing them. Nevertheless, even though numerous studies and international recommendations have been published on the technical rules for the dismantling of nuclear facilities, and that several OECD countries concerned are now co-operating actively in this area, the actual regulatory mechanism has fallen behind. The regulation of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities includes several aspects: The general legislative and regulatory framework; the procedure governing the different decommmissioning stages; the management of the radioactive waste resulting from shutdown or dismantling of the facility; the funding of the operations; the liability and insurance provisions. They are discussed in the sections concerning the different countries covered by this study. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of nuclear fuel cycles with respect to assurance of energy supply; economic aspects; environmental aspects; non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, which was presented to all INFCE Working Groups gives a broad qualitative assessment in tabular form of the following five fuel cycles: LWR once-through, LWR with thermal recycle, HWR once-through, HTR with uranium recycle, fast breeder reactor. The assessment is given of the assurance of supply aspects, the macro- and micro-economic aspects, the environmental aspects, and the non-proliferation, including safeguards, aspects of each fuel cycle

  6. Safety and licensing aspects on nuclear power plant diagnostics in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plant incidents or accidents are initiated very often by a component failure even if it is not regarded as a safety related component. Plant safety, reliability and cost effectiveness can be enhanced and what is most important, the hazards for the environment can be reduced significantly through appropriate use of some specific Early Failure Detection Method or System. In the present paper the current trends in Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and licensing aspects introducing monitoring and diagnosis systems are described, to improve NPP reliability and safety. Most of the nuclear power plants are currently under preparation of the program - a systematic approach to implement different Early Failure Detection Systems. Possible contents of these programs is described in detail in several technical papers. Usually, monitoring of specific nuclear power plants parameters, components and systems shall be considered as a tool of integrity. Reasons for monitoring are contained in regulatory requirements and in operation experience, on the other hand, the licensee is highly interested for safe and reliable operation. The operational events and failures are usually the first initiator for systematic approach to specific phenomena observation and its analysis. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration follows the efforts of NPP Krsko in all above mentioned fields including training of personnel, adequate procedures related QA Program and experience from other NPP utilities and Regulatory Bodies. The licensing aspects contain all the specific steps as they are required for specific plane modification. As a guide, the methodology and guidelines from the US code 10CFR 50.59 for safety evaluation are taken into account. The safety review process is a complex activity of all departments at the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. In the case of an unreviewed safety question an engineering evaluation and a thorough understanding of the design basis of the system are

  7. Nuclear structure and nuclear reaction aspects of Faessler and Greiner's rotation-vibration coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear structure part, the foundations of Faessler and Greiner's rotation-vibration coupling theory are reviewed, whereafter an alternative derivation of Faessler and Greiner's Hamiltonian is presented. A non-spherical quadrupole phonon number N is defined and used in the matrix elements reported for odd-even/even-odd nuclei. These matrix elements are shown to evince oblate-prolate effects that can be exploited for assessing the signs of quadrupole deformations. In the nuclear reaction part, the wave functions emerging from the structure part are applied in a complete and consistent description of elastic and inelastic particle scattering, one-nucleon transfer, and particle/γ-ray angular correlations. The intentions are to demonstrate that anomolous angular distributions and 1=2 j-effects observed in one-nucleon transfer are interrelated phenomena, that can be satisfactorily explained in terms of the elementary vibrational excitation modes inherent in Faessler and Greiner's theory. The latter is regarded as a non-spherical approach to the theory of the quadrupole component of the nuclear potential energy surface. (Auth.)

  8. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-Operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Contract of 13 August 1976 concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 26, on 22 July 1977.

  9. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arnold Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumption and better water quality were achieved.

  10. Monitored course at distance Nuclear Medicine: Introduction of Basic Physics Aspects. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This project try to evaluated the use of specialized multimedia product for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be close related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques like nurse, surgeons, specialized physician, oncologist, etc. The multimedia product included two items: Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Basic aspects of radiation physics. Each item contents an audio visual conference (Power Point) and a charter (PDF): with theoretic aspects, understand verification questions and self-evaluation activities. The product need only a PC compatible with window 98 (or more advanced version), and 130MBy of memory spaced for archive. In order to verify the effectiveness of the distance course, we tested its results in 4 specialists: 1 nurse, 1 radio-pharmacist, 1 cardiologist and 1 neurologist. After consult and clarify their doubts, a final test was applied in order to check the knowledge acquired. With 100 point of maximum score and 60-point minimum to pass, the test contented 2 types of questions: true or false choice (with 50 aspects to verify, 1.5 point/ correct answer) and many correct choices (5 questions, 5 point/correct answer). The average result was 91.5 points/ students (89.5- 94 points); the four students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension (1 very good and 3 excellent). The course was polled about the quality of the material and their comprehension degree, asking the student to make suggestions if were needed. The average evaluation was 94 points (91-95 points). The suggestions made were: increase the number of examples and practical sequences, the understand verification questions and include monitored practical exercise. Conclusion: the product can be useful for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques. Recommendation: The program should be enrich with the suggested things and extend to other important items like: radiation protection

  11. Safety aspects of the ageing and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA International Symposium on Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, held in Vienna from 29 June to 3 July 1987, was arranged with a view to providing a forum for the exchange of technical information on the approach to ageing phenomena at NPPs and for the exchange of technical and economic information on the approach to plant life extension. The symposium was attended by 141 participants from 31 countries and three international organizations. The symposium was the first organized by the IAEA on this subject. It consisted of six technical sessions, one poster session and three panel discussions. The proceedings, which include 35 technical papers presented during the symposium and four extended synopses of posters presented, should be valuable to a broad spectrum of experts involved in nuclear power programmes: technical and managerial staff engaged in NPP operation, regulatory body staff, consulting and architect engineering organizations, vendor technical and managerial staff and NPP technical and managerial staff involved in maintenance activities. Some NPPs are already approaching or are even beyond the end of their planned lifetime of 25 to 40 years of operation. In the year 2000 approximately 160 plants will be 25 years old and 69 will be 30 years old or more. The question of the safe operation of rather 'old' plants and the question of NPP life extension as an alternative to decommissioning will therefore be of growing importance worldwide. All the conference presentations were divided into six sessions as follows: General safety aspects of ageing (3 papers); Conceptual approach to the safety aspects of NPP ageing (5 papers); Methods for critical components and systems determination (8 papers); Methods and provisions to handle ageing phenomena during NPP operation (13 papers); General aspects of NPP life extension (6 papers); Technological aspects of NPP life extension (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each

  12. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  13. Relevant aspects of a quality assurance program applied to a nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to enumerate the most relevant subjects to be taken into account for the elaboration of a Quality Assurance Program aimed to regulate a nuclear power plant operation. At first, it was necessary to point out the relevance that implies the presence of a group of personnel, experienced in quality assurance with enough knowledge on the technical and organizing aspects of the plant. Other aspect to be taken into account was the contemplation of the international requirements, through the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the national requirements that each country had set up by the corresponding regulating agencies. These organizations pointed out the minimum rules that must be followed for the adequate and efficient execution of a program. The Quality Assurance Manual and the program and work procedures constituted the Quality Assurance Program which must be checked as regards its fulfillment by auditors and quality assurance supervisions. (Author)

  14. Psychological aspects in the development of new thinking in nuclear era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to establish and analyze some psychological characteristics of ''the new thinking'' such as no-alternative decision-making, low risk group decisions, necessity to develop conceding strategies in negotiations. A task is set forth to restructure the system of concepts and values in large masses of population in order to bring them closer to realities of the nuclear age. Some practical aspects of psychological work concerning development of the new thinking in different groups of people are discussed thinking in different groups of people are discussed

  15. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  16. Main design aspects of an advanced nuclear plant for the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main design aspects of a steam-supply advanced nuclear plant proposed for both the extraction and the preprocessing of extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt are presented. The model consists of a nuclear power plant in cogeneration mode able to supply a large fraction of the energy demand of an oil field producing 100,000 barrels of oil per day. Three 1200 MW(th) high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, built successively, supply a great portion of the process heat, the injection steam and the electricity required. Steam conditions are: for process heat, a pressure of 10 MPa at 5000C, and for injection steam, pressure between 12 and 17 MPa at saturation temperatures. (author)

  17. Some Aspects of Introducing a Nuclear Power Plant in Israel Electrical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Israel isolated electrical system emphasizes the need for energy security of supply by diversification of energy sources for electricity production.Nuclear Power is considered as one of the most efficient technologies for achieving these goals as well as for climate change mitigation efforts. We will present below the benefits and the risks for introducing a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Israel electricity generation system, considering recent repercussions of the Fukushima accident. Simulations of introduction a NPP in Israel Electric system showed an increase of reliability and a reduction of electricity generation cost in case of long gas shortcuts. In addition, NPP introduction will reduce significantly greenhouse gas emissions without considerable increase of electricity generation cost.Some NPP safety aspects will also be evoked and the additional risk to the population and the environment will be evaluated, following sitting of a Generation III+ NPP (Westinghouse's AP1000 and Areva's EPR technologies) at the Shivta site in the Negev desert area

  18. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  19. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  20. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  1. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was convened by NDS eight years ago in October 1981. The present meeting was a second one on this topic and it was intended to summarize the progress and status of nuclear data for radiation damage assessment since the first meeting. The participants have emphasized that since the first meeting a number of spallation neutron sources were put into operation and many material radiation damage studies are conducted now at these facilities. The distinguishing feature of spallation neutron sources is that the neutron energy spectra which they produce in most cases have a high energy component which may give a significant contribution to radiation damage. The proper understanding of radiation damage experiments in these neutron fields requires a better knowledge of nuclear data at high neutron energies. These ideas were formulated in detail in the conclusions and recommendations of the participants which are contained in this report. Another new issue was the need for activation cross-section data of long-lived isotopes. This topic is also considered in the conclusions below. The 14 presentations published in this proceedings were subdivided into three sessions: Characterization of neutron reactor environment, surveillance and nuclear data (5 papers); High energy neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations (6 papers); REAL-88 results and prospects (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Nuclear heat applications: design aspects and operating experience. Proceedings of four technical meetings held between December 1995 and April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven to be safe, reliable, economic and having minimum impact on the environment, nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation producing 175 of the world's electricity. But since most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat the market for nuclear heat has already been recognised. Considering the growing experience in application of power reactors for district heating, industrial processes and water desalination IAEA is periodically reviewing progress and new developments of nuclear heat applications. This proceedings includes the papers presented at the following four meetings: Advisory group meeting and consultancy on experience with nuclear heat applications: district heating, process heat and desalination, 13-15 December 1995 and 7-9 february 1996; Advisory group meeting on technology, design and safety aspects of non-electrical application of nuclear energy, 20-24 October 1997; Advisory group meeting on operational modes of nuclear desalination plants, 3-5 November 1997; Advisory group meeting on materials and equipment for the coupling interfaces of nuclear reactors with desalination and district heating plants, 21-23 April 1998. It is structured according to the subject areas: (1) design an safety aspects of nuclear heat application, (2) operational and material aspects of nuclear heat application and (3) operational experience with nuclear heat application. Each paper is described by a separate abstract

  3. Radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The IAEA takes seriously the enduring challenge for users and regulators everywhere: that of ensuring a high level of safety in the use of nuclear materials and radiation sources around the world. Their continuing utilization for the benefit of humankind must be managed in a safe manner, and the IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate the achievement of that goal. This Safety Guide has been prepared as a part of the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear power plants. It includes recommendations on how to satisfy the requirements established in the Safety Requirements publication on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It addresses the provisions that should be made in the design of nuclear power plants in order to protect site personnel, the public and the environment against radiological hazards for operational states, decommissioning and accident conditions. The recommendations on radiation protection provided in this Safety Guide are consistent with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This Safety Guide supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D9, Design Aspects of Radiation Protection for Nuclear Power Plants, published in 1985. Effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. Procedures that address the radiation protection aspects of operation are covered in the Safety Guide on Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the operation of Nuclear Power Plants

  4. Radiation protection aspects in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The IAEA takes seriously the enduring challenge for users and regulators everywhere: that of ensuring a high level of safety in the use of nuclear materials and radiation sources around the world. Their continuing utilization for the benefit of humankind must be managed in a safe manner, and the IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate the achievement of that goal. This Safety Guide has been prepared as a part of the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear power plants. It includes recommendations on how to satisfy the requirements established in the Safety Requirements publication on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It addresses the provisions that should be made in the design of nuclear power plants in order to protect site personnel, the public and the environment against radiological hazards for operational states, decommissioning and accident conditions. The recommendations on radiation protection provided in this Safety Guide are consistent with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This Safety Guide supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D9, Design Aspects of Radiation Protection for Nuclear Power Plants, published in 1985. Effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. Procedures that address the radiation protection aspects of operation are covered in the Safety Guide on Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the operation of Nuclear Power Plants

  5. Safety culture aspects of managing for safety. Experience of a large nuclear reprocessing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Industry is going through turbulent times both in terms of public acceptance and business issues. Safety is one area which impacts on whether the business is allowed to continue, and how an organisation organizes itself. The need to cut costs to make nuclear power a viable energy resource, has forced the nuclear utilities to review manning policies, and management style, and in particular how to maintain safety standards during a period of change, and ultimately support continuing improvement of standards. The shrinking workforce requires a new style of management, one that depends more on the people of the organisation taking responsibility for safety at all levels of the organisation. Not only personal safety but the safety of their colleagues, general public and the environment. The safety culture of an organisation is indivisible from the company culture, each aspect of a culture influences the whole and so the balance between business, safety and quality, has to be managed. BNFL provides a full fuel cycle service to nuclear power plants, and associated services to many national and international organisations. The following notes are taken from the work carried out in the company, and mostly at the Nuclear Reprocessing and Waste storage Site at Sellafield, based in the North West of England. Following the recent re-organisation, the site now employs 6200 people and has a further 1500 contractors working on construction activities on the site. Activities on the site range from remote handling to hands on tasks, involving highly active materials to low level waste. (author)

  6. Legal aspects related to the decommissioning, operation and implementation phases of the uranium mines belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB is company with both private and public capital, linked to Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear-(CNEN) and to the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. It has facilities in the states of Bahia, Ceara and Minas Gerais, with corresponding uranium mining and milling plants, which represent the first stage of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Caldas Unit (decommissioning phase) -First mineral-industrial complex settled in the country, located in the municipality of Caldas, at the southern State of Minas Gerais, since 1982. Here the development of the nuclear fuel cycle technology was started aiming at generating electric power, through uranium processing by chemical treatment and its transformation into yellowcake. Due to the exhaustion of the economically feasible uranium, the facility stopped its production in 1996, and the priority was to transfer the mining activities to Caetite (BA) in the late nineties. Caetite Unit (operational phase) - One of the most important Brazilian uranium ore provinces, is located in the southwest of the state of Bahia, near the towns of Caetite and Lagoa Real. The mining of uranium ore, with average content of 2 900 ppm in U3O8 equivalent, is underway since 1999 in an open pit mine at the Cachoeira deposit. Milling takes place at the industrial facilities for the extraction of uranium through acid heap leaching in piles, and concentration and purification through solvent extraction in countercurrent method, followed by the production of the corresponding concentrate as ammonium diuranate - ADU, or yellow cake. The current yearly production of ADU reaches 400 metric tonnes in U3O8 equivalent. The next step, presently being licensed, will be a shift on the mining process, from open pit to underground mining, aiming at a more economical exploration of the ore. It will be the first underground uranium mine in our country. Santa Quiteria Unit (implementation phase) - The Santa Quiteria

  7. Safety and ethical aspects on retrievability: A Swedish nuclear regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important contribution to the discussion on retrieval in Sweden has been the ethical principle of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM). ''The KASAM Principle'' means that the present generation, which has reaped the benefits of nuclear energy, must also take care of the waste and not transfer the responsibility to future generations; a repository should be designed and constructed so that monitoring and remedial actions are not necessary in the future. However, future generations, probably with better knowledge and other values, must still have the freedom to make their own decisions; we should therefore not make monitoring and remedial action unnecessarily difficult. SKI generally supports the KASAM principle but its application in the individual case should be based on solid evidence that both aspects have been covered in a suggested repository design. There may be a number of possible reasons for retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from a repository and they range from technical to purely political. SKI supports that the repository shall not be designed so that it unnecessarily impairs future attempts to retrieve the waste, monitor or ''repair'' the repository. However, measures to facilitate any kind of access to the repository must not reduce the long term safety of the repository. SKI concludes that: Future generations may wish to retrieve the spent fuel from a sealed repository. Disposal method and repository design should consider this and not make such retrieval unnecessarily difficult. On the other hand, any measures taken to facilitate retrieval must not significantly impair the long term safety functions of the repository. It must be shown that the safety aspects have been adequately considered. Retrievability must always be discussed with caution, so that it will not give the impression of doubts concerning the safety of the repository. (author)

  8. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  9. L'Energy Amplifier di Rubbia : gli studi per la produzione di un'energia nucleare pulita ed il loro impatto sul piano economico

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D; Panizza, R

    2000-01-01

    The growing interest towards new energy forms is a common feature of many different studying fields: physics, engineering, economics and politics. The main reason is that human population is growing fast (there's a prevision of about nine billion people in 2050) and with it is increasing the energy request, both for the industrialized world and for the developing countries. This means that the actual organization of the energy market will not be able to satisfy the needs of the near future: clean energy for everybody. The International Energy Agency provided a "business as usual" scenario where is shown that by the year 2030 the world energy demand will be 70% higher than now and the electricity demand would follow the same pattern, needing somewhat like 3475 GW of new electric power. The logic conclusion is that we'll need all the energy forms we know: fossil fuels, nuclear and renewable energy. Nowadays the energy - and particularly the electricity - market is facing large problems: global warming and depen...

  10. Direitos Humanos, energia nuclear e cooperação militar nos anos 1970: as relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson José Perosa Junior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade dos anos 1970, a política de não proliferação nuclear dos EUA sofreu significativas mudanças. Da mesma maneira, a agenda de Direitos Humanos se tornou um tema prioritário nas relações do governo estadunidense com outros países. Esses foram dois temas que abalaram as relações entre Brasil e Estados Unidos e que tiveram implicações para a denúncia do acordo militar entre esses mesmos países. O objetivo do presente artigo é explorar o impacto dessas questões nas relações bilaterais entre Brasília e Washington, bem como as implicações para a política interna desses países. Preza-se também por demonstrar as diferenças de postura nessas questões entre o governo Ford e o governo Carter.

  11. Energia eólica

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.

    2013-01-01

    O vento (massas de ar em movimento) é utilizado há milhares de anos para suprir as necessidades energéticas que decorrem de um vasto conjunto de actividades humanas. Por exemplo, o vento foi muito utilizado para propulsar alguns meios de transporte (barcos a vela), bombear água ou permitir o funcionamento de actividades industriais, como foi o caso dos moinhos de vento que ainda hoje existem em muitas regiões de Portugal. Como a maior parte das fontes de energia renováveis (excepto a ener...

  12. YKAe - Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organised as five-year nationally coordinated research programs. The research programme on Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety is under way during 1990-1994. Its annual volume has been about 35 person-years and its annual expenditure about FIM 18 million. Studies in the field on safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core concentrate on fuel high burn-up behaviour, VVER fuel experiments, and reactor core behaviour in complex reactivity transients such as 3-D phenomena and ATWS events. The PACTEL facility is used for the thermal hydraulic studies of the Loviisa type reactors (scaled 1:305). Validation of accident analysis codes is carried out by participation in international standard problems. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe reactor accidents are implemented, modified as needed and applied to level-2 PSAs and the improvement of accident management procedures. Fire simulation methods are tested using data from experiments in the German HDR facility. A nuclear plant analyzer for efficient safety analyses is being developed using the APROS process simulation environment. Computerized operator support systems are being studied in cooperation with the OECD Halden Project. The basic factors affecting plant operator activities and the development of their competence are being investigated. A comprehensive system for the control of plant operational safety is being developed by combining living PSA and safety indicators

  13. Regulatory aspects of digital systems retrofits at U.S. operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recently completed a four year program to improve the predictability and effectiveness of its review process for digital safety systems in nuclear power plants. This program, as well as experience from recent regulatory reviews of several digital safety system retrofits, has lead to significant improvements in the quality of license amendment requests and the ability of U.S. nuclear power plants to complete these upgrades. Enhanced guidance has been developed for a number of technical aspects of digital system safety reviews, including considerations for diversity and defense-in-depth inter-channel communications, communication between non-safety and safety systems, and cyber security. Using this enhanced guidance, the NRC has been able to license several new digital systems for use. Additionally the NRC has provided a more effective process for the review of information needed to complete licensing, which has provided effective communications between the NRC and licensees during the development of digital systems, and which has resulted in a more predictable regulatory review. (authors)

  14. Geologic aspects of disposal of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Open-File Report No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a simple but comprehensive overview of programs and concepts of highly radioactive waste disposal. It is not based on original research, but was prepared from data and information reported in voluminous publications of the US Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey. All these projects involve many different fields of science. It is important that the data generated in these studies are readily available to all the scientists involved in the nuclear waste disposal program. In addition, contacts are maintained with the Association of American State Geologists and with several foreign countries having similar programs underway. Particularly close consultations are carried out with the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, and Sweden. The Delaware Geological Survey does not anticipate disposal of highly radioactive waste in Delaware. Nevertheless, this report was prepared because Delaware citizens have expressed general concern about nuclear power issues and we seek to clarify one geologic aspect of these issues

  15. Ethical aspects of acceptance and risk evaluation of nuclear power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is the use of nuclear power inadmissible because of its hazard potential? Ethical aspects, especially those of discourse ethics and utilitarianism, are invoked in answering this question. Ethical norms per se are not sufficient, however, to justify or reject the use of nuclear power. More than good will is required to be proved right, do good, and prevent damage; there must also be technical competence and prognostic ability. The perception in society of damage, cost and benefit of nuclear power differs not only because of lack of information and differences in the ability to judge, but also because of different ethical perceptions. There must be rational weighing of individual protection versus community protection in which, irrespective of the outcome, there are always winners and losers. Those who are burdened by a decision do not necessarily benefit from it. It is for this reason that conflicts of interest between minorities and majorities should be resolved by ethically based democratic rules. The hope that this will lead to consensus should not be abandoned. (orig.)

  16. Lessons of TEPCO's Fukushima accident from human and organizational aspects and challenge for nuclear safety reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author participated in international experts' meeting held by IAEA on May 21, 2013 and presented the paper focusing on human and organizational aspects of the Fukushima nuclear accident. It clarified TEPCO's basic recognition: 'The cause of the accident should not be treated merely as a natural disaster due to an enormous tsunami being something difficult to anticipate and we believe it is necessary to seriously acknowledge the result that TEPCO failed to avoid an accident which might have been avoided if ample preparations had been made in advance with thorough use of human intellect' and then reconsidered the Fukushima nuclear accident: 'could we predict an enormous tsunami and take whatever countermeasures?' and 'could we respond to the accident better?' for the worldwide operators to avoid such an accident, which moved meeting's participants deeply. Presentation's contents followed 'Reassessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Nuclear Safety Reform Plan' published by TEPCO on March 29. This article described outline of the presentation. Though the only way to explore the possibility to save Unit 1 was that operators could bravely go up to the 4th floor of reactor building and open the isolation valves to start IC, it was given up without any clear communication among key decision makers for confirming the IC operational status. As for Unit 3, operators could not achieve thorough focus on ensuring core cooling such that proactive transfer from RCIC/HPCI to low pressure water injection was not challenged, mainly because of low trust on Diesel/Driven Fire Protection Pump (DDFP). During the design stage and afterward, ample consideration was not given to common cause failures originating in external events, which led to a severe situation where almost all the power supplies and safety system functions were lost. Continuous efforts to reduce risks were not ample, including the collection, analysis and utilization of information on safety enhancement

  17. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  18. Different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies up to intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies to intermediate ones. For the low energies, the nuclear matter is essentially constituted from interacting nucleons. Part I is on the fusion-fission of super-heavy elements, while Part II is on the Skyrme interactions associated sum rules. In the case of the intermediate energies, where the nuclear matter is considered as being an hadronic phase mainly constituted from pions, Part III is focused on nuclear matter relativistic hydrodynamics with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In Part I, the formation and the deexcitation of super-heavy nuclei are being studied. The memory effect must be taken into consideration within the super-heavy nuclei formation dynamics. Therefore we analyzed the formation of compound nuclei including the memory effects. As for the intermediate memory effects some oscillations appear, which is very different from the Markovian dynamics. For super-heavy nuclei deexcitation, the existence of isomeric state within the potential barrier cannot explain the results of experiments performed at GANIL with the crystal blocking technique, and this despite of the fact that it modifies the deexcitation dynamics and increases the fission time. However, this latter study could be useful for the study of the actinides fission. In Part II, the phenomenological Skyrme effective interactions-associated M1 and M3 sum rules are being calculated based on their intrinsic definitions. We identify then M1 up to the tensorial level and M3 with central potential. In Part III, as for the hadronic matter hydrodynamics being applied to heavy ions collisions, and as a first approach only, we can neglect spontaneous chiral symmetry but certainly not the dissipative impact. (author)

  19. Ethical and social aspects of integral risk assessment in reference to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rule, the risks connected with the use of nuclear energy are assessed as isolated factors. Sterotypically the economic benefits and residual risks are weighed against one another and assessed differently. Within the framework of an integral understanding of the problem, the significance of nuclear energy should be considered to be of prime priority when it comes to the serious problems which humanity is confronted with, i.e.: - ecological stability, - climatic stability, - keeping peace, - prevention of large-scale epidemics, - conservation of our resources for the generations to come, - making existence fit for human beings. The author comes to the conclusion that the risks which would result from dispensing with nuclear energy world-wide are a millionfold greater than are the risks which would result from extending the use of nuclear energy world-wide, not only as regards the loss of human lives, but also as regards the amount of land which might become uninhabitable long-term. The author advocates employing ethical arguments which are based on ethical goals and are rational, economical and promise to show the best way of fulfilling mutual ehtical goals satisfactorily in an objective way. The author sees problems as regards the distortion of truth and its misuse by cynics, opportunists, etc. Social aspects must be subjected to ethical scrutiny as well. On the whole it is important to overcome deficits in the communication between technically and scientifically oriented people and those who view it as their task to reflect upon the meaning behind the issue at hand (clergymen, journalists, politicians, etc.). (orig./HSCH)

  20. Technical economic feasibility study for the implementation of a nuclear power plant for the production of electricity in Colombia; Estudio de factibilidad tecnico economica para la implementacion de una central de energia nuclear para la produccion de energia electrica en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, David E.; Bolanos, Hernan G.; Mayorga, Manuel A.; Rodriguez, Edwin A., E-mail: david_egO@yahoo.es, E-mail: hernanbolaos@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: alejo_mayorga@yahoo.com, E-mail: edwin.rodriguez@distoyota.com.co [Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion GIATME

    2013-07-01

    A study on the technical and economic feasibility will be used to implement a nuclear power in Colombia to generate electricity. To this will be searched if there are previous studies on this topic and what they concluded. The manner in which power is supplied will be discussed in a national level nowadays, its strengths and weaknesses. It will be investigated the legal norms that exists in the country on nuclear power and renewable energy sources, the standards established at world level, the nuclear accidents and the great examples. Providers will be sought on the world market nuclear equipment which serve to this purpose and the technical characteristics of these equipment will be discussed. The type of fuel used in nuclear reactors, its origin, method of production, specifications, availability and long-term and safe handling and final disposal are considered. safe handling of this technology and policy or international rules that will studied.

  1. Quality aspects in nuclear engineering courses at the University of Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although quality assurance and total quality management are well-established programs in industry, almost all university academic programs lack formally organized programs for development, demonstration, and maintenance of high quality. Many academic programs do have many facets of a quality assurance program, it is simply handled as a part of the usual management of the academic program. These quality assurance programs inevitably are aimed at management of the instructor, with little or no emphasis on the ongoing quality of student work. This paper describes how the concept of quality is directed toward the entire aspect of nuclear engineering classes at the University of Arkansas, from overall university management of the instructor to details concerning instructor contact with students to improve the quality of the student's own work. One particular new concept is introduced: the use of quality points by the author in grading all students work

  2. Psychosocial aspects of nuclear accidents: the role of the World Health Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear reactor incident in the USSR in 1986, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has devoted a large part of its activities and research towards improving both national and transnational capabilities for dealing with radiation emergencies. This presentation concentrates on the psychosocial aspects of radiation accidents and the measures which should be taken to combat them. Although public information was sparse during the Chernobyl disaster, afterwards there was a flood of conflicting information and rumours from a variety of organisations and governments resulting in an ''overload'' on the public and creating fear and mistrust of the authorities. The author argues that as the leading world organisation on health matters, WHO should be seen as the natural co-ordinator, authority and information-provider in ''transnational'' incidents such as this to avoid this public confusion and unnecessary ill-effects. (author)

  3. Purposes and related aspects of the nuclear power plant aging Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes and some aspects of the nuclear power plant Lifetime project is presented. The work is focused on the study of the aging of the PWR type power plant components. The project consists in two phases. The first one involves: the status reports and the analysis of the lifetime data of the most sensitive units, as well as the applied actions and proposals, the influence of the exploitation modes, the safety and the cost prospectives. The second phase includes: the definition, the contracts, the complementary actions and their achievement, the reasons and the surveyance improvements, the development of the decision supporting means, the summary and the conclusions. The selected units for the project first step and the project of actions, are listed. The first conclusions of the project show that most of the 900 MW PWR reactor components will have about 40 years of service life

  4. Some aspects of the role of real time modelling in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the role of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) during an emergency at a licensed site and addresses some aspects of real time modelling for predicting the potential radiological consequences arising from an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Two of the main concerns arising from an emergency which are important in the assessments that the Inspectorate needs to make are the potential doses to members of the public arising from a radioactive release from the site and the timescale available for pre-determined countermeasures to be put into effect. As one of the tools available for predicting such information the development of real time modelling is receiving continuing support within the NII who are directly supporting further developments with an interest in both diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. (author)

  5. Analytical study of the prospectives published by the Secretaria de Energia; Estudio analitico de las prospectivas publicadas por la Secretaria de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Since 1997 the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publishes an annual report named Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, in which detailed information on the situation of the Mexican electrical sector is included, the information is related to the technological, economic and environmental aspects of all the organisms involved in the matter of electrical energy, within which stand out the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) and the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). In the prospectives the tendency of the modifications that will undergo the sector in a period of 10 years is analyzed. All the prospectives of the electrical sector, agree in that the growth of this sector is determined by the construction of power stations that use natural gas as primary energy, reason why we made an analysis of the prospectives of the natural gas market, with the purpose of observing the interaction between both sectors. At the moment seven prospectives of each sector have been published, given the conditions at the moment of their publication, they present differences and agreements between each other for periods of intersection. The present work shows the comparison between the expectations of growth reported by each one of the Prospectives. [Spanish] Desde 1997 la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publica un reporte anual llamado Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, en el que se incluye informacion detallada sobre la situacion del sector electrico mexicano, la informacion esta relacionada con los aspectos tecnologicos, economicos y medioambientales de todos los organismos involucrados en materia de energia electrica, dentro de los cuales destacan la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) y la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). En las prospectivas se analiza la tendencia de las modificaciones que sufrira el sector

  6. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  7. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  8. The implementation of quality assurance programs: basic aspect in nuclear plants management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in implementing and developing the Quality Assurance programme for the Almaraz nuclear power plant is briefly described. Almaraz was the first Spanish nuclear plant that had to apply specific Quality Assurance standards to its project and construction. The complexity of the project which was developed using standards in a continuous state of evolution, the large number of participating organizations and the numerous interrelationships between them, made the working methods required by the Quality Assurance standards a fundamental tool for establishing order within the framework of the projects, an essential requirement to achieve the objectives regarding costs, schedules and quality. The experience has shown that implementation of Quality Assurance programmes must be accomplished from the highest levels of management and must be thought of as being an essential management tool for achievement of the objectives established, and subjected to periodic revisions in order to check their effectiveness. This logically means that the scope of Quality Assurance must be extended to cover not only those aspects relating to safety but also all activities directly or indirectly affecting adequate operation of the plant, grading the requirements depending on several factors as impact on plant availability, costs of items, complexity of activities, etc. (author)

  9. Safety aspects of core management and fuel handling for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It supplements the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O). This Guide describes the safety objectives of core management, the tasks which have to be accomplished to meet these objectives, and the activities undertaken to perform those tasks. It also covers the storage and handling of fuel and core components; the loading and unloading of fuel and core components; and the insertion and removal of other core materials such as moderator, coolant and absorbers, relevant to core management. The loading of the transport container with irradiated fuel and the preparation for transport off-site are further topics that are included. Transportation requirements and safety precautions for transport beyond the site, off-site storage and ultimate disposal of irradiated fuel and core components are not covered by this Guide, although the Operating Organization may be responsible for securing the services involved. Aspects of fuel accounting not directly related to safety are not considered

  10. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As far as the Rubbia's and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: I) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. 2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. 3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. 4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods

  11. Technical and economic aspects of retrievability in spent nuclear fuel disposal. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This literature research collects cost and feasibility aspects of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel disposal. The Finnish plan for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel includes some features favouring retrievability, like modularity of disposal plan, good corrosion resistance of copper canisters and long estimated lifetime of disposal shafts and tunnels. Possible political and technical arguments for retrievability are collected and the possible actions taken after retrieving (opening of copper canisters, transportations and interim storage) are looked into. In the Finnish disposal plan retrieving is possible in each stage of repository development. Technical feasibility of retrieving is presented before sealing of a disposal hole, after filling and sealing of a disposal tunnel and after final closure of the repository. Many features of the disposal concept (hydrogeological conditions, radioactive radiation and heat generation of the spent fuel, and properties of bentonite) affect the feasibility and cost of retrieving. Questions dealing with nuclear material safeguards, monitoring and continuity of knowledge should be taken into account when retrievability is being considered. Different ways used for expressing the cost of retrieving, are currency unit, delay of the scheduled disposal project and percentages of the actual disposal cost. Estimated costs for two different cases of retrievability, immediate closure and postponed closure of repository, are presented. Cost estimates, made in Finland, are quite rough, but the Swedish cost calculation example of immediate closure case is interesting because of similarity of Finnish and Swedish disposal concepts. There are also examples of cost, based on research and development work enhancing retrievability. It is noticed that there are only few exact cost estimations relating to retrievability. The reasons might be the improbability of actual retrieving and the fact that retrieving, if materialised, will take

  12. Study of basic safety-related aspects of decommissioning nuclear installations. Pt. 1. Legal aspects and set of technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set of nuclear rules is checked for its applicability to the decommissioning, safe containment and dismantling of nuclear installations. In the foreground of the individual parts of the set of rules is the question about the relevance of licensing procedures according to No. 7 para. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The set of rules checked, basically consists of: 1. the Atomic Energy Law (AtG), the ordinances adopted on its basis (AtVfV, StrSchV, AtDeckV, AtKostV, EndlagerVIV, AtSMV) and on neighbouring laws (StrVG, BImschG, UVPG, AbfG); 2. the announcements of the BMU, BMI and BMFT: 3. the recommendations of the RSK, SSK, the rules of the KTA, the DIN standards, and 4. several international guidelines and recommendations (European Union EU, IAEA, NEA of the OECD). A generic assessment is performed, in the course of which, starting from the content or treated facts, reference to defined licensing facts and the wording, it is determined whether a specific regulation or rule is relevant or irrelevant in the licensing procedure according to No. 7 para. 3 Atomic Energy Law. In addition, a plant-related evaluation based on implemented licensing procedures is done. The expertises and licensing notifications referred to for this purpose, which represent a wide cross-section of German nuclear installations, were evaluated to find out which of the regulations and rules were explicitely applied. (orig./HP)

  13. Environmental Aspect Analysis on Optimization of Jawa-Madura-Bali Generation System Expansion Planning with Nuclear Option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental aspect analysis has been done for the optimization result of Jamali generation system expansion planning with study period 2007-2030, particularly on the calculation of total emission of CO2 and SO2. The main purpose of this research is to understand the nuclear power plants contribution to reduce CO2 and SO2 emissions. Nuclear option is recommended as an effort to explore alternative fuel for electricity generation that is more environmentally friendly. Three scenarios were developed: Scenario-1 (optimization of Jamali generation system expansion planning without limitation on candidate plants), Scenario-2 (scenario without nuclear option) and Scenario-3 (scenario with nuclear limitation). The result shows that nuclear contributes on suppressing CO2 emission about 7,36% on Scenario-1 and 3,16% on Scenario-3. Nuclear also contributes on suppressing SO2 emission about 9,47% on Scenario-1 and 2,62% on Scenario-3. (author)

  14. Economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection in Muria Peninsula using 1000 MWe PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An assessment of economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection has been carried out. This study is done to explore any possibility to utilize co-generation concept of desalination, because there is a plan to introduce nuclear power plants (NPP) into Indonesia's electricity grid. A comprehensive study on different energy sources shows that NPP is economically and technically viable to be introduced into the grid in 2016/2017. The candidate site is Muria Peninsula in Central Java. Currently, the total of install electricity capacity is about 29.083 GWe, and it is estimated that electricity energy growth is about 7.1% per year. The install capacity in Java is about 23 GWe (65% of national capacity). With economic growth projection is about 6%, therefore in the 2025, it is needed electricity energy about 70 GWe, so electricity demand increase 2000 MWe per year. Therefore, a PWR of 1000 MWe will coupled with a desalination plant of MSF (Multi-stage Flash Distillation), MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) and RO (Reverse Osmosis). The costs of water production for the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process coupled to PWR 1000 MWe would be compared. The objectives of the economic evaluation is to help the decision-maker to eventually implement an integrated nuclear desalination plant, generating both electricity and fresh water. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using a computer program issued by the IAEA, DEEP-3.1. In this study, option for turbine scheme is set as extraction and back pressure. Options for specific carbon tax, thermal steam compression and backup heat are not used. Construction cost for NPP is assumed to be 2600 $/kW, production capacity 2.750 m3/d, interest rate 5%, construction cost for MSF 1200 $/m3/d, MED 900 $/m3/d and RO 700 $/m3/d, ratio of recovery RO 45%, top brine temperature for MED 65 deg. C and MSF 110 deg. C. The results of the performed case

  15. Report on the consultants' meeting on co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres. (Technical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the 1999 Co-ordination Meeting on Technical Aspects of the Co-operation of the Nuclear Reaction Data Centres, hold at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, 18 to 20 May 1999. The meeting was attended by scientists from 11 Nuclear Data Centres from 7 Member States and 2 International Organizations. The present document contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, and progress reports of the Participating Data Centres. (author)

  16. Safety Aspects of Long-Term Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is being pursued. The current operation licenses for existing storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years. In addition, transportability of the casks must be assured. Due to current delay in the selection of a disposal site the probability increases, that an extension of the storage time will be needed. Therefore additional safety analyses will be required, as the current licenses are based on safety evaluations for 40 years. This is valid for the performance of the transport and storage casks as well as for the stored fuel. Under this point of view basic aspects of the safety demonstration for long-term interim storage with regard to casks and stored fuel will be presented in the paper. For spent nuclear fuel it has to be demonstrated, that no systematic failure of the fuel rods during storage will occur and the fuel structure remains intact. Relevant parameters are the pressure build-up inside the fuel rods, the temperature in the cask and the hoop tension acting on the cladding. In GRS, generic studies and analyses on this issue have been performed for storage times up to 100 years, based on burn-up and depletion calculation for up to 50 GWd/tHM some years ago under conservative assumptions. This work is now being continued in order to improve the calculation model for burn-up values of UO2 and MOX fuels up to 70 GWd/tHM. Results from the analyses will be presented. For casks all safety demonstrations have been performed for storage periods of up to 40 years. Extended storage periods require additional safety demonstrations for all relevant safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions during storage. Thus has to consider material degradation affects by aging mechanisms. On the other hand, radiation levels and decay heat decrease during

  17. Financing aspects of nuclear power plant construction under Polish economic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the new Polish Energy Law the different issues important far financing a programme to develop nuclear power power in Poland such as: economic competitiveness of nuclear power, financing options for nuclear power projects, managing the various risks for financing nuclear power as well as nuclear and business liability are considered. The importance of policy issues is stressed

  18. Conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA AGM on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Safety Aspects consist of three separate reports developed by the participants of the three workshops which took place during the meeting on 15 and 16 October 1981. 1. Workshop on Nuclear Data for Environment Characterization. 2. Workshop on Status of Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Calculations (in terms of d.p.a.) and Damage Correlation Estimates. 3. Workshop on Evaluation of Preliminary Results of the REAL-80 (Reaction Rate Estimates, Evaluated by Adjustment Analysis in Leading Laboratories) International Exercise

  19. Programme of integration of social aspects in nuclear research and technology development of SCK-CEN (PISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN started in 2000 the structured programme PISA with support of young researchers in social sciences from different disciplines and universities. These researchers joined technical teams within SCK-CEN. The research performed in the context of the PISA programme was organised in the following domains: (1) sustainability and nuclear development; (2) transgenerational ethics and group think in nuclear waste management; (3)legal aspects and liability and (4) risk management. The status and main achievements in 2003 are summarised

  20. Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many old reactors and other nuclear facilities worldwide are being actively dismantled or are candidates for decommissioning in the near term. A significant number of these facilities are located in Member States having little experience or expertise in planning and implementing state of the art decommissioning projects. Planning, management and organization are critical for the success of such projects. The main objective of IAEA technical activities related to decommissioning is to promote the exchange of lessons learned, thereby contributing to successful planning and implementation of decommissioning projects. Imperative for success is a better understanding of the decision making process, the comparison and selection of decommissioning plans and organizational provisions, and relevant issues affecting the entire decommissioning process. Topics addressed in this publication include details on development of the decommissioning plan, structuring of key project tasks, organizing the project management team, identifying key staffing positions and determining required workforce skills, and managing the transition from an operational phase to the decommissioning phase. It is expected that this project, and in particular the papers collected in this publication, will draw Member States' attention to the practicality and achievability of timely planning and smooth management of decommissioning projects, especially for smaller projects. Concluding reports summarizing the work undertaken under the aegis of a coordinated research project (CRP) on planning, management and organizational aspects in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and presented at the third and final research coordination meeting (RCM) held in Da Lat, Vietnam, 5-9 September 2011, are included in this publication. Operating experience and lessons learned during full scale applications, as well as national programmes and plans, are among the most significant achievements of the CRP and have been

  1. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects; Les atolls de Mururoa et de Fangataufa (Polynesie Francaise). Les experimentations nucleaires. Aspects radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-07-01

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  2. Aspects relating to the efficiency of building a nuclear thermal power plant for demonstration purpose at ICN Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a comparative technical and economical study between a Nuclear Heating Plant (NHP) and a Heats Plant (HP) for Mioveni City placement. We present the technical features of TRIGA reactor concept for NHP, technical characteristics, the system solutions for prototype implementation, the main aspects of the economical and financial efficiency and conclusions. (author)

  3. New Technologies for a sustainable nuclear energy and your effect in the management of radioactive waste; Nuevas tecnologias para una energia nuclear sostenible y su efecto en la gestion de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Romero, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    The probable worldwide increase and distribution of nuclear energy for electricity generation, replacing partially fossil fuels, is promoting the development of technologies that foster its long-term sustain ability. Fast neutron system, combined with closed fuel cycles, are the key elements for the sustain ability. When combined, they can provide a significant reduction on the final high level wastes of the nuclear generation. In particular, Partitioning and Transmutation of actinides would allow the reduction of the nuclear wastes radiotoxicity, their content in fissile material and the heat load to the repository. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Eesti Energia hakkab Jordaanias varsti ehitama / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia loodab, et Jordaania esimese põlevkivielektrijaama ehitus algab juba 2012. aastal. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on Jordaani puhul tegemist Eesti võimalusega, Eesti Energia on Jordaania projekti kaasanud juba rahastajaid

  5. Eesti Energia, vara veel! / Väino Sarnet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarnet, Väino, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskonsultant avaldab arvamust, millised on argumendid Eesti Energia kiireks börsiletulekuks, kes sellega võidaksid ja kes kaotaksid ning miks pole praegu õige aeg Eesti Energia aktsiate avalikuks müügiks

  6. Eesti Energia loovutas Estlinki energiabörsile / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia otsustas rentida Estlinki merekaabli välja Soome ja Eesti põhivõrkudele, kellel on omakorda kohustus anda see üle vabaturu kasutusse. Eesti Energia finantsdirektori Margus Kaasiku kommentaar

  7. Power uprating of nuclear power plants - Solutions, experience and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The possibilities of power increase of NPP's become more and more interesting related to the question, how to operate a plant more efficient and profitable, what is essential in the times of increased competition on the international energy market. Another important aspect is the balance of available power capacity in a country or in an energy supply network of some countries. If for example plants are foreseen for closing or the completion of plants still under construction is not yet finished, but the power demand is increasing, then power uprating, also called power increase, is an achievable solution.On this background the power increase can also help to guarantee a stable electrical power supply for industry and private consumers. Which results will be reached by power increase? Increase of plant economy due to optimal cost-benefit relation for the rest of plant lifetime. Optimal use of available reactor core power by increase of the efficiency of the secondary side systems and reduction of the house load consumption (self needs); Use of available design margins of the nuclear island, the secondary heat sink (turbine, preheaters etc.) and cooling water systems; Increase of core power considering plant design margins and/or possible improvements of design features; Improvement of the heat transfer from primary to secondary side (Steam generator modification or exchange). The possibilities of electrical power increase can be divided in two groups of measures: 1. Increase of core output (acc. German practice nuclear licensing necessary): Increase of ΔT with unchanged constant average coolant temperature, using core design margins; Increase of average coolant temperature using core design margins; Increase of core power beyond design margins, new core licensing would be necessary. 2. 'Green Megawatt' from conventional island (acc. German practice nuclear licensing not necessary): Improvement/Modification of turbine systems; Check and improvement of

  8. Implantation aspects of small and medium nuclear power plant in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy policy adopted by the Latin America is commented. The nuclear power plants in planning are presented. An analysis about the nuclear legislation, licensing and nuclear regulation, quality assurance and formation of human resources for Latin America is done. (E.G.)

  9. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  10. Some technical aspects of accounting for and control of nuclear material at nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities are discussed of accounting for and control of nuclear material for the WWER-type reactor at nuclear fuel cycle facilities: nuclear power plant, fuel fabrication plant, fuel reprocessing plant, and uranium enrichment plant. It is shown that, for control of nuclear material, accounting is the principal method. The possibilities and limitations of destructive and non-destructive methods for nuclear material determination at these facilities and at fast reactor facilities, as well as their role in the accounting and safeguards systems, are discussed. (author)

  11. Social aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning at the Greifswald site in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal situation in Germany is that private electricity companies, such as E.ON, RWE, Bayernwerke and EnBW, are responsible for the costs and implementation of decommissioning of the NPPs that they own. The private companies have their own decommissioning approach and financing tools. This situation applies, for example, to the Wuergassen plant In addition, there are some Government owned organizations that are responsible for nuclear decommissioning sites. The largest one is Energiewerke Nord (EWN), which covers the large Greifswald site, the AVR research reactor and, since February 2006, the reprocessing plant (WAK) at the Karlsruhe site. EWN is owned by the Federal Republic of Germany (Ministry of Finance). The Federal Ministry of Finance provides EWN with the funds necessary to deliver the decommissioning programme and the tasks in that programme. The shareholder structure of EWN can be seen (drawn prior to the takeover of WAK). The German Federal Ministry of the Environment is in charge of all licensing aspects, to ensure realization of the decommissioning in a safe and secure way. The responsible authorities are the Ministries of Environment in the 16 German states. In the case of EWN, this is Mecklenburg/Western- Pommerania. In the context of EWN's special licensing approach, as described in the next section, there is a close and practical cooperation between EWN as decommissioning operator and the above mentioned authorities. In this context, EWN sought to establish a decommissioning strategy that recognized the socioeconomic effects of plant shutdown and make decommissioning friendly as described in the next section

  12. Emerging nuclear energy and transmutation systems: Core physics and engineering aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Core Physics and Engineering Aspects of Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation held in December 2000, was convened by the IAEA on the recommendation of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). The objectives of this TCM were threefold: to review the status of Research and Development activities in the area of hybrid systems for energy generation and transmutation, to discuss specific scientific and technical issues covering the different R and D topics of these systems; and to recommend to the IAEA activities that would be specifically targeted to the needs of the Member States performing R and D in this field. The TCM had not called for broad overview papers of the various R and D fields. Apart from a rather brief presentation by each delegation of the general issues and the status of the R and D in the respective country, the IAEA had called for in-depth technical papers addressing one or more of the following topics: accelerator driven systems (ADS) concepts, requirements and features of ADS accelerators, target development, experiments and validation, sub-critical core studies, technology of heavy liquid metals, fuel and fuel processes development, and fuel cycle studies. Forty-five participants from eleven countries and one international organization attended the TCM, and thirty papers were presented. The status information presented in the delegates' general statements and in some of the papers is as of the time of the TCM. Thus, other later material should also be referenced for more current information. One such source of information is the Web Site of IAEA's project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for Actinide and Long lived Fission Product Transmutation (http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/). However, the technical information provided in the papers, representing the bulk of the information presented, remains valid

  13. TV ENERGIA Energy Efficiency Web TV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vasco; Alves, Luis (Research Group on Energy and Sustainable Development, Technical Univ. of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)); Ferreira, Pedro (Tools to Change, Lda (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The number of thematic TV channels broadcasted over the Internet is a phenomenon that expands the democratisation of institutions and promotes the public participation. This is clear in the creation of the European Web TVs to inform and interact with the public, and institutions. TV ENERGIA is a Portuguese Web TV dedicated to engage the public and the businesses in energy issues, and induce social change by promoting more sustainable behaviours and the use of more energy efficient technologies. TV ENERGIA concept is different from existing Web portals and Web TV on energy and sustainability. It uses Web 2.0 capabilities, video and existing social networks as the main tool for reaching and interacting with the audience. TV ENERGIA is know looking for new partners for creating a wider internet community that uses video broadcasting and Web 2.0 capabilities to promote sustainable energy use.

  14. Road Map for Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations - National Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was based on a survey on national crises to which 17 countries responded, drawing on their own communication expertise and know-how in emergency response. Considering a previous analysis of communication during abnormal situations, this guidance seeks to help nuclear regulatory organisations (NROs) widen their common knowledge of communication requirements and practices amongst different countries, as well as existing informative tools to use before, during and after crises. The purpose of this document is to report on the survey's key findings and to draw a road map to improve the effectiveness of crisis communication management under all types of critical situations (from anomalies to major accidents). Among other topics, this report includes practical information on reaction time, elaboration and delivery of coordinated and accurate messages, new channels to be explored, and priority challenges to ensure transparency under close public scrutiny. It should be kept in mind that the present document was mostly completed before the nuclear crisis in Fukushima (Japan) that followed the catastrophic natural disasters that affected the region in March 2011. Therefore, this report does not take into account the necessary analysis of national practices derived from international crisis communication management. NROs commonly agree that crisis communication is linked to media pressure and reputation risk, and all realize that their credibility could be jeopardised. Because crises demand a quick response, an established communication plan by the NRO to deliver accurate information in the initial stage is critical. Providing early information, expected of nuclear safety authorities by the public, helps ensure transparency under high pressure and public scrutiny. Regular public communication about the NRO and planned emergency actions in advance of a crisis helps to build the NRO's reputation as a reliable, independent and trustworthy source of information

  15. Nuclear power plants: recent developments in Brazil relating to the legal aspect of installation - erection - operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Federal statutory system governs the setting up and operation of nuclear power plants in Brazil. This paper describes the general regulatory framework for electric utilities and in particular analyses the licensing procedure for nuclear installations. (NEA)

  16. Nuclear energy in Mexico as alternative for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions; Energia nuclear en Mexico, como alternativa para la reduccion de emisiones de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, J. R.; Palacios, J. C., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main concerns related with global warming is the reduction of the green house emissions. Mexico is taking steps to solve this problem, in its recent National Energy Strategy has considered to increase the use of clean electricity sources up to a 35% the share to be meat at 2024, currently this participation in electricity generation is 23.9%. In 2008 the Mexican Electrical Network produced 0.466 tons of CO{sub 2}/MWh, this index is above the OECD 0.45 CO{sub 2}/MWh average value. The current study considers the use of nuclear energy as part of the addition of clean energy to the Electrical grid; it proposes the capacity and the numbers of nuclear reactors to be used and it provides the emissions scenario generated with this proposal. (Author)

  17. International nuclear fuel cycle centers in the global infrastructure of nuclear power (Technological aspects of the problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2006, the President of the Russian Federation put forward an initiative for the broad cooperation among nations in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The President considers the necessity to create such a global infrastructure of nuclear power that will provide equal access to nuclear energy for all interested nations with an assured transparency through a nonproliferation regime. The key element of such an infrastructure would be creating a system of International centers to provide services for the nuclear fuel cycle under the IAEA control on the basis of nondiscrimination in allowing access to such services. (author)

  18. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?; El resurgimiento de la energia nuclear. Una opcion para el cambio climatico y para los paises emergentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nieva G, R.; Mulas, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Velez, C. [Electricite de France, Comite Cientifico Asesor, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris (France); Ortiz M, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52759 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom); Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France); Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom); Mez, L. [Freie Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  19. Nuclear energy - short-term and long-term aspects of its answerability and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the two phases 'nuclar energy I' and 'nuclear energy II' create the necessary technological conditions for nuclear energy utilization on one hand, on the other, they basically secure that it shall still be possible to waive nuclear energy in the future. Within this framework the lecture deals with the question of reactor safety, nuclear waste management and breeder reactor technology, especially of the SNR-300. (HSCH)

  20. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy; Analisis economico de la produccion de hidrogeno mediante el proceso termoquimico yodo-azufre con energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: cuausos@comunidad.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  1. Present aspects of the nuclear power development in the frame of the modern society requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes the development of the nuclear power sector from economic, social and environment protection points of view. In Romania, the contribution of nuclear power to the total production of electric power was about 10% in 2001. The development of the nuclear field in Romania meets the requirements of sustainable development. The advantages of nuclear energy are the following: low annual fuel consumption, comparatively with the fossil fuel plants, decreased releases of greenhouse gases and reduced mining activity, transportation and storage of wastes. The nuclear energy and the renewable energy sources are able to sustain the economic growth and the objectives of sustainable development. The nuclear field development is affected by decisional risks of political or social nature. The public was deeply concerned by issues such as environmental impacts of testing of nuclear weapons, major accidents (Chernobyl and TMI), nuclear power plant safety and nuclear waste storage. At present, there is a low interest for the nuclear field at the university level. Therefore, there are legitimate concerns about the transmission of the nuclear expertise to the next generations and currently large and sustainable efforts are undertaken towards adequate management of preserving and fostering the nuclear knowledge on one side and better information and education of public even from school time on the other side

  2. Asymptotic energies and sustainable electrical development; Energias asintoticas y desarrollo electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A review is made of the energy resources in use existing at the moment for the electricity production (hydraulic, coal, oil, gas and uranium). The asymptotic energies (solar, geothermal and nuclear fission and fusion) are described and the state of development in which they are up to the moment. One concludes that in the case of Mexico it would be convenient to make flexible and to reinforce the electrical systems in forecast of a greater participation of the distributed generation and to orient the extensions of the electrical generation to make a greater use of the three asymptotic energies already used: the solar (in its forms hydraulic and wind power), geothermal and the nuclear fission. [Spanish] Se pasa revista a los recursos existentes en las energias actualmente en uso para la produccion de electricidad (hidraulica, carbon, petroleo, gas y uranio). Se describen las energias asintoticas (solar, geotermia y fision y fusion nucleares) y el estado de desarrollo en que se encuentran hasta el momento. Se concluye que en el caso de Mexico convendria flexibilizar y reforzar el sistema electrico en prevision de una mayor participacion de la generacion distribuida y orientar las ampliaciones de la generacion electrica para hacer un mayor uso de tres de las energias asintoticas ya utilizadas: la solar (en sus formas hidraulica y eolica), la geotermia y la fision nuclear.

  3. Report on the IAEA consultants' meeting on the co-ordination of nuclear reaction data centres (technical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the Co-ordination of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (Technical Aspects), held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 28 to 30 May 2001. The meeting was attended by 16 participants from 10 co-operating data centres from six Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, progress and status reports of the participating data centres and working papers considered at the meeting. (author)

  4. Study on CPPNM Interpretation of the Physical Protection Regulatory Aspects for International Transport of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has been regulated by various international agreements or treaties due to the potential dangers. In case of export or import of nuclear material, it is important to comply with international norms and domestic laws related to nonproliferation and physical protection of nuclear material. Because, if non-compliant, it can be taken nuclear sanctions from the international community, and thus the domestic nuclear activities can be under a negative impact. Recently, international interests in nuclear security have been increased, it has become very sensitive to whether or not to join, and to comply with international treaties during international transportation of nuclear materials. Currently it is not discussed yet how to present and interpret the relevant provisions in CPPNM. However, it is necessary to prepare for the dispute among the parties that we don't know when it happens

  5. Preliminary analysis of an hydrogen generator system based on nuclear energy in the Laguna Verde site; Analisis preliminar de un sistema generador de hidrogeno basado en energia nuclear en el sitio de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of fossil fuels in the next future, as well as the growing one demand of energetics and the high cost of the production of alternating fuels, it forces us to take advantage of to the maximum the fossil fuel with the one which we count and to look for the form of producing alternating fuels at a low cost and better even if these supply sources are reliable and non pollutants. It is intended a solution to the shortage of fuel; to use the thermal energy liberated of some appropriate nuclear reactor to be able to obtain a fuel but clean and relatively cheap as it is the hydrogen. In the first place the methods were looked for to produce hydrogen using thermal energy, later it was analyzed the temperature liberated by the existent nuclear reactors as well as the advanced designs, according to this liberated temperature settled down that the methods but feasible to produce hydrogen its were the one of reformed with water stream of the natural gas (methane) and the other one of the S-I thermochemical cycle, and the nuclear reactors that give the thermal energy for this production they are those of gas of high temperature. Once established the processes and the appropriate reactors, it was analyzed the site of Laguna Verde, with relationship to the free space to be able to place the reactor and the plant producer of hydrogen, as well as the direction in which blow the dominant winds and the near towns to the place, it was carried out an analysis of some explosion of tanks that could store hydrogen and the damage that its could to cause depending from the distance to which its were of the fire. Finally it was carried out an evaluation of capital and of operation costs for those two methods of hydrogen production. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of two processes of hydrogen production starting from energy generated by high temperature nuclear reactors; Evaluacion de dos procesos de produccion de hidrogeno a partir de energia generada por reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J., E-mail: jvalle@upmh.edu.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard Acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work an evaluation to two processes of hydrogen production using energy generated starting from high temperature nuclear reactors (HTGR's) was realized. The evaluated processes are the electrolysis of high temperature and the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur. The electrolysis of high temperature, contrary to the conventional electrolysis, allows reaching efficiencies of up to 60% because when increasing the temperature of the water, giving thermal energy, diminishes the electric power demand required to separate the molecule of the water. However, to obtain these efficiencies is necessary to have water vapor overheated to more than 850 grades C, temperatures that can be reached by the HTGR. On the other hand the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur, developed by General Atomics in the 1970 decade, requires two thermal levels basically, the great of them to 850 grades C for decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and another minor to 360 grades C approximately for decomposition of H I, a high temperature nuclear reactor can give the thermal energy required for the process whose products would be only hydrogen and oxygen. In this work these two processes are described, complete models are developed and analyzed thermodynamically that allow to couple each hydrogen generation process to a reactor HTGR that will be implemented later on for their dynamic simulation. The obtained results are presented in form of comparative data table of each process, and with them the obtained net efficiencies. (author)

  7. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program; Analisis de escenarios con la participacion de la energia nuclear en el sector electrico mexicano utilizando el programa DECADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: edithsosa@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  8. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy; Um modelo estocastico de simulacao neutronica considerando o espectro e propriedades nucleares com dependencia continua de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de

    2011-01-15

    This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)

  9. Legal aspects of handling and disposal of nuclear waste - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's rise as a global power has made it an extremely lucrative market, especially in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is often painted as a 'clean- energy option, and therefore a solution to climate change. Splitting the atom doesn't produce greenhouse gases, but the nuclear fuel cycle is far from clean: it produces radioactive waste that pollutes the environment for generations. As the most populous democracy in the world, India's energy needs far exceed its current capacity and to achieve this, the Government of India intends to draw twenty-five percent of its energy from nuclear power by the year 2050. This plan includes 20,000 MW of installed capacity from nuclear energy by 2020, and 63,000 MW by 2032. There are currently twenty operational nuclear power reactors in India, across six states. They contribute less than three per cent of the country's total energy generation, yet radioactively pollute at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle: from mining and milling to reprocessing or disposal. There is no long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in India. India is one of the few countries in the world that is expanding its nuclear power sector at an enormous rate. Seven more nuclear reactors of 4800 MW installed capacity are under construction. At least thirty-six new nuclear reactors are planned or proposed. A critical subset of any country's nuclear safety approach is its radioactive waste management, in particular management of High Level Waste. By recognizing the facts that nuclear safety and waste management are of utmost importance for success of the nuclear energy program, India ratified the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) in 2005 and has recently submitted its second National Report for review. The CNS essentially seeks to commit Parties to maintain a high level of safety by setting international benchmarks based on the IAEA fundamental principles of safety, which cover design, construction, operation, the

  10. Methodological Proposal for Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Aspects and Impacts of IPEN Nuclear Facilities: A Case Study Applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Control Plan for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (authors)

  11. Society and health effects of aspects an overview of nuclear energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Soykenar; Sabahat Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Today along with developing technology and rapid population growth, energy needs have been increasing in the worldwide. In order to supply rising energy demands, the countries have been tending to nuclear power plants which have high productivitiy. As all kinds of energy sources, there are negative effects to public health in the stages of production and consumption also for nuclear energy. For nuclear power plants established by using high tecnology, required precautions are adopted by asses...

  12. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  13. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 {micro}m of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The {sub 17}Pb{sub 83} flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}, separated from the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF{sub 2}), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm

  14. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  15. Regulatory aspect of nuclear application and radioactive waste management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience over more than 56 years in the field of nuclear application has shown that such technology is generally safely used. Nevertheless, there have been instances, when safety systems have been circumvented and serious radiological accident have occurred, and have resulted with fatal consequences. During the last 56 years, such radiological accidents, in total, caused 101 person dead, and it is very interesting to note that this figure is more than double the dead caused by nuclear accident as the result of nuclear fuel failure, such as in nuclear power plant, in submarine or in enrichment plant, which has only 47 fatalities. The article 8 of the convention on nuclear safety, stipulates inter alia that the contracting party shall established a regulatory body separated from the promotional or the executing organization of nuclear energy. Indonesia is not operating any nuclear power. At present, it is only operating three research reactors, and some laboratories connected with this reactor, such as one nuclear fuel fabrication plant for research reactors, one experimental fuel fabrication plant for nuclear power, one isotope production facility, radiometalurgy laboratory and some other research facilities. However, in anticipation of the expansion of nuclear programme in Indonesia, and looking into the various accident in the nuclear application, the Indonesian Government has, since April 10, 1997, enacted the new act, Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy. The new Act addresses several key requirements for the successful conduct of Indonesia nuclear programme, including the establishment of both the Executing Body responsible for nuclear research and development, mining and processing nuclear fuels and materials, production of radio-isotopes and management of radioactive wastes and the independent Nuclear Energy Control Board, which has the power to regulate, to license and to inspect all facets of any activity utilizing nuclear energy. It also sets out the basic

  16. Act No. 15 of 22 April 1980 setting up the Nuclear Safety Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spanish authorities are in the process or reorganising the public nuclear sector in order to separate the promotional and research aspects of the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes from the regulation and control of such activities. To this effect this Act sets up a Nuclear Safety Council which takes over part of the duties and the personnel of the Junta de Energia Nuclear provided for by the Act of 29th April 1964 on Nuclear Energy. The new Nuclear Safety Council is a body which is independent of the State central administration and has legal personality as well as its own financial resources required to carry out its duties. The latter comprise, inter alia, proposing to the Government the regulations required in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection; this includes the setting-up of standards and criteria for the selection of nuclear installation sites, in consultation with the local competent bodies. (NEA)

  17. Radiological protection and radioactive waste management aspects of the decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rosyth Dockyard is located near the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The dockyard's nuclear activities centred around the refuelling and refitting of submarines, as well as some submarine decommissioning. In 1993, submarine refitting work was transferred to Devonport in Southern England. This meant that there were a number of facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard that were now redundant. In accordance with UK government policy a programme of works was instigated to allow for the decommissioning of these nuclear liabilities. This paper provides a brief overview of work activities performed to allow physical decommissioning to take place. Topics covered include radiological characterisation activities, development of monitoring protocols for decommissioning, obtaining relevant environmental authorisations, developing a decommissioning safety case, gaining the UK's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate approval to proceed with decommissioning and an overview of some of the post operative clean out (POCO) activities performed. Edmund Nuttall Ltd were contracted to perform the physical decommissioning of the redundant nuclear facilities, that have been subject to POCO, and this work commenced in February 2006. As part of this contract they were to provide a radiological protection infrastructure including dosimetry and health physics monitoring. This paper discusses the radiological protection infrastructure established by the decommissioning contractor, the radiological protection aspects of the decommissioning work, some of the tools and techniques utilised to date during the nuclear decommissioning, and the radioactive waste management processes established for the project. All activities are referenced to relevant aspects of UK nuclear industry best practice and to the Scottish, UK and European regulatory framework. The progress to date is discussed and lessons that have been learnt are highlighted. (author)

  18. Legal aspects of handling and disposal of nuclear waste - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's rise as a global power has made it an extremely lucrative market, especially in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is often painted as a 'clean' energy option, and therefore a solution to climate change. Splitting the atom doesn't produce greenhouse gases, but the nuclear fuel cycle is far from clean: it produces radioactive waste that pollutes the environment for generations. As the most populous democracy in the world, India's energy needs far exceed its current capacity, to achieve this; the Government of India intends to draw twenty-five per cent of its energy from nuclear power by 2050. This plan includes 20,000 MW of installed capacity from nuclear energy by 2020, and 63,000 MW by 2032. There are currently twenty operational nuclear power reactors in India, across six states. They contribute less than three per cent of the country's total energy generation, yet radioactively pollute at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle: from mining and milling to reprocessing or disposal. There is no long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in India. India is one of the few countries in the world that is expanding its nuclear power sector at an enormous rate. Seven more nuclear reactors are under construction, of 4800 MW installed capacity. At least thirty-six new nuclear reactors are planned or proposed. A critical subset of any country's nuclear safety approach is its radioactive waste management in particular management of High Level Waste

  19. Intelligent use of the energy; Uso inteligente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Ahedo, Carlos [Director General de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) is an administrative agency independent of the Secretaria de Energia that serves as a technical agency for consultancy in matters of efficient use of energy and advantageous use of renewable energies. This document searches to inform the population how to satisfy the necessity of energy in an intelligent way. For this purpose some useful actions to be performed were detected: the making of a balance between the supply and the energy demand, the consultancy on how the saving of energy is performed in order to reduce its waste, to count on equipment and efficient systems, to use domestic renewable energies and to use the solar energy and the biomass. [Spanish] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) es el organo administrativo desconcentrado de la Secretaria de Energia que funge como organismo tecnico de consulta en materia de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia y aprovechamiento de energias renovables. Este documento busca informar a la poblacion acerca de como satisfacer la necesidad de energia a cambio de su utilizacion de manera inteligente, para ello se detectaron areas de oportunidad como: un balance entre la oferta y la demanda energetica, informar a la gente sobre como se efectua el ahorro de energia para con ello reducir el desperdicio de esta, contar con equipos y sistemas eficientes, usar energias renovables domesticas y utilizar la energia solar y la biomasa.

  20. Physical protection of nuclear power plants-technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants are defined according to the definitions included in the Brazilian legislation and international conventions and their physical protection is analysed. Besides, the differences and the relations among nuclear security, safeguards and physical protection are established. (A.L.)

  1. New aspects in the radiological emergency plan outside the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexican government through the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards has imposed to the Federal Commission of Electricity to fulfill the requirement of having a functional Emergency Plan and under the limits that the regulator organisms in the world have proposed. The PERE (Plan of External Radiological Emergency) it has been created for the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde, Mexico

  2. Legal Aspects of international cooperation in the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of developments in the number field having led the IAEA to promote international cooperation in ensuring adequate physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. This work resulted in the establishment of recommendations and guidelines in this respect and culminated in the development of the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (NEA)

  3. A basic plan for the environment-friendly aspects of improved Korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Improved Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP+) design has been made possible on the basis of engineering experiences and referring to an in-depth analysis of the design and construction of all the domestic nuclear power plants in operation. The KSNP+ is designed for improved safety, better economics, operability and maintainability by means of advanced technology expecting to demonstrate enhanced performance. The plant also has incorporated several environmentally friendly features through the restoration of excavated areas using an ecological approach, external coloring, figure of turbine generator building and landscaping around nuclear power plant. This is the first time that KOPEC has embarked on inducing environmentally friendly features into the basic plan. This is expected to mitigate the negative perceptions held by the residents in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and will contribute to a new and improved image of nuclear power plants. (authors)

  4. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant; Instrumento hibrido aplicado ao estudo da confiabilidade humana em evento de perda de energia eletrica externa em usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-04-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  5. Nuclear power development in West Germany and aspects of the expanding district heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a general outline of the energy situation and the developments on the nuclear power plant sector, the possibilities and chances of the major oil and gas conservation methods are reviewed (domestic coal, district heating, dual-purpose power plants, waste heat utilisation, solar energy, heat pumps, coal gasification, fast breeders, nuclear fusion, efficient utilisation of energy). Spectacular solutions are nowhere in sight, so that only conventional ways remain. Nuclear power will expand, and energy growth will be 5% rather than 3-3.5%. (orig.)

  6. A regulatory view on the applicability of the new ICRP recommendations to nuclear safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new ICRP recommendations will cause several changes in the radiological practice. This paper discusses these changes from the point of regulatory view of nuclear safety. To avoid adverse short-term effects, the new risk estimates should be adopted in radiation protection standards with great care. The ultimate objective of nuclear safety is to protect people environment and property against radiological hazards. Improvements in principles and practices developed by the ICRP are important in reaching the primary goal. A severe nuclear accident must be prevented in advance. Every scientific and technical means have to used; optimization is not the solution of the problem

  7. Environmental aspects based on operation performance of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA Project entitled Development and Upgrading of Guidelines, Databases and Tools for Integrating Comparative Assessment into Energy System Analysis and Policy Making, which included the collection, review and input of data into a database on health and environmental impacts related to operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The objectives of the report included assembling environmental data on operational performance of nuclear fabrication facilities in each country; compiling and arranging the data in a database, which will be easily available to experts and the public; and presenting data that may be of value for future environmental assessment of nuclear fabrication facilities

  8. Physical protection in the transport of nuclear materials (Legal aspects of the domestic system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the physical protection system is made. Emphasis is given to some considerations in the nuclear material transport area, mainly the details of the domestic system, from a juridic pont of view. (Author)

  9. Society and health effects of aspects an overview of nuclear energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Soykenar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today along with developing technology and rapid population growth, energy needs have been increasing in the worldwide. In order to supply rising energy demands, the countries have been tending to nuclear power plants which have high productivitiy. As all kinds of energy sources, there are negative effects to public health in the stages of production and consumption also for nuclear energy. For nuclear power plants established by using high tecnology, required precautions are adopted by assessing all negative effects that can harm environmental health. So as to provide our country to be the leading position in the global trade and tecnological progress competition, it is required to make the investments by evaluating the pros and cons of nuclear energy, regarded as a qualified and sustainable energy source. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 65-70

  10. Nuclear analyses of some key aspects of the ITER design with Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the ITER machine was presented in 2001 . A nuclear analysis was performed at this time, using fairly detailed models and the best assessed nuclear data and codes that were available. As the construction phase of ITER is approaching, the design of the main components has been optimized/finalized and several minor design changes/optimizations have been made, some with the object to mitigate critical radiation shielding problems. These have required refined calculations to confirm that the nuclear design requirements are met. This paper reviews some of the most recent neutronic work with emphasis on critical nuclear responses in the TF coil inboard legs and vacuum vessel related to design modifications made to the blanket modules and vacuum vessel

  11. Legal and political aspects of building and operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions concerning the construction and the operation of nuclear power plants touch the competences of both legislation and jurisdiction as well as administration. The author is of the opinion that, regardless of the primarily political quality of legislative principles and decisions of planning of high complexity the actual decision on the setting-up of nuclear power plants on a particular site for the determination of the kind and range of damage precaution and the assessment of the remaining risks are dependent on legal standards. Furthermore, the author argues with the issue of wether a renewed basic decesion in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy can be doubted. He also discusses the suggestion of entrusting an independent authority with decisions concerning licensing procedures according to nuclear law. (HSCH)

  12. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Safety aspects of the desalination of sea water using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear plants for desalination to be built in the future will have to meet the standards of safety required for the best nuclear power plants currently in operation or being designed. Some specific characteristics of desalination plants such as siting and coupling require particular consideration from a safety point of view, and further safety studies will be needed when the type and size of the reactor are determined. ne current safety approach, based on the defence in depth strategy, has been shown to be a sound foundation for the safety and protection of public health, and gives the plant the capability of dealing with a large variety of sequences, even beyond the design basis. The Department of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA is involved in many activities, the most important of which are to establish safety standards and to provide various safety services and technical knowledge in many Technical Co-operation assistance projects. The department is also involved in other safety areas, notably in the field of future reactors. The IAEA is carrying out a project on the safety of new generation reactors, including those used for desalination, with the objective of fostering an exchange of information on safety approaches, promoting harmonization among Member States and contributing towards the development and revision of safety standards and guidelines for nuclear power plant design. The safety, regulatory and environmental concerns in nuclear powered desalination are those that are related directly to nuclear power plants, with due consideration given to the coupling process. The protection of product water against radioactive contamination must be ensured. An effective infrastructure, including appropriate training, a legal framework and a regulatory regime, is a prerequisite to considering use of nuclear power for desalination plants, also in those countries with limited industrial infrastructures and little experience in nuclear technology or safety. (author)

  14. Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)

  15. Environmental Aspects of Tritium Around the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of environmental distribution of tritium around the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca during the period 1988-1994 is presented. Temporal and local variations of the specific tritium variations in precipitation (Usek, Zeleno Brdo), river waters (the Danube, the Sava and Mlaka Creek) as well as atmospheric water vapor are given. Estimates based on precipitation measurements have shown that 6.3 TBq of tritium activity should be released annually into the atmosphere from the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. (author)

  16. Ambitious growth programs for nuclear power in Europe - key aspects and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RWE experience in projectswithPWR, FBR, BWR and HTR technologies is presented. New nuclear power plant projects in Europe are expected to be safe, climate-friendly and cost-efficient. Success factors for new Nuclear Power Plants to ensure successful investments Sustainable commercial projects are discussed. RWE's involvement in new-build projects in Europe, and in particular 2 units in Cernavoda NPP in Romania and 2 units in Belene NPP in Bulgaria, is presented

  17. Safety aspects of the desalination of sea water using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear plants for desalination to be built in the future will have to meet the standards of safety required for the best nuclear power plants currently in operation or being designed. Some specific characteristics of desalination plants such as siting and coupling require particular consideration from a safety point of view, and further safety studies will be needed when the type and size of the reactor are determined. The current safety approach, based on the defence in depth strategy, has been shown to be a sound foundation for the safety and protection of public health, and gives the plant the capability of dealing with a large variety of sequences, even beyond the design basis. The Department of Nuclear Safety of the IAEA is involved in many activities, the most important of which are to establish safety standards, and to provide various safety services and technical knowledge in many Technical Co-operation assistance projects. The department is also involved in other safety areas, notably in the field of future reactors. The IAEA is carrying out a project on the safety of new generation reactors, including those used for desalination, with the objective of fostering an exchange of information on safety approaches, promoting harmonization among Member States and contributing towards the development and revision of safety standards and guidelines for nuclear power plant design. The safety, regulatory and environmental concerns in nuclear powered desalination are those related directly to nuclear power plants, with due consideration given to the coupling process. The protection of product water against radioactive contamination must be ensured. An effective infrastructure, including appropriate training, a legal framework and regulatory regime, is a prerequisite to considering use of nuclear power for desalination plants, also in those countries with limited industrial infrastructures and little experience in nuclear technology or safety. (author)

  18. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  19. Some aspects of nuclear power development in Russian and studies on its optimal long term structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the authors' outlook for nuclear power development in Russia. The analysis is based on the documents published and other materials as well as on the experience of the authors who participated in working out the state fuel-power program Power Strategy of Russia. The crucial point of the Strategy is that moratorium on the nuclear power development in Russia is inadmissible and a part of electricity production in the country will be covered by NPPs with increased safety. The studies which have been carried out by the organizations of MINATOM and ROSENERGOATOM and by some authors have shown that a potential of the Russia nuclear power complex meets the requirements of the nuclear power development up to year 2010. From the standpoint of the authors of the paper the investment climate in the country is the most important and uncertain factor influencing the program realization. But nuclear power preserves competitive ability in any option of new electric capacities introduced in Russia. Application of the market-oriented IAEA's planning tools have confirmed the competitive ability of nuclear power in the central region of Russia. This study is to be continued for other Russian regions. The estimates of the long-term prospects of nuclear power development in Russia made by the authors are based on the assumptions of natural uranium resources conservation, plutonium stockpile minimization and reduction of the radiotoxical waste to the lowest possible level. These requirements may be answered in the plutonium balanced system of thermal and fast reactors with a very economical consumption of natural uranium and a very small quantity of radioactive waste (mainly consisting of fission products and losses in reprocessing operations). (author)

  20. Some aspects on security and safety in a potential transport of a CANDU spent nuclear fuel bundle, in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each Member States (MS) is responsible for the security and safety of radioactive material during transport, since radioactive material is most vulnerable during transport. The paper presents some aspects on security and safety related to the potential transport of a CANDU Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) bundle from NPP CANDU Cernavoda to INR Pitesti. The possible environmental impact and radiological consequences following a potential event during transportation is analyzed, since the protection of the people and the environment is the essential goal to be achieved. Some testing for the package to be used for transportation will be also given. (author)

  1. Some aspects on security and safety in a potential transport of a CANDU spent nuclear fuel bundle, in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieru, G., E-mail: gheorghe.vieru@nuclear.ro [Inst. for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Each Member States (MS) is responsible for the security and safety of radioactive material during transport, since radioactive material is most vulnerable during transport. The paper presents some aspects on security and safety related to the potential transport of a CANDU Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) bundle from NPP CANDU Cernavoda to INR Pitesti. The possible environmental impact and radiological consequences following a potential event during transportation is analyzed, since the protection of the people and the environment is the essential goal to be achieved. Some testing for the package to be used for transportation will be also given. (author)

  2. Aspects of consolidation of engineering capability related to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major interest of countries launching nuclear program is to consolidate an engineering capability for Nuclear Power Plants design by performing part of the engineering services locally. A decade of nuclear power plant engineering and construction has exposed Brazilian architect-engineers to this new challenge. To cope with it, technology sources were identified, agreements were made and transfer is going on between foreign and local companies. Services performed by Brazilian architect-engineers are summarized. Foreign technology must be judiciously examined before implementation in a different environment. The receiver has to be prepared to develop his own capabilities and absorb the know-how being offered, taking into consideration the local engineering experience and construction practices. Some of the problems faced are outlined herein. The performed efforts brought Brazilian architect-engineers to a consolidated level of experience. (Author)

  3. Radioecological aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological consequences of the Russian program of decommissioning of nuclear submarines (NS) are caused by present difficult economic conditions and specific technologies applied. The temporary scheme of the NS-utilization is accepted because of the absence of required industrial structure. This measure does not provide for the final solution of the problem for a long-term perspective, but it is going to be used for a period of at least 20 years. The NS storage with unloaded nuclear fuel presents potential nuclear, radiation and radioecological hazard. This hazard increases with time because of the long-term operation of NS, which reaches 30 years and more, and unsatisfactory technical conditions of some NS. Under existing circumstances, it is very difficult to predict all radioecological consequences of the NS decommissioning, though some regularities are already being observed from the analysis of the long-term experience of the NS operation and a decennial period of their decommissioning. (author)

  4. The social acceptance of nuclear power - psychological, moral-ethical and political-ideological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceptance of the peaceful use of nuclear power in society - that is the top of the icemountain of the problem of high technology acceptance at all. Facts like the further growing number of human beings and the call for compatibility with environment make it necessary to use progressive technologies and especially to use nuclear power. Social, psychological and moral factors as fear and special value scales act against this aim. We think of value scales which are correlated to archaic behaviour modes but which are present in modern society in form of socalled green-alternative ideologies. The results of the study are that offensive public relation work is necessary which includes not only information but also overcoming scare, formation of trust and confidence and 'ethical argumentation' in dialog and communication in the field of value scales. In this way a new and broad consensus about nuclear power could be reached. (orig.)

  5. Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management. Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular, the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context, Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic planning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involving multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces. The report is aimed at national emergency management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery. (authors)

  6. Some interesting aspects of water, with special reference to nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the formation, importance, resources and some unique characteristics of water. A reference has been made about the available water racecourse of Pakistan and urgent need of acquiring additional water resources in the county. Importance of water for energy production and energy for acquiring additional water resources is mentioned. Attractive features and feasibility of nuclear desalination, using dual purpose nuclear power plants are discussed. Criteria for selection of suitable reactor type and desalination process are discussed for desired water to power ratios. The world wide growth of desalination capacity, using various desalination processes are listed. (author)

  7. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  8. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the diffusion cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF6 in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF6 in plant operations

  9. Trends in the nuclear fuel cycle. Economic, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has been part of the world's energy mix for almost fifty years. However, over the past thirty years increased public concern over this form of energy has resulted in socio-political constraints on its use. At the same time, while over these past thirty years the world was able to cope with an increasing energy demand by relying more on fossil fuels, growing consideration for achieving sustainable development and alleviating climate change has led to renewed interest in the potential role of nuclear energy in the world's future energy supply mix. (authors)

  10. Aspects of nuclear waste management after a 4-year Nordic programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (author)

  11. Energia no Sistema Climático

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, José

    2011-01-01

    AS FORMAS DE ENERGIA DO SISTEMA CLIMÁTICO. MODOS DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE ENERGIA.A RADIAÇÃO SOLAR, TERRESTRE E ATMOSFÉRICA (características da radiação,Radiação Solar, Radiação terrestre e radiação atmosférica…. BALANÇO ENERGÉTICO DO SISTEMA GLOBO-ATMOSFERA.BALANÇO DE RADIAÇÃO DE UMA SUPERFÍCIE (Componentes do balanço de radiação,Medição e estimativa dos componentes do balanço de radiação).BALANÇO ENERGÉTICO À SUPERFÍCIE TERRESTRE.CONSEQUÊNCIAS NO MOVIMENTO DO AR ATMOSFÉRICO.EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS....

  12. Aspects related to the introduction of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking as basic premises a foreseen growth in the world energy demand, a marked trend towards more electricity in power generation, and an increasingly substantial share of the nuclear in the latter the paper examines the part developing countries may play in the process both as determining factors and subjects. Demography, resources, the natural drive for the betterment of the economic performance and improvements in the standard of living as well as for assertion on the international scene, and the awareness on the disparities in these regards in comparison with the developed countries are indicated as major incentives for the developing countries' seeking enhanced access to nuclear power technology in the decades to come. Flaws in infrastructures, finances, labour force average education, and management capabilities are, on the other hand, pointed at as inhibiting factors, while a prolonged world economic recession and the uncertainties introduced by the current political changes at world scale in conjunction with the intrinsic dual nature of the nuclear technology are believed to further compound the situation. It is argued that an internationally concerted monitoring and assistance involving cooperative donors and acceptors is, probably, the only solution to ensure an orderly, economically sound and politically safe expansion of the nuclear power technology in developing countries. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Some aspects of increasing the quality of personnel training for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant personnel in Czechoslovakia is subject to periodical training in accordance with the Unified System of Nuclear Facility Personnel Training. This training is the responsibility of the Educational and Training Centre of the Nuclear Plant Research Institute in Trnava. Nuclear plant personnel is divided into 7 groups as follows: A - supervisory technical-administrative management staff; B - selected operating personnel such as shift supervisors, unit supervisors, reactor operators and secondary circuit operators; C - engineering-technical personnel of technical and maintenance departments; D - managing shift-operating staff; E - workers at technical plant departments; F - operational shift workers and servicemen; and G - maintenance personnel. These groups are respected in the training, which includes basic training, re-training and additional training. The basic training comprises 8 stages: general theoretical education; specialized theoretical education; on-the-job training in a plant designated for training; training on a simulator (group B); preparing for and taking final examinations for the certificate; doubling in the NPP designated for training (groups B, D, F); preparation in the NPP of future employment; preparing for and taking the state examination for obtaining the license (group B). Details of the management of the training process, experience gained during the implementation of the training and challenges for future improvement of the system are outlined. (P.A.)

  14. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Waedt, Karl [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PEAS-G

    2016-05-15

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  15. Specific behaviour aspects at extended burnup operation of PHWR nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the influence of burnup extension on PHWR nuclear fuel performance, the paper presents and discusses the specific potentially life-limiting factors at extended burnup for this type of fuel using recent experimental evidence and making a direct comparison with LWR fuel performance. (Author)

  16. Methodological aspects in the calculation of parity-violating effects in nuclear magnetic resonance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijo, Ville; Bast, Radovan; Manninen, Pekka; Saue, Trond; Vaara, Juha

    2007-02-21

    We examine the quantum chemical calculation of parity-violating (PV) electroweak contributions to the spectral parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from a methodological point of view. Nuclear magnetic shielding and indirect spin-spin coupling constants are considered and evaluated for three chiral molecules, H2O2, H2S2, and H2Se2. The effects of the choice of a one-particle basis set and the treatment of electron correlation, as well as the effects of special relativity, are studied. All of them are found to be relevant. The basis-set dependence is very pronounced, especially at the electron correlated ab initio levels of theory. Coupled-cluster and density-functional theory (DFT) results for PV contributions differ significantly from the Hartree-Fock data. DFT overestimates the PV effects, particularly with nonhybrid exchange-correlation functionals. Beginning from third-row elements, special relativity is of importance for the PV NMR properties, shown here by comparing perturbational one-component and various four-component calculations. In contrast to what is found for nuclear magnetic shielding, the choice of the model for nuclear charge distribution--point charge or extended (Gaussian)--has a significant impact on the PV contribution to the spin-spin coupling constants. PMID:17328593

  17. Legal aspects of the licensing of nuclear power plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives a description of the licensing procedure regarding nuclear power plants in Brazil and points out the civil responsibility of the concessionaire in case of an infringement of obligations concerning supervision and maintenance of the plants. Public electric power utilities are supervised by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. (CW)

  18. Aspects of the Brazilian law on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability for nuclear damage in the Brazilian law is analysed. The innovations introduced by the 6.453 act of October 17 th, 1977 are emphasized. The influence of international conventions on the Brazilian law are also mentioned. (A.L.)

  19. Significance of the fuel cycle aspects in CEA studies on future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has unique assets to meet the requirements for a sustainable development in terms of economic competitiveness, environmental friendliness and natural resources saving. Future nuclear system studies conducted by the CEA aim at investigating and developing promising technologies for the medium and the long term for reactors, fuels and the fuel cycle to make nuclear power eligible as one of the major energy sources of the sustainable development. It also aims at maintaining at the best possible level the expertise and the technologies that the CEA will be able to bring to future national and international projects likely to meet market needs in the next decades, which are still uncertain both in terms of performances and time scale. Progress for future nuclear systems is principally sought in the following areas: reinforced economic competitiveness against other available electricity generation means, with a special emphasis put on reducing the investment cost; enhanced safety, especially through an increased resistance to core damages in case of severe accident, and whenever possible by dedicated strategies to exclude core melting; cleanliness through minimising the production of long lived radioactive waste; resource saving through an optimum utilisation of the available resources of fissile and fertile materials; enhanced resistance to proliferation risks; potentialities for other applications than electricity production. (author)

  20. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  1. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  2. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center; Aspectos fisicos de garantia de calidad en medicina nuclear y radioterapia. Enfoque regulatorio del centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [CNSN, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7, Ave. Miramar, La Habana (Cuba); Varela C, C. [CCEEM, Calle 4 No. 455 e/19 y 21, Ave. Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  3. Legal and regulatory aspects of long-term operation of nuclear power plants in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    frame originally anticipated for operation. This article does not deal with 'lifetime extension' in a technical sense. Lifetime extension is a technical concept based on reactor design considerations to address ageing problems that can be cured by technical operations and replacing components. The article rather focusses on the broader legal and regulatory questions, namely the administrative procedures and conditions for the extension of an operating licence or for other administrative procedures so that a nuclear reactor can operate beyond the originally anticipated time frame. This article is divided into five parts. The introduction has already provided the reasons which drive requests for and authorizations of long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Section A will address the authorization process for long-term operation, explain the different approaches regarding licence validity and focus on periodic safety reviews. Section B will analyse the possibility to appeal a decision on long-term operation and any grounds for financial compensation. It will examine whether the safety standards at the time of the original licence or the present safety standards are applicable when continued operation is approved. The question is challenging from a legal point of view because there must be a legal basis for new safety standards to be imposed on the operator who seeks continued operation. Section C will analyse the impact of the accident at Fukushima on long-term operation and finally, the article will end with some concluding remarks on the legal and regulatory aspects of continued operation of nuclear reactors in OECD member countries. An annex to the article provides a short analysis of the legal and regulatory framework for long-term operation of nuclear reactors in selected OECD member countries, i.e. Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States

  4. Post-graduated course 'Basic aspects of medical physics in nuclear medicine': theoretical/practical intensive version: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using national and international recommendation about human resource in nuclear medicine, a group of experts organized a national course for the education and training of physicist who works in Cuban hospital, adapted to national condition and practice of nuclear medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University School in Medicine and content three intensive theoretic and practical courses (15 days of full time duration each), complemented with 4 months full time in Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert and 2 months at distance with practical task. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and write final test. When all docent activities finish the students should pass a final evaluation by a testing board composed for (at least) three accredited experts. The first theoretical/practical course included 19 physicists who work in hospital, the second 17 and the third 16 students. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the partial final tests included: true or false choice (with 10 aspects to verify, 1 point/correct answer) and questions to write developed answer. The average result was 83.02 points/ students (range 65-100 points). The students evaluated satisfactory the quality of different courses (in anonymous poll), reporting like very good; the quality of conferences, excellent; the usefulness of different charters, very good; the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training in order to warranty the human resource, in the same way and content, and included others item in the future. Conclusion: the theoretical/practice intensive courses of this post-graduated course were successful and satisfied the objective of education and training of medical physicist in nuclear medicine. (author)

  5. Novel nuclear structure aspects of the O{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J; Poves, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, and IFT, UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Caurier, E; Nowacki, F, E-mail: alfredo.poves@uam.es [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037-Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influence of the deformation on the nuclear matrix elements of the neutrinoless double beta decay (NME), concluding that the difference in deformation -or more generally in the amount of quadrupole correlations- between parent and grand daughter nuclei quenches strongly the decay. We correlate these differences with the seniority structure of the nuclear wave functions. In this context, we examine the present discrepancies between the NME's obtained in the framework of the Interacting Shell Model and the Quasiparticle RPA. In our view, part of the discrepancy can be due to the limitations of the spherical QRPA in treating nuclei which have strong quadrupole correlations. We surmise that the NME's in a basis of generalized seniority are approximately model independent, i. e. they are 'universal'.

  6. Safety aspects of receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, A.S.; Andes, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Savannah River Site receives and stores aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel from research reactors world-wide in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's take back policy for U.S. origin enriched uranium. For over 35 years the Savannah River Site has supported this policy in a safe and deliberate manner. Facilities dedicated to this mission include the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and L-Basin. Current inventories are about 6,500 aluminum-based research reactor assemblies and about 700 stainless steel or zirconium clad prototype power reactor assemblies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the processes that the Savannah River Site employs to safely receive, handle, and store spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  7. Non-extensive statistical aspects of multifragmentation of hot nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calboreanu, A

    2003-01-01

    Some recent developments concerning an application of the non-extensive Tsalis statistics to describe clustering phenomena is briefly presented. Cluster formation is a common feature of a large number of physical phenomena in molecular physics, nuclear and astrophysics, condensed matter and biophysics. Common to all these is the large number of degrees of freedom, thus justifying a statistical approach. However, the conventional statistical mechanics paradigm seems to fail in dealing with clustering. Whether this is due to the prevalence of complex dynamical constraints, or it is a manifestation of new statistics is a subject of considerable interest, intensively debated during the last few years. Tsalis conjecture has proved extremely appealing due to its rather elegant and transparent basic arguments. We present here evidence for its adequacy for the study of a large class of physical phenomena related to cluster formation. An application to nuclear multifragmentation is presented. (authors)

  8. Isospin aspects in nuclear reactions involving Ca beams at 25 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, I., E-mail: ilombardo@lns.infn.it; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Auditore, L. [Universita di Messina, and INFN-Gr. Coll. Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Berceanu, I. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Chatterjee, M. B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India); Filippo, E. De [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Giuliani, G.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania (Italy); Grzeszczuk, A. [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics (Poland); Han, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); La Guidara, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); and others

    2011-11-15

    Isospin dependence of dynamical and thermodynamical properties observed in reactions {sup 40}Ca+ {sup 40,48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca + {sup 46}Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon has been studied. We used the CHIMERA multi-detector array. Strong isospin effects are seen in the isotopic distributions of light nuclei and in the competition between different reaction mechanisms in semi-central collisions. We will show also preliminary results obtained in nuclear collision {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25MeV/nucleon, having very high N/Z value in the entrance channel (N/Z = 1.4). The enhancement of evaporation residue production confirms the strong role played by the N/Z degree of freedom in nuclear dynamics.

  9. Radiological safety aspects of uranium fuel fabrication facilities at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is operating a Health Physics Unit at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which carried out radiological, industrial hygiene and environmental surveillances. Nuclear Fuel Complex has two batteries of plants - one for natural UO2 fuel bundles for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) and the other for enriched UO2 fuel assemblies for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) in the country. For natural UO2 fuel the Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP) converts magnesium diuranate to UO2 powder. The Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP) processes the UO2 powder to dense sintered UO2 pellets and further to fuel assemblies for PHWR. The Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP) starts with uranium hexa-fluoride and converts to UO2 powder and Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EFFP) processes the UO2 powder to sintered pellets and fuel assemblies for BWR

  10. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  11. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA)

  12. Nuclear design aspect of the Korean high intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Song, Tae-Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    A plan to construct a high current proton accelerator has been proposed by KAERI. We are presenting the required nuclear design to support the project as well as a brief overview of the proposed proton accelerator. The target and core design is highlighted to show feasibility of incineration of minor actinides from the spent fuel of light water reactors. Radiation shielding and activation analyses are also important for the design and the license of the accelerator. (author)

  13. Isospin mixing within the multi-reference nuclear density functional theory and beyond - selected aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Satula, W; Konieczka, M; Nazarewicz, W

    2013-01-01

    The results of systematic calculations of isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to superallowed beta-decays based on the self-consistent isospin- and angular-momentum-projected nuclear density functional theory (DFT) are reviewed with an emphasis on theoretical uncertainties of the model. Extensions of the formalism towards no core shell model approach with basis cutoff scheme dictated by the self-consistent particle-hole DFT solutions will be also discussed.

  14. Regulatory aspects about the seismic revaluation in Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juragua Nuclear Power plants at the moment in a stage temporary paralyzed, it was designed originally to support natural phenomena among those that are the earthquakes. However by the light of the security revisions that carried out in the power stations in east Europe and give the putting into force the new regulatory requirements it is important to consider the necessity to begin to prepare the necessary documents to organize, in a first stage, the seismic revaluation gives the plant

  15. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous

  16. Control of nuclear material specified equipment and specified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal and application field of NE 2.02 regulatory guide of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), are described. This regulatory guide is about nuclear material management, specified equipment and specified material. (E.G.)

  17. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world: technology aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants at present contribute roughly one quarter of electricity generation in the OECD member countries, which makes them an important economic and ecological component of energy supply. They contribute greatly to meeting international goals of environmental protection, especially with respect to avoiding and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. As current plants are advancing in age, and framework conditions and requirements must be met by new plants, i.e. cost pressure due to market changes and the not-in-my-backyard attitude vis-a-vis new plants, their future contribution to energy supply cannot possibly be estimated at the present time. It is for this reason that measures extending the operating life of current plants are of great economic as well as ecological significance. These activities, which are summarized under the term of Plant Life Management (PLIM), involve the joint efforts by operators, industry, politics, and regulatory authorities. Framework conditions must be defined jointly which ensure safe, reliable, and economic operation of nuclear power plants. In a number of OECD countries, such as the USA, work along these lines has advanced far, allowing operating permits for a number of nuclear power plants to be extended by another twenty years. Technical questions, licensing issues, and economic perspectives must be discussed by the parties involved in the light of the solutions envisaged. (orig.)

  18. YKAe - Nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a mid term evaluation of the YKAe programme started in 1990. In the area safe margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core the work in support of improved performance of LWR fuel is primarily an economic matter and, therefore, should be funded directly by the utilities. As regards assessment of transient and accident situations the experiments in the PACTEL facility provide conditions for VVER reactors which are not available anywhere else. Every effort should be made to utilize this facility in further international programmes. The analysis methods developed for accident and the fire risk studies are excellent and well focused in the specific needs of the Finnish programmes. Further activities in transient and accident modelling should be coupled with the work of the APROS programme. Studies on the new technology in supervision and control of nuclear power plant processes are of special importance to Finland either for the 5th nuclear power station or for the upgrading existing systems. The work on computerized operator support systems looks to be achieving maturity and should be considered for more downstream funding. The human factors studies are of direct relevance to reactor operations. The human factors research appears sub-critical and deserves more support. Overall, the Evaluation Team felt that this small programme was well focused on Finland's needs, well integrated into the international programmes and provided good value for money. The programme direction and balance is good, and with only minor shift emphasis, should carry on its projected course

  19. Some economic aspects of steam generator replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam generator replacements performed over last decade (about 25 replacements until now), indicate trends towards improved techniques, shorter schedules and reduced total exposure and total costs. The goal of this paper is to give a worldwide review of SG replacement experience with accent on the economic aspect of the SG replacement. The main information about carried out replacements will be presented: cost, schedules, exposures, SG supplier and type, date of replacement, etc. Furthermore, the paper will contain the list of planned steam generator replacements in Europe, Japan and US future replacement plans. Finally, some of NPPs will be described whose initial nominal power has been increased along with SG replacement. (author)

  20. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  1. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  2. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  3. Regulatory aspects of construction of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facility in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Construction of the first spent fuel (SF) dry storage facility (XOT-2) in Russia began in 2004 on a site at 'The Mining and Chemical Enterprise'(MCE). This storage facility is supposed to be used for temporary storage of SF from VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors. The whole projected capacity of the storage facility is more than 33000 tons of uranium. Systems for SF storage have two physical barriers: hermetic capsules and hermetic storage 'sockets'. It is necessary to guarantee the following requirements for SF storage: storage duration is not less than 50 years, storage medium is nitrogen, storage temperature is from 300 deg. C to 350 deg. C, water content is less than 25 g/cm3. In accordance with regulations (Article 26 of the Federal Law 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy'), no activity in the field of nuclear energy use is allowed without a licence for its execution. The Law defines several categories of facilities including the category 'storage of SF' The list of types of activities in the field of nuclear energy use that require licensing is established by the Government of the Russian Federation in the 'Provisions on licensing of activity in the field of nuclear energy use'. The Provisions include such types of activities as siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of SF storage. To obtain a licence, an applicant submits a set of documents to Rostechnadzor. The most important part of the licensing procedure is expert review of the documents justifying the safety of the planned facility. The purpose of this review is to give an independent assessment about the safety of the type of activity proposed by the licence applicant, to assess proposed technical solutions related to safety assurance. The results of the assessment are then set forth in a technical document prepared by the Safety and Engineering Centre for nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRC). The review of the complete set of documents justifying the safety of XOT-2 construction was

  4. Härra Eesti Energia lahkus haruldase kaevurikirkaga / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    30. novembril oli Eesti Energia juhi kohalt lahkuval Gunnar Okil viimane tööpäev, kuigi Eesti Energia juhatus pakkus Gunnar Okile korralise lepingu lõppemise järel aastast lepingut, keeldus juhatuse esimees selle sõlmimisest. Lisa: Oki-ajastu

  5. Eesti Energia pakuks börsil boonusaktsiaid / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium valmistub Eesti Energia aktsia avalikuks pakkumiseks. Riik soovib, et aktsionäride hulgas oleks rohkelt tavakodanikke, aktsiate ostmise motiveerimiseks lubatakse, et aasta pärast kingitakse lisaaktsiaid. Rahandusministeerium peab otsima alternatiive, kuidas Eesti Energia saaks lisaraha börsile minemata

  6. Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

  7. Eesti Energia asub uurima Jordaania põlevkivivarusid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Energia tütarfirma Oil Shale Energy of Jordan ja Jordaania valitsus kirjutasid alla ühiste kavatsuste kokkuleppele. Eesti Energia kavatseb teha Jordaania tütarettevõtte abiga uuringuid, eesmärk on rajada Jordaaniasse põlevkiviõlitehas. Kaart

  8. Metrological aspects in estimating of radiation dose in patients of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the performance of routine measurements in nuclear medicine services, LNMRI/IRD has been conducting, since 1998, a comparison program of activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. The present study shows how the correction factor is determined by the ratio between the measurement of the activity at the nuclear medicine center and the activity determined by the LNMRI, which is adopted as reference. It is essential that the dose calibrator be calibrated with standards traceable to national metrology laboratories, so that the activity administered to the patient is neither greater nor smaller than the appropriate value. The corrected values of the activities can be used to calculate with greater accuracy the effective doses received by the patients as well as the risk of cancer. Information related to radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities, type of exams and patient data of three Brazilian hospitals were collected for 1496 adults and 134 children submitted to diagnostic exams employing 99mTc and 131I. Results showed up to a considerable difference between the administered activity and the corrected activity until 30% and 13% above the reference value, respectively, for the 131I and 99mTc was detected. The consequences of these differences were not very critical in this study since the activity measured in dose calibrator before administration was lower than the corrected activity, thus causing a lower effective dose in patients. However, this reduction in activity may result in problems in obtaining the image and consequently, failure diagnosis, delaying correct diagnosis. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered

  9. Financing aspects of nuclear power programs. Key issue paper no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the standards applied to investment appraisal by financiers. It looks at the spectrum of costs, benefits and risks, which the project sponsors must meet to satisfy prospective financiers. Most considerations are standard to most types of investment project, particularly in a country where the technology is new. These standards apply where external financing is sought. Clearly, governments investing in nuclear power with public funds may choose to do so for other than competitive economic reasons, although ultimately efficient investment requires that they apply similar criteria in allocating available resources among the many demands on the public fisc. (author)

  10. Major aspects of strategy of hydrogen-base power development with nuclear energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hydrogen - highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. Large-scale use of hydrogen is mastered in industrial chemical processes and rocket engineering. Manufacture of hydrogen in the world has exceeded 50 MT H2 (6.4 EJ) and quickly grows. In the report the concept of Nuclear-hydrogen power (NHP) as strategy of production and use of hydrogen on base of 'clean' technologies and, first of all, modern innovative high-temperature nuclear energy source such as GT-MHR, modified under hydrogen production application is considered with steam reforming of methane (SRM). The increase of a nuclear energy share in a global energy balance is capable essentially to affect structure of on organic fuel consumption, and, hence, on resulting parameters on hydrocarbon world flows and CO2 emissions. Under the various forecasts (IIASA, IAEA, IEA, EPRI etc.) in 21 century the sharp growth of demand hydrogen is expected in connection with transition of various base technological branches to mainly intensive methods of qualitative products output with increase of processing depth of petroleum industry, greater release of ammonia and methanol, refinery processing (for example, from heavy oil or bituminous sand) or synthetic (first of all, - from coal) liquid fuel, increase of direct production of qualitative sponge iron etc. At the same time, greatest contribution to perspective growth of world demand on hydrogen is necessary to expect from a vehicle sector and systems of the dispersed power supply, in which the hydrogen acts as energy carrier, capable to collect and to be transported similarly to natural gas, but not having, as against methane, restrictions on resource base and not having effluents of greenhouse gases in an atmosphere. For the various scripts of global economy development and parameters of an expected level of power supply forecasts of market potential estimation are changing from low volumes of hydrogen production (in 1.5-2 times exceeding a present

  11. Nuclear power plant diagnostics - Safety aspects and licensing. Report of a technical committee meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to review developed systems and methods in diagnostics in the scope of their impacts and importance to the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Papers presented on TCM came from different sources, from developers, from manufacturers, from licensing authorities and from NPP personal. They reflect up to date status in the given subject. Participants of TCM formulated three working groups to elaborate different questions which were raised during the discussions. Their results are reflected in the three chapter titles of the given material. Annex 1 to this document contains presentations made at the Technical Committee Meeting. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  13. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  14. Atomic and nuclear hazards to man and the protection aspects against them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of radioactive materials is increasing these days and their applications find diverse channels. The needs of technology in the human life tends to be a significant factor. Creation of a nuclear reactor enables to use the different type of fission products in a variety of medical, industrial and research applications. But, the protective measures against the hazards resulting from different types of radiation are also important factors. Therefore, adequate protection to man is ensured by adequate protection to the environment. Protective steps are recommended. 10 refs

  15. Practical aspects of the application of the pinch technology for the reduction of the energy and cooling water consumption in a fertilizer plant; Aspectos practicos de la aplicacion de la tecnologia pinch para la reduccion del consumo de energia y agua de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M. [Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy and cooling water system make-up water consumption of a fertilizer plant were reduced in 18% and in 16.4 Tons/hr respectively, representing a substantial saving in the operational costs. The application of the pinch analysis to the process revealed the potential saving of existing energy. The need of reducing the incoming raw materials temperature and the operating pressure of two evaporators was identified, for this purpose it was necessary to install three additional heat exchangers. [Espanol] Los consumos de energia y de agua de reposicion del sistema de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes se redujeron en 18% y en 16.4 ton/hr respectivamente, representando un ahorro sustancial en los costos de operacion. La aplicacion del analisis Pinch al proceso revelo el potencial de ahorro de energia existente. Se identifico la necesidad de reducir la temperatura de alimentacion de la materia prima y la presion de operacion de dos evaporadores, para lo cual fue necesario implementar tres intercambiadores de calor adicionales.

  16. Criticality safety aspects of spent fuel arrays from emerging nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging nuclear fuel cycles: fuels with Pu or minor actinides (MA) for their self-generated recycling or transmutation in PWR or FR → reduction of radiotoxicity of HLW. The aim of work is to assess criticality (k∞) of arrays of spent nuclear fuels from these emerging fuel cycles. Procedures: Calculations of - k∞ using MCNP5 based on fresh and spent fuel compositions (infinite arrays), - spent fuel compositions using ORIGEN. Fuels considered: - commercial PWR-UO2 (R1) and -MOX (R2), [45 GWd/t] and fast reactor [100 GWd/t] (R3), - PWR self-generated Pu recycling (S1) and MA recycling (S2), FR self-generated MA recycling (S3), FR with 2% 237Np for transmutation purposes (T). Results: k∞ based on fresh and spent fuel compositions is shown. Fuels are clustered in two distinct families: - fast reactor fuels, - thermal reactor fuels; k∞ decreases when calculated on the basis of actinide and fission product inventory. In conclusions: - Emerging fuels considered resemble their corresponding commercial fuels; - k∞ decreases in all cases when calculated on the basis of spent fuel compositions (reactivity worth ∼-20%Δk/k), hence improving the effectiveness of packaging. (author)

  17. Psychological aspects of nuclear waste disposal: Long time perception and the question of discounting of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects of different ages and basic training indicated how they perceived risks related to spent nuclear fuel storage and located at different points of time into the future. The results indicated that minorities in all groups, ranging from about 10 to 40%, did not want to discount risks into the future. Those who discounted exhibited great inter and intra group variability. The physical discounting curves for e.g. both total radiation and for Pu-239 and -240 are within the range of curves generated by the groups for subjective discounting of risk. Politicians and experts were attributed equal shares of responsibility for risks of spent nuclear fuel in the future. About 10% to 40% of the subjects did not wish to discount responsibility. Discounting rates for those discounting varied so that some subjects decreased the level of responsibility to less than half 10 000 years into the future while others attributed this level of responsibility for 100 000 years and more. (orig./HP)

  18. Economic aspects of long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, 289 reactors in the world were older than 25 years, and only 45 new units were connected to the grid in 2000-2011. Without life extensions, nuclear capacity would thus fall dramatically in the next decade. In this series of slides the author reviews the legal limits and possibilities for long term operations (LTO) of nuclear reactors in the world. It appears 2 basic regulatory approaches to LTO: the license renewal and the periodic safety review. The typical investment in LTO is in the range of 500-1100 US dollar per kWe. The additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications are about 10 to 20% of initially projected LTO investment. It appears that life extension of more than 10 years is profitable. There are several uncertainties that can influence LTO programmes such as public acceptance, changes in national policies, changes in the prices of other energies and technological issues. The specific investment in LTO is detailed for Belgium, Hungary, the USA and Russia. (A.C.)

  19. Microphysical/mesoscale aspects of nuclear winter and new directions in assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results of model studies and sensitivity tests have shown the degree to which the intensity and duration of ''nuclear winter'' depends on the mass of soot and dust suspended, its optical properties, its vertical distribution in the atmosphere, and the residence time. The soot from urban fires is viewed as evolving during its dispersion from the early fire induced plumes, to cloud scale systems, to the mesoscale and larger systems. Micro-physical processes are perceived as operating within these systems in a manner to enhance removal from the troposphere, and to alter the verical distribution of the soot or its subsequent, aging or evolving aerosol. Relevant observations and studies of these processes are presented and discussed. Critical inputs to the climate simulation models may well be altered significantly by these process effects, many of which are in need of better definition. Appropriate research needs to be initiated to address and better define these microphysical/mesoscale processes of potential importance in the altered atmospheric system after a major nuclear exchange. 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Chemical and mineralogical aspects of water-bentonite interaction in nuclear fuel disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of nuclear fuel disposal, bentonite has been selected as the principal sealing and buffer material for placement around waste canisters, forming both a mechanical and chemical barrier between the radioactive waste and the surrounding ground water. Ion exchange and mineral alteration processes were investigated in a laboratory study of the long-term interaction between compacted Na-bentonite (Volclay MX-80) and ground water solutions, conducted under simulated nuclear fuel disposal conditions. The possible alteration of montmorillonite into illite has been a major object of the mineralogical study. However, no analytical evidence was found, that would indicate the formation of this non-expandable clay type. Apparently, the change of montmorillonite from Na- to Ca-rich was found to be the major alteration process in bentonite. In the water, a concentration decrease in Ca, Mg, and K, and an increase in Na, HCO3 and SO4 were recorded. The amount of calcium ions available in the water was considered insufficient to account for the recorded formation of Ca-montmorillonite. It is therefore assumed that the accessory Ca-bearing minerals in bentonite provide the fundamental source of these cations, which exchange with sodium during the alteration process. (38 refs.)

  1. Ecological-genetic aspects of consequences of an irradiation at the workers of a nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urgent problem of genetic consequences of radiation exposure at the workers of atomic plant ''Mayak'' is considered. Two basic aspects of this problem are allocated: influences of radiation on hereditary structures and processes, which is a prerogative of radiation genetics and role of the genetic factors in different reactions to an irradiation, that is a task of ecology genetics, which recently receives the increasing recognition. Proceeding from distinctions in reproduction biology of the human and experimental biological objects determining non-comparable mutation risk at them, is recognized expedient to expand a spectrum of genetic researches in the irradiated people. The results of different genetic researches in total in 2811 peoples executed in view of two named aspects discussed. At radiation-genetic investigation of distribution of genetic polymorphism system (haptoglobin -Hp, Gc-protein -Gc and blood groups ABO) the certain changes in distribution of Hp types and alleles of children of the irradiated workers connected with a gonad external gamma-radiation doses are established. The genetic structure of the grandsons of the irradiated workers has not any deviations. The increase of mutation frequency in minisatellite DNA in germline cells of irradiate workers was not found out. At ecological-genetic investigation the important meaning of haptoglobin genetic system in different radiation resistance of the people established at study of a role of a number of the genetic polymorphism systems (Hp, Gc and ABO) in radiation effects at different levels of biological organization. The integrated estimation of role of Hp genotypes in observable radiation effects carried out. (author)

  2. Dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in UAE – Economic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cost analysis of interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in the UAE was performed. • Two scenarios were considered: accelerated transfer of SNF and max. use of fuel pool. • Additional cost by accelerated transfer of SNF to dry storage was not significant. • Multiple regression analysis was applied to the resulting dry storage costs. • Dry storage costs for different cases could be expressed by single equations. - Abstract: Cost analysis of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from Barakah nuclear power plants in the UAE was performed using three variables: average fuel discharge rate (FD), discount rate (d), and cooling time in a spent fuel pool (Tcool). The costs of dry storage as an interim spent fuel storage option in the UAE were estimated and compared between the following two scenarios: Scenario 1 is ‘accelerated transfer of spent fuel to dry storage’ that SNF will be transferred to dry storage facilities as soon as spent fuel has been sufficiently cooled down in a pool for the dry storage; Scenario 2 is defined as ‘maximum use of spent fuel pool’ that SNF will be stored in a pool as long as possible till the amount of stored SNF in the pool reaches the capacity of the pools and, then, to be moved to dry storage. A sensitivity analysis on the costs was performed and multiple regression analysis was applied to the resulting net present values (NPVs) for Scenarios 1 and 2 and ΔNPV that is difference in the net present values between the two scenarios. The results showed that NPVs and ΔNPV could be approximately expressed by single equations with the three variables. Among the three variables, the discount rate had the largest effect on the NPVs of the dry storage costs. However, ΔNPV was turned out to be equally sensitive to the discount rate and cooling period. Over the ranges of the variables, the additional cost for accelerated fuel transfer (Scenario 1) ranged from 86.4 to 212.9 million $. Calculated using the

  3. Nuclear project back on track / Matt Garrick

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garrick, Matt

    2011-01-01

    1. juuniks on Leedu valitsus saanud Visaginasesse rajatava tuumaelektrijaama puudutavad investeerimisettepanekud Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Limited, General Electric Co. ja Westlinghouse Electric Company poolt. Peaminister Andrius Kubiliuse sõnul toob tuumaelektrijaam Leetu energiasõltumatuse

  4. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented

  5. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ''strong, high priority'' one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities

  6. Environmental aspects of tritium release in the Argentinas nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine nuclear power facilities of Atucha (CNA) and Embalse (CNE) use natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as coolant. During the normal operation a fraction of generated tritium by neutron activation of the deuterium of heavy water, is released into the atmosphere by means of liquid and gaseous discharged. From the radiological protection point of view, it is one of the main effluents. Therefore, from the start in operation of the CNA (1974) and the CNE (1984), continuous determinations of the gaseous and liquid discharged are made, as well as the environmental monitoring in the surroundings of the facilities is realized. In this work, the values of release and the concentration integrated along the time, obtained from the environmental monitoring in both power facilities are correlated. The results obtained with the model of transference used in the preoperational studies, are compared considering the parameters of atmospheric dispersion corresponding to the meteorological conditions of the own site. (author)

  7. Meteorological aspects of environmental health and safety planning in nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micrometeorological data i.e. those dealing with the properties of atmosphere in the first 100 meters or so above the earth's surface are required in planning and control of environmental impact of gaseous effluent releases from a nuclear power plant. Data of various types to be collected during the stages of site survey, site evaluation, normal operation of the plant and accident contigency planning are described. Atmospheric dispersion models in general and one suggested by Pasquill in particular are outlined. These models relate the dispersion parameters to the meteorological observables and are used in evaluating environmental dose. Cautions to be exercised while applying these models to the real situation are mentioned. The use of meteorological data for accident analysis while evaluating plant design parameters is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  8. The nuclear waste containment and some aspects of the deep disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French agency for the management of nuclear waste, ANDRA, is in charge of investigating the feasibility of deep disposal of high level waste in at least two types of geologic formation, leading to the validation of disposal concepts with and without retrievability. Plans to build two underground laboratories are afoot. Meanwhile, parametric modelling studies have been performed, with interesting results, some of which are shown here in graphic form. It is proved that if the overpack surrounding waste containers can be made to last for a thousand years, the dose resulting from Sr-90 and Cs-137 is nil. Conversely, the dose from actinides such as americium and Th-229 is largely unaffected by the package, being determined by their own low solubilities and underground water flow. Temperature rise in a granite host formation was modelled as a function of the distance between disposal boreholes. Finite element two dimensional calculations of water flow through backfill were also performed. 1 ref., 8 figs

  9. Various aspects of the Deformation Dependent Mass model of nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Petrellis, D; Minkov, N

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a variant of the Bohr Hamiltonian was proposed where the mass term is allowed to depend on the beta variable of nuclear deformation. Analytic solutions of this modified Hamiltonian have been obtained using the Davidson and the Kratzer potentials, by employing techniques from supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Apart from the new set of analytic solutions, the newly introduced Deformation-Dependent Mass (DDM) model offered a remedy to the problematic behaviour of the moment of inertia in the Bohr Hamiltonian, where it appears to increase proportionally to the square of beta. In the DDM model the moments of inertia increase at a much lower rate, in agreement with experimental data. The current work presents an application of the DDM-model suitable for the description of nuclei at the point of shape/phase transitions between vibrational and gamma-unstable or prolate deformed nuclei and is based on a method that was successfully applied before in the context of critical point symmetries.

  10. A review of the nuclear aspects of fast-reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide a somewhat philosophical review of the progress, status and problems in fast-reactor safety. It begins with a discussion of the status of studies into the nuclear side of safety at the time of the 2nd Geneva Conference in 1958. Recent developments in the safety of moderate-sized , metal-fuelled reactors are then treated, including questions of stability, core melt-down, autocatalytic effects and explosion calculations. The philosophy applied in the choice of a 'maximum accident' for such reactors is examined. The changes in safety characteristics which arise with different fuel element types and for rather large reactors are reviewed, including questions of zero fuel expansion, positive sodium reactivity coefficients and Doppler effect. The influence of these changed safety characteristics on design and on hazards evaluation is discussed. And finally, the outstanding safety problems presently facing fast reactors are listed. (author)

  11. Aspects of environmental monitoring by British Nuclear Fuels plc following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident arrived in West Cumbria on 2 May 1986. The environmental monitoring facilities of the British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield reprocessing plant were used to monitor radioactivity in air, deposition on grass and on soil and concentrations in milk. The distribution of deposition between sampled grass and soil was affected by heavy rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud. Measurements of radioactivity in milk at a lowland farm on the coastal plain resulted in a critical group effective dose of 0.64 mSv up to the end of July, but additional doses are expected to result from the use of silage during the winter. Comparisons are made between these doses from milk consumption and those predicted from the data available shortly after the deposition of the radioactivity on the pasture. (author)

  12. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences

  13. A CD-ROM About Radiation Protection Aspects of a Nuclear Accident: Towards more Openness and Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    beneficial to all players, with all aspects of nuclear risk management dealt with together, answers are provided for some of the most frequently asked questions. The reactions provoked by the medium should give the technical experts a better understanding of the psychological and sociological considerations that would play an important role in any real nuclear crisis

  14. Some aspects of programmable digital systems usage in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation of the NPP Krsko - NEK and other nuclear power plants, it has been recognized that certain issues related to the usage of digital equipment and associated software in NPP technological process protection, control and monitoring, are usually not adequately addressed in the existing programs and procedures. Moreover, often the problems related to the programmable digital systems usage are not understood correctly, which means that they can not be treated properly. Owing to the specifics of the programmable digital systems usage they have to be treated in a different way than other plant equipment and related documentation. The term as well as the process of Process Computers Configuration Control was introduced to control, among other issues, three 10CFR50 Appendix B quality requirements related to the Process Computers application in NPP: Design Control, Document Control, Identification and Control of Materials, Parts and Components. Based on the experience from NEK and published experience from other NPP and other organizations, this paper sheds light on specifics of the programmable digital systems usage in nuclear power plants. The wording Programmable Digital Systems was used rather than Process Computers, to emphasize wide area of applicability of this term: from simple digital components with burned-in programs to the PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) and large process computer systems. In order to satisfy requirements of the Process Computer Configuration Control, specific characteristics and specific problems related to the usage of programmable digital systems require specific treatment of these issues. This paper describes those specific characteristics and traditional misunderstandings, false beliefs, false expectations and common errors that are most frequently committed in the life cycle of the programmable digital systems, as well as consequences and problems that could develop. The paper also refers to the regulations, industry

  15. Nuclear safety: operational aspects. 5. Data Communication in a Nuclear Digital I and C System-The Korean Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-scale use of a microprocessor-based digital instrumentation and control (I and C) system for the control of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea has spanned >14 yr and has covered eight plants. Experience gained from these applications is substantial. In this paper, the discussion centers on the design experience of the data communication portion of the digital I and C system along with the associated nuclear licensing issues. The data communication designs of the eight plants (four operating and four under construction) have changed from project to project and from supplier to supplier. The first two of the eight plants, Yonggwang NPP (YGN) Units 3 and 4 (YGN-3 and 4) included only the on/off (binary) controls in the digital I and C system. The subsequent six plants had a fully expanded scope of plant controls including both on/off controls as well as continuous (analog) controls. These latter six plants are Ulchin NPP (UCN) Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4), YGN Units 5 and 6 (YGN 5 and 6), and UCN Units 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) in the order of their construction start dates. The digital system suppliers are Forney for YGN 3 and 4 and UCN 5 and 6; and Eaton for UCN 3 and 4 and YGN 5 and 6. The Forney system uses bus network architecture, while the Eaton system is based on a ring network configuration. The design differences, advantages, disadvantages, and specific licensing issues of these two configurations unique to the NPP operating environment are discussed in the abstract. The discussions are organized into two parts: the Forney system of YGN 3 and 4 and the Eaton system of YGN 5 and 6. The Forney system of UCN 5 and 6 is still in its early stage of design and manufacture, and it is basically similar to the design of YGN 3 and 4 except for the system upgrade from a 16- to a 32-bit system and the addition of an analog plant monitoring and control function. The Eaton system of UCN 3 and 4 is essentially identical to that of YGN 5 and 6 except that the YGN 5 and 6

  16. Some common aspects between global warming and fusion nuclear technology from the perspective of thermofluid research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interest in the environmental and meteorological fields has been recently focused on the estimation of the temperature rise on the earth in the near and distant future. This problem is strongly related to the imbalance of the amount of carbon on the earth after the industrial revolution; termed the 'Missing Sink' problem. The temperature rise is estimated by the gas transfer flux=(gas transfer rate) x (partial pressure difference of CO2 between air and sea surface). It is very difficult to measure and estimate the gas exchange coefficient resulting from the air-sea interaction because of the very high Schmidt number (Sc) turbulent fluid flow with free surface deformation. On the other hand, the utilization of a high Prandtl number (Pr) fluid flow with a free surface as a coolant in an advanced magnetic fusion reactor and as a chamber protection scheme in an inertial confinement fusion reactor have been considered. Because the diffusivities of high Pr or Sc fluids are very small, when the high temperature or concentration regions appear on the free surface, caused by plasma radiation or carbon-dioxide gas absorption, respectively, the scalar transport from the free surface to the bulk flow is very slow compared to the fluid motion. In this paper, some common aspects between the heat transfer of high Pr free surface flow in fusion engineering and the mass transfer of high Sc free surface flow in the global warming problem are discussed. (author)

  17. Economic Aspect of HVDC Transmission System for Indonesia Consideration in Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a country with hundreds million people, Indonesia needs to generate large scale power and distribute it to thorough country to improve gross domestic product of the population. In the power transmission domain, the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system should be considered for the next decades concerning any technical and economical problems with HVAC transmission. HVDC transmission system is the answer for the Indonesian condition. This system can connect the high energy potential regions to the high energy demand regions. HVDC is the most efficient to transport energy from one region to another one region. Dismantling and removing assets costs are included to the estimated for capital costs, while the environmental and property costs are the costs of securing designations and resource consents, and valuation and legal advice for the HVDC investment. Although converter terminals are expensive however, for long transmissions HVDC system can compensate the costs over breakeven distance through very efficient transmission system. Efficiency of HVDC is appearing from conductor wire, supporting tower, low energy loses and free space used by route of the transmission line. HVDC system is also free from some problem, concerning stability, inductive and capacitive load components, phase differences and frequency system. In the economic aspect the HVDC capital costs for the transmission options comprise estimates of the cost to design, purchase and construct new HVDC transmission components. While operating and maintenance costs of HVDC assets comprise the costs for replacement the old existing overhead transmission lines, underground and submarine cables, and HVDC converter station components. (author)

  18. Chemical aspects of the precise and accurate determination of uranium and plutonium from nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simultaneous or separate determination of uranium and plutonium has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of uranium and plutonium as their chloro complexes on Dowex 1x10 column. When separate uranium and plutonium fractions are desired, plutonium ions are reduced to Pu (III) and eluted, after which the uranium ions are eluted with dilute HCl. Simultaneous stripping of a mass ratio U/Pu approximately 1 fraction for mass spectrometric measurements is achieved by proper choice of eluant HC1 concentration. Special attention was paid to the obtaining of americium free plutonium fractions. The distribution coefficient measurements showed that at 12.5-M HCl at least 30 % of americium ions formed anionic chloro complexes. The chemical aspects of isotopic fractionation in a multiple filament thermal ionization source were also investigated. Samples of uranium were loaded as nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates and the dependence of the measured uranium isotopic ratios on the chemical form of the loading solution as well as on the filament material was studied. Likewise the dependence of the formation of uranium and its oxide ions on various chemical and instrumental conditions was investigated using tungsten and rhenium filaments. Systematic errors arising from the chemical conditions are compared with errors arising from the automatic evaluation of of spectra. (author)

  19. Aspects of probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear safety in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the current status of application and further development of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology in the Federal Republic of Germany. Referring to the experience obtained so far, especially to the insights gained from the German Risk Study, graduated levels for application of PRA methods are briefly described. Thereby the following items are pointed out: (a) the use of PRA to identify weak points in the systems and to evaluate plant system modifications; (b) evaluation of the database, identification and quantification of common-mode failures, human intervention, and (c) modelling of accident progression, description of core-melt sequences and containment response. In the second part of the paper, aspects concerning the assessment of risk and appropriate forms for setting up quantitative safety goals are considered. Although this topic is still under discussion the paper examines the possibility for quantitative criteria which can give guidance for further improvement of safety features. Two approaches are outlined briefly: (a) a plant-oriented engineering approach considering graduated levels of safety requirements, and (b) a risk criterion, setting limits to frequencies of dose commitments with respect to the individual mortality risk. (author)

  20. Some aspects of a technology of processing weapons grade plutonium to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept by Russia to use fissile weapons-grade materials, which are being recovered from nuclear pits in the process of disarmament, is based on an assessment of weapons-grade plutonium as an important energy source intended for use in nuclear power plants. However, in the path of involving plutonium excessive from the purposes of national safety into industrial power engineering there are a lot of problems, from which effectiveness and terms of its disposition are being dependent upon. Those problems have political, economical, financial and environmental character. This report outlines several technology problems of processing weapons-grade metallic plutonium into MOX-fuel for reactors based on thermal and fast neutrons, in particular, the issue of conversion of the metal into dioxide from the viewpoint of fabrication of pelletized MOX-fuel. The processing of metallic weapons-grade plutonium into nuclear fuel is a rather complicated and multi-stage process, every stage of which is its own production. Some of the stages are absent in production of MOX-fuel, for instance the stage of the conversion, i.e. transferring of metallic plutonium into dioxide of the ceramic quality. At this stage of plutonium utilization some tasks must be resolved as follows: I. As a result of the conversion, a material purified from ballast and radiogenic admixtures has to be obtained. This one will be applied to fabricate pelletized MOX-fuel going from morphological, physico-mechanical and technological properties. II. It is well known that metallic gallium, which is used as an alloying addition in weapons-grade plutonium, actively reacts with multiple metals. Therefore, an important issue is to study the effect of gallium on the technology of MOX-fuel production, quality of the pellets, as well as the interaction of gallium oxide with zirconium and steel shells of fuel elements depending upon the content of gallium in the fuel. The rate of the interaction of gallium oxide

  1. Some aspects of digital I and C and digital human-system interface upgrades in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital I and C technology introduces some new terms and new processes like software life cycle, process computer configuration control, digital human-system interface (HSI), software V and V (Verification and Validation), software common mode failure potential, software documentation, etc. Based on the experience from NEK, and other NPPs and published reports from other organizations, this paper sheds light on challenging tasks related to some aspects of the digital I and C upgrades and especially the NPP MCR/MCB HSI (Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Room / Main Control Board Human-System Interface) upgrade. The Ref. [1], EPRI Report TR-1008122 was used as a guidance to analyze original NEK MCR/MCB HSI design (1970s), to describe migration from the original MCR/MCB HSI design to the 2005 AS-BUILT status and to propose the authors vision for the key planning aspects for I and C upgrades and MCR modernization. This paper submits the justified proposal for the endpoint vision and the migration path applicable to NEK MCR/MCB HSI modernization, as well as some of the possible risks and lessons learned. (author)

  2. Comparison of Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects of Nuclear Power Plants A1 and V1 Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with planning, management and organizational aspects of decommissioning of NPP shut down due to the accident (prototype NPP A1) and NPP shut down after normal operation (NPP V1). The A1 and V1 NPPs are located very close in Bohunice nuclear site however both plants have very different technology and operational history. The preparation of A1 NPP decommissioning strategy and relevant decommissioning plans was long term process, because the plant was shut down after the accident in 1977 and decommissioning was implemented first time in Slovakia with many specific difficulties. The decommissioning planning of V1 NPP was shorter and easier, because the plant was shut down after normal operation, there were lessons learned from the A1 NPP decommissioning planning, available legislation, available financing etc. Development of decommissioning strategies, preparation and planning for decommissioning, development of legislation for decommissioning, management of decommissioning projects and other aspects are described and compared. Lessons learned are formulated on the basis of analysis of past, ongoing and planned decommissioning activities in Slovakia. (author)

  3. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 3. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Diccionario tecnico de terminos de la industria de energia. Recursos energeticos nucleares y no nucleares. Bd. 3. Aleman-Espanol/Espanol-Aleman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the Spanish language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  4. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-06-01

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many `normal` disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or `environmental damage`. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs.

  5. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  6. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper

  7. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the basic requirements for control of gaseous and particulate effluents are given as applied to problems of feed material production, isotope separation, fuel element fabrication, fuel recovery and reactor operation. There are also instances where non-radioactive nuclear materials with toxic or nuisance effluents such as from beryllium and zirconium production are of concern and these too must be controlled at reasonable costs. The factors involved in capital and operating costs of gas cleaning equipment and the types of applications in the United States are described in some detail. Gaseous effluent problems have, of course, been attacked and controlled by several types of device but their performance has been measured on a comparable basis. It is thus possible to judge operating characteristics on an economic basis as related to power consumption, adsorbent costs, space charges, corrosion problems and other operational factors. The United States Atomic Energy Commission through its contract with the Harvard University Air Cleaning Laboratory has initiated an evaluation program with cooperation, from the various facilities and contractors to the Commission. In this study the basic factors necessary to obtain quantitative cost delineation and evaluation have been outlined and some preliminary findings will be presented. The paper also presents a review of other economic studies made in the United States on particular process or facility applications. (author)

  8. Experimental and theoretical aspects of pionization in nuclear collisions below 100 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion production in nuclear collisions below 100 MeV per nucleon is investigated in both experimental and theoretical point of view. In a first experimental part and after a brief review of the already existing set-ups, the conception and the first beam tests of a spectrometer for the detection of charged pions are described. A detailed analysis of the results obtained up to now concludes this first part. In a second theoretical part and after a review of the models proposed in the literature, three original studies are presented. The first one is an extension of the Shyam-Knoll model to a coincidence calculation so allowing to test this model in the frame of a semi-exclusive kind of experiment; the second one is a calculation of the production by nucleon-nucleon inelastic collisions in a hot expanding Fermi gas; finally, the third one shows, with help of a schematic model, the importance of the effects of pion re-absorption in the medium. These whole studies show that pion production at the considered energies is still an open problem. 47 refs

  9. Physical aspects of scintigraphy-based dosimetry for nuclear medicine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geworski, L.; Knoop, B.O. [Dept. of Radiation Protection and Medical Physics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Schaefer, A.; Kirsch, C.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland Univ. Medical Center, Homburg (Germany); Pinkert, J. [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany); Plotkin, M. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Charitee, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In nuclear medicine therapy the treatment of tumours by radiation exposure from internally deposited labelled antibodies or labelled peptides is currently an active field of investigation. To permit the efficient delivery of high amounts of radiation dose to tumours while limiting the radiation dose to critical organs dosimetry calculations have to be performed. These are relying on scintigraphic data being input to the well known MIRD formalism. This paper focuses on the methods and the difficulties associated with the scintigraphic determination of organ kinetics. The physical properties of the well-known scintigraphic imaging modalities, PET, SPECT and planar scintigraphy, are discussed thereby taking into account the properties of the appropriate radionuclides currently being available for therapy and dosimetry. Several arguments are given and disputed for the limited clinical use of PET and SPECT in dosimetry and the ongoing preference of planar whole-body imaging as the method of choice. The quantitative restrictions still inherent to this method are also discussed in detail. Procedural recommendations are proposed covering all processes related to data acquisition, data correction and data analysis which finally lead to reliable estimations of organ dose. (orig.)

  10. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  11. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many 'normal' disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or 'environmental damage'. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs

  12. Dynamic aspects of the nuclear decay: from the fission to the multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the evolution and nature of reaction and decay mechanisms of hot nuclei produced in heavy ion collisions from E = 8 to 25 MeV/A measured with INDRA. In central Xe+Sn collisions from E = 8 to 25 MeV/A, three-fragment events present a significant cross section without the underlying production mechanism being clearly established. We have shown that fragments arise from two successive binary splittings. The time interval between these two splittings decreases with increasing incident energy, becoming compatible with a simultaneous three-body break-up above E = 20 MeV/A, which was interpreted as the signature of the onset of multifragmentation. Then we have investigated the nature of the multifragmentation process. A statistical analysis of the largest fragment charge (Zmax) distribution produced in central Xe+Sn collisions at E = 25-50 MeV/A allowed us to establish that multifragmentation is a dynamical aggregation process. It also demonstrates the effects of collective radial expansion on multifragmentation partitions through the link between the timescale of the process and the shape of the Zmax distribution. The comparison of fragmentation patterns of comparable size systems produced in symmetric (Xe+Sn) and asymmetric (Ta+Zn) central collisions, which are supposed to follow different trajectories in the nuclear phase diagram, confirm the link between collective radial expansion and fragment partitions in multifragmentation. (author)

  13. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Department of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper.

  14. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on nuclear fuel and control rods: operating experience, design evolution and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and management of nuclear fuel has undergone a strong evolution process during past years. The increase of the operating cycle length and of the discharge burnup has led to the use of more advanced fuel designs, as well as to the adoption of fuel efficient operational strategies. The analysis of recent operational experience highlighted a number of issues related to nuclear fuel and control rod events raising concerns about the safety aspects of these new designs and operational strategies, which led to the organisation of this Specialists Meeting on fuel and control rod issues. The meeting was intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information on lessons learned and safety concern related to operating experience with fuel and control rods (degradation, reliability, experience with high burnup fuel, and others). After an opening session 6 papers), this meeting was subdivided into four sessions: Operating experience and safety concern (technical session I - 6 papers), Fuel performance and operational issues (technical session II - 7 papers), Control rod issues (technical session III - 9 papers), Improvement of fuel design (technical session IV.A - 4 papers), Improvement on fuel fabrication and core management (technical session IV.B - 6 papers)

  15. A comparative study of health and safety aspects in the utilisation of coal and nuclear energy for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the analysis of the risks associated with nuclear energy systems and coal-fired power stations are discussed and compared. The average dose has been estimated to be less than 5 mrem/a for a fully developed ruclear power programme. This dose is about 5% of the natural dose of 100 mrem/a. On the basis an average of 1500 spontaneous cancer deaths per million per year, the contribution due to 5 mrem/a would be one additional cancer death of the exposed group i.e. 0.066%. On the other hand, effluents from the coal-fired stations have been found to contribute 5.5% to 19% of the total lung cancer deaths. A point often not noticed is the radiological hazards due to the natural radioactive content of coal. The fly-ash contains radium-226 and radium-228. The plumes of the coal-fired stations contain radon and its daughter products. Taking into account the radiological and chemical hazards of coal burning, the nuclear energy systems are far better than coal-fired power stations. (M.G.B.)

  16. Act No 85 of 18 March 1982 granting the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare a State contribution of 2,890 milliard lire to the 5-year activity programme 1980-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act came into force on 23 March 1982. It provides for the financing of the ENEA's (formerly CNEN) programme of work for the period 1980-1984. It further provides that within one year of its entry into force, the Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection - DISP (formerly within CNEN) will be set up as an independent, autonomous body, with tasks involving control over activities entailing major risks, including nuclear activities. (NEA)

  17. Some aspects of development and implementation of e-learning in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Information technology has enabled organizations to re-engineer the way they operate. New infrastructures allow organizations to take advantage of the transactional and communication capabilities information technology provides. During last decade international attention to nuclear industry dramatically increased. It accelerated already started process of implementation great number of innovations and modifications in existing plants and construction and commissioning of new units. As the number of modifications and innovations increased the volume of information increased as well and became fragmented. The sheer volume of information could be overwhelming. At the same time due to workforce ageing and distorted image of the profession the smooth process of generation substitution has been interrupted. The need to identify, elicit, preserve and disseminate important pieces of knowledge that enable effective operation in the interest of nuclear sector became critical. In order to meet this challenge new approach needed to be implemented. Turning information and data into knowledge became a prime priority. The most appropriate concept which could cover this enormous amount of information and data could be a knowledge management. Without such system staff spends large amounts of time reinventing the wheel and often repeating the past mistakes. Knowledge management enables the enterprise to maintain, develop, and distribute the knowledge expertise of its people. Basic and most powerful instrument for establishing of such system are various applications of information technology. One of them is e-learning. E-learning and knowledge management have several features in common. Both deal with knowledge exchange and creating communities where knowledge is shared. Knowledge management is particularly challenged in attempting to explicate, share, and leverage tacit knowledge. Interactive nature of e-learning creates environment supporting sharing culture and transfer

  18. Nuclear safety: operational aspects. 1. Demonstrating the Link Between Safety Culture and Competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20 years ago, we demonstrated a methodology for distinguishing the safety cultures of nuclear power plants. Using the content of licensee event reports, the methodology led to the identification of metrics that could be used to partition 12 pilot plants into better and poorer performers. The partitioning was validated by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) experts and shown to be statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence. We wanted to know if the passage of time had validated the differences in performance identified by the original methodology. Our follow-up confirmed the validity of the methodology and also revealed an order of magnitude difference in the long-term survival probability of the 12 pilot plants. The lessons learned from these studies could help plant owners improve safety culture and competitiveness in today's Darwinian marketplace. The original study sought to determine if it was possible to distinguish between better- and poorer-performing plants. The study found it was possible and developed a methodology for doing so. Key breakthroughs included the following: 1. recognizing that safety performance is a stochastic process; thus, performance data must be evaluated using appropriate methods; 2. developing a model for interpreting and transforming raw data into a root-cause domain; 3. maintaining a rigorous model design logic and selecting analytical tools and procedures consistent with that logic; 4. determining that the number of low significance events is an unreliable measure of performance; 5. recognizing that it is the relationship between events that is crucial to understanding performance and risk. Metrics were developed using a test population of 12 plants selected and grouped as 'good' or 'poor' performers by NRC's most senior inspectors. The test population included three plants that had significant events in a 2-yr period and nine that had none. The metrics validated differences in performance hypothesized

  19. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density ∼3-5x1010 cm-3 and temperature ∼7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  20. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)