WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspects energia nuclear

  1. Nuclear energy - some aspects; Energia nuclear - alguns aspectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-15

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy.

  2. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são discutidos alguns aspectos comerciais e políticos do problema. São também examinadas as estratégias de vendas da indústria nuclear no Brasil.This article reviews the history and describes the experience on nuclear energy in Brazil, showing that nuclear technology applied to biomedical sciences, industry and agriculture has been largely developed in this country, from the year 1950 on. Then the paper shows that Brazil can cover its electricity consumption with only renewable energy sources, without nuclear power plants. Finally the arguments usually employed in the press, pro and against nuclear power plants are analyzed and some commercial and political aspects of the problem are commented. The sales strategy of the nuclear industry in Brazil is also commented.

  3. Fusione nucleare: l’energia delle stelle

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Francesca; Sandrelli, Stefano; Gizzi, Leonida Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Intervengono Leonida Antonio Gizzi, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR, sede di Pisa, associato INFN Francesca Matteucci, docente di Astrofisica, Università di Trieste, accademico dei Lincei Modera Stefano Sandrelli, divulgatore e astrofisico, INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera E = mc2, diceva Einstein. Ovvero: la materia si può trasformare in energia e viceversa. Ma se per produrre energia bastasse solo un po’ di materia, non avremmo risolto ogni possibile crisi energe...

  4. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são dis...

  5. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  6. Energia nuclear: Uma solução para Portugal?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cosme Costa Vieira

    2006-01-01

    As pessoas receiam a energia nuclear por diversas razões. Foi desenvolvida no contexto de uma guerra mundial, é a base da “destruição mútua garantida”, houve o acidente de Chernobyl e é necessário guardar o combustível utilizado durante vários séculos. Mas Portugal não tem recursos energéticos e precisa de energia para se desenvolver sem aumentar a emissão para a atmosfera de dióxido de carbono. No sentido de informar sobre a solução nuclear, neste trabalho explico a tecnologia e apresento um...

  7. Energia nuclear em um cenário de trinta anos Nuclear energy over a 30-year scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Feu Alvim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A perspectiva da Energia Nuclear no Brasil é analisada sob os aspectos demanda, custos, ambiental, tecnológico e estratégico. A demanda energética projetada, mesmo para crescimentos abaixo dos desejados e considerando algum esforço de redução da intensidade energética, mostra a necessidade de adicionar energia térmica à geração elétrica, hoje predominantemente hídrica. A energia nuclear deve ter participação nessa geração por motivos econômicos, ambientais, tecnológicos e estratégicos.The perspectives of nuclear energy in Brazil is analyzed regarding demand, costs, environmental, technological and strategic aspects. The projected energy demand, even for a growth rate below the desired one and considering some efforts relative to energy intensity reduction, shows the need of adding thermal energy to electricity generation, now predominantly hydraulic. Nuclear energy should have a share in this generation due to economical, environmental, technological and strategic reasons.

  8. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2003 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous.

  9. Nuclear Energy in Brazil; La energia nuclear en Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranjan Filho, A.

    2011-07-01

    This article deals with the fact that sustainable development requires the use of all forms of primary energy for electricity production and particularly of those which are environmental friendly, as nuclear. Any strategy to counterbalance the greenhouse effect will mean curtailing the use of fossil fuel and in that regard nuclear technology, the only one that manages to isolate safety its wastes, is a feasible alternative to protect the environment. Currently, hydropower is the major source of electricity generation in Brazil, but according to the expected increase of demand up to 2030, it will need to be complemented by thermal units, that in fact are currently needed to compensate for reservoirs fluctuations. In that scenario, nuclear appears as one of the most competitive options for base-load operation and in the case of Brazil, nuclear energy could have the support of important uranium reserves and technological mastering of the nuclear fuel fabrication. (Author)

  10. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG)

  11. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  12. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  13. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  14. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  15. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  16. Nuclear energy and climate change; Energia nuclear y cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, A.

    2002-07-01

    Energy is one of the essential motives for social and economic development of the humanity. Nuclear energy is a feasible option to stand up to a larger demand of energy, and it is playing, and will continue playing in the future, a decisive role in the debate about climate change and sustainable development, and in the efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions. (Author)

  17. Nuclear energy and sustainable development; Energia Nuclear y desarrollo sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.

    2005-07-01

    To sustain decent environmental conditions, it is essential to contain the emission of greenhouse gases. to a great extent, this can be achieved by reducing the almost exclusive dependence of fossil fuels for producing electricity and by championing nuclear energy and the renewable, which in the end are the least contaminating. Specifically, operation of the European nuclear fleet avoids the yearly emission of 700 million tons of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. The need to combat climate change is very serious and increasingly imminent, especially if we remember that the World Health Organization has said that climate change could eventually cause 300,000 deaths. The different social players are aware of the problem. In fact, the European Union's Cabinet of Ministers approved the post-kyoto Environmental Strategy, which underlines the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by the year 2050. It seems obvious that, in the long run, technological research and development will be fundamental pieces in the battle against environmental change and in the effort to one day provide 2,000 million people with access to electricity. (Author)

  18. Reactores a tório: o futuro da energia nuclear de fissão

    OpenAIRE

    Vilares, João Pedro Martins

    2015-01-01

    A geração de energia eléctrica a partir de energia nuclear sob a forma de fissão afigura-se cada vez mais importante uma vez que a utilização de combustíveis fósseis terá necessariamente um fim, relacionado sobretudo com a crescente dificuldade de acesso a reservas desses combustíveis. Com o presente trabalho pretende-se discutir as vantagens e os inconvenientes da utilização do tório em reactores nucleares relativamente aos reactores tradicionais a operar a urân...

  19. Análise de um projecto de investimento na energia nuclear em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Pedro Tiago Marques

    2011-01-01

    Face ao aumento do consumo anual de electricidade verificado em Portugal e ao aumento dos preços dos combustíveis fósseis, é imperativo diversificar as fontes de energia disponíveis. A energia nuclear, no que concerne ao efeito de estufa, é menos nociva para o ambiente e constitui uma solução alternativa à dependência dos combustíveis fósseis. A energia nuclear continua a ser uma interessante área de pesquisa e estudo, não só para melhorar ainda mais a segurança, mas também para mino...

  20. Energia nuclear em um cenário de trinta anos Nuclear energy over a 30-year scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Feu Alvim; Frida Eidelman; Olga Mafra; Omar Campos Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    A perspectiva da Energia Nuclear no Brasil é analisada sob os aspectos demanda, custos, ambiental, tecnológico e estratégico. A demanda energética projetada, mesmo para crescimentos abaixo dos desejados e considerando algum esforço de redução da intensidade energética, mostra a necessidade de adicionar energia térmica à geração elétrica, hoje predominantemente hídrica. A energia nuclear deve ter participação nessa geração por motivos econômicos, ambientais, tecnológicos e estratégicos.The per...

  1. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  2. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  3. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)

  4. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  5. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection process, both engineering and environmental resources must be identified and evaluated. Environmental resources include areas that support agricultural or aquatic commercial activities, habitats for commercial or endangered species, population centers, transportation systems, and recreational areas. Also, during the site selection process, the potential impacts of both construction and operating activities must be considered. In addition to the area actually disturbed by construction, construction activities also affect local services, such as transportation systems, housing, school systems, and other social services. Since nuclear power plants use a 'clean fuel,' generally the most significant operating activity having a potential environmental impact is the discharge of cooling water. The potential effect of this discharge on commercial activities and sensitive habitats should be thoroughly evaluated. Lastly, the method of decommissioning can affect long-range land use planning and should therefore be considered during the planning process. With appropriate planning, nuclear power plants can be constructed and operated with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  6. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  7. The convenience of nuclear energy; La conveniencia de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, A.

    2007-07-01

    It is unquestionable that the power sources must change, for the same reasons for which the propagandist ones have been appropriated of the nuclear energy: its use is not a sustainable practice and produces the climatic change and other many damages. In this sense, any alternative has to be considered, and, a priori, the nuclear one, that at this moment is very minority in the power system, does not have to be an exception. For that reason it is not necessary to let be critical with anyone of the alternatives that are considered, and this aspect also affects the nuclear energy. (Author)

  8. Viabilidade económica da implementação de um reactor nuclear para a produção de energia eléctrica em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Miguel António de Morais

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo avaliar economicamente e determinar a viabilidade da implementação de um reactor nuclear para produção de energia eléctrica. Faz-se uma abordagem a aspectos da energia nuclear no mundo e em particular a energia nuclear na união europeia, faz-se uma análise sobre a estrutura do sector nuclear em Espanha e o futuro da energia no mundo. É realizada uma análise sobre a energia nuclear em Portugal, são abordados aspectos como o planeamento energético, a local...

  9. Nuclear energy, energy for the present and the future; Energia nuclear, una energia para el presente y el futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo S, C. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this work we will try to show that nuclear energy can contribute to the generation energy in the present and the future, considering that its effect on the climatic change is relatively low and that the fuels that uses are available a large scale. At the moment it is had already commercial thermal fission reactors , there are also them of fast fission that allow the fuel rearing, although these last ones in much smaller number, with both types of fission nuclear reactors can be obtained a very important contribution to the generation of energy at world-wide level during the time that is necessary so that it is developed, constructs and operates the first commercial fusion reactor. The energy that is generated in the present and future must come from different sources, which require to be reliable, to have little effect on the environment, to have wide reserves of fuels and to be viable from an economic and social point of view, they must be viable and safe. Between possible alternative energies it is counted on the lot, the wind one, the geothermal one, originating of the tides and some others. An energy that must be considered so that it has arrived at his maturity and he is already able to contribute widely to cover the present needs and future it is nuclear energy, as much the originating one of the fission of a heavy centre like obtained when fusing two light centers. On base in the nuclear fuel reserves at world-wide level a simple calculation takes control of the lapse in which energy by means of the nuclear fission in rearing can be generated reactors expresses demonstrating that the time sufficient to finish to the investigation and development of fusion reactors which they generate energy in economic, safe and reliable form. Combining these two options the nuclear energy can be considered the future like for the present and the future with practically null effects in the climatic change. (Author)

  10. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  11. Public communication and nuclear energy; La comunicacion publica y la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornado, A.

    2006-07-01

    The article tries to explain why on occasion the public's perception of nuclear is more negative than of any other form of electricity generation or issue related to this field, when in reality public opinion has been gradually losing interest in nuclear in recent years. In fact, we could say that as nuclear loses its interest, its presence in the media grows in relation to the environmental aspects of electricity generation, of which nuclear form a part. Of the accusations directed at the nuclear industry, probably the most frequent one concerns the lack of transparency and lack of information on its activities. This article shows how the nuclear sector is probably one that generates more and better information on its own business. However, the lack of social acceptance of this activity, and of the energy business in general, is recognized. To solve this, mention is made of the example of France and Finland, where a well planned communication policy, implemented on a sustained basis over time, and the invitation to society to take part in these issues have favored a substantial improvement of public acceptance of electric generation sources, and specifically the nuclear option. The article ends with some recommendations that could be applied to Spain. (Author)

  12. Nuclear energy - some regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is often perceived by the public as being uniquely hazardous. As a consequence, the demands placed upon a nuclear regulatory agency invariably include sorting out the valid from the invalid. As the public becomes better informed, more time should become available for regulating the industry. The Canadian nuclear safety philosophy relies upon fundamental principle and basic criteria which licensees must show they are meeting at all stages in the development of a nuclear facility. In reactors, the concept of defence in depth involves the use of well-qualified personnel, compliance with national and international engineering codes and standards, the separation of process and safety systems, frequent testing of safety systems, redundancy in monitoring, control and initiation systems, multiple barriers against fission product release, and strict enforcement of compliance measurements. The Atomic Energy Control Board is writing a set of licensing guides to cover the whole nuclear fuel cycle; however, these will not lead to the impsition of a 'design by regulation' approach in Canada. (LL)

  13. Ethical aspects on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an ethical assessment of how we shall deal with nuclear waste, one of the chief questions that arises is how to initiate action while at the same time taking into consideration uncertainties which are unavoidable seen from a long-term perspective. By means of different formulation and by proceeding from various starting-points, a two edged objective is established vis-a-vis repository facilities: safety in operation combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible. Prerequisites for the realization of this objective are the continued advancement of knowledge and refinement of the qualifications required to deal with nuclear waste. The ethical considerations above could be the bases for the future legislation in the field of nuclear energy waste. (author)

  14. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  15. Physical aspects of nuclear ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of edge enhancement and computer motion display improves the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities in the LV. Improved gating and processing techniques should improve the accuracy of ventricular volume vs time measurements. It is hoped that the simulations described will aid in the development of new instrumentation for the collection and analysis of nuclear ventriculographie data

  16. Professional aspects of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and operation of nuclear facilities in Ontario are performed by professionals who have more at stake in the nuclear scene than the average resident of the province. Their technical expertise is constantly under scrutiny by their employers, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the dissenting factions in the community. They and their families live close to nuclear facilities. It is highly unlikely that these professionals would assume a less than cautious approach to their work. The professional staff at both AECL-CANDU Operations and at Ontario Hydro have employee associations that date back many years. The presence of these associations has helped professional employees to divorce their labour-related concerns from their technical responsibilities to the advantage of the public. With the backing of their associations, the professional employees have encouraged the employers to sponsor career development programs to help them maintain state-of-the-art expertise. Employers have sponsored attendance and participation at technical seminars, many of them international. These benefits and privileges have contributed to improved standards in design, but most importantly the protection afforded by collective agreements to professional integrity has permitted engineers and other professionals to insist on the highest possible design standards

  17. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government's plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB)

  18. Communication techniques and nuclear energy; Tecnicas de comunicacion y energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  19. Order of 28 March 1980 on the transfer to ENUSA of duties of the Junta de Energia Nuclear connected with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In implementation of the Royal Decree of 7 December 1979 the Minister of Industry and Energy made this Order regulating the transfer to ENUSA (National Uranium Undertaking) of the Junta de Energia Nuclear's duties relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. The Order sets up, within the Ministry of Industry and Energy, a Transfer Commission responsible for establishing the directives prior to the measures to be taken by the Ministry concerning the transfer to ENUSA of the duties, personnel and establishments of the Junta connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. It will also determine the dates of such transfer, according to the order of priority laid down in the Order. (NEA)

  20. Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Military aspect of nuclear policy of Japan was outlined. In 1952 Prime Minister Yoshida asked to prepare production of weapons for rearmament and to establish Science and Technology Agency such as to overcome lack of science research budget and inefficiency of research and cooperation. Kaya and Fushimi proposed establishment of Atomic Energy Commission as recommendation of Science Council of Japan. In 1954 Nakasone proposed budget for nuclear energy with yen 235 million to construct reactor. In 1955 Japanese delegation participated in international conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy at Geneva and nonpartisan members proposed Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limited the use of nuclear technology to peaceful purposes, ensured three principles - democratic methods, independent management, and transparency - as the basis of nuclear research and promoted international co-operation. In 1956 Atomic Energy Commission and Science and Technology Agency were established with other organizations under this law. According to internal report in the age of Prime Minister Sato, nuclear policy in Japan would be (1) no holding nuclear weapon for the time being, (2) maintaining economic and technical potential of nuclear weapon production and (3) considering no restraint for this policy whether Japan participated in NPT or not. Fuel cycle program of Monju reactor and reprocessing for power production seemed to be deployed corresponding to (3) above. Irradiated blanket of Monju reactor could be reprocessed to produce highly purified plutonium suited for nuclear bombs. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Nuclear energy for environmental protection; A energia nuclear para protecao do meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-12-31

    In 1990 nuclear energy supplied about 17% of the total electric power produced in the world, what makes it the third most used power source after coal and hydropower. In this paper the advantages of using nuclear power for generating large quantities of electric power are presented 18 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Nou enfocament per a l’anàlisi de la controvèrsia no resolta sobre l’energia nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Maurin, François; Kovacic, Zora

    2015-01-01

    Un equip d’investigadors de l’ICTA-UAB ha desenvolupat un nou enfocament per estudiar les controvèrsies sobre la governança de les tecnologies, centrant-se en el cas de l’energia nuclear, una de les tecnologies més controvertides i, al mateix temps, més desplegades dels últims 60 anys. Segons els investigadors, la controvèrsia sobre l’energia nuclear pot ser entesa com una sèrie de desajustos entre les expectatives i l’experiència, resultat del desafiament de fer front als alts nivells d’ince...

  3. Teaching simulator for divulgation of the nuclear energy; Simulador docente para divulgacion de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega B, M.G.; Gutierrez F, R. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: cchavez2@cableonline.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    To solicitude of the authorities of the 'Universum' sciences museum of the UNAM, it develops a highly interactive computational system, to provide of information to the population in general about basic principles, uses and benefits of the nuclear energy. The objective is to achieve a better understanding and acceptance of the nuclear technology in our country. The system allows the visualization and simulation of nuclear processes as well as of its applications. The system is divided in three levels: basic, intermediate and simulation. In the basic level multimedia information is included on diverse basic concepts of the nuclear energy. The intermediate level includes the description and operation of some systems of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (CNLV). Finally the simulation level contains representative scenarios that the user can control by means of virtual control panels of the main systems of the CNLV. Inside the system a part of interactive games is included with the purpose that the user remembers with more easiness all the concepts and advantages of the nuclear energy mentioned during the previous levels. The system contributes, by means of the development of multimedia computational tools and of simulation, to the popularization of the use and applications of the nuclear energy in Mexico. (Author)

  4. Benefits of using nuclear energy; Os beneficios do uso da energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Elda Vilaca

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to present, especially for high school students, the benefits of the use of nuclear energy, promoting a deeper knowledge of this technology, encouraging critical thinking of students and society around them.

  5. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T

    2010-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...

  6. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems; Energia nuclear y competitividad economica en varios sistemas normativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  7. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  8. Kinematics of high-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title:Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  9. Kinematics of low-energy nuclear processes; Cinematica de los procesos nucleares de baja energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, C.

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of its immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  10. Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications; Energia Nuclear I, Aplicaciones no energeticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H. [Facultad de Quimica, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( {approx} 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion ({approx} 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( {approx} 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)

  11. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  12. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy through Philately; La energia nuclear a traves de la filatelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de la Pena, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    Postage stamps, apart from being signs of postage, are a valuable means of communication that reproduces, in mary ways, milestones of history. Postatge stamps have different formats and values, can be printed with different systems (offset, gravure or intaglio) and can also have several uses. Countries have used them to record important cultural, social, historical and scientific events that are often unknown, and generally to promote the image of a country. For this reason, postage stamps disclose international development in different disciplines; in this case, science and nuclear technology. (Author)

  14. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  15. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  16. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şahin, Sümer, E-mail: ssahin@atilim.edit.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, ATILIM University, 06836 İncek, Gölbaşı, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-09-30

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG‐PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ∼ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ∼ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG‐PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ∼160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission

  17. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-01

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

  18. Independent particle aspects of nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization of the independent particle model from nuclear statics to nuclear dynamics is sought. Attention is centered on the average behavior of nuclear dynamics, as opposed to detailed behavior, such as that characteristic of shell effects in nuclear statics. In many situations, all that is needed is a model of dissipation in nuclear dynamics. 56 references

  19. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Aspects on caring in pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    puncture or inability to lie still. It is concluded, that in the rapidly evolving field of pediatric nuclear medicine it is very important that aspects on patient care are applied, recognizing the possibilities provided by traditional methods and novel developments.Thus, patients and families can be informed prior to an examination via electronic media, topical anesthesia is available as well as short term sedation. Training of staff will furthermore secure application of modern care principles like 'Guided Imagery'

  1. Economical and strategical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategical and economical aspects of Brazilian-Germany nuclear agreement are analyzed in three aspects: 1) The nuclear agreement in the context of the Brazilian economic - and social development process, considering the availability of energetic resouces of the country. Political implications. Considerations about creation and transfer of technology. 2) The economy aspects involved in the agreement. Comparison costs of electrical energy generated in a nuclear power plants and hydroelectric plant in Brazil. Impacts on the industrial development. 3) Strategical aspects. (E.G.)

  2. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development; Aspectos historicos en el desenvolviminento del derecho nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Diva E. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Derecho

    1999-04-01

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  3. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Preliminary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  4. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA)

  5. Special aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very strict safety and quality requirements as well as the necessity of strengthened schedule and investment control make good project management even more important to the construction of nuclear power plant than conventional projects. For developing countries, to increase the extent of local participation becomes an essential way to reduce the construction costs and improve the nuclear competitiveness. Modular construction approach and design for construct ability are discussed as viable means to further reduce construction time and costs

  6. Macroeconomic aspects of the French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear programme is a boost both to economic and industrial activity and to research and development: it provides 120 000 jobs in France and has a positive influence on the national economic situation. After illustrating this statement, the author draws up a balance sheet for the nuclear industry, demonstrating the positive contribution of this form of energy compared with the results which would have been obtained by a different policy founded on electricity derived from coal

  7. Geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of exploitation of nuclear energy is becoming increasingly actual in the present time in connection with frequently discussed question of 'renaissance of nuclear energetics'. The work is aimed at research of geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy for military and civil purposes on the territory of Europe. The base of work represents the analysis of theoretical aspects of research of energy, mainly of nuclear energy. The work examines the historical development of exploitation of nuclear energy since its discovery, through development of military nuclear industry in Europe, big attention is paid to spreading of nuclear energetics on the territory of Europe from its beginnings up to the present time. The main part of the work represents the analysis of the present situation of exploitation of nuclear energy for civil purposes in Europe. The attention is paid to so-called nuclear fuel cycle as complex chain of several reciprocally interconnected operations of nuclear fuel treatment. The monitoring of spatial relations among individual countries within their nuclear fuel cycles is emphasised. The analysis of historical development and of the present state of nuclear energetics finished up in the outline of the perspectives of its further development in Europe. The analysis of the tendencies of evolution of world energetic economy mentions on the trend of growth of energy consumption in the world and Europe, as well as on the important position of nuclear energy in the structure of energy sources. Summary in English language is included. (author)

  8. Aspects of social psychology in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the example of nuclear energy, the crisis of people in the modern industrial society is analysed by means of six themes, 1) the fear-envy syndrome; 2) the identity crisis; 3) projection and identification; 4) citizens initiatives; 5) information policies 6) group aims. The author infers that in reality, almost too much information has already been given, it is already difficult for the recipient to still get a clear picture. In his opinion, it is not a question of deficit of information but rather a deficit of confidence. The ever more abstract and non-transparent industrial society combines to produce fear in people. This fear might have found a field of activity in citizens' initiatives to prevent nuclear power plant construction. Accordingly, it is necessary before anything, to develop a relation ship of confidence between citizens' initiatives, nuclear power plant builders and operators as well as politicians. (HP)

  9. Act No 84 of 5 March 1982 amending Act No 1240 of 15 December 1971 concerning the restructuring of the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amended substantially Act No. 1240 of 1971 restructuring the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare - CNEN. The amendments concern the reorganisation of the CNEN into a new body, the National Commission for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), which in addition to nuclear energy, will also be responsible for R and D in alternative energy sources, with the exception of hydrocarbons. In order to facilitate the ENEA's tasks, the new Act gives it a great degree of flexibility and administrative autonomy. The staff of ENEA will also be granted a legal status closely related to that of the industrial sector. It will also retain temporarily the previous CNEN's regulatory tasks in nuclear safety and radiation protection. (NEA)

  10. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  11. Interview in Radio Educacion on the applications of nuclear energy; Entrevista en Radio Educacion sobre las aplicaciones de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M

    1991-01-15

    The objective that presides over this interview, is to show before the public the diverse applications that can have the nuclear energy, apart from the warlike aspect and the electric power generation. (Author)

  12. Energetic panorama and nuclear energy at October 2015; Panorama energetico y energia nuclear a octubre de 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Torre, A. de la

    2015-07-01

    This article shows a general overview about nuclear energy in the world and in Spain in 2014; some results are updated until October 2015. A summary on the primary and electrical energy consumption and the nuclear contribution in the global and in the Spanish energy mix is also presented. Data on behaviour of nuclear power plants, emissions saving, ong term operation, planned and proposed new nuclear plans, etc., are also included. (Author)

  13. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  14. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure and collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existence of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne. (author)

  15. Clustering Aspects in Nuclear Structure and Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existense of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne.

  16. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Rev. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: the societal participation; information and opinion research surveys; historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  17. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  18. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination; La energia nuclear en la desalacion de agua de mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  19. Financing aspects of nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses economic scenarios and trends toward deregulation in India. Growth of the power sector must precede economic growth. Nuclear power growth, now at a rate lower than the average growth of other power, is expected to accelerate over the next two decades. Capacity growth would be funded through equity and debt in the ratio of 1:1. While a substantial portion of the equity capital would be mobilized internally, the initial flow of equity for this growth must come from the Government. The debt capital is to be substantially funded by the domestic capital market and part would flow from external sources. (author)

  20. The nuclear energy in debate. Myths, realities and climatic changes; A energia nuclear em debate. Mitos, realidades e mudancas climaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Bermann, Celio (orgs.)

    2003-07-01

    This study argues myths and the truths that involve nuclear energy: on the one hand, the universal issue on the nuclear energy and its supposed contribution for the global warming reduction, and another one, there are many lower-risk options available to fight against climate change. Investing in nuclear energy carries not only considerable health, financial and security risks, it may also prove to be a dangerous lock-in and dead end. Twenty years after the nuclear disaster of Chernobyl, any attempts by the nuclear industry to celebrate its revival and to paint itself as the solution to climate change should be rejected. Policy makers around the world should learn from its people, who largely resist the use of nuclear energy. In this context the authors firmly believe that nuclear energy is no answer to climate change. A short-sighted renaissance of nuclear energy would require considerable amounts of public money, which should rather be invested in the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measures.

  1. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa dos Produtores de Acucar, Cana e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COOPERSUCAR), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. New aspects for nuclear renal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive nuclear methods of examination have gained great importance in renal diagnosis because they can be carried out without discomfort to the patient. Unilateral clearance is valuable in cases of unilateral renal damage where the impaired functioning of one kidney may be mashed by the compensatory action of the other, contralateral kidney. This is offen the case with chronic pyelonephritis, ureteral stenosis, and nephrolithiasis. In ectactic renal pelves, unilateral clearance should be obligatory, as functional assessment on the basis of the excretory urogram is impossible. The pathological X-ray picture often leads to false conclusions in this type of disease. Due to the low radiation exposure involved, close-meshed control examinations are possible which indicate functional changes early enough for the necessary therapy. The emphasis in scintiscanning has shifted to dynamic investigations. The main fields of application for sequential scintiscanning are unilateral and segmental renal diseases, differential diagnosis of anuria, traumatic changes, and emergency diagnoses in infants. Suspected growing and displacing processes are only an indirect indication for scintiscanning today. (orig.)

  3. Public perception of nuclear power in Mexico after Fukushima; Percepcion publica de la energia nuclear en Mexico despues de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J. C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R., E-mail: javier.palacios@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This section presents some of the results of four studies on international public opinion about nuclear energy, the first one made several years before the Fukushima accident, conducted in 2005 by the IAEA through the company Globe Scan Inc. The second study was conducted by the same company in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima accident, including also corresponding results to two studies conducted by the British firm Ipsos Mori (of years 2011 and 2012 respectively). Finally three studies conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in 2006, 2008 and 2013 are presented. From the results of these studies was determined that the Fukushima accident itself had a negative effect on public opinion in Mexico, as throughout the world, but this trend is reversing. Also it found that public opinion in Mexico on using reactors to generate electricity is favorable, although not still has much support from the government for the construction of new nuclear power plants. (Author)

  4. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Nuclear aspects of neutral current non-standard $\

    CERN Document Server

    Papoulias, D K

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear aspects of flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes, predicted by various new-physics models to occur in the presence of nuclei, are examined by computing the relevant nuclear matrix elements within the context of the quasi-particle RPA using realistic strong two-body forces. One of our aims is to explore the role of the non-standard interactions (NSI) in the leptonic sector and specifically: (i) in lepton flavour violating (LFV) processes involving the neutral particles $\

  7. Health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present publication is to give a generic description of health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Primarily the report is meant to stand alone; however, because of the content of the publication and in the context of the DECADES project, it may serve as a means of introducing specialists in other fuel cycles to the nuclear fuel cycle. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. The peaceful use of nuclear energy: National legal implications; El uso pacifico de la energia nuclear: implicaciones juridicas nacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadarrama A, M.E

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses in broad sense the legal regime about the use, exploitation and improvement of the nuclear energy in Mexico and its relationship with the International confines . It was realized the study of the elemental concepts referred about the subject and it is described briefly the evolution of the figure in the frame of as National as International laws. The objective of this work finds its basis on the provisions which contemplate the in force statutory law of the 27 Constitutional article concerning Nuclear energy but before considering the legal nature and the main characteristics of this normative instrument. (Author)

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Huberts, P

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Summer School on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics took place in the style that by now has become a tradition: a series of lectures by well known scientists on modem topics of nuclear physics, where special emphasis is placed on the didactic aspects of the lectures. In the past few years, we have witnessed a rapid evolution of the field of nuclear physics towards novel directions of research. This development is accompanied by the construction of some of the largest experimental facilities ever built for nuclear research. The subjects covered by the Summer School focussed on two main issues currently under active investigation and which will be pursued with the new facilities: the transition from nucleonic to quark degrees of freedom in the decription of nuclear reactions, and the behavior of nuclear matter as one approaches extreme densities and temperatures. These topics in many respects go beyond traditional nuclear physics and the speakers therefore also included high energy physicists. From the re...

  10. Information dissemination in nuclear energy: ideology, speech and language; Divulgacao da informacao em energia nuclear: ideologia, discurso e linguagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Marcos Goncalves

    1992-07-01

    The social impact of Goiania nuclear accident is analysed from a semiotic investigation upon papers issued on popular magazines, newspapers and scientific periodicals. Also the communication of Science Information is discussed through three basic models: diffusionist, bibliometric and cultural perspectives. Divulgation and diffusion process of scientific information are reviewed on the bases of theory of representation and theory of sign. The relationship between energy and society is discussed though a compared analysis upon the information sources available to public and scientific community. (author)

  11. Particle accelerators and nuclear energy: the challenge of reliability; Acceleradores de particulas y energia nuclear: el desafio de la fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucker, R.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2011-07-01

    High energy particle accelerators, that used to serve a purpose only in fundamental research, will soon be used in industrial applications of nuclear energy. In this context, they will be submitted to unprecedented (as far as such machines are concerned) reliability requirements. In order to meet them, reliability studies need to be carried out. This article describes the experience gained by Empresarios Agrupados in that field (with the Eurotrans and Ifmif projects) and presents their future activities in the framework of the Myrrha project, that is aimed at building the first ADS reactor in the world. (Author)

  12. A brief comparative study of the wind and nuclear energy; Um breve estudo comparativo entre as energias eolica e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Tarcisio Santos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    It is apparent the human need to use electricity in the current globalized world. And along with the social and industrial and beyond the everyday comfort evolution came the abuse of power. Aware that Brazil is used as an energy source originating from hydroelectric and that it does not include all domestic demand, should be studied energy sources that can assist it. Two clean and cheap energy alternatives which can contribute to reducing the environmental impacts such as global warming and water shortages are wind and nuclear energy. Which again, exhibit ideal characteristics to serve as alternative sources for electricity production, mainly in the dry season. (author)

  13. Percursos da física e da energia nucleares na capital portuguesa : ciência, poder e política, 1947-1973

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Maria Júlia Neto

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, História e Filosofia das Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Os contornos da relação entre ciência e poder político no período da Guerra Fria durante o Estado Novo de António de Oliveira Salazar e do seu sucessor Marcelo Caetano são analisados nesta tese através dos percursos da Física e energia nucleares na capital portuguesa, entre 1947 e 1973. Discute-se a construção do panorama científico e tecnológico português desde as contribuições da ...

  14. Quality and Reliability Aspects in Nuclear Power Reactor Fuel Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decrease costs and increase competitiveness, nuclear utilities use more challenging operational conditions, longer fuel cycles and higher burnups, which require modifications in fuel designs and materials. Different aspects of quality assurance and control, as well as analysis of fuel performance have been considered in a number of specialized publications. The present publication provides a concise but comprehensive overview of all interconnected quality and reliability issues in fuel fabrication, design and operation. It jointly tackles technical, safety and organizational aspects, and contains examples of state of the art developments and good practices of coordinated work of fuel designers, vendors and reactor operators

  15. Impact of accidents on organizational aspects of nuclear utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgin, A. J.; Stupples, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the Beer Viable Systems Model (VSM) approach to the study of nuclear accidents. It relates how organizational structures and rules are affected by accidents in the attempt to improve safety and reduce risk. The paper illustrates this process with reference to a number of accidents. The dynamic cybernetic aspect of the VSM approach to organizations yields a better understanding of the need for good decision-making to minimize risk and how organizations really operate.

  16. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.)

  17. Behavior of the Energy Secretary in working matter: the case of workers exposed to nuclear energy (ionizing radiations); Actuacion de la Secretaria de Energia en materia laboral: el caso de los trabajadores expuestos a energia nuclear (radiaciones ionizantes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, G

    2006-07-01

    Mexico, as many other countries, it gives to this energy resource multiple uses in such activities as: the electric power generation in nuclear central, the industry, the medicine and the research. In the one acting of the referred activities intervenes individuals that, in reason of their work, they have contact with this energy type, which is potentially dangerous for the health in reason of the radioactivity flight. Although those workers are 'aided' for a series of relative standards to the observance of safety, hygiene and protection measures in the event of work risks, the technicity that is required to determine the potential risk that it is generated with the handling of radioactive products it makes that single specialized in the matter authorities can evaluate and, therefore, to watch over the safety conditions in those that work is developed. In that virtue, with this investigation it is sought to demonstrate that the Secretary of Energy, through a dis concentrated specialized organ and endowed with technical autonomy denominated National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, it is a dependence that in their performance like Regulator Organ in the matter, intervenes in the labor relationships circles, being, therefore, an authority in work matter. By this way, the development of the present study is made in the following manner: In the first chapter indispensable aspects are approached to locate to the authorities inside the mark of the power exercise by the part of the State through their diverse organs; topics like jurisdiction and competition are treated for later to analyze the structure, according to the Mexican Administrative Law, of the Federal Executive Organ, referring a brief analysis of the application of work standards for diverse administrative authorities to determine of their multiple intervention and important performance in the labor relationships. In the second it is analyzed the structure of the National Commission of

  18. Strategic aspects of nuclear safety in Eastern and Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the economics of nuclear safety in Europe. It focuses on the potential damage to a neighbouring country in the event of a major accident: the disaster in Chernobyl made public not only the fatal consequences of a nuclear accident but also the hazardous state of the nuclear industry in the East. Here, game theory is used to analyse the crossborder hazards of a major nuclear accident. The expected damage in the event of a major nuclear accident is to this end interpreted as transboundary pollutant. In Part 1, scientific, economic and political aspects of nuclear safety in East and West are reviewed. Taking this discussion into consideration, Part 2 develops a static nuclear power game. Two actors, East and West, adjust their nuclear safety in response to the risk in the neighbouring region. If both regions cooperate, more risk abatement is undertaken than under the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium. If the West acts as a Stackelberg leader, it does less risk abatement than under Nash. Using data from Part 1, it is shown that total welfare gains are highest when transfer payments can be made as under full cooperation. If differentials in damage valuation and to a lesser extent transborder spillovers are high, total welfare is highest when both regions fully cooperate. Without the possibility of side payments only a Pareto dominant outcome can be reached, which yields very low benefits. This is due to the highly asymmetric setting of the nuclear game. Part 3 develops an optimal control model in order to examine safety capital accumulation and the interaction between players over time. It is shown that under communism safety levels were set at the technically lowest level, as target fulfilment had overriding priority. Current levels of safety are also shown to be inadequate for reasons which include limited liability in the West, and high discount rates and low quality workers and morale in the East. A differential game setting confirms the static

  19. Safety aspects of foundations of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide discusses the geotechnical engineering aspects of the subsurface conditions and not the geological aspects except where these directly affect the foundation system. It discusses the geotechnical analyses required for the design of the nuclear power plant and indicates, in general, the site characteristics or geotechnical parameters that are required for these analyses. The parameters and site characteristics then form the subsurface design profile that allows geotechnical analyses to be performed in a consistent and compatible manner. There are many methods of field exploration, in situ testing and laboratory testing which allow the establishment of geotechnical parameters. These methods are discussed in this Guide together with their application to the siting and design phases. The type of information to be collected and investigation to be performed should be based on the analytical methods to be used in the proposed design. A brief indication of these methods is therefore included in this Guide

  20. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population; Analisis de opinion sobre la energia nuclear y sustentabilidad en una poblacion de nivel superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: angie2esa@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and

  1. Statistical and dynamic aspects of nuclear multi-fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author reports an investigation of the statistical and dynamic aspects of nuclear multi-fragmentation. He presents the experimental methods (detector, event selection, characteristics of multi-fragmentation events), discusses the statistical approach (characteristics of sorted events, hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium, characteristics of primary fragments, discussion of results) and the dynamic approach (initial conditions, comparison between the AMD model and experimental results, fragment production mechanism, other constraints for the AMD model), and finally addresses the multi-fragmentation since its appearance threshold (event selection, characteristics of central collisions and of reaction products, extension to all energies)

  2. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  3. Annual report of Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - 1996; Relatorio anual da Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the research activities coordinated by the Planning and Development Directorship of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Brazil, in 1996, relating the works achieved in its three research institutes: Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN). It describes the institute actions through the following topics: radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes production - production data and new products development; environmental and social applications in nuclear energy - environmental and occupational radioprotection; instrumentation and control; bioengineering and agriculture; health and environment; and physics, chemistry and industrial processes; reactors technology and fuel cycle -nuclear fuel, reprocessing and radioactive waste; reactors and nuclear safety; operating and research reactors maintenance; and advanced materials and technologies; human resources development - training, publications and participation in events; another themes - special projects and cooperation with another institutions; financial resources - distribution and income. 14 figs., 13 graphs., 46 photos, 21 tabs.

  4. A AIEA - agência internacional de energia atômica e a efetividade de suas medidas no cumprimento dos dispositivos do tratado de não-ploriferação nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Leandro Dalalibera

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Esta dissertação de mestrado pretendeu, por meio do método do estudo de caso, aferir a efetividade das medidas de fiscalização e de contenção do uso da energia nuclear para fins bélicos, adotadas pela Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica, no caso específico da República Islâmica do Irã. Optou-se pela metodologia do estudo de caso por se entender que seria a melhor e mais completa forma de detalhar o trabalho e a atuação da Agência num caso especifico, neste caso o Irã. No primeiro...

  5. O Processo de Avaliação de Estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN: focalizando seu instrumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Márcia Rocha Lidington

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo avaliativo e os resultados da avaliação do instrumento utilizado para a avaliação de estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, denominado Avaliação do Estágio pelo Supervisor. A avaliação se concentrou na definição dos cinco Conceitos utilizados para avaliar os nove Aspectos que compõem o instrumento, buscando estabelecer Padrões capazes de minimizar o efeito das interferências subjetivas capazes de comprometer a avaliação do estagiário. Foram utilizadas as abordagens Centrada nos Consumidores, Centrada em Especialistas e Responsiva. Participaram do processo avaliativo os três públicos interessados: Ex-estagiários, Orientadores/Supervisores de Estágio e profissionais da área de Recursos Humanos que atuam no gerenciamento do Programa de Estágios, na Instituição. Os resultados do estudo englobam sugestões de ordem quantitativa e qualitativa para cada um dos Padrões propostos no instrumento.

  6. Design aspects and conservation of roads in the saving of energy; Aspectos de diseno y conservacion de carreteras en el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cajun, Carlos S.; Aguerrebere Salido, Roberto [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the effects that on the fuel consumption the roads have for their slopes and roughness are presented. A mathematical model is presented which shows the relationship between the slope, the roughness coefficient and the required power to overcome the corresponding resistance; the former in order to predict the fuel consumption and therefore, the potential level of energy saving corresponding to this item. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los efectos que sobre consumo de combustible se tienen, debido a las pendientes y rugosidades de las carreteras. Se presenta un modelo matematico que muestra la relacion entre la pendiente, el coeficiente de rodamiento y la potencia requerida para vencer las resistencias correspondientes; lo anterior con el fin de predecir el consumo de combustible y, por lo tanto, los niveles potenciales de ahorro de energia correspondientes a este rubro.

  7. Nuclear Structure aspects of gamma decay from giant resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracco A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma decay of the giant dipole resonance (including its tail region is an important tool to probe the properties of these states, and thus to test the predictions of mean field theories. This paper focuses on two main aspects concerning the electric dipole excitation in nuclei. These are the study of the isospin character of the low energy tail of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR, the so-called Pygmy resonance, and the isospin mixing of nuclear systems at finite temperature. In the first case, the Pygmy resonance has been populated in the inelastic scattering reaction 17O+124Sn at 20 MeV/u. Its gamma decay has been measured using the AGATA Demonstrator and an array of 8 large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillators. In the second case, the gamma decay of the GDR in thermalized nuclear systems, formed in fusion evaporation reactions, has been used to investigate the isospin mixing in 80Zr. For this work the reactions 40Ca+40Ca at 3.4 MeV/u and 37Cl +44Ca at 2.6 MeV/u were used.

  8. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities.

  9. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear Data for Safe Operation and Waste Transmutation: ANDES (Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability); Datos nucleares para la operacion segura y la transmutacion de residuos: Andes (Datos Nucleares Precisos para la Sostenibilidad de la Energia Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear research within the 7th Framework Program (FP7 and FP7+2) of EURATOM has devoted a significant fraction of its efforts to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles and reactor concepts, mainly fast reactors, aiming to improve the long term sustainability by reduction of the final wastes, optimal use of natural resources and improvement of safety in the present and future nuclear installations. The new design need more accurate basic nuclear data for isotopes, like minor actinides, potentially playing an important role in the operation, fuel concept, safety or final wastes of those reactors and fuel cycles. Four projects, ANDES, ERINDA, EUFRAT and CHANDA, supported by EURATOM within the FP7 and FP7+2, have put together most of the European Nuclear Data community to respond efficiently and in a coordinated way to those needs. This paper summarizes the objectives, and main achievements of ANDES, the project responsible for most of the measurements and technical achievements that was coordinated by CIEMAT. Indeed, CIEMAT has coordinated the nuclear data R and D projects within EURATOM during the last 7 years (NUDATRA domain of EUROTRANS, and ANDES) and will continue this coordination in the CHANDA project till 2017. (Author)

  11. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  12. Nuclear safety, legal aspects and policy recommendations for space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Roger X.

    2006-07-01

    This paper represents a chapter of the International Astronautical Academy's Cosmic Study on safety, legal and policy aspects of advanced (specifically nuclear) power and propulsions systems; it is divided into several sections. The first section covers a series of findings and develops a set of recommendations for operations of space reactor systems in a safe, environmentally compliant fashion. The second section develops a generic set of hazard scenarios that might be experienced by a space nuclear system with emphasis on different methods under which such a system could be engaged, such as surface power, in-space nuclear electric or nuclear thermal propulsion. The third section develops these into test and analysis efforts that would likely be conducted. Risk areas with engineering judgment set toward frequency and consequences. The fourth section identifies what probable technology limits might be experienced by nuclear propulsion systems and the exploration limitations these technology restrictions might impose. Where the IAA recommends a change, the IAA leadership should be prepared to work with national and international bodies to implement the desired modifications.

  13. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Wasteless’ Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Anggraita

    2008-01-01

    The problem associated with the current NPP is the generation of nuclear waste and some elements in the waste have very long time of radioactivity. This paper reviews some concepts of nuclear energy generation with less nuclear waste. A concept of accelerator driven system (ADS) or energy amplifier (EA) was proposed by Carlo Rubbia, recipient of 1984 Nobel Prize in particle physics. The system is supposed to generate nuclear energy with radioactive waste of much less and shorter lifetime than...

  14. Strategic aspects of nuclear and radiological emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, as well as experience from national emergency management programmes. Additionally, experience from the INEX-3 exercise (2005-2006) has shown that longer-term consequence management and the transition to recovery remain particularly challenging. As such, the WPNEM also focused on the development of strategies for countermeasures for managing the longer-term consequences of an emergency. As decision-making is at the core of emergency management, the WPNEM developed a strategic framework to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision-making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The outcomes are presented in the report 'Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management'. The report provides insights into and a strategic basis for decision-making as an integral part of emergency management. Such a guiding strategic view, applied during preparedness, will enhance the management of complex emergency situations involving many organisations and stakeholders at the local, national and international levels

  15. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant automation and robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question being considered in this report is the extent to which the following aims are promoted through the use of robotics and automatic plant systems: nuclear power is safe (nuclear power plants and related facilities will not be constructed or allowed to continue operating if they are not perceived as being safe); nuclear power is economic (in comparison to other forms of electricity production once the environmental costs have been fully considered and as part of a unified energy policy); nuclear power is conservative (using nuclear fuel does not waste natural resources, damage the atmosphere, or produce unmanageable waste). Refs, figs, tabs

  16. The youths in the impulse of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Los jovenes en el impulso de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A. [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez J, J., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Around the world the industry and the nuclear development have taken a very important paper in different boundaries like: the medicine, the research, the industry and the electric power generation. However, during the decade of the 90s the technology and the nuclear industry had suffered a decrement in their popularity. After the accident of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl and the most recent event in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima this popularity has been affected. For all this is that the work of informing to the people on the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy taking relevance. Visualizing this necessity the Young Association for the Nuclear Energy in Mexico, is founded in March 8, 2003 having a mission: To unite the enthusiastic youths professionals and students that believe in the development of the research and that they want to work in a joined way in the problems involved with the technological and scientific development of the country in the nuclear ambit, as well as in their personal achievement. The association has always impelled the related topics with the nuclear development in Mexico and in the world, imparting courses and chats in several universities and institutions, by means of a simple language to be able to go to children and the people in general. In the diffusion work that carries out the association, has an important collaboration and representation with the Mexican Nuclear Society, the North American Young Generation in Nuclear, the International Youth Nuclear Congress and the World Nuclear University. (Author)

  17. Moviments opositors a infraestructures energètiques. Cas particular de l’energia nuclear i possibles alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga, Josep

    2012-01-01

    L’objectiu final d’aquest projecte és la proposta d’una alternativa a les centrals nuclears ubicades en territori català. Una alternativa a una font tan fiable però també amb certes característiques que la fan veure amb recel per part de diversos sectors de la societat ( un exemple: la certa alarma social ocasionada per alguns successos com ara el recent de Fukushima ) , requereix fonts energètiques consolidades i no excessivament cares. Per a ferho, es tindran en compte els mo...

  18. Proceedings of the meeting on nuclear law held by the Centro Italiano di Studi di Diritto dell'Energia Nucleare in Rome, Italy, 24 November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with usual practice the Italian Centre for Study of Nuclear Law (CISDEN) organised a meeting on nuclear law in Rome. A series of papers were presented dealing in particular with the respective legal positions of operators and constructors of nuclear power plants in Italy, the requirements and standards, national and international, imposed on users of radioactive materials and equipments. In addition, a series of conclusions are drawn from the Inter Jura' 75 Congress organised by the International Nuclear Law Association, as well as from the 1974 London Conference on Nuclear Insurance and Indemnity which dealt in detail with nuclear insurance problems for nuclear equipment and materials and their transport, in Europe and the United States. Finally, it is made clear from the III Symposium on German Nuclear Law organised in Goettingen in 1974 that the Federal Republic of Germany is concentrating on further developing its nuclear legislation in step with nuclear developments, in particular regarding compensation for possible victims of a nuclear incident. (NEA)

  19. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of ‘Wasteless’ Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anggraita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the current NPP is the generation of nuclear waste and some elements in the waste have very long time of radioactivity. This paper reviews some concepts of nuclear energy generation with less nuclear waste. A concept of accelerator driven system (ADS or energy amplifier (EA was proposed by Carlo Rubbia, recipient of 1984 Nobel Prize in particle physics. The system is supposed to generate nuclear energy with radioactive waste of much less and shorter lifetime than those generated by present generation of nuclear power reactors. Less radioactive waste will also be generated by fusion reactions, either in hot fusion of high temperature plasma confined in a very strong magnetic field, or in cold fusion conceptually happens in muon-catalytic and lattice-trap fusions. A concept of neutronless nuclear reaction, hence activating no radioisotopes, to generate nuclear power was proposed. Present nuclear power reactors based on fission are also the source of very large number of electron neutrinos, which can be used to study neutrino oscillations.

  20. Reclaiming some moral high ground - Ethical aspects in nuclear communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public communication about nuclear energy needs to relate to the cultural undercurrents which determine how people perceive the environment. The paper discusses some of these and suggests ways of responding to them. It also outlines major ethical considerations relevant to uranium mining and nuclear energy and hence which are relevant to communication about both. Competent discourse about values is fundamental. (author)

  1. Nuclear power in France: economic aspects and international prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the number of employees, nuclear industry is the third industrial sector in France behind car industry and aeronautics. Despite the Fukushima accident nuclear power keeps its prospects high. The huge need for electrical power of emerging countries makes China and India, today's leading countries for the development of nuclear power. China launches a coal plant every week and a reactor every 4 weeks. This Chinese development must be seen as an opportunity for the French nuclear industry that has a long history of cooperation with its Chinese counterpart. In the westernized world the very low growth of the power demand and the development of renewable energies have reduced the nuclear challenge to the life-extension and safety upgrading of today operating reactors. Only 2 European countries: United-Kingdom and Poland have nuclear programs. It is a necessity for the French nuclear industry to contribute to the international development of nuclear power for 2 reasons: first to stay innovative by using up-to-date technologies in building reactors and secondly to be ready and competitive for the future replacement of the French fleet of reactors. (A.C.)

  2. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects; Energie nucleaire: sortie ou relance? Aspects internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA)

  4. Hospital nuclear pharmacy survey: preliminary aspects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Marcelo Pau; de Barros, Marcio Paes; Antunes, Leila Jorge; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are special drugs that in the composition preserve one or more radionuclides which can be used as diagnostic or therapeutic tools in Nuclear Medicine Units. This study evaluated hospitals and clinics which have nuclear medicines services at the city of Rio de Janeiro from August to November 2010. The data were obtained through a longitudinal research. The results showed that most of the hospitals (>80%) did not have pharmacist and all them (100%) considered that a pharmacist in the nuclear pharmacy is not required. PMID:23493051

  5. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  6. General and regulatory aspects of nuclear waste disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minister of Trade and Industry has recently appointed a committee to review the legislation in the nuclear energy field. The mandate of the committee includes the formulation of a law on nuclear waste management, which problem is also the subject of a current research and development programme. Licensing and control measures for nuclear installations already exist and these do include general safety measures relating to the management of nuclear waste. There are three types of licence - construction licence (including site approval), operating licence and fuel licence - given by the Ministry of Trade and Industry after consultation with various bodies, notably, the Institute of Radiation Protection. Conditions may be imposed on granting a licence, and periodic inspections are carried out during the operation of the installation. This licensing procedure, modified when necessary, could be applied to waste disposal facilities. (NEA)

  7. New aspects regarding to radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and objectives: The society has been concerned about nuclear energy usage and nuclear environment pollution for ages. The necessity of using radiation and its applications in modern life especially in medicine is undeniable. Some interesting properties such as the potential for non-destructive tests, detection simplicity, and penetrability into substances and having reactions with them cause radiation to be known as a useful tool for peace purposes. Nuclear weapons' experiments (1945-1973) and nuclear accidents in Three-Mile Island in USA, Goiania in Brazil and Chernobyl in Ukraine Republic have enhanced man's worries towards nuclear radiation and radioactivity in environment, and founding associations and groups which are against nuclear energy, such as green peace society, can be related with above mentioned concerns. Today, nuclear medicine has rapidly been developed so that in some cases plays a unique role in diagnosis but unfortunately in spite of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages, the term NUCLEARcan induce worries in patients and society. In this article, base on new documents we intend to show that this worries has no scientific basis. Material and Methods: To produce a realistic view, regarding to radiation protection we used several ways such as natural origin of radiation, high natural background radiation areas' data non-linear dose-effect model, risk versus benefit, use of arbitrary unit for measurement of radiation, radio adaptive response and radiation hormesis. Discussion and conclusion: Harmful effects of radiation on biologic systems has obviously been shown, but most of related documents are based on receiving high doses in nuclear and atomic accidents and explosions and radiation protection regulations are based on this observations. So, it sometimes causes patients are afraid of low doses of radiation in medical diagnostic procedures so that some of them even resist against performing this procedures. Thus, being aware of

  8. Contractual aspects of the establishment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the complexity of the system for establishing nuclear power plants in Italy, in the light of ENEL's experience and provides a thorough description of the types of contract involved, the respective rights and obligations of the parties concerned and the problems encountered. Reference is made to the legislation governing the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants and the competent authorities in this respect. (NEA)

  9. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  10. Alcohol, energy of the biomass: technological and economical aspects of the production; Alcool, energia da biomassa: aspectos tecnologicos e economicos da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ometto, Joao Guilherme Sabino [Cooperativa de Produtores de Cana, Acucar e Alcool do Estado de Sao Paulo Ltda. (COPERSUCAR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-05-01

    This text synthesizes a presentation made by president of COPERSUCAR, Cooperative of Producing of Cane, Sugar and Alcohol of Sao Paulo's State Ltd., private organization, in the Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (University of Sao Paulo). It is shown the role of COPERSUCAR in the technological development of the industry of the sugar cane and alcohol. It is also presented the technological advanced and economic aspects of this industry. Among the main presented aspects they stand out: evolution of the production of the cane, sugar and alcohol; prices and costs of production of the alcohol; potential of reduction of industrial costs; biodegradable plastic and reduction of the tax of emission of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  11. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel shipment from 'Vinca' Institute to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main safety aspects were analyzed and possible radiation impact on the personnel, population and environment during spent nuclear fuel preparation for shipment to the Russian Federation was estimated. Basic safety principals in elaborating repackaging technology are specified. (author)

  12. Regulatory safety aspects of nuclear waste management operations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy in India as part of its programme to harness the nuclear energy for generation of nuclear power has been operating a whole range of nuclear fuel cycle facilities including waste management plants for more than four decades. The waste management plants include three high level waste immobilisation plants, one in operation, one under commissioning and one more under construction. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is mandated to review and authorise from the safety angle the siting, the design, the construction and the operation of the waste management plants. The regulatory procedures, which involve multi-tier review adopted for ensuring the safety of these facilities, are described in this paper. (author)

  13. Mis on Roheline Energia? / Kadi Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Kadi, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Tuule- ja vee-energia kasutamisest Rohelise Energia osalussüsteemiga liitunud kuues Hiiumaa ettevõttes ning Kärdla linnavalitsuses. Kommenteerivad Toomas Jõõts, Ari Hannula ja Ants Vahtras. Lisa: Rohelise energia ostjad Hiiumaal praegu

  14. Aspects of medium-energy nuclear physics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cowley

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has participated in basic research on medium-energy nuclear physics for the past eight years since the completion of the cyclotron facility of the National Accelerator Centre. The research projects that have been conducted during this period have had a major influence on the development of the discipline of nuclear physics. This review of a selection of projects that have been completed to date illustrates the advance of knowledge and how this work has contributed towards a further understanding of the atomic nucleus. The possible impact of these studies on future application is alluded to by means of two important illustrative examples.

  15. Germany: of the nuclear energy expansion to the structure for their gradual abandonment; Alemania: de la expansion de la energia nuclear a la estructura para su abandono gradual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mez, L. [Frei Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work exposes a panorama of the German nuclear industry, where the investment in this sector began around the fifty, having great peak during the period 1968 at 1989. Causes like a poor electricity demand, the over capacity and a persistent controversy among the public opinion for the nuclear energy use, stop the expansion from this industry to the little time of established. In contrast with the legal situation in most of the countries, in Germany the operation licences were granted without it limits of time. Nevertheless, the operation expectation was estimated inside a range of 20 to 40 years, depending in particular on the service life of the renovation parts. Taking into account these data, seven nuclear power plants of those that have already operated for 20 years or more, are about to confront expensive reconstructions or the closing in the following five years; while other seven will be closed in the subsequent 10 or 15 years. While the federal politicians and their directive went favorable until recent time in general to the extended use of nuclear energy, some authorities of the states became more restrictive when interpreting the allowed forecasts, what has generated continuous differences and regulatory uncertainty. In consequence, the facilities in operation gradually have shown interest in reaching agreements with the government about the nuclear politics, by means of the regulations reestablishment and one calculus linked at the costs. In spite of the many and constant judgments of the public opinion, the federal nuclear politics was up to 1998 on the side of the alliance pro nuclear and back to the industry by means of multiple fiscal and regulatory privileges. This official position was reverted by first time after the federal elections of that year, when a new red-green federal government announcement the gradual retirement of the nuclear energy of Germany. That coalition pact among the Democratic Social parties (red) and green

  16. Nuclear development for peaceful purposes: legal and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the 17 lectures and reports presented at the regional course on legislation and regulation of nuclear safety for Latin American countries organized by the IAEA on 15-20 October 1984 in Montevideo, Uruguay. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Also reproduced are some legal documents related to the subject

  17. Past, current and future aspects of nuclear medicine in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine in Malaysia began initially with the use of radioiodine and radiophosphorous for the investigation and treatment of thyroid and blood disorders around 1960. Following this we went through a phase of organ imaging using radioiodine and radiogold using an early generation Phillips Scanner. In terms of Medical usefulness this proved a big step forward in Malaysian Medicine, basic though the techniques were. The third phase of this speciality came on in the 1970s with the availability of generator scanners. A tremendous spurt in Nuclear Imaging and thyroid function studies took place. We have now together with the University Hospital Gamma Cameras which have considerably widened the scope of Nuclear Medicine especially in the field of cardiovascular studies. Further advances are expected in the future with the availability of medical cyclotrons, positron cameras and emission tomography. However yesterdays problems have not disappeared completely and the training of personnel and provision of up to date Nuclear Medicine laboratories with the latest equipment should be given top priority so as to assure progress in this speciality. (author)

  18. International nuclear proliferation: multilateral diplomacy and regional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A.

    1979-01-01

    Confidential interviews with about 200 officials at 18 nuclear research sites around the world form the background for this discussion of the proliferation issues as they affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Critics of the NPT cite its narrow focus on horizontal proliferation and its failures in the areas of vertical proliferation, nuclear technology transfers, heavy-water-reactor systems, and safeguards. The international negotiations necessary to resolve these issues and the difficulty of reaching a global consensus indicate a need to restructure the U.S. decision process before diplomacy can progress. The book discusses the history and nature of proliferation and its relationship to multinational diplomacy; the problems of permanent and workable safeguards; and regional political ramifications in the creeping dependencies of South Asia, apartheid in South Africa, militarization in Japan, and the nuclearization of Brazil and Argentina. The analysis concludes that central issues were not settled by the NPT and that U.S. failures to speak without consulting allies may mean that a bilateral rather than multinational approach should be tried. 105 references, 5 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

  19. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  20. Rewriting the history: a new future for the nuclear energy in United Kingdom?; Reescribiendo la historia: un nuevo futuro para la energia nuclear en Reino Unido?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)

  1. Stochastic aspects of multiparticle production in relativistic nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midrapidity multiparticle production process in ordinary hadron and heavy-ion induced reactions at sufficiently high incident energies are analyzed. It is shown that stochastic aspects of multiparticle production process in relativistic range plays a dominating role in understanding the observable phenomena. The basic idea and the main results of the multisource model for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown. The concept of the NES (number of effective sources) scaling is discussed. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  2. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  3. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones

  4. Safety aspects of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent years design-principles of underground-sited nuclear power stations have been investigated mainly in the USA and the Fed. Rep. Germany. It was hoped that the consequences of extremely remote accidents could be generally reduced by such designs. It is pointed out in this article that underground-siting, however, does not only lead to many disadvantages, some of them also safety-related, but at best results in only slight reductions of the consequences of internal accidents. It is the author's impression that, due to high additional cost and important delays of licensing- and construction-times underground-siting of nuclear power stations is no meaningful and suitable safety measure. (orig.)

  5. Some current aspects of the staff protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses some specific questions of irradiation of workers in various professions on typical nuclear medicine workplace in connection with the performance of their specific tasks. There are also given the results of the monitoring of individual doses, which show the significant differences in exposure of personnel groups. Special attention is paid to the protection of workers and others who come into contact with patients who received high-level radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes. (authors)

  6. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  7. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  8. Analysis considerations in the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Consideraciones de analisis en el futuro de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Mexico requires for legal command reducing the participation of fossil energy for the electric power production to not more than 65% for 2024, the other 35% will be covered by sources of clean energy, among which are the renewable sources and the nuclear energy. Inside the National Strategy of Energy 2012-2016 3 possible scenarios are outlined to give execution to this command, in this work is made an analysis of these scenarios and its implications in energy safety. (Author)

  9. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  10. Aspects of nuclear collectivity studied in projectile Coulomb excitation experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Projectile Coulomb excitation experiments have been performed on the nuclei 130,132Ba, 154Sm, and 194,196Pt. A detailed description of the experiments and the data analysis is given. The results on absolute decay rates of the low-lying collective states of these nuclei allow for a comparison with predictions from different theoretical models of nuclear quadrupole collectivity. For the nucleus 154Sm the data on the decay rates of the states of the first K=0 band support the assignment of this ...

  11. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  12. Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Vega, Shimon; Feintuch, Akiva

    2015-09-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {ea-eb-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This

  13. Societal aspects of nuclear energy: food and water security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and clean potable water is essential ingredient/or a good quality life. The scientific techniques are required to enhance the food productivity and to explore fresh, clean and contamination free portable water. Mutation breeding, using radiation techniques is one best used techniques for the development of higher yields new varieties of seeds for increase the food productivity. Environmental and radio-isotopes are used for finding new water resources, aquifers, their interconnectivity etc. Nuclear desalination is also used for providing potable water from brackish and sea water. This is likely to be a scenario if we do not address the issue of food and walter security seriously. Future wars will be fought for water sharing and management and food distribution. (author)

  14. Optimization method concerning target conflicts between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplified cost-benefit analysis has not been considered for applications in nuclear engineering with complex decisions between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects. The extended cost-benefit analysis encounters problems with non-monetary criteria. Solutions are in sight, however with a subjective element. A major problem in implementing the method is the psychological barrier as against an evaluation of human life. The multi-attribute utility analysis overcomes the difficulties of the extended cost-benefit analysis, however, it also creates new problems on account of the complicated construction of the utility functions. The problems are solved most elegantly with the multi-criteria outranking analysis, the only disadvantage possibly being less transparency at first sight. (orig./HP)

  15. Eesti Energia unustas Toomas Lumani andmed / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia jurist Heili Raudkivi palus rahandusministeeriumilt infot, mis tähtajaks on rahandusminister nimetanud Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmeks Toomas Lumani. Eesti Energia pressiesindaja selgitus

  16. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  17. Application of the nuclear energy in the improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico; Aplicacion de la energia nuclear en el mejoramiento de pseudocereales nativos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz T, E., E-mail: eulogio.delacruz@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Mexico is a diverse country that contains to 10% of the flora and fauna of the world, is also a place of domestication of diverse cultivations like the corn, the bean, the pumpkin, the vanilla, the cocoa and the avocado that constitute some samples of the vast contribution from our nation to the agriculture. Two species highlight inside the cultivations that Mexico contributed to the world and that at the present time they take place in small cultivated surfaces by means of traditional methods: the amaranth (Amaranths hypochondria cus) and the huauzontle (Chenopodium berlanideri sbp. nuttalliae). Both sub-utilized species the amaranth and the huauzontle possess a high nutritious value in accordance with the foods classification established by the FAO, and given its tolerance to adverse conditions is considered like an alternative to contribute to reduce the malnutrition in marginal agricultural areas. At the present time their improvement is searched with respect to some characteristics as: reduction of the fall of the seed in field; great seed size; cob (spike) big and compact and of smaller height, with what they would become more productive and more handling. To achieve these diverse stages are proposed that include the morphological characterization of the species, the study of the available phyto genetics resources, the characterization with regard to the nutritional components and until the cytogenetics and molecular characterization; all these aspects are essential to structure a strategy of genetic improvement for radio induced mutagenesis. (Author)

  18. Probabilistic analysis of safety of a production plant of hydrogen using nuclear energy; Analisis probabilistico de seguridad de una planta de produccion de hidrogeno utilizando energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores F, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com

    2005-07-01

    The present work makes use of the Probabilistic Safety analysis to evaluate and to quantify the safety in a plant producer of hydrogen coupled to a nuclear reactor of high temperature, the one which is building in Japan. It is had the description of systems and devices of the HTTR, the pipe diagrams and instrumentation of the plant, as well as the rates of generic faults for the components of the plant. The first step was to carry out a HAZOP study (Hazard and Operability Study) with the purpose of obtaining the initiator events; once obtained these, it was developed a tree of events by each initiator event and for each system it was developed a fault tree; the data used for the quantification of the failure probability of the systems were obtained starting from several generic sources of information. In each tree of events different final states were obtained and it stops each one, their occurrence frequency. The construction and evaluation of the tree of events and of failures one carries out with the SAPHIRE program. The results show the safety of the shutdown system of the HTTR and they allow to suggest modifications to the auxiliary system of refrigeration and to the heat exchanger helium/water pressurized. (Author)

  19. Conditions of a new development of the nuclear energy: the new imperatives of the electric competition; Condiciones de un nuevo desarrollo de la energia nuclear: los nuevos imperativos de la competencia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this work firstly, it is present a panorama that it makes mention to the energy and environmental aspects of long term for which the reactivation of the nuclear sector could be one of the main answers in the electric industry. Next, we will determine the specific imperatives that weigh on the nuclear investment in a market environment. Later on we will examine the way in that the general problem of the investments in the liberalized electric industries takes progressively to abandon the competitive pattern of reference in diverse countries, that which allows to establish a field most favorable for the nuclear investment. Finally, we will analyze the viability of the public areas that the states could apply to create a specific mark dedicated to organize the nuclear investments in the electric industries where the competition continued being very strong. (Author)

  20. Political aspects of nuclear non-proliferation: a north-south divide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on important political and regional aspects of nuclear proliferation and the effectiveness of non-proliferation measures, notably the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Regional issues are covered within the report by different authors looking at Iran and Iraq, plutonium and nuclear weapons in north-east Asia, nuclear programmes in Japan and North Korea, Pakistan's attitude to the NPT, India and the post-Cold War nuclear order, Israel and the nuclear non-proliferation regime, whether Israel's fissile material production can be capped, and US policy-making on non-proliferation. Other contributions address the negotiating process, the extension of the NPT and government statements. Appendices deal with the NPT and fissile materials in nuclear weapons. (UK)

  1. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ji Hye; Lee, Chan Suh [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  2. Definition of Nuclear Material in Aspects of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety accidents directly affect human health but nuclear security incidents indirectly influence human, which demonstrates the reason why security receives less attention. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear terrorism is indeed one of the most dreadful threat humanity faces. As part of strengthening nuclear security as well as nonproliferation to response to the threat, we need a better understanding of the nuclear material which needs to be safe under the objective of nuclear security. In reality, practitioners implement safeguards and physical protection in compliance with the regulation text in domestic legislation. Thus, it is important to specify nuclear material clearly in law for effective implementation. Therefore, the definition of terminology related to nuclear material is explored herein, within the highest-level legislation on the safeguards and physical protection. First the definition in Korean legislation is analyzed. Then, so as to suggest some improvements, other international efforts are examined and some case studies are conducted on other states which have similar level of nuclear technology and industry to Korea. Finally, a draft of definition on nuclear material in perspective of nuclear nonproliferation and security is suggested based on the analysis below. The recommendation showed the draft nuclear material definition in nuclear control. The text will facilitate the understanding of nuclear material in the context of nuclear nonproliferation and security. It might provide appropriate provision for future legislation related to nuclear nonproliferation and security. For effective safeguards and physical protection measures, nuclear material should be presented with in a consistent manner as shown in the case of United Kingdom. It will be much more helpful if further material engineering studies on each nuclear material are produced. Multi-dimensional approach is required for the studies on the degree of efforts to divert

  3. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante energia nuclear, un escenario sostenible en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: iqoren@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  4. Safety aspect of high temperature nuclear reactor application for natural gas steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the safety aspect of high temperature nuclear reactor application for natural gas steam reforming has been carried out. The basic safety aspect associated with nuclear coupling to chemical process is to prevent the release of radioactive materials to the environment and or the chemical process. In utilizing nuclear heat for chemical process, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is used as an interface that separates nuclear and non nuclear zones. IHX is helium-helium heat exchanger in which the primary helium (905oC) coming out from the reactor, and transfer its heat to the secondary helium gas (890oC). To prevent possible release of radioactive materials from nuclear zone, balanced pressure is applied. The pressure of chemical process (4.5 MPa) is designed to be higher than the pressure of secondary helium (4.1 MPa) or primary helium (4 MPa). The design of balance pressure and the use of IHX cause some inferior condition of the nuclear heated reformer since the lower temperature (~800oC) reaches catalyst tube of reformer. This condition gives impact on lower thermal efficiency (~50%) compared to the fossil-fuelled plant (80-85%). Some modification in design and operation, such as: selecting the bayonet type of reformer equipped with orifice baffle, and enhancing heat utilization, can improve the lack of condition and are capable to increase the thermal efficiency of nuclear heated natural gas steam reformer to reach about 78%. (author)

  5. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility

  6. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP)

    OpenAIRE

    Glauco Arnold Tavares; José Albertino Bendassolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumpti...

  7. Experimental aspects of quarkonia production and suppression in cold and hot nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Frawley, A D

    2015-01-01

    When heavy Quarkonia are formed in collisions between between nuclei, their production cross section is modified relative to that in p+p collisions. The physical effects that cause this modification fall into two categories. Hot matter effects are due to the large energy density generated in the nuclear collision, which disrupts the formation of the quarkonium state. Cold nuclear matter effects are due to the fact that the quarkonium state is created in a nuclear target. I will review experimental aspects of quarkonia production due to both hot and cold matter effects.

  8. Financial aspects of nuclear power programmes from the experience of the Foratom Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the financial aspects of the nuclear power programme from the experience of the Foratom Member countries. To appreciate the magnitude of the financial requirement the investments for the nuclear programme over the period 1976-85 are related to gross national product and gross capital formation. An examination is made of the sources and systems of financing for nuclear power stations and for all stages of the fuel cycle. The importance of interest during construction of the nuclear plant is considered in detail as, with the lengthening of construction times, this has now become a major factor in the total cost of a nuclear station. The possible accounting conventions under which interest during construction can be treated are examined and a study is made of the investment profile, the cost of money and the effect of inflation. The fiscal aspects of nuclear finance are studied with reference to national regulations and amortization rules. The amortization of nuclear installations also presents certain problems associated with their dismantling once their useful life is over, and this raises the question of the need to create a reserve fund which can commence with the startup of the power plant. For the fuel cycle a distinction can be made between areas of high (economic) risk such as in the prospecting and mining of uranium and the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and those areas of normal risk such as the manufacture of fuel elements. The difficulties of obtaining credit for the first phase should be considered. (author)

  9. Aspects and progresses of the Program for Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear Medicine in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to show the advances in the Nuclear Medicine auditing field performed by the Nuclear Medicine Group of the Division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine of the Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The main aspects observed during the auditing are presented as well as the evolution of the non-conformities. It is shown that the occurrence of these non-conformities decreases year by year, primarily as a function of the severity of the auditing and the consciousness of the personal of Nuclear Medicine Services. Results point clearly to the importance of the coercion actions to guarantee a radiation protection level in compliance with the standards established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. (author)

  10. Engineering Safety Aspects of the Protection of Nuclear Power Plants Against Sabotage (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA helps to identify threats and vulnerabilities related to the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is the responsibility of States to provide for the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and the associated facilities, to ensure the security of such material in transport, and to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of radioactive material. This publication provides guidelines for the assessment of the engineering safety aspects of the protection of nuclear power plants against sabotage, including standoff attacks. This publication is the result of extensive dialogue between safety and security specialists within and outside the IAEA. It also takes into account feedback from regulatory agencies and design organizations. It expands on more general concepts concerning the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities against sabotage

  11. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  12. Constitutional aspects of a nuclear power phaseout; Verfassungsrechtliche Aspekte eines Ausstiegs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossenbuehl, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    1998-12-01

    In the current political debate in Germany about the Federal Government`s plans to opt out of nuclear power, the time horizon for implementation of the policy and the nuclear power phaseout is a focal point of interest. This aspect is discussed from the angle of German constitutional law. The author analyses in this context the protective scope of Art. 14 GG (German Basic Law), relating to the protection of ownership rights and the principle of legal protection for bona fide acts, which is a vital aspect for the nuclear industry and the power industry. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die gegenwaertige Ausstiegsdiskussion betrifft vor allem die Frage, mit welcher zeitlichen Dimension die generelle Stillegung von Kernkraftwerken durch foermliches Gesetz angeordnet werden kann. Aus verfassungsrechtlicher Sicht haengt die Antwort vor allem vom Umfang der grundrechtlichen Eigentumsgarantie gem. Art. 14 GG und von dem allgemein anerkannten rechtsstaatlichen Vertrauensschutz ab. (orig.)

  13. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: public involvement and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities undertaken to provide information to the public about the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program as well as the opportunities for public involvement in the direction and development of the disposal concept through government inquiries and commissions and specific initiatives undertaken by AECL. Public viewpoints and the major issues identified by the public to be of particular concern and importance in evaluating the acceptability of the concept are described. In addition, how the issues have been addressed during the development of the disposal concept or how they could be addressed during implementation of the disposal concept are presented. There is also discussion of public perspectives of risk, the ethical aspects of nuclear fuel waste disposal, and public involvement in siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  14. Proceedings for the symposium on public health aspects of peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory is very pleased to have sponsored this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. The primary purpose of the Symposium was to disseminate and document current information and data on the public health aspects of this promising new technical field. In addition, it served to identify potential problem areas, stimulated discussion, and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas and rapport between and among various individuals and groups sharing interests in various facets of Plowshare technology. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a resource of relevant information which may be used to evaluate what is presently known and unknown in the public health and safety area of the technology for peaceful applications of nuclear explosives

  15. Eesti Energia teenis rekordkasumit / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. apr. lk. 2. Eesti energia teenis 31. märtsil lõppenud majandusaastal rekordilise 2,1 miljardi kroonise kasumi. Diagramm: Eesti Energia viimased kolm majandusaastat ja tulevikuplaanid

  16. Transient behaviour and coupling aspects of a hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARC is setting up a 6300 M3/day (1.4 MGD) hybrid MSF-RO nuclear desalination plant for sea water desalination at Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) coupled to a 170 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). The transient behaviour and coupling aspects of this dual purpose plant has been discussed. A hybrid desalination plant appears to offer high availability factor. (author)

  17. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  18. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  19. Monitored course at distance Nuclear Medicine: Introduction of Basic Physics Aspects. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This project try to evaluated the use of specialized multimedia product for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be close related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques like nurse, surgeons, specialized physician, oncologist, etc. The multimedia product included two items: Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Basic aspects of radiation physics. Each item contents an audio visual conference (Power Point) and a charter (PDF): with theoretic aspects, understand verification questions and self-evaluation activities. The product need only a PC compatible with window 98 (or more advanced version), and 130MBy of memory spaced for archive. In order to verify the effectiveness of the distance course, we tested its results in 4 specialists: 1 nurse, 1 radio-pharmacist, 1 cardiologist and 1 neurologist. After consult and clarify their doubts, a final test was applied in order to check the knowledge acquired. With 100 point of maximum score and 60-point minimum to pass, the test contented 2 types of questions: true or false choice (with 50 aspects to verify, 1.5 point/ correct answer) and many correct choices (5 questions, 5 point/correct answer). The average result was 91.5 points/ students (89.5- 94 points); the four students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension (1 very good and 3 excellent). The course was polled about the quality of the material and their comprehension degree, asking the student to make suggestions if were needed. The average evaluation was 94 points (91-95 points). The suggestions made were: increase the number of examples and practical sequences, the understand verification questions and include monitored practical exercise. Conclusion: the product can be useful for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques. Recommendation: The program should be enrich with the suggested things and extend to other important items like: radiation protection

  20. Safety aspects of the ageing and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA International Symposium on Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, held in Vienna from 29 June to 3 July 1987, was arranged with a view to providing a forum for the exchange of technical information on the approach to ageing phenomena at NPPs and for the exchange of technical and economic information on the approach to plant life extension. The symposium was attended by 141 participants from 31 countries and three international organizations. The symposium was the first organized by the IAEA on this subject. It consisted of six technical sessions, one poster session and three panel discussions. The proceedings, which include 35 technical papers presented during the symposium and four extended synopses of posters presented, should be valuable to a broad spectrum of experts involved in nuclear power programmes: technical and managerial staff engaged in NPP operation, regulatory body staff, consulting and architect engineering organizations, vendor technical and managerial staff and NPP technical and managerial staff involved in maintenance activities. Some NPPs are already approaching or are even beyond the end of their planned lifetime of 25 to 40 years of operation. In the year 2000 approximately 160 plants will be 25 years old and 69 will be 30 years old or more. The question of the safe operation of rather 'old' plants and the question of NPP life extension as an alternative to decommissioning will therefore be of growing importance worldwide. All the conference presentations were divided into six sessions as follows: General safety aspects of ageing (3 papers); Conceptual approach to the safety aspects of NPP ageing (5 papers); Methods for critical components and systems determination (8 papers); Methods and provisions to handle ageing phenomena during NPP operation (13 papers); General aspects of NPP life extension (6 papers); Technological aspects of NPP life extension (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each

  1. Relevant aspects of a quality assurance program applied to a nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to enumerate the most relevant subjects to be taken into account for the elaboration of a Quality Assurance Program aimed to regulate a nuclear power plant operation. At first, it was necessary to point out the relevance that implies the presence of a group of personnel, experienced in quality assurance with enough knowledge on the technical and organizing aspects of the plant. Other aspect to be taken into account was the contemplation of the international requirements, through the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the national requirements that each country had set up by the corresponding regulating agencies. These organizations pointed out the minimum rules that must be followed for the adequate and efficient execution of a program. The Quality Assurance Manual and the program and work procedures constituted the Quality Assurance Program which must be checked as regards its fulfillment by auditors and quality assurance supervisions. (Author)

  2. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  3. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  4. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  5. Psychological aspects in the development of new thinking in nuclear era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to establish and analyze some psychological characteristics of ''the new thinking'' such as no-alternative decision-making, low risk group decisions, necessity to develop conceding strategies in negotiations. A task is set forth to restructure the system of concepts and values in large masses of population in order to bring them closer to realities of the nuclear age. Some practical aspects of psychological work concerning development of the new thinking in different groups of people are discussed thinking in different groups of people are discussed

  6. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  7. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was convened by NDS eight years ago in October 1981. The present meeting was a second one on this topic and it was intended to summarize the progress and status of nuclear data for radiation damage assessment since the first meeting. The participants have emphasized that since the first meeting a number of spallation neutron sources were put into operation and many material radiation damage studies are conducted now at these facilities. The distinguishing feature of spallation neutron sources is that the neutron energy spectra which they produce in most cases have a high energy component which may give a significant contribution to radiation damage. The proper understanding of radiation damage experiments in these neutron fields requires a better knowledge of nuclear data at high neutron energies. These ideas were formulated in detail in the conclusions and recommendations of the participants which are contained in this report. Another new issue was the need for activation cross-section data of long-lived isotopes. This topic is also considered in the conclusions below. The 14 presentations published in this proceedings were subdivided into three sessions: Characterization of neutron reactor environment, surveillance and nuclear data (5 papers); High energy neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations (6 papers); REAL-88 results and prospects (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arnold Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumption and better water quality were achieved.

  9. Nuclear heat applications: design aspects and operating experience. Proceedings of four technical meetings held between December 1995 and April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven to be safe, reliable, economic and having minimum impact on the environment, nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation producing 175 of the world's electricity. But since most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat the market for nuclear heat has already been recognised. Considering the growing experience in application of power reactors for district heating, industrial processes and water desalination IAEA is periodically reviewing progress and new developments of nuclear heat applications. This proceedings includes the papers presented at the following four meetings: Advisory group meeting and consultancy on experience with nuclear heat applications: district heating, process heat and desalination, 13-15 December 1995 and 7-9 february 1996; Advisory group meeting on technology, design and safety aspects of non-electrical application of nuclear energy, 20-24 October 1997; Advisory group meeting on operational modes of nuclear desalination plants, 3-5 November 1997; Advisory group meeting on materials and equipment for the coupling interfaces of nuclear reactors with desalination and district heating plants, 21-23 April 1998. It is structured according to the subject areas: (1) design an safety aspects of nuclear heat application, (2) operational and material aspects of nuclear heat application and (3) operational experience with nuclear heat application. Each paper is described by a separate abstract

  10. Lahtimuukimata tume energia / Dennis Overbye

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Overbye, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Salapärase tumeda energia avastamisest on möödas kümme aastat, ent teadmatus, millega on tegu ja kuidas seda üldse teada võiks saada, ajab teadlased endiselt meeleheitele. Lisaks joonis: Laiali kihutavad galaktikad

  11. Radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The IAEA takes seriously the enduring challenge for users and regulators everywhere: that of ensuring a high level of safety in the use of nuclear materials and radiation sources around the world. Their continuing utilization for the benefit of humankind must be managed in a safe manner, and the IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate the achievement of that goal. This Safety Guide has been prepared as a part of the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear power plants. It includes recommendations on how to satisfy the requirements established in the Safety Requirements publication on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It addresses the provisions that should be made in the design of nuclear power plants in order to protect site personnel, the public and the environment against radiological hazards for operational states, decommissioning and accident conditions. The recommendations on radiation protection provided in this Safety Guide are consistent with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This Safety Guide supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D9, Design Aspects of Radiation Protection for Nuclear Power Plants, published in 1985. Effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. Procedures that address the radiation protection aspects of operation are covered in the Safety Guide on Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the operation of Nuclear Power Plants

  12. Radiation protection aspects in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . The IAEA takes seriously the enduring challenge for users and regulators everywhere: that of ensuring a high level of safety in the use of nuclear materials and radiation sources around the world. Their continuing utilization for the benefit of humankind must be managed in a safe manner, and the IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate the achievement of that goal. This Safety Guide has been prepared as a part of the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear power plants. It includes recommendations on how to satisfy the requirements established in the Safety Requirements publication on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It addresses the provisions that should be made in the design of nuclear power plants in order to protect site personnel, the public and the environment against radiological hazards for operational states, decommissioning and accident conditions. The recommendations on radiation protection provided in this Safety Guide are consistent with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). This Safety Guide supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D9, Design Aspects of Radiation Protection for Nuclear Power Plants, published in 1985. Effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. Procedures that address the radiation protection aspects of operation are covered in the Safety Guide on Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the operation of Nuclear Power Plants

  13. Eesti Energia tahab elektrit toota Pihkvas / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia ja Venemaa ettevõte RAO Rossija võivad koos rajada Pihkvasse ühise gaasielektrijaama. Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Lembit Vali kommentaare. Lisa: Fortum ja Eesti Energia otsivad koostöövõimalusi

  14. Eesti Energia gets lower than hoped for price hike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Konkurentsiamet ja Eesti Energia leppisid kokku elektritariifi tõusu põhimõtetes. Elektri hinna tõus on kolm korda väiksem kui Eesti Energia lootis. Eesti Energia on huvitatud tuumaelektrijaamast

  15. Safety culture aspects of managing for safety. Experience of a large nuclear reprocessing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Industry is going through turbulent times both in terms of public acceptance and business issues. Safety is one area which impacts on whether the business is allowed to continue, and how an organisation organizes itself. The need to cut costs to make nuclear power a viable energy resource, has forced the nuclear utilities to review manning policies, and management style, and in particular how to maintain safety standards during a period of change, and ultimately support continuing improvement of standards. The shrinking workforce requires a new style of management, one that depends more on the people of the organisation taking responsibility for safety at all levels of the organisation. Not only personal safety but the safety of their colleagues, general public and the environment. The safety culture of an organisation is indivisible from the company culture, each aspect of a culture influences the whole and so the balance between business, safety and quality, has to be managed. BNFL provides a full fuel cycle service to nuclear power plants, and associated services to many national and international organisations. The following notes are taken from the work carried out in the company, and mostly at the Nuclear Reprocessing and Waste storage Site at Sellafield, based in the North West of England. Following the recent re-organisation, the site now employs 6200 people and has a further 1500 contractors working on construction activities on the site. Activities on the site range from remote handling to hands on tasks, involving highly active materials to low level waste. (author)

  16. Safety and ethical aspects on retrievability: A Swedish nuclear regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important contribution to the discussion on retrieval in Sweden has been the ethical principle of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM). ''The KASAM Principle'' means that the present generation, which has reaped the benefits of nuclear energy, must also take care of the waste and not transfer the responsibility to future generations; a repository should be designed and constructed so that monitoring and remedial actions are not necessary in the future. However, future generations, probably with better knowledge and other values, must still have the freedom to make their own decisions; we should therefore not make monitoring and remedial action unnecessarily difficult. SKI generally supports the KASAM principle but its application in the individual case should be based on solid evidence that both aspects have been covered in a suggested repository design. There may be a number of possible reasons for retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from a repository and they range from technical to purely political. SKI supports that the repository shall not be designed so that it unnecessarily impairs future attempts to retrieve the waste, monitor or ''repair'' the repository. However, measures to facilitate any kind of access to the repository must not reduce the long term safety of the repository. SKI concludes that: Future generations may wish to retrieve the spent fuel from a sealed repository. Disposal method and repository design should consider this and not make such retrieval unnecessarily difficult. On the other hand, any measures taken to facilitate retrieval must not significantly impair the long term safety functions of the repository. It must be shown that the safety aspects have been adequately considered. Retrievability must always be discussed with caution, so that it will not give the impression of doubts concerning the safety of the repository. (author)

  17. YKAe - Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organised as five-year nationally coordinated research programs. The research programme on Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety is under way during 1990-1994. Its annual volume has been about 35 person-years and its annual expenditure about FIM 18 million. Studies in the field on safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core concentrate on fuel high burn-up behaviour, VVER fuel experiments, and reactor core behaviour in complex reactivity transients such as 3-D phenomena and ATWS events. The PACTEL facility is used for the thermal hydraulic studies of the Loviisa type reactors (scaled 1:305). Validation of accident analysis codes is carried out by participation in international standard problems. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe reactor accidents are implemented, modified as needed and applied to level-2 PSAs and the improvement of accident management procedures. Fire simulation methods are tested using data from experiments in the German HDR facility. A nuclear plant analyzer for efficient safety analyses is being developed using the APROS process simulation environment. Computerized operator support systems are being studied in cooperation with the OECD Halden Project. The basic factors affecting plant operator activities and the development of their competence are being investigated. A comprehensive system for the control of plant operational safety is being developed by combining living PSA and safety indicators

  18. Legal aspects related to the decommissioning, operation and implementation phases of the uranium mines belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB is company with both private and public capital, linked to Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear-(CNEN) and to the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. It has facilities in the states of Bahia, Ceara and Minas Gerais, with corresponding uranium mining and milling plants, which represent the first stage of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Caldas Unit (decommissioning phase) -First mineral-industrial complex settled in the country, located in the municipality of Caldas, at the southern State of Minas Gerais, since 1982. Here the development of the nuclear fuel cycle technology was started aiming at generating electric power, through uranium processing by chemical treatment and its transformation into yellowcake. Due to the exhaustion of the economically feasible uranium, the facility stopped its production in 1996, and the priority was to transfer the mining activities to Caetite (BA) in the late nineties. Caetite Unit (operational phase) - One of the most important Brazilian uranium ore provinces, is located in the southwest of the state of Bahia, near the towns of Caetite and Lagoa Real. The mining of uranium ore, with average content of 2 900 ppm in U3O8 equivalent, is underway since 1999 in an open pit mine at the Cachoeira deposit. Milling takes place at the industrial facilities for the extraction of uranium through acid heap leaching in piles, and concentration and purification through solvent extraction in countercurrent method, followed by the production of the corresponding concentrate as ammonium diuranate - ADU, or yellow cake. The current yearly production of ADU reaches 400 metric tonnes in U3O8 equivalent. The next step, presently being licensed, will be a shift on the mining process, from open pit to underground mining, aiming at a more economical exploration of the ore. It will be the first underground uranium mine in our country. Santa Quiteria Unit (implementation phase) - The Santa Quiteria

  19. Ethical and social aspects of integral risk assessment in reference to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rule, the risks connected with the use of nuclear energy are assessed as isolated factors. Sterotypically the economic benefits and residual risks are weighed against one another and assessed differently. Within the framework of an integral understanding of the problem, the significance of nuclear energy should be considered to be of prime priority when it comes to the serious problems which humanity is confronted with, i.e.: - ecological stability, - climatic stability, - keeping peace, - prevention of large-scale epidemics, - conservation of our resources for the generations to come, - making existence fit for human beings. The author comes to the conclusion that the risks which would result from dispensing with nuclear energy world-wide are a millionfold greater than are the risks which would result from extending the use of nuclear energy world-wide, not only as regards the loss of human lives, but also as regards the amount of land which might become uninhabitable long-term. The author advocates employing ethical arguments which are based on ethical goals and are rational, economical and promise to show the best way of fulfilling mutual ehtical goals satisfactorily in an objective way. The author sees problems as regards the distortion of truth and its misuse by cynics, opportunists, etc. Social aspects must be subjected to ethical scrutiny as well. On the whole it is important to overcome deficits in the communication between technically and scientifically oriented people and those who view it as their task to reflect upon the meaning behind the issue at hand (clergymen, journalists, politicians, etc.). (orig./HSCH)

  20. Different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies up to intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies to intermediate ones. For the low energies, the nuclear matter is essentially constituted from interacting nucleons. Part I is on the fusion-fission of super-heavy elements, while Part II is on the Skyrme interactions associated sum rules. In the case of the intermediate energies, where the nuclear matter is considered as being an hadronic phase mainly constituted from pions, Part III is focused on nuclear matter relativistic hydrodynamics with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In Part I, the formation and the deexcitation of super-heavy nuclei are being studied. The memory effect must be taken into consideration within the super-heavy nuclei formation dynamics. Therefore we analyzed the formation of compound nuclei including the memory effects. As for the intermediate memory effects some oscillations appear, which is very different from the Markovian dynamics. For super-heavy nuclei deexcitation, the existence of isomeric state within the potential barrier cannot explain the results of experiments performed at GANIL with the crystal blocking technique, and this despite of the fact that it modifies the deexcitation dynamics and increases the fission time. However, this latter study could be useful for the study of the actinides fission. In Part II, the phenomenological Skyrme effective interactions-associated M1 and M3 sum rules are being calculated based on their intrinsic definitions. We identify then M1 up to the tensorial level and M3 with central potential. In Part III, as for the hadronic matter hydrodynamics being applied to heavy ions collisions, and as a first approach only, we can neglect spontaneous chiral symmetry but certainly not the dissipative impact. (author)

  1. Some aspects of the role of real time modelling in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the role of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) during an emergency at a licensed site and addresses some aspects of real time modelling for predicting the potential radiological consequences arising from an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Two of the main concerns arising from an emergency which are important in the assessments that the Inspectorate needs to make are the potential doses to members of the public arising from a radioactive release from the site and the timescale available for pre-determined countermeasures to be put into effect. As one of the tools available for predicting such information the development of real time modelling is receiving continuing support within the NII who are directly supporting further developments with an interest in both diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. (author)

  2. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  3. The implementation of quality assurance programs: basic aspect in nuclear plants management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience in implementing and developing the Quality Assurance programme for the Almaraz nuclear power plant is briefly described. Almaraz was the first Spanish nuclear plant that had to apply specific Quality Assurance standards to its project and construction. The complexity of the project which was developed using standards in a continuous state of evolution, the large number of participating organizations and the numerous interrelationships between them, made the working methods required by the Quality Assurance standards a fundamental tool for establishing order within the framework of the projects, an essential requirement to achieve the objectives regarding costs, schedules and quality. The experience has shown that implementation of Quality Assurance programmes must be accomplished from the highest levels of management and must be thought of as being an essential management tool for achievement of the objectives established, and subjected to periodic revisions in order to check their effectiveness. This logically means that the scope of Quality Assurance must be extended to cover not only those aspects relating to safety but also all activities directly or indirectly affecting adequate operation of the plant, grading the requirements depending on several factors as impact on plant availability, costs of items, complexity of activities, etc. (author)

  4. Safety aspects of core management and fuel handling for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It supplements the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O). This Guide describes the safety objectives of core management, the tasks which have to be accomplished to meet these objectives, and the activities undertaken to perform those tasks. It also covers the storage and handling of fuel and core components; the loading and unloading of fuel and core components; and the insertion and removal of other core materials such as moderator, coolant and absorbers, relevant to core management. The loading of the transport container with irradiated fuel and the preparation for transport off-site are further topics that are included. Transportation requirements and safety precautions for transport beyond the site, off-site storage and ultimate disposal of irradiated fuel and core components are not covered by this Guide, although the Operating Organization may be responsible for securing the services involved. Aspects of fuel accounting not directly related to safety are not considered

  5. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  6. Technical and economic aspects of retrievability in spent nuclear fuel disposal. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This literature research collects cost and feasibility aspects of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel disposal. The Finnish plan for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel includes some features favouring retrievability, like modularity of disposal plan, good corrosion resistance of copper canisters and long estimated lifetime of disposal shafts and tunnels. Possible political and technical arguments for retrievability are collected and the possible actions taken after retrieving (opening of copper canisters, transportations and interim storage) are looked into. In the Finnish disposal plan retrieving is possible in each stage of repository development. Technical feasibility of retrieving is presented before sealing of a disposal hole, after filling and sealing of a disposal tunnel and after final closure of the repository. Many features of the disposal concept (hydrogeological conditions, radioactive radiation and heat generation of the spent fuel, and properties of bentonite) affect the feasibility and cost of retrieving. Questions dealing with nuclear material safeguards, monitoring and continuity of knowledge should be taken into account when retrievability is being considered. Different ways used for expressing the cost of retrieving, are currency unit, delay of the scheduled disposal project and percentages of the actual disposal cost. Estimated costs for two different cases of retrievability, immediate closure and postponed closure of repository, are presented. Cost estimates, made in Finland, are quite rough, but the Swedish cost calculation example of immediate closure case is interesting because of similarity of Finnish and Swedish disposal concepts. There are also examples of cost, based on research and development work enhancing retrievability. It is noticed that there are only few exact cost estimations relating to retrievability. The reasons might be the improbability of actual retrieving and the fact that retrieving, if materialised, will take

  7. L'Energy Amplifier di Rubbia : gli studi per la produzione di un'energia nucleare pulita ed il loro impatto sul piano economico

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D; Panizza, R

    2000-01-01

    The growing interest towards new energy forms is a common feature of many different studying fields: physics, engineering, economics and politics. The main reason is that human population is growing fast (there's a prevision of about nine billion people in 2050) and with it is increasing the energy request, both for the industrialized world and for the developing countries. This means that the actual organization of the energy market will not be able to satisfy the needs of the near future: clean energy for everybody. The International Energy Agency provided a "business as usual" scenario where is shown that by the year 2030 the world energy demand will be 70% higher than now and the electricity demand would follow the same pattern, needing somewhat like 3475 GW of new electric power. The logic conclusion is that we'll need all the energy forms we know: fossil fuels, nuclear and renewable energy. Nowadays the energy - and particularly the electricity - market is facing large problems: global warming and depen...

  8. Direitos Humanos, energia nuclear e cooperação militar nos anos 1970: as relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson José Perosa Junior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade dos anos 1970, a política de não proliferação nuclear dos EUA sofreu significativas mudanças. Da mesma maneira, a agenda de Direitos Humanos se tornou um tema prioritário nas relações do governo estadunidense com outros países. Esses foram dois temas que abalaram as relações entre Brasil e Estados Unidos e que tiveram implicações para a denúncia do acordo militar entre esses mesmos países. O objetivo do presente artigo é explorar o impacto dessas questões nas relações bilaterais entre Brasília e Washington, bem como as implicações para a política interna desses países. Preza-se também por demonstrar as diferenças de postura nessas questões entre o governo Ford e o governo Carter.

  9. Study of basic safety-related aspects of decommissioning nuclear installations. Pt. 1. Legal aspects and set of technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set of nuclear rules is checked for its applicability to the decommissioning, safe containment and dismantling of nuclear installations. In the foreground of the individual parts of the set of rules is the question about the relevance of licensing procedures according to No. 7 para. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The set of rules checked, basically consists of: 1. the Atomic Energy Law (AtG), the ordinances adopted on its basis (AtVfV, StrSchV, AtDeckV, AtKostV, EndlagerVIV, AtSMV) and on neighbouring laws (StrVG, BImschG, UVPG, AbfG); 2. the announcements of the BMU, BMI and BMFT: 3. the recommendations of the RSK, SSK, the rules of the KTA, the DIN standards, and 4. several international guidelines and recommendations (European Union EU, IAEA, NEA of the OECD). A generic assessment is performed, in the course of which, starting from the content or treated facts, reference to defined licensing facts and the wording, it is determined whether a specific regulation or rule is relevant or irrelevant in the licensing procedure according to No. 7 para. 3 Atomic Energy Law. In addition, a plant-related evaluation based on implemented licensing procedures is done. The expertises and licensing notifications referred to for this purpose, which represent a wide cross-section of German nuclear installations, were evaluated to find out which of the regulations and rules were explicitely applied. (orig./HP)

  10. Report on the consultants' meeting on co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres. (Technical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the 1999 Co-ordination Meeting on Technical Aspects of the Co-operation of the Nuclear Reaction Data Centres, hold at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, 18 to 20 May 1999. The meeting was attended by scientists from 11 Nuclear Data Centres from 7 Member States and 2 International Organizations. The present document contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, and progress reports of the Participating Data Centres. (author)

  11. Technical economic feasibility study for the implementation of a nuclear power plant for the production of electricity in Colombia; Estudio de factibilidad tecnico economica para la implementacion de una central de energia nuclear para la produccion de energia electrica en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, David E.; Bolanos, Hernan G.; Mayorga, Manuel A.; Rodriguez, Edwin A., E-mail: david_egO@yahoo.es, E-mail: hernanbolaos@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: alejo_mayorga@yahoo.com, E-mail: edwin.rodriguez@distoyota.com.co [Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion GIATME

    2013-07-01

    A study on the technical and economic feasibility will be used to implement a nuclear power in Colombia to generate electricity. To this will be searched if there are previous studies on this topic and what they concluded. The manner in which power is supplied will be discussed in a national level nowadays, its strengths and weaknesses. It will be investigated the legal norms that exists in the country on nuclear power and renewable energy sources, the standards established at world level, the nuclear accidents and the great examples. Providers will be sought on the world market nuclear equipment which serve to this purpose and the technical characteristics of these equipment will be discussed. The type of fuel used in nuclear reactors, its origin, method of production, specifications, availability and long-term and safe handling and final disposal are considered. safe handling of this technology and policy or international rules that will studied.

  12. Conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conclusions and recommendations of the IAEA AGM on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Safety Aspects consist of three separate reports developed by the participants of the three workshops which took place during the meeting on 15 and 16 October 1981. 1. Workshop on Nuclear Data for Environment Characterization. 2. Workshop on Status of Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Calculations (in terms of d.p.a.) and Damage Correlation Estimates. 3. Workshop on Evaluation of Preliminary Results of the REAL-80 (Reaction Rate Estimates, Evaluated by Adjustment Analysis in Leading Laboratories) International Exercise

  13. Programme of integration of social aspects in nuclear research and technology development of SCK-CEN (PISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN started in 2000 the structured programme PISA with support of young researchers in social sciences from different disciplines and universities. These researchers joined technical teams within SCK-CEN. The research performed in the context of the PISA programme was organised in the following domains: (1) sustainability and nuclear development; (2) transgenerational ethics and group think in nuclear waste management; (3)legal aspects and liability and (4) risk management. The status and main achievements in 2003 are summarised

  14. Safety Aspects of Long-Term Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is being pursued. The current operation licenses for existing storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years. In addition, transportability of the casks must be assured. Due to current delay in the selection of a disposal site the probability increases, that an extension of the storage time will be needed. Therefore additional safety analyses will be required, as the current licenses are based on safety evaluations for 40 years. This is valid for the performance of the transport and storage casks as well as for the stored fuel. Under this point of view basic aspects of the safety demonstration for long-term interim storage with regard to casks and stored fuel will be presented in the paper. For spent nuclear fuel it has to be demonstrated, that no systematic failure of the fuel rods during storage will occur and the fuel structure remains intact. Relevant parameters are the pressure build-up inside the fuel rods, the temperature in the cask and the hoop tension acting on the cladding. In GRS, generic studies and analyses on this issue have been performed for storage times up to 100 years, based on burn-up and depletion calculation for up to 50 GWd/tHM some years ago under conservative assumptions. This work is now being continued in order to improve the calculation model for burn-up values of UO2 and MOX fuels up to 70 GWd/tHM. Results from the analyses will be presented. For casks all safety demonstrations have been performed for storage periods of up to 40 years. Extended storage periods require additional safety demonstrations for all relevant safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions during storage. Thus has to consider material degradation affects by aging mechanisms. On the other hand, radiation levels and decay heat decrease during

  15. Planning, Management and Organizational Aspects of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many old reactors and other nuclear facilities worldwide are being actively dismantled or are candidates for decommissioning in the near term. A significant number of these facilities are located in Member States having little experience or expertise in planning and implementing state of the art decommissioning projects. Planning, management and organization are critical for the success of such projects. The main objective of IAEA technical activities related to decommissioning is to promote the exchange of lessons learned, thereby contributing to successful planning and implementation of decommissioning projects. Imperative for success is a better understanding of the decision making process, the comparison and selection of decommissioning plans and organizational provisions, and relevant issues affecting the entire decommissioning process. Topics addressed in this publication include details on development of the decommissioning plan, structuring of key project tasks, organizing the project management team, identifying key staffing positions and determining required workforce skills, and managing the transition from an operational phase to the decommissioning phase. It is expected that this project, and in particular the papers collected in this publication, will draw Member States' attention to the practicality and achievability of timely planning and smooth management of decommissioning projects, especially for smaller projects. Concluding reports summarizing the work undertaken under the aegis of a coordinated research project (CRP) on planning, management and organizational aspects in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and presented at the third and final research coordination meeting (RCM) held in Da Lat, Vietnam, 5-9 September 2011, are included in this publication. Operating experience and lessons learned during full scale applications, as well as national programmes and plans, are among the most significant achievements of the CRP and have been

  16. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  17. Retinoids and nuclear retinoid receptors in white and brown adipose tissues: physiopathologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajollet, Sébastien; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin A, ingested either as retinol or β-carotene from animal- or plant-derived foods respectively, is a nutrient essential for many biological functions such as embryonic development, vision, immune response, tissue remodeling, and metabolism. Its main active metabolite is all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates gene expression through the activation of α, β, and γ isotypes of the nuclear atRA receptor (RAR). More recently, retinol derivatives were also shown to control the RAR activity, enlightening the interplay between vitamin A metabolism and RAR-mediated transcriptional control. The white and brown adipose tissues regulate the energy homeostasis by providing dynamic fatty acid storing and oxidizing capacities to the organism, in connection with the other fatty acid-consuming tissues. This concerted interorgan response to fatty acid fluxes is orchestrated, in part, by the endocrine activity of the adipose tissue depots. The adipose tissues are also sites for synthesizing and storing vitamin A derivatives, which will act as hormonal cues or intracellularly to regulate essential aspects of adipocyte biology. As agents that prevent adipocyte differentiation hence, expected to decrease fat mass, and inducers of uncoupling protein expression, thus, favoring energy expenditure, retinoids have prompted many investigations to decipher their roles in adipose tissue pathophysiology, which are summarized in this review.

  18. Nuclear retinoid receptors and pregnancy: placental transfer, functions, and pharmacological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptour, Aurélie; Rouzaire, Marion; Belville, Corinne; Bouvier, Damien; Gallot, Denis; Blanchon, Loïc; Sapin, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Animal models of vitamin A (retinol) deficiency have highlighted its crucial role in reproduction and placentation, whereas an excess of retinoids (structurally or functionally related entities) can cause toxic and teratogenic effects in the embryo and foetus, especially in the first trimester of human pregnancy. Knock-out experimental strategies-targeting retinoid nuclear receptors RARs and RXRs have confirmed that the effects of vitamin A are mediated by retinoic acid (especially all-trans retinoic acid) and that this vitamin is essential for the developmental process. All these data show that the vitamin A pathway and metabolism are as important for the well-being of the foetus, as they are for that of the adult. Accordingly, during this last decade, extensive research on retinoid metabolism has yielded detailed knowledge on all the actors in this pathway, spurring the development of antagonists and agonists for therapeutic and research applications. Natural and synthetic retinoids are currently used in clinical practice, most often on the skin for the treatment of acne, and as anti-oncogenic agents in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. However, because of the toxicity and teratogenicity of retinoids during pregnancy, their pharmacological use needs a sound knowledge of their metabolism, molecular aspects, placental transfer, and action. PMID:27502420

  19. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects; Les atolls de Mururoa et de Fangataufa (Polynesie Francaise). Les experimentations nucleaires. Aspects radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-07-01

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  20. Energia eólica

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.

    2013-01-01

    O vento (massas de ar em movimento) é utilizado há milhares de anos para suprir as necessidades energéticas que decorrem de um vasto conjunto de actividades humanas. Por exemplo, o vento foi muito utilizado para propulsar alguns meios de transporte (barcos a vela), bombear água ou permitir o funcionamento de actividades industriais, como foi o caso dos moinhos de vento que ainda hoje existem em muitas regiões de Portugal. Como a maior parte das fontes de energia renováveis (excepto a ener...

  1. Implantation aspects of small and medium nuclear power plant in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy policy adopted by the Latin America is commented. The nuclear power plants in planning are presented. An analysis about the nuclear legislation, licensing and nuclear regulation, quality assurance and formation of human resources for Latin America is done. (E.G.)

  2. New Technologies for a sustainable nuclear energy and your effect in the management of radioactive waste; Nuevas tecnologias para una energia nuclear sostenible y su efecto en la gestion de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Romero, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    The probable worldwide increase and distribution of nuclear energy for electricity generation, replacing partially fossil fuels, is promoting the development of technologies that foster its long-term sustain ability. Fast neutron system, combined with closed fuel cycles, are the key elements for the sustain ability. When combined, they can provide a significant reduction on the final high level wastes of the nuclear generation. In particular, Partitioning and Transmutation of actinides would allow the reduction of the nuclear wastes radiotoxicity, their content in fissile material and the heat load to the repository. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Analytical study of the prospectives published by the Secretaria de Energia; Estudio analitico de las prospectivas publicadas por la Secretaria de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Since 1997 the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publishes an annual report named Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, in which detailed information on the situation of the Mexican electrical sector is included, the information is related to the technological, economic and environmental aspects of all the organisms involved in the matter of electrical energy, within which stand out the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) and the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). In the prospectives the tendency of the modifications that will undergo the sector in a period of 10 years is analyzed. All the prospectives of the electrical sector, agree in that the growth of this sector is determined by the construction of power stations that use natural gas as primary energy, reason why we made an analysis of the prospectives of the natural gas market, with the purpose of observing the interaction between both sectors. At the moment seven prospectives of each sector have been published, given the conditions at the moment of their publication, they present differences and agreements between each other for periods of intersection. The present work shows the comparison between the expectations of growth reported by each one of the Prospectives. [Spanish] Desde 1997 la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publica un reporte anual llamado Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, en el que se incluye informacion detallada sobre la situacion del sector electrico mexicano, la informacion esta relacionada con los aspectos tecnologicos, economicos y medioambientales de todos los organismos involucrados en materia de energia electrica, dentro de los cuales destacan la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) y la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). En las prospectivas se analiza la tendencia de las modificaciones que sufrira el sector

  4. Social aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning at the Greifswald site in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal situation in Germany is that private electricity companies, such as E.ON, RWE, Bayernwerke and EnBW, are responsible for the costs and implementation of decommissioning of the NPPs that they own. The private companies have their own decommissioning approach and financing tools. This situation applies, for example, to the Wuergassen plant In addition, there are some Government owned organizations that are responsible for nuclear decommissioning sites. The largest one is Energiewerke Nord (EWN), which covers the large Greifswald site, the AVR research reactor and, since February 2006, the reprocessing plant (WAK) at the Karlsruhe site. EWN is owned by the Federal Republic of Germany (Ministry of Finance). The Federal Ministry of Finance provides EWN with the funds necessary to deliver the decommissioning programme and the tasks in that programme. The shareholder structure of EWN can be seen (drawn prior to the takeover of WAK). The German Federal Ministry of the Environment is in charge of all licensing aspects, to ensure realization of the decommissioning in a safe and secure way. The responsible authorities are the Ministries of Environment in the 16 German states. In the case of EWN, this is Mecklenburg/Western- Pommerania. In the context of EWN's special licensing approach, as described in the next section, there is a close and practical cooperation between EWN as decommissioning operator and the above mentioned authorities. In this context, EWN sought to establish a decommissioning strategy that recognized the socioeconomic effects of plant shutdown and make decommissioning friendly as described in the next section

  5. Emerging nuclear energy and transmutation systems: Core physics and engineering aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Core Physics and Engineering Aspects of Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation held in December 2000, was convened by the IAEA on the recommendation of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). The objectives of this TCM were threefold: to review the status of Research and Development activities in the area of hybrid systems for energy generation and transmutation, to discuss specific scientific and technical issues covering the different R and D topics of these systems; and to recommend to the IAEA activities that would be specifically targeted to the needs of the Member States performing R and D in this field. The TCM had not called for broad overview papers of the various R and D fields. Apart from a rather brief presentation by each delegation of the general issues and the status of the R and D in the respective country, the IAEA had called for in-depth technical papers addressing one or more of the following topics: accelerator driven systems (ADS) concepts, requirements and features of ADS accelerators, target development, experiments and validation, sub-critical core studies, technology of heavy liquid metals, fuel and fuel processes development, and fuel cycle studies. Forty-five participants from eleven countries and one international organization attended the TCM, and thirty papers were presented. The status information presented in the delegates' general statements and in some of the papers is as of the time of the TCM. Thus, other later material should also be referenced for more current information. One such source of information is the Web Site of IAEA's project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for Actinide and Long lived Fission Product Transmutation (http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/). However, the technical information provided in the papers, representing the bulk of the information presented, remains valid

  6. Nuclear power plants: recent developments in Brazil relating to the legal aspect of installation - erection - operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Federal statutory system governs the setting up and operation of nuclear power plants in Brazil. This paper describes the general regulatory framework for electric utilities and in particular analyses the licensing procedure for nuclear installations. (NEA)

  7. Present aspects of the nuclear power development in the frame of the modern society requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes the development of the nuclear power sector from economic, social and environment protection points of view. In Romania, the contribution of nuclear power to the total production of electric power was about 10% in 2001. The development of the nuclear field in Romania meets the requirements of sustainable development. The advantages of nuclear energy are the following: low annual fuel consumption, comparatively with the fossil fuel plants, decreased releases of greenhouse gases and reduced mining activity, transportation and storage of wastes. The nuclear energy and the renewable energy sources are able to sustain the economic growth and the objectives of sustainable development. The nuclear field development is affected by decisional risks of political or social nature. The public was deeply concerned by issues such as environmental impacts of testing of nuclear weapons, major accidents (Chernobyl and TMI), nuclear power plant safety and nuclear waste storage. At present, there is a low interest for the nuclear field at the university level. Therefore, there are legitimate concerns about the transmission of the nuclear expertise to the next generations and currently large and sustainable efforts are undertaken towards adequate management of preserving and fostering the nuclear knowledge on one side and better information and education of public even from school time on the other side

  8. Road Map for Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations - National Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was based on a survey on national crises to which 17 countries responded, drawing on their own communication expertise and know-how in emergency response. Considering a previous analysis of communication during abnormal situations, this guidance seeks to help nuclear regulatory organisations (NROs) widen their common knowledge of communication requirements and practices amongst different countries, as well as existing informative tools to use before, during and after crises. The purpose of this document is to report on the survey's key findings and to draw a road map to improve the effectiveness of crisis communication management under all types of critical situations (from anomalies to major accidents). Among other topics, this report includes practical information on reaction time, elaboration and delivery of coordinated and accurate messages, new channels to be explored, and priority challenges to ensure transparency under close public scrutiny. It should be kept in mind that the present document was mostly completed before the nuclear crisis in Fukushima (Japan) that followed the catastrophic natural disasters that affected the region in March 2011. Therefore, this report does not take into account the necessary analysis of national practices derived from international crisis communication management. NROs commonly agree that crisis communication is linked to media pressure and reputation risk, and all realize that their credibility could be jeopardised. Because crises demand a quick response, an established communication plan by the NRO to deliver accurate information in the initial stage is critical. Providing early information, expected of nuclear safety authorities by the public, helps ensure transparency under high pressure and public scrutiny. Regular public communication about the NRO and planned emergency actions in advance of a crisis helps to build the NRO's reputation as a reliable, independent and trustworthy source of information

  9. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  10. Study on CPPNM Interpretation of the Physical Protection Regulatory Aspects for International Transport of Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-jin; Yang, Seong-hyo; Hyung, Sang-chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nuclear energy has been regulated by various international agreements or treaties due to the potential dangers. In case of export or import of nuclear material, it is important to comply with international norms and domestic laws related to nonproliferation and physical protection of nuclear material. Because, if non-compliant, it can be taken nuclear sanctions from the international community, and thus the domestic nuclear activities can be under a negative impact. Recently, international interests in nuclear security have been increased, it has become very sensitive to whether or not to join, and to comply with international treaties during international transportation of nuclear materials. Currently it is not discussed yet how to present and interpret the relevant provisions in CPPNM. However, it is necessary to prepare for the dispute among the parties that we don't know when it happens.

  11. Study on CPPNM Interpretation of the Physical Protection Regulatory Aspects for International Transport of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has been regulated by various international agreements or treaties due to the potential dangers. In case of export or import of nuclear material, it is important to comply with international norms and domestic laws related to nonproliferation and physical protection of nuclear material. Because, if non-compliant, it can be taken nuclear sanctions from the international community, and thus the domestic nuclear activities can be under a negative impact. Recently, international interests in nuclear security have been increased, it has become very sensitive to whether or not to join, and to comply with international treaties during international transportation of nuclear materials. Currently it is not discussed yet how to present and interpret the relevant provisions in CPPNM. However, it is necessary to prepare for the dispute among the parties that we don't know when it happens

  12. Report on the IAEA consultants' meeting on the co-ordination of nuclear reaction data centres (technical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the Co-ordination of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (Technical Aspects), held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 28 to 30 May 2001. The meeting was attended by 16 participants from 10 co-operating data centres from six Member States and two International Organizations. The report contains a meeting summary, the conclusions and actions, progress and status reports of the participating data centres and working papers considered at the meeting. (author)

  13. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  14. Legal aspects of handling and disposal of nuclear waste - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's rise as a global power has made it an extremely lucrative market, especially in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is often painted as a 'clean- energy option, and therefore a solution to climate change. Splitting the atom doesn't produce greenhouse gases, but the nuclear fuel cycle is far from clean: it produces radioactive waste that pollutes the environment for generations. As the most populous democracy in the world, India's energy needs far exceed its current capacity and to achieve this, the Government of India intends to draw twenty-five percent of its energy from nuclear power by the year 2050. This plan includes 20,000 MW of installed capacity from nuclear energy by 2020, and 63,000 MW by 2032. There are currently twenty operational nuclear power reactors in India, across six states. They contribute less than three per cent of the country's total energy generation, yet radioactively pollute at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle: from mining and milling to reprocessing or disposal. There is no long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in India. India is one of the few countries in the world that is expanding its nuclear power sector at an enormous rate. Seven more nuclear reactors of 4800 MW installed capacity are under construction. At least thirty-six new nuclear reactors are planned or proposed. A critical subset of any country's nuclear safety approach is its radioactive waste management, in particular management of High Level Waste. By recognizing the facts that nuclear safety and waste management are of utmost importance for success of the nuclear energy program, India ratified the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) in 2005 and has recently submitted its second National Report for review. The CNS essentially seeks to commit Parties to maintain a high level of safety by setting international benchmarks based on the IAEA fundamental principles of safety, which cover design, construction, operation, the

  15. Society and health effects of aspects an overview of nuclear energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Soykenar; Sabahat Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Today along with developing technology and rapid population growth, energy needs have been increasing in the worldwide. In order to supply rising energy demands, the countries have been tending to nuclear power plants which have high productivitiy. As all kinds of energy sources, there are negative effects to public health in the stages of production and consumption also for nuclear energy. For nuclear power plants established by using high tecnology, required precautions are adopted by asses...

  16. Regulatory aspect of nuclear application and radioactive waste management in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience over more than 56 years in the field of nuclear application has shown that such technology is generally safely used. Nevertheless, there have been instances, when safety systems have been circumvented and serious radiological accident have occurred, and have resulted with fatal consequences. During the last 56 years, such radiological accidents, in total, caused 101 person dead, and it is very interesting to note that this figure is more than double the dead caused by nuclear accident as the result of nuclear fuel failure, such as in nuclear power plant, in submarine or in enrichment plant, which has only 47 fatalities. The article 8 of the convention on nuclear safety, stipulates inter alia that the contracting party shall established a regulatory body separated from the promotional or the executing organization of nuclear energy. Indonesia is not operating any nuclear power. At present, it is only operating three research reactors, and some laboratories connected with this reactor, such as one nuclear fuel fabrication plant for research reactors, one experimental fuel fabrication plant for nuclear power, one isotope production facility, radiometalurgy laboratory and some other research facilities. However, in anticipation of the expansion of nuclear programme in Indonesia, and looking into the various accident in the nuclear application, the Indonesian Government has, since April 10, 1997, enacted the new act, Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy. The new Act addresses several key requirements for the successful conduct of Indonesia nuclear programme, including the establishment of both the Executing Body responsible for nuclear research and development, mining and processing nuclear fuels and materials, production of radio-isotopes and management of radioactive wastes and the independent Nuclear Energy Control Board, which has the power to regulate, to license and to inspect all facets of any activity utilizing nuclear energy. It also sets out the basic

  17. Nuclear energy in Mexico as alternative for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions; Energia nuclear en Mexico, como alternativa para la reduccion de emisiones de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, J. R.; Palacios, J. C., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main concerns related with global warming is the reduction of the green house emissions. Mexico is taking steps to solve this problem, in its recent National Energy Strategy has considered to increase the use of clean electricity sources up to a 35% the share to be meat at 2024, currently this participation in electricity generation is 23.9%. In 2008 the Mexican Electrical Network produced 0.466 tons of CO{sub 2}/MWh, this index is above the OECD 0.45 CO{sub 2}/MWh average value. The current study considers the use of nuclear energy as part of the addition of clean energy to the Electrical grid; it proposes the capacity and the numbers of nuclear reactors to be used and it provides the emissions scenario generated with this proposal. (Author)

  18. The resurgence of nuclear energy. An option for the climatic change and for the emergent countries?; El resurgimiento de la energia nuclear. Una opcion para el cambio climatico y para los paises emergentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos A, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Nieva G, R.; Mulas, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Velez, C. [Electricite de France, Comite Cientifico Asesor, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris (France); Ortiz M, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52759 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Thomas, S. [University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom); Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France); Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom); Mez, L. [Freie Universitat Berlin, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Thielallee 47, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The modern society is organized in mistaken form. A tremendous inability of the juridical, political, social and cultural system exists to interrelate the ecosystem (the resources that allow the life and the human activity) with the economic way of production, that is to say with the manner like the human beings appropriate of the nature and they transform it to satisfy the reproduction necessities of the capital and the population. Today we are already paying the consequences of this error. Of continuing with this tendency the next six years, a global increase of five centigrade grades is expected in the temperature, with effects like the increase of the sea level, floods, droughts, among other global problems, for what the gases of greenhouse effect are and they will continue being the main environmental challenge of the X XI century because they not represent alone a threat for the development but also for the humanity survival. The world conscience has wakened up, and in most of the countries where is stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants the plans are reconsidered to return the use of this source, being the two main reasons for reconsideration: the concern for the climatic change and the new world perception about the limits of fossil fuel reserves. The world return of the interest for the nuclear energy, it force to take in consideration the energy politics of Mexico whose structure is too much dependent of hydrocarbons and the import of liquefied natural gas and other energies, subject to the prices volatility and in a frame that lacks long term vision. Here the whole problem of the nuclear industry is exposed, the experiences, the risks, the costs, the future of the energy production for the populations that every time has a bigger consumption, the reader will have, this way, a wide panorama of diverse topics and interests that affect to generation of nuclear energy. (Author)

  19. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy; Analisis economico de la produccion de hidrogeno mediante el proceso termoquimico yodo-azufre con energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: cuausos@comunidad.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  20. Act No. 15 of 22 April 1980 setting up the Nuclear Safety Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spanish authorities are in the process or reorganising the public nuclear sector in order to separate the promotional and research aspects of the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes from the regulation and control of such activities. To this effect this Act sets up a Nuclear Safety Council which takes over part of the duties and the personnel of the Junta de Energia Nuclear provided for by the Act of 29th April 1964 on Nuclear Energy. The new Nuclear Safety Council is a body which is independent of the State central administration and has legal personality as well as its own financial resources required to carry out its duties. The latter comprise, inter alia, proposing to the Government the regulations required in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection; this includes the setting-up of standards and criteria for the selection of nuclear installation sites, in consultation with the local competent bodies. (NEA)

  1. Legal aspects of handling and disposal of nuclear waste - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's rise as a global power has made it an extremely lucrative market, especially in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is often painted as a 'clean' energy option, and therefore a solution to climate change. Splitting the atom doesn't produce greenhouse gases, but the nuclear fuel cycle is far from clean: it produces radioactive waste that pollutes the environment for generations. As the most populous democracy in the world, India's energy needs far exceed its current capacity, to achieve this; the Government of India intends to draw twenty-five per cent of its energy from nuclear power by 2050. This plan includes 20,000 MW of installed capacity from nuclear energy by 2020, and 63,000 MW by 2032. There are currently twenty operational nuclear power reactors in India, across six states. They contribute less than three per cent of the country's total energy generation, yet radioactively pollute at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle: from mining and milling to reprocessing or disposal. There is no long-term radioactive waste disposal policy in India. India is one of the few countries in the world that is expanding its nuclear power sector at an enormous rate. Seven more nuclear reactors are under construction, of 4800 MW installed capacity. At least thirty-six new nuclear reactors are planned or proposed. A critical subset of any country's nuclear safety approach is its radioactive waste management in particular management of High Level Waste

  2. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  3. Eesti Energia tulu kuivab kokku / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. sept. lk. 6. Eesti Energia prognoosib 2008. aastaks kolm korda väiksemat kasumit. Diagramm: Kasum. Vt. samas: Ansip kritiseeris Eesti Energia hinnaküsimist; Taust; Reiting

  4. Eesti Energia, vara veel! / Väino Sarnet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarnet, Väino, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskonsultant avaldab arvamust, millised on argumendid Eesti Energia kiireks börsiletulekuks, kes sellega võidaksid ja kes kaotaksid ning miks pole praegu õige aeg Eesti Energia aktsiate avalikuks müügiks

  5. Eesti Energia hakkab Jordaanias varsti ehitama / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia loodab, et Jordaania esimese põlevkivielektrijaama ehitus algab juba 2012. aastal. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on Jordaani puhul tegemist Eesti võimalusega, Eesti Energia on Jordaania projekti kaasanud juba rahastajaid

  6. Eesti Energia loovutas Estlinki energiabörsile / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia otsustas rentida Estlinki merekaabli välja Soome ja Eesti põhivõrkudele, kellel on omakorda kohustus anda see üle vabaturu kasutusse. Eesti Energia finantsdirektori Margus Kaasiku kommentaar

  7. Physical protection of nuclear power plants-technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants are defined according to the definitions included in the Brazilian legislation and international conventions and their physical protection is analysed. Besides, the differences and the relations among nuclear security, safeguards and physical protection are established. (A.L.)

  8. Legal Aspects of international cooperation in the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of developments in the number field having led the IAEA to promote international cooperation in ensuring adequate physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. This work resulted in the establishment of recommendations and guidelines in this respect and culminated in the development of the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (NEA)

  9. Preliminary analysis of an hydrogen generator system based on nuclear energy in the Laguna Verde site; Analisis preliminar de un sistema generador de hidrogeno basado en energia nuclear en el sitio de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of fossil fuels in the next future, as well as the growing one demand of energetics and the high cost of the production of alternating fuels, it forces us to take advantage of to the maximum the fossil fuel with the one which we count and to look for the form of producing alternating fuels at a low cost and better even if these supply sources are reliable and non pollutants. It is intended a solution to the shortage of fuel; to use the thermal energy liberated of some appropriate nuclear reactor to be able to obtain a fuel but clean and relatively cheap as it is the hydrogen. In the first place the methods were looked for to produce hydrogen using thermal energy, later it was analyzed the temperature liberated by the existent nuclear reactors as well as the advanced designs, according to this liberated temperature settled down that the methods but feasible to produce hydrogen its were the one of reformed with water stream of the natural gas (methane) and the other one of the S-I thermochemical cycle, and the nuclear reactors that give the thermal energy for this production they are those of gas of high temperature. Once established the processes and the appropriate reactors, it was analyzed the site of Laguna Verde, with relationship to the free space to be able to place the reactor and the plant producer of hydrogen, as well as the direction in which blow the dominant winds and the near towns to the place, it was carried out an analysis of some explosion of tanks that could store hydrogen and the damage that its could to cause depending from the distance to which its were of the fire. Finally it was carried out an evaluation of capital and of operation costs for those two methods of hydrogen production. (Author)

  10. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program; Analisis de escenarios con la participacion de la energia nuclear en el sector electrico mexicano utilizando el programa DECADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: edithsosa@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  11. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy; Um modelo estocastico de simulacao neutronica considerando o espectro e propriedades nucleares com dependencia continua de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de

    2011-01-15

    This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)

  12. Evaluation of two processes of hydrogen production starting from energy generated by high temperature nuclear reactors; Evaluacion de dos procesos de produccion de hidrogeno a partir de energia generada por reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J., E-mail: jvalle@upmh.edu.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard Acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work an evaluation to two processes of hydrogen production using energy generated starting from high temperature nuclear reactors (HTGR's) was realized. The evaluated processes are the electrolysis of high temperature and the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur. The electrolysis of high temperature, contrary to the conventional electrolysis, allows reaching efficiencies of up to 60% because when increasing the temperature of the water, giving thermal energy, diminishes the electric power demand required to separate the molecule of the water. However, to obtain these efficiencies is necessary to have water vapor overheated to more than 850 grades C, temperatures that can be reached by the HTGR. On the other hand the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur, developed by General Atomics in the 1970 decade, requires two thermal levels basically, the great of them to 850 grades C for decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and another minor to 360 grades C approximately for decomposition of H I, a high temperature nuclear reactor can give the thermal energy required for the process whose products would be only hydrogen and oxygen. In this work these two processes are described, complete models are developed and analyzed thermodynamically that allow to couple each hydrogen generation process to a reactor HTGR that will be implemented later on for their dynamic simulation. The obtained results are presented in form of comparative data table of each process, and with them the obtained net efficiencies. (author)

  13. A regulatory view on the applicability of the new ICRP recommendations to nuclear safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new ICRP recommendations will cause several changes in the radiological practice. This paper discusses these changes from the point of regulatory view of nuclear safety. To avoid adverse short-term effects, the new risk estimates should be adopted in radiation protection standards with great care. The ultimate objective of nuclear safety is to protect people environment and property against radiological hazards. Improvements in principles and practices developed by the ICRP are important in reaching the primary goal. A severe nuclear accident must be prevented in advance. Every scientific and technical means have to used; optimization is not the solution of the problem

  14. Nuclear analyses of some key aspects of the ITER design with Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the ITER machine was presented in 2001 . A nuclear analysis was performed at this time, using fairly detailed models and the best assessed nuclear data and codes that were available. As the construction phase of ITER is approaching, the design of the main components has been optimized/finalized and several minor design changes/optimizations have been made, some with the object to mitigate critical radiation shielding problems. These have required refined calculations to confirm that the nuclear design requirements are met. This paper reviews some of the most recent neutronic work with emphasis on critical nuclear responses in the TF coil inboard legs and vacuum vessel related to design modifications made to the blanket modules and vacuum vessel

  15. Physical protection in the transport of nuclear materials (Legal aspects of the domestic system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the physical protection system is made. Emphasis is given to some considerations in the nuclear material transport area, mainly the details of the domestic system, from a juridic pont of view. (Author)

  16. Society and health effects of aspects an overview of nuclear energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Soykenar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today along with developing technology and rapid population growth, energy needs have been increasing in the worldwide. In order to supply rising energy demands, the countries have been tending to nuclear power plants which have high productivitiy. As all kinds of energy sources, there are negative effects to public health in the stages of production and consumption also for nuclear energy. For nuclear power plants established by using high tecnology, required precautions are adopted by assessing all negative effects that can harm environmental health. So as to provide our country to be the leading position in the global trade and tecnological progress competition, it is required to make the investments by evaluating the pros and cons of nuclear energy, regarded as a qualified and sustainable energy source. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 65-70

  17. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  18. Asymptotic energies and sustainable electrical development; Energias asintoticas y desarrollo electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A review is made of the energy resources in use existing at the moment for the electricity production (hydraulic, coal, oil, gas and uranium). The asymptotic energies (solar, geothermal and nuclear fission and fusion) are described and the state of development in which they are up to the moment. One concludes that in the case of Mexico it would be convenient to make flexible and to reinforce the electrical systems in forecast of a greater participation of the distributed generation and to orient the extensions of the electrical generation to make a greater use of the three asymptotic energies already used: the solar (in its forms hydraulic and wind power), geothermal and the nuclear fission. [Spanish] Se pasa revista a los recursos existentes en las energias actualmente en uso para la produccion de electricidad (hidraulica, carbon, petroleo, gas y uranio). Se describen las energias asintoticas (solar, geotermia y fision y fusion nucleares) y el estado de desarrollo en que se encuentran hasta el momento. Se concluye que en el caso de Mexico convendria flexibilizar y reforzar el sistema electrico en prevision de una mayor participacion de la generacion distribuida y orientar las ampliaciones de la generacion electrica para hacer un mayor uso de tres de las energias asintoticas ya utilizadas: la solar (en sus formas hidraulica y eolica), la geotermia y la fision nuclear.

  19. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  20. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center; Aspectos fisicos de garantia de calidad en medicina nuclear y radioterapia. Enfoque regulatorio del centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [CNSN, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7, Ave. Miramar, La Habana (Cuba); Varela C, C. [CCEEM, Calle 4 No. 455 e/19 y 21, Ave. Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  1. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant; Instrumento hibrido aplicado ao estudo da confiabilidade humana em evento de perda de energia eletrica externa em usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-04-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  2. Aspects of consolidation of engineering capability related to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major interest of countries launching nuclear program is to consolidate an engineering capability for Nuclear Power Plants design by performing part of the engineering services locally. A decade of nuclear power plant engineering and construction has exposed Brazilian architect-engineers to this new challenge. To cope with it, technology sources were identified, agreements were made and transfer is going on between foreign and local companies. Services performed by Brazilian architect-engineers are summarized. Foreign technology must be judiciously examined before implementation in a different environment. The receiver has to be prepared to develop his own capabilities and absorb the know-how being offered, taking into consideration the local engineering experience and construction practices. Some of the problems faced are outlined herein. The performed efforts brought Brazilian architect-engineers to a consolidated level of experience. (Author)

  3. TV ENERGIA Energy Efficiency Web TV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vasco; Alves, Luis (Research Group on Energy and Sustainable Development, Technical Univ. of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)); Ferreira, Pedro (Tools to Change, Lda (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The number of thematic TV channels broadcasted over the Internet is a phenomenon that expands the democratisation of institutions and promotes the public participation. This is clear in the creation of the European Web TVs to inform and interact with the public, and institutions. TV ENERGIA is a Portuguese Web TV dedicated to engage the public and the businesses in energy issues, and induce social change by promoting more sustainable behaviours and the use of more energy efficient technologies. TV ENERGIA concept is different from existing Web portals and Web TV on energy and sustainability. It uses Web 2.0 capabilities, video and existing social networks as the main tool for reaching and interacting with the audience. TV ENERGIA is know looking for new partners for creating a wider internet community that uses video broadcasting and Web 2.0 capabilities to promote sustainable energy use.

  4. Some aspects on security and safety in a potential transport of a CANDU spent nuclear fuel bundle, in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each Member States (MS) is responsible for the security and safety of radioactive material during transport, since radioactive material is most vulnerable during transport. The paper presents some aspects on security and safety related to the potential transport of a CANDU Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) bundle from NPP CANDU Cernavoda to INR Pitesti. The possible environmental impact and radiological consequences following a potential event during transportation is analyzed, since the protection of the people and the environment is the essential goal to be achieved. Some testing for the package to be used for transportation will be also given. (author)

  5. Aspects of nuclear waste management after a 4-year Nordic programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (author)

  6. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Waedt, Karl [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PEAS-G

    2016-05-15

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  7. Methodological aspects in the calculation of parity-violating effects in nuclear magnetic resonance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijo, Ville; Bast, Radovan; Manninen, Pekka; Saue, Trond; Vaara, Juha

    2007-02-21

    We examine the quantum chemical calculation of parity-violating (PV) electroweak contributions to the spectral parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from a methodological point of view. Nuclear magnetic shielding and indirect spin-spin coupling constants are considered and evaluated for three chiral molecules, H2O2, H2S2, and H2Se2. The effects of the choice of a one-particle basis set and the treatment of electron correlation, as well as the effects of special relativity, are studied. All of them are found to be relevant. The basis-set dependence is very pronounced, especially at the electron correlated ab initio levels of theory. Coupled-cluster and density-functional theory (DFT) results for PV contributions differ significantly from the Hartree-Fock data. DFT overestimates the PV effects, particularly with nonhybrid exchange-correlation functionals. Beginning from third-row elements, special relativity is of importance for the PV NMR properties, shown here by comparing perturbational one-component and various four-component calculations. In contrast to what is found for nuclear magnetic shielding, the choice of the model for nuclear charge distribution--point charge or extended (Gaussian)--has a significant impact on the PV contribution to the spin-spin coupling constants. PMID:17328593

  8. Aspects related to the introduction of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking as basic premises a foreseen growth in the world energy demand, a marked trend towards more electricity in power generation, and an increasingly substantial share of the nuclear in the latter the paper examines the part developing countries may play in the process both as determining factors and subjects. Demography, resources, the natural drive for the betterment of the economic performance and improvements in the standard of living as well as for assertion on the international scene, and the awareness on the disparities in these regards in comparison with the developed countries are indicated as major incentives for the developing countries' seeking enhanced access to nuclear power technology in the decades to come. Flaws in infrastructures, finances, labour force average education, and management capabilities are, on the other hand, pointed at as inhibiting factors, while a prolonged world economic recession and the uncertainties introduced by the current political changes at world scale in conjunction with the intrinsic dual nature of the nuclear technology are believed to further compound the situation. It is argued that an internationally concerted monitoring and assistance involving cooperative donors and acceptors is, probably, the only solution to ensure an orderly, economically sound and politically safe expansion of the nuclear power technology in developing countries. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Some aspects of increasing the quality of personnel training for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant personnel in Czechoslovakia is subject to periodical training in accordance with the Unified System of Nuclear Facility Personnel Training. This training is the responsibility of the Educational and Training Centre of the Nuclear Plant Research Institute in Trnava. Nuclear plant personnel is divided into 7 groups as follows: A - supervisory technical-administrative management staff; B - selected operating personnel such as shift supervisors, unit supervisors, reactor operators and secondary circuit operators; C - engineering-technical personnel of technical and maintenance departments; D - managing shift-operating staff; E - workers at technical plant departments; F - operational shift workers and servicemen; and G - maintenance personnel. These groups are respected in the training, which includes basic training, re-training and additional training. The basic training comprises 8 stages: general theoretical education; specialized theoretical education; on-the-job training in a plant designated for training; training on a simulator (group B); preparing for and taking final examinations for the certificate; doubling in the NPP designated for training (groups B, D, F); preparation in the NPP of future employment; preparing for and taking the state examination for obtaining the license (group B). Details of the management of the training process, experience gained during the implementation of the training and challenges for future improvement of the system are outlined. (P.A.)

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  11. Legal and regulatory aspects of long-term operation of nuclear power plants in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    frame originally anticipated for operation. This article does not deal with 'lifetime extension' in a technical sense. Lifetime extension is a technical concept based on reactor design considerations to address ageing problems that can be cured by technical operations and replacing components. The article rather focusses on the broader legal and regulatory questions, namely the administrative procedures and conditions for the extension of an operating licence or for other administrative procedures so that a nuclear reactor can operate beyond the originally anticipated time frame. This article is divided into five parts. The introduction has already provided the reasons which drive requests for and authorizations of long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Section A will address the authorization process for long-term operation, explain the different approaches regarding licence validity and focus on periodic safety reviews. Section B will analyse the possibility to appeal a decision on long-term operation and any grounds for financial compensation. It will examine whether the safety standards at the time of the original licence or the present safety standards are applicable when continued operation is approved. The question is challenging from a legal point of view because there must be a legal basis for new safety standards to be imposed on the operator who seeks continued operation. Section C will analyse the impact of the accident at Fukushima on long-term operation and finally, the article will end with some concluding remarks on the legal and regulatory aspects of continued operation of nuclear reactors in OECD member countries. An annex to the article provides a short analysis of the legal and regulatory framework for long-term operation of nuclear reactors in selected OECD member countries, i.e. Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States

  12. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio Tokamak neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  13. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio tokamak neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn

    2014-10-01

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  14. Novel nuclear structure aspects of the O{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J; Poves, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, and IFT, UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Caurier, E; Nowacki, F, E-mail: alfredo.poves@uam.es [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037-Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influence of the deformation on the nuclear matrix elements of the neutrinoless double beta decay (NME), concluding that the difference in deformation -or more generally in the amount of quadrupole correlations- between parent and grand daughter nuclei quenches strongly the decay. We correlate these differences with the seniority structure of the nuclear wave functions. In this context, we examine the present discrepancies between the NME's obtained in the framework of the Interacting Shell Model and the Quasiparticle RPA. In our view, part of the discrepancy can be due to the limitations of the spherical QRPA in treating nuclei which have strong quadrupole correlations. We surmise that the NME's in a basis of generalized seniority are approximately model independent, i. e. they are 'universal'.

  15. Non-extensive statistical aspects of multifragmentation of hot nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calboreanu, A

    2003-01-01

    Some recent developments concerning an application of the non-extensive Tsalis statistics to describe clustering phenomena is briefly presented. Cluster formation is a common feature of a large number of physical phenomena in molecular physics, nuclear and astrophysics, condensed matter and biophysics. Common to all these is the large number of degrees of freedom, thus justifying a statistical approach. However, the conventional statistical mechanics paradigm seems to fail in dealing with clustering. Whether this is due to the prevalence of complex dynamical constraints, or it is a manifestation of new statistics is a subject of considerable interest, intensively debated during the last few years. Tsalis conjecture has proved extremely appealing due to its rather elegant and transparent basic arguments. We present here evidence for its adequacy for the study of a large class of physical phenomena related to cluster formation. An application to nuclear multifragmentation is presented. (authors)

  16. Safety aspects of receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, A.S.; Andes, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Savannah River Site receives and stores aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel from research reactors world-wide in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's take back policy for U.S. origin enriched uranium. For over 35 years the Savannah River Site has supported this policy in a safe and deliberate manner. Facilities dedicated to this mission include the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and L-Basin. Current inventories are about 6,500 aluminum-based research reactor assemblies and about 700 stainless steel or zirconium clad prototype power reactor assemblies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the processes that the Savannah River Site employs to safely receive, handle, and store spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  17. Isospin aspects in nuclear reactions involving Ca beams at 25 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, I., E-mail: ilombardo@lns.infn.it; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Auditore, L. [Universita di Messina, and INFN-Gr. Coll. Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Berceanu, I. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Chatterjee, M. B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (India); Filippo, E. De [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Giuliani, G.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania (Italy); Grzeszczuk, A. [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics (Poland); Han, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); La Guidara, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); and others

    2011-11-15

    Isospin dependence of dynamical and thermodynamical properties observed in reactions {sup 40}Ca+ {sup 40,48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca + {sup 46}Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon has been studied. We used the CHIMERA multi-detector array. Strong isospin effects are seen in the isotopic distributions of light nuclei and in the competition between different reaction mechanisms in semi-central collisions. We will show also preliminary results obtained in nuclear collision {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25MeV/nucleon, having very high N/Z value in the entrance channel (N/Z = 1.4). The enhancement of evaporation residue production confirms the strong role played by the N/Z degree of freedom in nuclear dynamics.

  18. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  19. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA)

  20. Isospin mixing within the multi-reference nuclear density functional theory and beyond - selected aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Satula, W; Konieczka, M; Nazarewicz, W

    2013-01-01

    The results of systematic calculations of isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to superallowed beta-decays based on the self-consistent isospin- and angular-momentum-projected nuclear density functional theory (DFT) are reviewed with an emphasis on theoretical uncertainties of the model. Extensions of the formalism towards no core shell model approach with basis cutoff scheme dictated by the self-consistent particle-hole DFT solutions will be also discussed.

  1. Nuclear design aspect of the Korean high intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Song, Tae-Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    A plan to construct a high current proton accelerator has been proposed by KAERI. We are presenting the required nuclear design to support the project as well as a brief overview of the proposed proton accelerator. The target and core design is highlighted to show feasibility of incineration of minor actinides from the spent fuel of light water reactors. Radiation shielding and activation analyses are also important for the design and the license of the accelerator. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world: technology aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants at present contribute roughly one quarter of electricity generation in the OECD member countries, which makes them an important economic and ecological component of energy supply. They contribute greatly to meeting international goals of environmental protection, especially with respect to avoiding and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. As current plants are advancing in age, and framework conditions and requirements must be met by new plants, i.e. cost pressure due to market changes and the not-in-my-backyard attitude vis-a-vis new plants, their future contribution to energy supply cannot possibly be estimated at the present time. It is for this reason that measures extending the operating life of current plants are of great economic as well as ecological significance. These activities, which are summarized under the term of Plant Life Management (PLIM), involve the joint efforts by operators, industry, politics, and regulatory authorities. Framework conditions must be defined jointly which ensure safe, reliable, and economic operation of nuclear power plants. In a number of OECD countries, such as the USA, work along these lines has advanced far, allowing operating permits for a number of nuclear power plants to be extended by another twenty years. Technical questions, licensing issues, and economic perspectives must be discussed by the parties involved in the light of the solutions envisaged. (orig.)

  3. YKAe - Nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a mid term evaluation of the YKAe programme started in 1990. In the area safe margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core the work in support of improved performance of LWR fuel is primarily an economic matter and, therefore, should be funded directly by the utilities. As regards assessment of transient and accident situations the experiments in the PACTEL facility provide conditions for VVER reactors which are not available anywhere else. Every effort should be made to utilize this facility in further international programmes. The analysis methods developed for accident and the fire risk studies are excellent and well focused in the specific needs of the Finnish programmes. Further activities in transient and accident modelling should be coupled with the work of the APROS programme. Studies on the new technology in supervision and control of nuclear power plant processes are of special importance to Finland either for the 5th nuclear power station or for the upgrading existing systems. The work on computerized operator support systems looks to be achieving maturity and should be considered for more downstream funding. The human factors studies are of direct relevance to reactor operations. The human factors research appears sub-critical and deserves more support. Overall, the Evaluation Team felt that this small programme was well focused on Finland's needs, well integrated into the international programmes and provided good value for money. The programme direction and balance is good, and with only minor shift emphasis, should carry on its projected course

  4. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous

  5. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  6. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  7. Metrological aspects in estimating of radiation dose in patients of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the performance of routine measurements in nuclear medicine services, LNMRI/IRD has been conducting, since 1998, a comparison program of activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. The present study shows how the correction factor is determined by the ratio between the measurement of the activity at the nuclear medicine center and the activity determined by the LNMRI, which is adopted as reference. It is essential that the dose calibrator be calibrated with standards traceable to national metrology laboratories, so that the activity administered to the patient is neither greater nor smaller than the appropriate value. The corrected values of the activities can be used to calculate with greater accuracy the effective doses received by the patients as well as the risk of cancer. Information related to radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities, type of exams and patient data of three Brazilian hospitals were collected for 1496 adults and 134 children submitted to diagnostic exams employing 99mTc and 131I. Results showed up to a considerable difference between the administered activity and the corrected activity until 30% and 13% above the reference value, respectively, for the 131I and 99mTc was detected. The consequences of these differences were not very critical in this study since the activity measured in dose calibrator before administration was lower than the corrected activity, thus causing a lower effective dose in patients. However, this reduction in activity may result in problems in obtaining the image and consequently, failure diagnosis, delaying correct diagnosis. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered

  8. Financing aspects of nuclear power programs. Key issue paper no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the standards applied to investment appraisal by financiers. It looks at the spectrum of costs, benefits and risks, which the project sponsors must meet to satisfy prospective financiers. Most considerations are standard to most types of investment project, particularly in a country where the technology is new. These standards apply where external financing is sought. Clearly, governments investing in nuclear power with public funds may choose to do so for other than competitive economic reasons, although ultimately efficient investment requires that they apply similar criteria in allocating available resources among the many demands on the public fisc. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant diagnostics - Safety aspects and licensing. Report of a technical committee meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to review developed systems and methods in diagnostics in the scope of their impacts and importance to the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Papers presented on TCM came from different sources, from developers, from manufacturers, from licensing authorities and from NPP personal. They reflect up to date status in the given subject. Participants of TCM formulated three working groups to elaborate different questions which were raised during the discussions. Their results are reflected in the three chapter titles of the given material. Annex 1 to this document contains presentations made at the Technical Committee Meeting. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  11. Intelligent use of the energy; Uso inteligente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Ahedo, Carlos [Director General de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) is an administrative agency independent of the Secretaria de Energia that serves as a technical agency for consultancy in matters of efficient use of energy and advantageous use of renewable energies. This document searches to inform the population how to satisfy the necessity of energy in an intelligent way. For this purpose some useful actions to be performed were detected: the making of a balance between the supply and the energy demand, the consultancy on how the saving of energy is performed in order to reduce its waste, to count on equipment and efficient systems, to use domestic renewable energies and to use the solar energy and the biomass. [Spanish] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) es el organo administrativo desconcentrado de la Secretaria de Energia que funge como organismo tecnico de consulta en materia de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia y aprovechamiento de energias renovables. Este documento busca informar a la poblacion acerca de como satisfacer la necesidad de energia a cambio de su utilizacion de manera inteligente, para ello se detectaron areas de oportunidad como: un balance entre la oferta y la demanda energetica, informar a la gente sobre como se efectua el ahorro de energia para con ello reducir el desperdicio de esta, contar con equipos y sistemas eficientes, usar energias renovables domesticas y utilizar la energia solar y la biomasa.

  12. Psychological aspects of nuclear waste disposal: Long time perception and the question of discounting of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects of different ages and basic training indicated how they perceived risks related to spent nuclear fuel storage and located at different points of time into the future. The results indicated that minorities in all groups, ranging from about 10 to 40%, did not want to discount risks into the future. Those who discounted exhibited great inter and intra group variability. The physical discounting curves for e.g. both total radiation and for Pu-239 and -240 are within the range of curves generated by the groups for subjective discounting of risk. Politicians and experts were attributed equal shares of responsibility for risks of spent nuclear fuel in the future. About 10% to 40% of the subjects did not wish to discount responsibility. Discounting rates for those discounting varied so that some subjects decreased the level of responsibility to less than half 10 000 years into the future while others attributed this level of responsibility for 100 000 years and more. (orig./HP)

  13. Economic aspects of long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, 289 reactors in the world were older than 25 years, and only 45 new units were connected to the grid in 2000-2011. Without life extensions, nuclear capacity would thus fall dramatically in the next decade. In this series of slides the author reviews the legal limits and possibilities for long term operations (LTO) of nuclear reactors in the world. It appears 2 basic regulatory approaches to LTO: the license renewal and the periodic safety review. The typical investment in LTO is in the range of 500-1100 US dollar per kWe. The additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications are about 10 to 20% of initially projected LTO investment. It appears that life extension of more than 10 years is profitable. There are several uncertainties that can influence LTO programmes such as public acceptance, changes in national policies, changes in the prices of other energies and technological issues. The specific investment in LTO is detailed for Belgium, Hungary, the USA and Russia. (A.C.)

  14. Criticality safety aspects of spent fuel arrays from emerging nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Emerging nuclear fuel cycles: fuels with Pu or minor actinides (MA) for their self-generated recycling or transmutation in PWR or FR {yields} reduction of radiotoxicity of HLW. The aim of work is to assess criticality (k{sub {infinity}}) of arrays of spent nuclear fuels from these emerging fuel cycles. Procedures: Calculations of - k{sub {infinity}}, using MCNP5 based on fresh and spent fuel compositions (infinite arrays), - spent fuel compositions using ORIGEN. Fuels considered: - commercial PWR-UO{sub 2} (R1) and -MOX (R2), [45 GWd/t] and fast reactor [100 GWd/t] (R3), - PWR self-generated Pu recycling (S1) and MA recycling (S2), FR self-generated MA recycling (S3), FR with 2% {sup 237}Np for transmutation purposes (T). Results: k{sub {infinity}} based on fresh and spent fuel compositions is shown. Fuels are clustered in two distinct families: - fast reactor fuels, - thermal reactor fuels; k{sub {infinity}} decreases when calculated on the basis of actinide and fission product inventory. In conclusions: - Emerging fuels considered resemble their corresponding commercial fuels; - k{sub {infinity}} decreases in all cases when calculated on the basis of spent fuel compositions (reactivity worth {approx}-20%{Delta}k/k), hence improving the effectiveness of packaging. (author)

  15. Ecological-genetic aspects of consequences of an irradiation at the workers of a nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urgent problem of genetic consequences of radiation exposure at the workers of atomic plant ''Mayak'' is considered. Two basic aspects of this problem are allocated: influences of radiation on hereditary structures and processes, which is a prerogative of radiation genetics and role of the genetic factors in different reactions to an irradiation, that is a task of ecology genetics, which recently receives the increasing recognition. Proceeding from distinctions in reproduction biology of the human and experimental biological objects determining non-comparable mutation risk at them, is recognized expedient to expand a spectrum of genetic researches in the irradiated people. The results of different genetic researches in total in 2811 peoples executed in view of two named aspects discussed. At radiation-genetic investigation of distribution of genetic polymorphism system (haptoglobin -Hp, Gc-protein -Gc and blood groups ABO) the certain changes in distribution of Hp types and alleles of children of the irradiated workers connected with a gonad external gamma-radiation doses are established. The genetic structure of the grandsons of the irradiated workers has not any deviations. The increase of mutation frequency in minisatellite DNA in germline cells of irradiate workers was not found out. At ecological-genetic investigation the important meaning of haptoglobin genetic system in different radiation resistance of the people established at study of a role of a number of the genetic polymorphism systems (Hp, Gc and ABO) in radiation effects at different levels of biological organization. The integrated estimation of role of Hp genotypes in observable radiation effects carried out. (author)

  16. Meteorological aspects of environmental health and safety planning in nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micrometeorological data i.e. those dealing with the properties of atmosphere in the first 100 meters or so above the earth's surface are required in planning and control of environmental impact of gaseous effluent releases from a nuclear power plant. Data of various types to be collected during the stages of site survey, site evaluation, normal operation of the plant and accident contigency planning are described. Atmospheric dispersion models in general and one suggested by Pasquill in particular are outlined. These models relate the dispersion parameters to the meteorological observables and are used in evaluating environmental dose. Cautions to be exercised while applying these models to the real situation are mentioned. The use of meteorological data for accident analysis while evaluating plant design parameters is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  17. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented

  18. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a ''strong, high priority'' one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far. The principal investigator is a member of the Physics Advisory Committee of two nuclear accelerator facilities

  19. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markarov, Valentin G

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented.

  20. Various aspects of the Deformation Dependent Mass model of nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Petrellis, D; Minkov, N

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a variant of the Bohr Hamiltonian was proposed where the mass term is allowed to depend on the beta variable of nuclear deformation. Analytic solutions of this modified Hamiltonian have been obtained using the Davidson and the Kratzer potentials, by employing techniques from supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Apart from the new set of analytic solutions, the newly introduced Deformation-Dependent Mass (DDM) model offered a remedy to the problematic behaviour of the moment of inertia in the Bohr Hamiltonian, where it appears to increase proportionally to the square of beta. In the DDM model the moments of inertia increase at a much lower rate, in agreement with experimental data. The current work presents an application of the DDM-model suitable for the description of nuclei at the point of shape/phase transitions between vibrational and gamma-unstable or prolate deformed nuclei and is based on a method that was successfully applied before in the context of critical point symmetries.

  1. Thermal Aspects of Using Alternative Nuclear Fuels in Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lisa Christine

    A SuperCritical Water-cooled Nuclear Reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV concept currently being developed worldwide. Unique to this reactor type is the use of light-water coolant above its critical point. The current research presents a thermal-hydraulic analysis of a single fuel channel within a Pressure Tube (PT)-type SCWR with a single-reheat cycle. Since this reactor is in its early design phase many fuel-channel components are being investigated in various combinations. Analysis inputs are: steam cycle, Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), fuel-bundle geometry, and thermophysical properties of reactor coolant, fuel sheath and fuel. Uniform and non-uniform AHFPs for average channel power were applied to a variety of alternative fuels (mixed oxide, thorium dioxide, uranium dicarbide, uranium nitride and uranium carbide) enclosed in an Inconel-600 43-element bundle. The results depict bulk-fluid, outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperature profiles together with the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles along the heated length of fuel channel. The objective is to identify the best options in terms of fuel, sheath material and AHFPS in which the outer-sheath and fuel-centreline temperatures will be below the accepted temperature limits of 850°C and 1850°C respectively. The 43-element Inconel-600 fuel bundle is suitable for SCWR use as the sheath-temperature design limit of 850°C was maintained for all analyzed cases at average channel power. Thoria, UC2, UN and UC fuels for all AHFPs are acceptable since the maximum fuel-centreline temperature does not exceed the industry accepted limit of 1850°C. Conversely, the fuel-centreline temperature limit was exceeded for MOX at all AHFPs, and UO2 for both cosine and downstream-skewed cosine AHFPs. Therefore, fuel-bundle modifications are required for UO2 and MOX to be feasible nuclear fuels for SCWRs.

  2. Nuclear project back on track / Matt Garrick

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garrick, Matt

    2011-01-01

    1. juuniks on Leedu valitsus saanud Visaginasesse rajatava tuumaelektrijaama puudutavad investeerimisettepanekud Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Limited, General Electric Co. ja Westlinghouse Electric Company poolt. Peaminister Andrius Kubiliuse sõnul toob tuumaelektrijaam Leetu energiasõltumatuse

  3. Some common aspects between global warming and fusion nuclear technology from the perspective of thermofluid research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interest in the environmental and meteorological fields has been recently focused on the estimation of the temperature rise on the earth in the near and distant future. This problem is strongly related to the imbalance of the amount of carbon on the earth after the industrial revolution; termed the 'Missing Sink' problem. The temperature rise is estimated by the gas transfer flux=(gas transfer rate) x (partial pressure difference of CO2 between air and sea surface). It is very difficult to measure and estimate the gas exchange coefficient resulting from the air-sea interaction because of the very high Schmidt number (Sc) turbulent fluid flow with free surface deformation. On the other hand, the utilization of a high Prandtl number (Pr) fluid flow with a free surface as a coolant in an advanced magnetic fusion reactor and as a chamber protection scheme in an inertial confinement fusion reactor have been considered. Because the diffusivities of high Pr or Sc fluids are very small, when the high temperature or concentration regions appear on the free surface, caused by plasma radiation or carbon-dioxide gas absorption, respectively, the scalar transport from the free surface to the bulk flow is very slow compared to the fluid motion. In this paper, some common aspects between the heat transfer of high Pr free surface flow in fusion engineering and the mass transfer of high Sc free surface flow in the global warming problem are discussed. (author)

  4. Chemical aspects of the precise and accurate determination of uranium and plutonium from nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the simultaneous or separate determination of uranium and plutonium has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of uranium and plutonium as their chloro complexes on Dowex 1x10 column. When separate uranium and plutonium fractions are desired, plutonium ions are reduced to Pu (III) and eluted, after which the uranium ions are eluted with dilute HCl. Simultaneous stripping of a mass ratio U/Pu approximately 1 fraction for mass spectrometric measurements is achieved by proper choice of eluant HC1 concentration. Special attention was paid to the obtaining of americium free plutonium fractions. The distribution coefficient measurements showed that at 12.5-M HCl at least 30 % of americium ions formed anionic chloro complexes. The chemical aspects of isotopic fractionation in a multiple filament thermal ionization source were also investigated. Samples of uranium were loaded as nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates and the dependence of the measured uranium isotopic ratios on the chemical form of the loading solution as well as on the filament material was studied. Likewise the dependence of the formation of uranium and its oxide ions on various chemical and instrumental conditions was investigated using tungsten and rhenium filaments. Systematic errors arising from the chemical conditions are compared with errors arising from the automatic evaluation of of spectra. (author)

  5. Economic Aspect of HVDC Transmission System for Indonesia Consideration in Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a country with hundreds million people, Indonesia needs to generate large scale power and distribute it to thorough country to improve gross domestic product of the population. In the power transmission domain, the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system should be considered for the next decades concerning any technical and economical problems with HVAC transmission. HVDC transmission system is the answer for the Indonesian condition. This system can connect the high energy potential regions to the high energy demand regions. HVDC is the most efficient to transport energy from one region to another one region. Dismantling and removing assets costs are included to the estimated for capital costs, while the environmental and property costs are the costs of securing designations and resource consents, and valuation and legal advice for the HVDC investment. Although converter terminals are expensive however, for long transmissions HVDC system can compensate the costs over breakeven distance through very efficient transmission system. Efficiency of HVDC is appearing from conductor wire, supporting tower, low energy loses and free space used by route of the transmission line. HVDC system is also free from some problem, concerning stability, inductive and capacitive load components, phase differences and frequency system. In the economic aspect the HVDC capital costs for the transmission options comprise estimates of the cost to design, purchase and construct new HVDC transmission components. While operating and maintenance costs of HVDC assets comprise the costs for replacement the old existing overhead transmission lines, underground and submarine cables, and HVDC converter station components. (author)

  6. Experimental and theoretical aspects of pionization in nuclear collisions below 100 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion production in nuclear collisions below 100 MeV per nucleon is investigated in both experimental and theoretical point of view. In a first experimental part and after a brief review of the already existing set-ups, the conception and the first beam tests of a spectrometer for the detection of charged pions are described. A detailed analysis of the results obtained up to now concludes this first part. In a second theoretical part and after a review of the models proposed in the literature, three original studies are presented. The first one is an extension of the Shyam-Knoll model to a coincidence calculation so allowing to test this model in the frame of a semi-exclusive kind of experiment; the second one is a calculation of the production by nucleon-nucleon inelastic collisions in a hot expanding Fermi gas; finally, the third one shows, with help of a schematic model, the importance of the effects of pion re-absorption in the medium. These whole studies show that pion production at the considered energies is still an open problem. 47 refs

  7. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Department of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper.

  8. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  9. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many 'normal' disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or 'environmental damage'. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs

  10. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper

  11. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the basic requirements for control of gaseous and particulate effluents are given as applied to problems of feed material production, isotope separation, fuel element fabrication, fuel recovery and reactor operation. There are also instances where non-radioactive nuclear materials with toxic or nuisance effluents such as from beryllium and zirconium production are of concern and these too must be controlled at reasonable costs. The factors involved in capital and operating costs of gas cleaning equipment and the types of applications in the United States are described in some detail. Gaseous effluent problems have, of course, been attacked and controlled by several types of device but their performance has been measured on a comparable basis. It is thus possible to judge operating characteristics on an economic basis as related to power consumption, adsorbent costs, space charges, corrosion problems and other operational factors. The United States Atomic Energy Commission through its contract with the Harvard University Air Cleaning Laboratory has initiated an evaluation program with cooperation, from the various facilities and contractors to the Commission. In this study the basic factors necessary to obtain quantitative cost delineation and evaluation have been outlined and some preliminary findings will be presented. The paper also presents a review of other economic studies made in the United States on particular process or facility applications. (author)

  12. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  13. Physical aspects of scintigraphy-based dosimetry for nuclear medicine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geworski, L.; Knoop, B.O. [Dept. of Radiation Protection and Medical Physics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Schaefer, A.; Kirsch, C.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland Univ. Medical Center, Homburg (Germany); Pinkert, J. [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany); Plotkin, M. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Charitee, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In nuclear medicine therapy the treatment of tumours by radiation exposure from internally deposited labelled antibodies or labelled peptides is currently an active field of investigation. To permit the efficient delivery of high amounts of radiation dose to tumours while limiting the radiation dose to critical organs dosimetry calculations have to be performed. These are relying on scintigraphic data being input to the well known MIRD formalism. This paper focuses on the methods and the difficulties associated with the scintigraphic determination of organ kinetics. The physical properties of the well-known scintigraphic imaging modalities, PET, SPECT and planar scintigraphy, are discussed thereby taking into account the properties of the appropriate radionuclides currently being available for therapy and dosimetry. Several arguments are given and disputed for the limited clinical use of PET and SPECT in dosimetry and the ongoing preference of planar whole-body imaging as the method of choice. The quantitative restrictions still inherent to this method are also discussed in detail. Procedural recommendations are proposed covering all processes related to data acquisition, data correction and data analysis which finally lead to reliable estimations of organ dose. (orig.)

  14. Medical and psychological aspects of crisis management during a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-06-01

    Crisis handling in most kinds of disasters is affected by e.g. the information situation, prior experience and preparedness, availability of resources, efficiency of leadership and coordination, and type of disaster. A nuclear accident creates a situation which differs from many `normal` disasters and natural catastrophes, for example with respects to the invisible nature of radiation and radioactive contamination and thus the dependence on access to specific technical equipment and expertise, and to information about the radiation situation. The scope of the accident, and the existing levels of radiation, define subsequent actions; information policies and existing channels of communication lay the foundation for public reactions. The present paper explores some examples of public reactions, and crisis handling of some previous radiation accidents on the basis of two dimensions, i.e. degree of information availability and degree of impact or `environmental damage`. The examples include the radiation accidents in the Chelyabinsk region in the southern Urals, at Three Mile Island, USA, at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and in Goiania, Brazil. It is concluded that public reactions differ as a function of existing expectations, and the crisis handling is more affected by the existing organizational and social structures than by needs and reactions of potential victims. Another conclusion is that pre-disaster preparedness regarding public information, and organization of countermeasures, are crucial to the outcome of a successful crisis handling and for enhancing public trust in crisis management. 39 refs, 2 figs.

  15. Nuclear structure aspects of spin-independent WIMP scattering off xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Vietze, L; Menéndez, J; Haxton, W C; Schwenk, A

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure factors for spin-independent WIMP scattering off xenon based on state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, which are shown to yield a good spectroscopic description of all experimentally relevant isotopes. Our results are based on the leading scalar one-body currents only. At this level and for the momentum transfers relevant to direct dark matter detection, the structure factors are in very good agreement with the phenomenological Helm form factors used to give experimental limits for WIMP-nucleon cross sections. In contrast to spin-dependent WIMP scattering, the spin-independent channel, at the one-body level, is less sensitive to nuclear structure details. In addition, we explicitly show that the structure factors for inelastic scattering are suppressed by ~ 10^{-4} compared to the coherent elastic scattering response. This implies that the detection of inelastic scattering will be able to discriminate clearly between spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering. Finall...

  16. Some aspects of digital I and C and digital human-system interface upgrades in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital I and C technology introduces some new terms and new processes like software life cycle, process computer configuration control, digital human-system interface (HSI), software V and V (Verification and Validation), software common mode failure potential, software documentation, etc. Based on the experience from NEK, and other NPPs and published reports from other organizations, this paper sheds light on challenging tasks related to some aspects of the digital I and C upgrades and especially the NPP MCR/MCB HSI (Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Room / Main Control Board Human-System Interface) upgrade. The Ref. [1], EPRI Report TR-1008122 was used as a guidance to analyze original NEK MCR/MCB HSI design (1970s), to describe migration from the original MCR/MCB HSI design to the 2005 AS-BUILT status and to propose the authors vision for the key planning aspects for I and C upgrades and MCR modernization. This paper submits the justified proposal for the endpoint vision and the migration path applicable to NEK MCR/MCB HSI modernization, as well as some of the possible risks and lessons learned. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the specialist meeting on nuclear fuel and control rods: operating experience, design evolution and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and management of nuclear fuel has undergone a strong evolution process during past years. The increase of the operating cycle length and of the discharge burnup has led to the use of more advanced fuel designs, as well as to the adoption of fuel efficient operational strategies. The analysis of recent operational experience highlighted a number of issues related to nuclear fuel and control rod events raising concerns about the safety aspects of these new designs and operational strategies, which led to the organisation of this Specialists Meeting on fuel and control rod issues. The meeting was intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information on lessons learned and safety concern related to operating experience with fuel and control rods (degradation, reliability, experience with high burnup fuel, and others). After an opening session 6 papers), this meeting was subdivided into four sessions: Operating experience and safety concern (technical session I - 6 papers), Fuel performance and operational issues (technical session II - 7 papers), Control rod issues (technical session III - 9 papers), Improvement of fuel design (technical session IV.A - 4 papers), Improvement on fuel fabrication and core management (technical session IV.B - 6 papers)

  18. A comparative study of health and safety aspects in the utilisation of coal and nuclear energy for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the analysis of the risks associated with nuclear energy systems and coal-fired power stations are discussed and compared. The average dose has been estimated to be less than 5 mrem/a for a fully developed ruclear power programme. This dose is about 5% of the natural dose of 100 mrem/a. On the basis an average of 1500 spontaneous cancer deaths per million per year, the contribution due to 5 mrem/a would be one additional cancer death of the exposed group i.e. 0.066%. On the other hand, effluents from the coal-fired stations have been found to contribute 5.5% to 19% of the total lung cancer deaths. A point often not noticed is the radiological hazards due to the natural radioactive content of coal. The fly-ash contains radium-226 and radium-228. The plumes of the coal-fired stations contain radon and its daughter products. Taking into account the radiological and chemical hazards of coal burning, the nuclear energy systems are far better than coal-fired power stations. (M.G.B.)

  19. Some aspects of development and implementation of e-learning in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Information technology has enabled organizations to re-engineer the way they operate. New infrastructures allow organizations to take advantage of the transactional and communication capabilities information technology provides. During last decade international attention to nuclear industry dramatically increased. It accelerated already started process of implementation great number of innovations and modifications in existing plants and construction and commissioning of new units. As the number of modifications and innovations increased the volume of information increased as well and became fragmented. The sheer volume of information could be overwhelming. At the same time due to workforce ageing and distorted image of the profession the smooth process of generation substitution has been interrupted. The need to identify, elicit, preserve and disseminate important pieces of knowledge that enable effective operation in the interest of nuclear sector became critical. In order to meet this challenge new approach needed to be implemented. Turning information and data into knowledge became a prime priority. The most appropriate concept which could cover this enormous amount of information and data could be a knowledge management. Without such system staff spends large amounts of time reinventing the wheel and often repeating the past mistakes. Knowledge management enables the enterprise to maintain, develop, and distribute the knowledge expertise of its people. Basic and most powerful instrument for establishing of such system are various applications of information technology. One of them is e-learning. E-learning and knowledge management have several features in common. Both deal with knowledge exchange and creating communities where knowledge is shared. Knowledge management is particularly challenged in attempting to explicate, share, and leverage tacit knowledge. Interactive nature of e-learning creates environment supporting sharing culture and transfer

  20. Energy storage systems (sistemas de armazenamento de energia)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fábio, org.

    2013-01-01

    O armazenamento de energia pode ser efetuado sobre cinco categorias, designadamente, elétrica, eletromecânica, mecânica, térmica e química. Contudo, o assunto aqui debatido é sobre meios de armazenamento de energia elétrica, sendo que o armazenamento de eletricidade é usualmente efetuado recorrendo a outros géneros de energia, tais como, química, mecânica, térmica ou, até, em energia potencial. [1]. Há nos dias de hoje uma crescente preocupação na forma como é gerid...

  1. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density ∼3-5x1010 cm-3 and temperature ∼7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. Dictionary of the energy-producing industry. Nuclear and non-nuclear energy sources. Vol. 3. Fachwoerterbuch zur Energiewirtschaft. Nukleare und nichtnukleare Energietraeger. - Diccionario tecnico de terminos de la industria de energia. Recursos energeticos nucleares y no nucleares. Bd. 3. Aleman-Espanol/Espanol-Aleman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannhardt, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    This technical dictionary, compiled in everyday practice, gives an outline of the terminology and phraseology of a modern field of engineering. Users should have some basic knowledge of the Spanish language and also of engineering as well as access to standard-language dictionaries. Core subjects of the dictionary are nuclear power, reactor engineering, fusion technology, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, radiation protection, nuclear safety, coal gasification and coal liquefaction, cooperative agreements and managerial problems.

  3. Energia no Sistema Climático

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, José

    2011-01-01

    AS FORMAS DE ENERGIA DO SISTEMA CLIMÁTICO. MODOS DE TRANSFERÊNCIA DE ENERGIA.A RADIAÇÃO SOLAR, TERRESTRE E ATMOSFÉRICA (características da radiação,Radiação Solar, Radiação terrestre e radiação atmosférica…. BALANÇO ENERGÉTICO DO SISTEMA GLOBO-ATMOSFERA.BALANÇO DE RADIAÇÃO DE UMA SUPERFÍCIE (Componentes do balanço de radiação,Medição e estimativa dos componentes do balanço de radiação).BALANÇO ENERGÉTICO À SUPERFÍCIE TERRESTRE.CONSEQUÊNCIAS NO MOVIMENTO DO AR ATMOSFÉRICO.EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS....

  4. Geographical-radioecological aspects of nuclear energy exploitation and environment contamination by man-made radionuclides in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the environment is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russian Federation. The aim of this work was to localize and analyse places of nuclear energy exploitation for peaceful and military purposes in Russian Federation, in aim to find out whether observed places are potential or real sources of contamination of Russian environment by man-made radionuclides. Nuclear activities in nuclear industry enterprises and research organizations, in Russian Northern fleet, Russian Pacific Fleet, Russian civilian nuclear fleet and in nuclear power plants were analysed and the places where the nuclear explosions were carried out were localized. In contaminated regions the goal was to analyse geographical and some radioecological aspects of contamination of environment. Great part of Russian territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly because of large radiation accidents in Mayak Production Association (PA) in the Urals (1949-1956, 1957 and 1967) and in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (1986). The largest region in Russian Federation with environment contaminated by man-made radionuclides is region of Chernobyl NPP accident influence, which is situated in central, densely populated and economically relatively good developed part of Russian Federation where the agriculture has an important role. The most contaminated administrative units in region are Bryansk Region, Kaluga Region, Oryol Region and Tula Region where high soil density of cesium-137 are observed. Present radioecological situation in this region is analysed. By analysing of dynamics of demographic indicators in four most contaminated regions authors found out similar trends with Russian nationwide indicators and with indicators for Central Federal District but much more unfavourable values were observed in four regions, particularly in Tula Region. Health situation of liquidators and of affected population who live in contaminated

  5. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  6. Act No 85 of 18 March 1982 granting the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare a State contribution of 2,890 milliard lire to the 5-year activity programme 1980-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act came into force on 23 March 1982. It provides for the financing of the ENEA's (formerly CNEN) programme of work for the period 1980-1984. It further provides that within one year of its entry into force, the Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection - DISP (formerly within CNEN) will be set up as an independent, autonomous body, with tasks involving control over activities entailing major risks, including nuclear activities. (NEA)

  7. YKAe Research programme on nuclear power plant systems behaviour and operational aspects of safety 1990-1994, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programme on Nuclear Power Plant Systems Behaviour and Operational Aspects of Safety was carried out between 1990 and 1994. In the field of Safe operational margins of nuclear fuel and reactor core, an up-to-date steady-state fuel performance model was validated for higher burn-ups and well-characterized VVER fuel experiments were carried out. A comprehensive reactor analysis code system was extended and validated for complex 3-D phenomena, such as ATWS and boron dilution transients. Advanced hydraulics methods were added to the dynamics codes. Experiments were carried out with PACTEL, the most comprehensive thermal-hydraulic test facility for VVER-440-type reactors worldwide. For example, a series of natural circulation tests were provided for the first VVER-related international standard problem of the OECD/NEA. Advanced foreign computer codes for severe accidents were evaluated and modified for the needs of Finnish power plants. Specific progress was made in modelling the reflooding of an overheated core and in the structural analysis of a pressure vessel under corium load, as well as in experimental and theoretical studies of aerosol and hydrogen behaviour. Fire modelling was improved by implementing advanced calculation methods and by validating them against our own experiments and international test data. Techniques in living probabilistic safety assessment and risk decision-making were refined in pilot applications for continuous monitoring, follow-up and management of risks of an operating power plant. In the area of human reliability and organizational performance, factors important for the continuous development of the competence of control room operator teams and plant maintenance staff were identified. (237 refs., 75 figs., 13 tabs.)

  8. Eesti Energia juht ihkab teavet / Sandor Liive ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liive, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 10. Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Peterburi uue tuumajaama mõju Eesti Energia tuumaprojektile, tuumajaama eeluuringut, uue Soome-Vene elektrikaabli rajamise tõenäosust ning võimalikku rahvahääletust tuumaprojekti küsimuses

  9. Härra Eesti Energia lahkus haruldase kaevurikirkaga / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    30. novembril oli Eesti Energia juhi kohalt lahkuval Gunnar Okil viimane tööpäev, kuigi Eesti Energia juhatus pakkus Gunnar Okile korralise lepingu lõppemise järel aastast lepingut, keeldus juhatuse esimees selle sõlmimisest. Lisa: Oki-ajastu

  10. Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

  11. Eesti Energia pakuks börsil boonusaktsiaid / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium valmistub Eesti Energia aktsia avalikuks pakkumiseks. Riik soovib, et aktsionäride hulgas oleks rohkelt tavakodanikke, aktsiate ostmise motiveerimiseks lubatakse, et aasta pärast kingitakse lisaaktsiaid. Rahandusministeerium peab otsima alternatiive, kuidas Eesti Energia saaks lisaraha börsile minemata

  12. Eesti Energia asub uurima Jordaania põlevkivivarusid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Energia tütarfirma Oil Shale Energy of Jordan ja Jordaania valitsus kirjutasid alla ühiste kavatsuste kokkuleppele. Eesti Energia kavatseb teha Jordaania tütarettevõtte abiga uuringuid, eesmärk on rajada Jordaaniasse põlevkiviõlitehas. Kaart

  13. Practical aspects of the application of the pinch technology for the reduction of the energy and cooling water consumption in a fertilizer plant; Aspectos practicos de la aplicacion de la tecnologia pinch para la reduccion del consumo de energia y agua de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M. [Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy and cooling water system make-up water consumption of a fertilizer plant were reduced in 18% and in 16.4 Tons/hr respectively, representing a substantial saving in the operational costs. The application of the pinch analysis to the process revealed the potential saving of existing energy. The need of reducing the incoming raw materials temperature and the operating pressure of two evaporators was identified, for this purpose it was necessary to install three additional heat exchangers. [Espanol] Los consumos de energia y de agua de reposicion del sistema de enfriamiento de una planta de fertilizantes se redujeron en 18% y en 16.4 ton/hr respectivamente, representando un ahorro sustancial en los costos de operacion. La aplicacion del analisis Pinch al proceso revelo el potencial de ahorro de energia existente. Se identifico la necesidad de reducir la temperatura de alimentacion de la materia prima y la presion de operacion de dos evaporadores, para lo cual fue necesario implementar tres intercambiadores de calor adicionales.

  14. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system include operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  15. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  16. Sistema Integrado de Energias Renováveis para Habitações Residenciais – Estudo de Soluções Tecnológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, David Bruno Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores O desenvolvimento do mundo está cada vez mais dependente da energia, possuindo esta um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento dos países. Com o aumento de produção em massa de energia através de fontes não renováveis e poluentes, o caso dos derivados do petróleo e da energia nuclear, o planeta tem vindo a sofrer grandes alterações climáticas. Mas populações actuais já possuem consciência crítica sobre os problemas ambient...

  17. Report on the consultants' meeting on technical aspects of the co-operation of nuclear reaction data centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convenes in annual intervals coordination meetings of the Network of the Nuclear Reaction Data Center. The present meeting dealt with technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  19. Impact of the marketing activities related to service offer an the Nuclear Information Center of the brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission; Impacto das atividades de marketing relativas a promocao de servicos no Centro de Informacoes Nucleares da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Sueli Angelica do

    1998-12-31

    Exploratory field research confirms the marketing administration philosophy in Nuclear Information Center (CIN) of National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), analyzing marketing activities referring to SONAR-INIS (current awareness) and SERVIR-INIS (provision of copies) promotion, in order to evaluate the impact of these activities relating to the use of the services by real users. The data collecting took place using a technique of documental analysis, semi-structured interviews with five managers of the Center, simple no-participant observation accomplished by the researcher in CIN, questionnaires about the administration philosophy applied to the managers, and questionnaires sent by mail to 176 users of the international sample. The 122 users`answers (69,31% of answers rate) were analyzed according to the statistical procedures of Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), with 0,05% of error margin, and 95% of confidence level. Nine assumptions of research were tested. It was concluded that: the first knowledge of the services was by circulars or letters; SONAR-INIS was not considered as the principal service by its information contents in order to develop professional activities by 60,5% of the users; SERVIR-INIS was considered the main service to access the documents related to the interest of 47,8% of the user; to the majority the most important reason to use both services was the convenience and facilities to access the services; suitability of interest was the most important criterion in order to accomplish the appropriate service; the CIN inquiry frequency to know about users` satisfaction level, their information interests, needs and expectation in order to adapt information offer to demand was irregular and seldom; CIN`s concerns about knowing users` critics, complaints and suggestions was recognized by users; the majority of the users was interested in receiving information about the benefits of the services; the price of the copies obtained in

  20. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  1. Economic aspects of ecological risk due to nuclear and coal-fired electricity production (general comparison, related to the USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of this paper is reflected in the chapter headings: (1) Introduction (2) Environmental problems relating to the coal-fired power plants (3) Costs of environmental protection for coal-fired power plants (4) Comparison of economic efficiency of nuclear and coal-fired power plants (5) Cost of environmental protection for normal operation of a nuclear power plant and its fuel facilities (6) Accidental risk from off-reactor nuclear fuel cycle facilities (7) Conclusion. (Quittner)

  2. Evaluating the safety and regulatory aspects of the combined nuclear/chemical complex for Hydrogen production / Gerhardus Petrus Schalkwyk

    OpenAIRE

    Schalkwyk, Gerhardus Petrus

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been an exceptional resurgence of interest in the nuclear power industry and the cogeneration of hydrogen from nuclear process heat and electricity, with climate change and energy security the main drivers for the implementation of these technologies. Nuclear-assisted hydrogen production technologies include electrochemical, thermochemical and hybrid-thermochemical options that respectively require electricity, high-temperature process heat and both electricity and high-tem...

  3. Eesti Energia tahab julgeolekumaksu / Sandor Liive ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liive, Sandor

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liivega ettevõtte pikaajalise investeerimisplaani teemal. Sandor Liive tahab kehtestada energiajulgeolekumaksu, mis lisanduks iga inimese ja ettevõtte elektriarvele. Vt. samas: Arengukava; Valitsus pumpab energiahiidu miljardeid; Eesti mattis Ignalina maha

  4. Eesti Energia pikaajaline investeeringuplaan vajab raha / Helga Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helga, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energi juht Sandor Liive küsis valitsuskabinetis tulevikuplaane esitledes ettevõtte aktsiakapitali laiendamiseks juurde 500 miljonit eurot. Eesti Energia on koostanud investeerimisplaani aastateks 2009-2018, lisaks tahab ta kehtestada energiajulgeolekumaksu

  5. Asjatundjad : poliitikud hävitavad Eesti Energia / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 10. sept. lk. 5. Peaminister Andrus Ansip ja valitsuspoliitikud mõistavad hukka Eesti Energia kavandatud elektrienergia 23%-lise hinnatõusu, kuid energiafirma vajab lisaraha põlevkivijaamade vananeva sisseseade uuendamiseks

  6. Eesti Energia kavandab Paljassaarde kahte tuulikut / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Energia kavatseb koos Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli ja Saksa firmaga Enercon GmbH panna Paljassaare poolsaare tippu üles kaks ligi 8 mln krooni maksvat tuulegeneraatorit. Kaart: Paljassaare tuulikud

  7. Modeling for climate change in the aspect of nuclear energy priority: Nuclear power energy-based convergence social-humanity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the industry expansion, the energy consumptions have increased steeply, which have produced the global warming in our lives by carbon production energies. This climate change has provoked significant natural disasters which have damaged to social as well economic matters. Considering the non-carbon production which is the major factor of global warming, nuclear energy is a newly spotlighted source as the green energy source. The climate change factor is affected by the carbon productions made by humans. Then, the nuclear energy increasing rate with the climate change factor affects to the temperature change which is expressed by annual anomaly. Fig. 6 is the protocol for climate change investigation incorporated with the nuclear industry where the climate factor like the temperature is an important index to find out the priority of nuclear energy. The increased environmental pollutions can give the expanding of nuclear energy due to the carbon gas of fossil fuels. This study showed the effectiveness of the nuclear energy by the simulations. The seasonal climate disaster like the very cold winter and very hot summer can increase the necessity of nuclear energy development which could appeal to the general public persons as well as the politicians. So, it is important for the nuclear energy manager to make people understand the importance of the nuclear energy comparing to the oil or coal fuels. The regeneration energy has been considered as the alternative source

  8. Modeling for climate change in the aspect of nuclear energy priority: Nuclear power energy-based convergence social-humanity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Following the industry expansion, the energy consumptions have increased steeply, which have produced the global warming in our lives by carbon production energies. This climate change has provoked significant natural disasters which have damaged to social as well economic matters. Considering the non-carbon production which is the major factor of global warming, nuclear energy is a newly spotlighted source as the green energy source. The climate change factor is affected by the carbon productions made by humans. Then, the nuclear energy increasing rate with the climate change factor affects to the temperature change which is expressed by annual anomaly. Fig. 6 is the protocol for climate change investigation incorporated with the nuclear industry where the climate factor like the temperature is an important index to find out the priority of nuclear energy. The increased environmental pollutions can give the expanding of nuclear energy due to the carbon gas of fossil fuels. This study showed the effectiveness of the nuclear energy by the simulations. The seasonal climate disaster like the very cold winter and very hot summer can increase the necessity of nuclear energy development which could appeal to the general public persons as well as the politicians. So, it is important for the nuclear energy manager to make people understand the importance of the nuclear energy comparing to the oil or coal fuels. The regeneration energy has been considered as the alternative source.

  9. Otimização de microprodução em redes inteligentes de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Vitor Hugo Abreu de

    2014-01-01

    As energias renováveis têm-se tornado uma alternativa viável e complementar aos combustíveis fósseis, pelo facto de serem energias virtualmente inesgotáveis, limpas e economicamente vantajosas. Um dos principais problemas associados às fontes de energia renováveis é a sua intermitência. Este problema impossibilita o controlo da produção de energia e reflete-se na qualidade da energia elétrica. Em sistemas de microprodução de energia, este problema pode ser atenuado com a inclusão ...

  10. Eesti Energia sihib hiiglaslikku hinnatõusu / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 5. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Eesti Energia taotleb 2007. aasta märtsikuust 23%-list hinnatõusu. Energiaturu inspektsiooni (ETI) juhi Märt Otsa sõnul pole teada, mis otsuse inspektsioon hinnatõusu küsimuses langetab. Diagramm: Elektri hind tõuseb jõudsalt. Vt. samas intervjuud Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Tiit Niguliga

  11. Joint declaration on the fundamental aspects of UK-German co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Declaration records the intention of both Governments to increase their existing co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. This co-operation covers, inter alia, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear safety technology, radiation production monitoring systems, waste management, etc

  12. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  13. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  14. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics. Interim project report, January 17, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the search for new particles in the nuclear and atomic processes and the theory of electroweak interactions in nuclei and exotic atoms. New particles under consideration are axions and scalons

  15. Review and assessment of research relevant to design aspects of nuclear power plant piping systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant research on piping systems is evaluated, and the correlation of that research with design practices is presented. The objective is to quantify the research/design practices in terms of the reliability of piping used in nuclear power plants

  16. Parts ja Tiivas peavad aega Eesti Energia börsile tulekuks heaks / Jaana Pikalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tuleks Eesti Energia aktsiat müüa soodustingimustel. East Capital Exploreri juhi Gert Tiivase hinnangul pole paremat aega Eesti Energia börsile toomiseks kui praegu

  17. "Oravad" tõmbavad Eesti Energia börsileminekule piduri peale / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu Reformierakonna fraktsiooni kohtumisest Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi esindajatega. Fraktsiooni esimees Peep Aru räägib küsimustest, mis on seotud Eesti Energia börsilemineku kavaga

  18. Sõnnikust elektri tootmine on Eesti Energia otsustada / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Seakasvatusfirma Ekseko tahab hakata seasõnnikust elektrit ja soojust tootma, kui Eesti Energia finantseerib projekti. Taani konsultatsioonifirma Energy Consulting Network soovitab rajada koostootmisjaama maksumusega umbes 50-60 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Eesti Energia teeb otsuse lähiajal

  19. Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da atividade administrada em pacientes de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, A.; Iwahara, A.; Tahuata, L., E-mail: anelise@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil), Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes; Xavier, A.M. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)

  20. Nuclear activity. Decree No. 1.390. Regulation of Law No. 24.804 (27-Nov-1998; B.O. 4-Dec-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree regulates various aspects of the National Law of Nuclear Activity of the Argentine Republic, in order to determine its scope, define the procedures for its application, and establish the executive functions of the institutions emerging from this Law: Empresa Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), former Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear. The National State shall establish the nuclear policy and shall develop the Research and Development functions through the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and the regulatory and control functions through the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN). The nuclear activities of production, research, development and service rendering which might be organised commercially, shall be implemented within the framework of the nuclear policy and regulation exercised within the competence of the above mentioned organisms. The Commission shall have to assume the responsibility of the management of radioactive wastes of low, medium and high activity and establish the acceptance requirements that shall have to be approved by the ARN. Moreover, it shall determine the shut-down of the nuclear power plants and any other relevant nuclear facility concurrently with ARN, through the Shut-down Project of each facility. With the aim of the privatisation of the nuclear power generation activity depending from the enterprise NASA, the constitution of a society is set up: 'Generadora Nuclear Argentina Sociedad Anonima' (GENUAR SA). Also, the amount of the royalty that shall be paid to CNEA for research and development activities is fixed. The above mentioned society will be the holder of the concession of the use of nuclear goods and the responsible entity for the construction and/or operation licenses

  1. Eesti Energia tegi esimesed tehingud elektribörsil / Kerli Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Kerli

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Energia ei avalikusta NordPoolil sõlmitud tehingute mahtu ärisaladuse tõttu. NordPooli börsil hajutavad riske energia tootjad, suurtarbijad ja hulgikauplejad, kes peavad end energia hinnatõusu vastu kaitsma. Järgmise aasta tulevikutehingute hinda mõjutavatest teguritest. Lisa: NordPool

  2. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and...

  3. Energia e sustentabilidade em agroecossistemas Energy and sustainability in agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozioski

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de produção de alimentos atualmente predominantes no país e no mundo têm sido frequentemente questionados em função de vários faiares, destacando-se entre eles, aqueles associados ao uso da energia. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar alguns dados sobre a origem e eficiência da utilização de energia na produção animal e vegetal, assim como sobre a distribuição do seu uso no mundo, relacionando estes aspectos com a sustentabilidade dos sistemas alimentares predominantes no mundo e no Brasil. A principal fonte de energia atualmente utilizada, mundialmente, no processo produtivo e na cadeia alimentar total é derivada do petróleo, cujas reservas mundiais são limitadas e com estimativas de esgotamento até meados do próximo século. Além disso, a utilização da maior parte da energia e. conseqüentemente, a produção e consumo da maior parle dos alimentos no mundo é feita por uma minoria da população existente em algumas poucas regiões do Hemisfério Norte. Finalmente, os sistemas intensivos de produção animal e vegetal são mais produtivos mas, de outra parte, são energeticamente mais ineficientes que sistemas menos intensivos. No Brasil, a maior parte da produção agropecuária deriva de sistemas intensivos de produção e, além disso, os cultivos são, predomi nantemente, de natureza comercial e/ou industrial, em detrimento dos cultivos alimentares. Dessa maneira, por um lado, face à grande dependência por insumos externos, energeticamente onerosos e esgotáveis e, por outro, face à dependência e inseguridade alimentar do país, pode-se considerar que os agroecossistemas brasileiros são frágeis e insustentáveis, necessitando serem reavaliados num curto prazo, tanto em relação às políticas públicas para o setor como também em relação ao direcionamento da pesquisa.Food production systems presenfly practiced in Brazil anã m lhe worid are being subjected to questioning due to several

  4. Report on the consultants' meeting on co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centers (technical aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the co-ordination meeting of the network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres organized by the IAEA in 1997. The meeting was attended by technical staff from ten member centres of the network (representing USA, Russia, China, Japan, Hungary, OECD-NEA and IAEA) to discuss technical matters of the nuclear data compilation and exchange by means of the jointly operated computerized systems CINDA, EXFOR, ENDF and others. Observers from Belgium and Ukraine also attended the meeting. The document includes status reports of all centres and selected working papers

  5. Nuclear aspects of neutral current non-standard ν-nucleus reactions and the role of the exotic μ-→e- transitions experimental limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D. K.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear aspects of flavour changing neutral current (FCNC) processes, predicted by various new-physics models to occur in the presence of nuclei, are examined by computing the relevant nuclear matrix elements within the context of the quasi-particle RPA using realistic strong two-body forces. One of our aims is to explore the role of the non-standard interactions (NSI) in the leptonic sector and specifically: (i) in lepton flavour violating (LFV) processes involving the neutral particles νℓ and ν, ℓ=e,μ,τ and (ii) in charged lepton flavour violating (cLFV) processes involving the charged leptons ℓ- or ℓ+. As concrete nuclear systems we have chosen the stopping targets of μ-→e- conversion experiments, i.e. the 48Ti nucleus of the PRIME/PRISM experiment at J-PARC and the 27Al of the COMET at J-PARC as well as of the Mu2e at Fermilab. These experiments have been designed to reduce the single event sensitivity down to 10-16-10-18 in searching for charged lepton mixing events. Our goal is, by taking advantage of our detailed nuclear structure calculations and using the present limits or the sensitivity of the aforementioned exotic μ-→e- experiments, to put stringent constraints on the parameters of NSI Lagrangians.

  6. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  7. Financial Control and Safety. An investigation on how financial and safety aspects are integrated in the decision making at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alleged inter-relationship between economy and nuclear safety has been investigated. Through interviews and review of instructions and other documents, information on how management at Swedish nuclear power plants integrates financial control and safety management has been compiled. Owners of nuclear power plants have well founded expectations on that the plants are profitable and that the operations are rationalized in order to reduce costs. This could allegedly threaten the nuclear safety. However, it is not to be expected that there are any obvious relationships between expenditures and safety. The quality of the safety management has to be judged in terms of how well safety requirements are met irrespective of the associated costs. The owners have imposed clear financial objectives on the nuclear power plants. At the same time they have also established policies for nuclear safety. The nuclear power plants have systems for operations management, which basically comprise separate parts for operations planning and quality management. Financial control and safety management are included in the operations planning and quality management respectively. The quality management impose restrictions to be adhered to in the operations planning. This means that from a formal point of view, the safety management is superior to the operations planning. There are examples of simple as well as advanced approaches to financial management at the nuclear power plants. In all cases the methods used are reasonably well adapted to the needs. Typical for all plants is the focus on long-term aspects. Investments are for example analysed in a plant life-time perspective. With regard to safety, profitability calculations are not required to the same extent for safety related investments as for other investments. A number of factors, which tend to warrant that safety aspects are given the appropriate attention in the decision making, have been identified. Examples of such factors are

  8. Nuclear techniques in the study of pollutant transport in the environment. Interaction of solutes with geological media (methodological aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes a summary of the 5-year co-ordinated research programme to use nuclear techniques for the study of the transport of pollutants (both radioactive and non-radioactive) in the environment as well as twelve individual reports of the different activities performed under the programme. These have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. State of the Japan nuclear power engineering in the aspect of the power problems of the Asia countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here one briefly reviews the energy demand and supply in the Asian leading countries. Paper dwells upon the state of the art of the nuclear power industry of Japan and upon the forecast of the mentioned industry development up to 2010 in some detail with determining the aims at separate stages, namely in 2015, 2030 and 2050

  10. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations - A paradigm shift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a new para

  11. Avaliação da indústria de equipamentos para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Bonanni

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, incentivado pelo Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, procurou avaliar e identificar o "estado da arte" da tecnologia industrial brasileira de equipamentos de pequeno e médio porte para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia. O projeto atuou nas seguintes áreas: Pequenas Centrais Hidrelétricas (PCH, Energia Solar, Energia Eólica, Biodigestores e Equipamentos de Biogás e Gaseificadores de combustíveis sólidos (Gasogênios, não somente "identificando" como "localizando" os atuais fabricantes de equipamentos utilizados no aproveitamento e renovação da energia. O projeto focalizou ainda os aspectos econômicos e financeiros das indústrias pesquisadas, tais como: caracterização e evolução recente, sua produção industrial em mercado atual e futuro, além das suas dificuldades na produção e comercialização de seus produtos.This work, sponsored by the Brazilian Research Council, carried out a sectorial appraisal of the manufacturers of equipment that use renewable energy sources. The survey was executed in Small Hydroelectric Plants, Solar Energy, Eolic Energy, Biogas and Gasification of solid combustible identifying the manufacturers and their localization. The survey pointed out the industries economical and financial aspects, as well as, the difficulties in producing and trading their products.

  12. Leptoproduction of neutrino pairs in the nuclear coulomb field

    OpenAIRE

    Pich, Antonio; Bernabéu, José

    1985-01-01

    [IT] Si calcola la sezione d'urto per la produzione di coppie v-V per leptoni ad alta energia nel campo nucleare di Coulomb nella teoria standard, tenendo conto della polarizzazione arbitraria nel fascio leptonico incidente. Si studiano le distribuzioni differenziali del leptone canco uscente, mostrando che il leptone diffuso forma un picco ad alta energia ed emerge per angoli di un'ampiezza notevole. Si discutono anche i contributi incoerenti alla sezione d'urto.

  13. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  14. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  15. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  16. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  17. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  18. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  19. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  20. International conference on the strengthening of nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. Keynote papers. Regulatory aspects of NPP safety, status of safety improvements, status of safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective of the Conference was to assess the past decade of nuclear safety efforts in countries operating WWER and RBMK nuclear reactors and to address remaining safety issues which require further work. A particular focus of the Conference was on international co-operation and assistance and where such efforts should be focused in the future. All Eastern European countries that operate RBMK or WWER reactors participated in the Conference, and presented papers on three key areas of nuclear safety: Regulatory Aspects of Nuclear Power Plant Safety; Status of Safety Improvements; and Status of Safety Analysis Reports. In addition, representatives from 18 additional countries that provide financial and/or technical assistance and co-operation in the area of WWER and RBMK safety offered the most extensive commentary. Key international (IAEA, World Association of Nuclear Operators, the Nuclear Energy Agency, the G-24 NUSAC, the European Commission, and the EBRD) organizations that provide nuclear safety assistance for WWER and RBMK reactors also made presentations. There is no question that considerable progress on nuclear safety has been made in Eastern Europe. Special mention should be made of successful efforts to strengthen the independence and technical competence of the nuclear regulatory authorities. Efforts should now concentrate on improving the depth and scope of the technical abilities of the regulatory authorities. More attention by governments is needed to ensure that the regulatory authorities have the financial resources and enforcement authority to fully execute their missions. In respect to the operators of the nuclear power plants, they have demonstrated clear progress in operational safety improvements. Significant additional efforts are required to maintain and enhance an effective safety culture. Design safety improvement programmes are in place in all countries. Implementation of these programmes has varied and is particularly affected by

  1. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  2. Ethical aspects of acceptance and risk evaluation of nuclear power use; Ethische Aspekte der Akzeptanz und der Risikobewertung bei der Kernenergienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfort, E.; Schwager, J.

    2008-05-15

    Is the use of nuclear power inadmissible because of its hazard potential? Ethical aspects, especially those of discourse ethics and utilitarianism, are invoked in answering this question. Ethical norms per se are not sufficient, however, to justify or reject the use of nuclear power. More than good will is required to be proved right, do good, and prevent damage; there must also be technical competence and prognostic ability. The perception in society of damage, cost and benefit of nuclear power differs not only because of lack of information and differences in the ability to judge, but also because of different ethical perceptions. There must be rational weighing of individual protection versus community protection in which, irrespective of the outcome, there are always winners and losers. Those who are burdened by a decision do not necessarily benefit from it. It is for this reason that conflicts of interest between minorities and majorities should be resolved by ethically based democratic rules. The hope that this will lead to consensus should not be abandoned. (orig.)

  3. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  4. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains one of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that took place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (NPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  5. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete test of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains on e of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that look place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (CNPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  6. Avaliação econômica e ambiental da energia atômica no Brasil = Economical and environmental evaluation of the atomic energy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Bento; Gelta Madalena Jönck Pedroso

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar se a energia nuclear pode contribuir para geração de energia elétrica de maneira sustentável no território nacional. O estudo foi realizado a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental do setor energético, com levantamento de custos e impactos ambientais no processo de geração de energia elétrica, nas usinas termonucleares. A emissão de gases na atmosfera é elevada, e uma das principais causas de mudanças climáticas são as usinas de carvão. Já no caso d...

  7. Avaliação econômica e ambiental da energia atômica no Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.361

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Bento; Gelta Madalena Jönck Pedroso

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar se a energia nuclear pode contribuir para geração de energia elétrica de maneira sustentável no território nacional. O estudo foi realizado a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental do setor energético, com levantamento de custos e impactos ambientais no processo de geração de energia elétrica, nas usinas termonucleares. A emissão de gases na atmosfera é elevada, e uma das principais causas de mudanças climáticas são as usinas de carvão. Já no caso d...

  8. Legal aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and the final storage in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public discussion on ''the waste disposal of German nuclear power plants'', is, in contrast to former political arguments, more and more determined by legal questions, as for instance the suitability for licensing compact storage and central intermediate storage for spent fuel elements. A quick and partly already occurred clarification of these legal questions by the courts guarantees that the storage facilities, which are planned or are under construction, are available in time. The implementation of the technical-scientific management and disposal concept of nuclear waste in the Atomic Energy Act according to the fourth amendment of 1976 has, on principle, been successful, even if hereby partly open legal questions arose. The clarification of these questions is among other things provided in the framework of the legal regulations, still to be expected, by means of the legal authorization in paragraph 12, paragraph 1, No. 8 and 9 of the Atomic Energy Act, which have the aim ''to regulate the disposal and radioactive wastes comprehensively. (orig./HP)

  9. Prospects of international collaboration and knowledge transfer on project management and public relations in nuclear power engineering (economic aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author deals with public consultations of the State Scientific Engineering Center of Control Systems and Emergency Response, Kiev. The following conclusions should be made: - Public consultations support and strengthen the positive image of nuclear energy projects, also by youth. - The public relations work which includes only occasional meetings or discussions of some problems is not effective. - Effective are the following facilities: - press releases in popular scientific and technical issues (now there are a few of such issues because of lack of financing) - career-guidance at all phases of education (to begin with secondary schools to post-graduate courses). It is well known that the economic situation in a country influences the functioning of electric energy market and efficiency of energy companies. The aim of our research is to find out the ways of further development of energy branch and what economic consequences the different changes in legislation and taxation systems can bring about. Great attention is paid to the activities of the producers of nuclear energy and regional energy supplying companies and the state of payments in electric energy market. Current research is being carried out to find out the ways of enlarging current assets, decreasing debts, also optimal equipment depreciation normative and main dependencies between some economic indexes and existing tariffs. All these tasks can be effectively solved using the. (author)

  10. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N. [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  11. Potential of bioclimatic architecture for energy saving in buildings; Potencial de la arquitectura bioclimatica para ahorro de energia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The design and construction of current buildings has been characterized, most of all, in the last 30 years, for the lack of consideration in the design process of aspects that nowadays represent a fundamental importance. These aspects are related to energy conservation and environmental protection, with man as the main center of attention for the optimum satisfaction of its physiological as well as psychological needs. In this paper are presented the causes for the lack of consideration of the mentioned aspects and guidelines to follow are set forth for their integration in the design process. Also the architecture potential with a bioclimatic approach is analyzed, for energy saving in buildings. [Espanol] El diseno y construccion de edificios contemporaneos se ha caracterizado, sobre todo en los ultimos treinta anos, por la falta de consideracion en el proceso de diseno, de aspectos que hoy en dia revisten una importancia primordial. Estos aspectos se relacionan con la preservacion de la energia y del medio ambiente, teniendo al hombre como principal centro de atencion, para la satisfaccion optima de sus necesidades, tanto fisiologicas como psicologicas. En este trabajo, se presentan las causas de la falta de consideracion de los aspectos antes citados y se plantean las pautas a seguir para su integracion en el proceso de diseno. Asi mismo, se analiza el potencial de la arquitectura con un enfoque bioclimatico, para ahorro de energia en los edificios.

  12. O desastre nuclear de Fukushima e os seus impactos no enquadramento midiático das tecnologias de fissão e fusão nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Luísa; Horta, Ana; Pereira, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    O desastre nuclear de Fukushima veio relembrar desastres nucleares anteriores tais como os de Three Miles Island e Chernobyl, trazendo de volta à esfera pública o debate em torno dos problemas de segurança das centrais nucleares. No entanto, enquanto o risco associado à energia nuclear tradicional (fissão) foi amplificado pela mídia, uma nova tecnologia de energia nuclear em investigação (fissão) não foi afetada. Uma comparação entre a cobertura midiática das tecnologias de fusão e fissão nuc...

  13. Exotic nuclei: another aspect of nuclear structure; Les noyaux exotiques: un autre regard sur la structure nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics (Poland); Blumenfeld, Y.; Flocard, H.; Garcia Borge, M.J.; Nowacki, F.; Rombouts, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Marques, F.M.; Lacroix, D.; Dessagne, P.; Gaeggeler, H

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot Curie international summer school in 2002 whose theme that year was exotic nuclei. There were 11 contributions whose titles are: 1) interactions, symmetry breaking and effective fields from quarks to nuclei; 2) status and perspectives for the study of exotic nuclei: experimental aspects; 3) the pairing interaction and the N = Z nuclei; 4) borders of stability region and exotic decays; 5) shell structure of nuclei: from stability to decay; 6) variational approach of system with a few nucleons; 7) from heavy to super-heavy nuclei; 8) halos, molecules and multi-neutrons; 9) macroscopic approaches for fusion reactions; 10) beta decay: a tool for spectroscopy; 11) the gas phase chemistry of super-heavy elements.

  14. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  15. Equity aspects of risk management: trade-offs between public and occupational hazards in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equity problems arise in risk management whenever a situation justifies dividing the exposed population into specific subgroups. The usual practice in radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle, which consists roughly in dividing the population into two groups (plant employees and the general public), assumes that management of the protection system for each group is relatively independent. But in the case of public protection against risks associated with pressurized-water reactors, for example, we show that this hypothesis of independence is not valid and that there are significant risk trade-offs between the public and the employees. This leads us to question the valuation of the implicit value of a man-sievert, depending on whether one is dealing with employees or the public, for the answer to this question strongly affects the result of any optimization of choices in radiation protection

  16. Aspects of the licensing practice and project management in the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as seen by the licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any modification of a nuclear installation after its final shutdown which is intended to reduce the plant in principle is regarded as a decommissioning activity and therefore requires a licence under paragraph 7 sub-sec. 3 Atomic Energy Act, if the modification is essential. The existing legal instruments are sufficient for steadily progressing in the licensing procedure for decommissioning. A project management subdividing the entire procedure into suitable steps allows to carry out the licensing procedure without causing undue delay of the entire decommissioning procedure. There is a lack of appropriate regulatory provisions relating to the high-priority tasks of safe recycling of non-contaminated or low-level radioactive materials. (orig.)

  17. Effect of temporary nuclear arrest by phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor on morphological and functional aspects of in vitro matured mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Leen; Nogueira, Daniela; Gerris, Jan; Dhont, Marc; De Sutter, Petra

    2008-06-01

    The present study aimed to analyze detailed morphological and functional characteristics of mouse in vitro matured oocytes after a pre-maturation culture (PMC) by temporary nuclear arrest with the specific phosphodiesterase 3-inhibitor (PDE3-I) Cilostamide. In a first experiment the lowest effective dose of Cilostamide was determined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), isolated from small antral follicles, were exposed to different concentrations of Cilostamide (ranging from 0 (control) to 10 microM) for 24 hr. Afterwards, oocytes were removed from PDE3-I-containing medium and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) for 16-18 hr. A concentration of 1 microM Cilostamide was the lowest effective dose for maximum level of inhibition and reversibility of meiosis inhibition. This concentration was used in further experiments to evaluate oocyte quality following IVM in relation to different parameters: kinetics of meiotic progression, metaphase II (MII) spindle morphology, aneuploidy rate, fertilization, and embryonic developmental rates. The results were compared to nonarrested (in vitro control) and in vivo matured oocytes (in vivo control). Following withdrawal of the inhibitor, the progression of meiosis was more synchronous and accelerated in arrested when compared to nonarrested oocytes. A PMC resulted in a significant increase in the number of oocytes constituting a MII spindle of normal morphology. None of the oocytes exposed to PDE3-I showed numerical chromosome alterations. In addition, fertilization and embryonic developmental rates were higher in the PMC group compared to in vitro controls, but lower than in vivo controls. These results provide evidence that induced nuclear arrest by PDE3-I is a safe and reliable method to improve oocyte quality after IVM.

  18. Eesti Energia astub Lätis Latvenergo varvastele / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2007-01-01

    1. juulil 2007 avaneb EL-i elektriturg konkurentsile, mida Eesti Energia kasutab ära Läti turule sisenemiseks, lootes haarata 15% sealsest turust. Kommenteerib Aivar Tihane. Vt. samas: Sirje Rank. Euroopa Liidu ühtne energiaturg edeneb visalt

  19. Energia avastuskeskus = Energy discovery center / Margit Aule ; kommenteerinud Kristiina Raid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Energia avastuskeskuse (Põhja pst 29/31, Tallinn) interjöörist ja ekspositsiooni kujundusest. Autor Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid); ekspositsiooni kujundus Margit Argus, Margit Aule; arhitektid Sander Aas, Margit Aule, Pelle Sten Viiburg (KAOS Arhitektid). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima ajaloolise interjööri eest

  20. Eesti Energia salajased uuringud / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 2. märts nr. 9 lk. 160. Hoitakse salajas Briti konsultatsioonifirma Lexicon Partners poolt koostatud uuringut, mida peaks Eesti riik peale hakkama oma osalusega monopoolses elektriettevõttes Eesti Energia. Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar lasi uuringu ministeeriumisse tuua ning andis juristidele ülesande analüüsida, kui palju saab dokumendist avaldada. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  1. Konverents "Turg. Tööstus. Energia." / T Tiidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidemann, T

    1993-01-01

    Rootsi organisatsioon SWENESCO (Swedish Network of Engineers and Seientists for Conversion - Rootsi inseneride ja teadlaste võrk konversiooni eest) korraldab konverentsi praktilistest kogemustest Rootsi - Eesti tööstuse ja energia tehnikaalastes projektides 18-20 juuni 1993 Pirita Purjespordikeskuses

  2. Evaluation of some aspects of the competitive model of the electric sector of 1993-2003 and its impact on the risk of energy deficit; Avaliacao de alguns dos aspectos do modelo competitivo eletrico de 1993-2003 e seus impactos quanto ao risco de deficit de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Ana Maria [Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas de Santa Catarina - SCGAS, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Kaehler, Jose Wagner Maciel [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    We search with this article to identify and to analyze some of the aspects of the competitive model of the electric sector in the last decade, as well as its impacts so that the possibility of risk of energy deficit was an imminent fact. Particularly, we evaluate under three aspects: the long transition of the state model for the private one; some regulations risks of the model; joint absence, in the conception and also in the implantation of the reforms of the electric sector, oil and gas that ahead of the stagnation of the agents that resulted in the black out of 2001. (author)

  3. Canada's high-level nuclear waste disposal concept: The evaluation process and a review of some aspects of the research work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in granitic rocks in the Canadian Shield, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is anticipated to undergo a national public review within two years. A document which comprehensively describes the disposal concept is being prepared as a environmental impact statement (EIS). The process for EIS review and concept evaluation, including the role of the public, government and the scientific/engineering community, is summarized. A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) has provided external peer review of the program since 1979 and its findings are published in annual reports which are publicly available. TAC's current views of certain geologic and geotechnical aspects of the program are presented along with a description of the safety and performance assessment of the disposal concept. (author). 35 refs., 2 figs

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on nuclear and particle physics at energies up to 31 GeV: new and future aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Energies up to 31 GeV, New and Future Aspects, held in Los Alamos, January 5 to 8, 1981. Included are invited talks and contributed papers covering recent developments in (a) weak and unified interactions (including discussions of neutrino oscillations), (b) the hadronic description of strong interactions, (c) the quark description of strong interactions, (d) hypernuclei, and (e) new facilities and proposed experiments. One of the motivations for the Workshop was to explore physics justifications for a future high-intensity proton accelerator in this energy regime. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers from this meeting. Six papers were previously included in the data base

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on nuclear and particle physics at energies up to 31 GeV: new and future aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Kisslinger, L.S.; Silbar, R.R. (eds.)

    1981-03-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Energies up to 31 GeV, New and Future Aspects, held in Los Alamos, January 5 to 8, 1981. Included are invited talks and contributed papers covering recent developments in (a) weak and unified interactions (including discussions of neutrino oscillations), (b) the hadronic description of strong interactions, (c) the quark description of strong interactions, (d) hypernuclei, and (e) new facilities and proposed experiments. One of the motivations for the Workshop was to explore physics justifications for a future high-intensity proton accelerator in this energy regime. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers from this meeting. Six papers were previously included in the data base.

  6. Human factors aspects of non-destructive testing in the nuclear power context. A review of research in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-02-01

    The present report reviews literature relevant to human factors and non-destructive testing. The purpose is to cover research that has been done, and to find out what still needs to be done to improve inspection performance. Methods of non-destructive testing (e.g., ultrasonics, eddy current) are complex diagnostic tools used by operators to inspect materials, e.g., components of a nuclear power plant. In order to maintain the integrity of a plant, recurrent inspections are made while the components are still in service. To control the quality of inspections, operators have to follow a procedure that determines what equipment to use and how to use it. The procedure also guides the operator in assessment of indications. There are a number of factors that can affect the inspection quality (e.g., heat, time pressure, and fear of radiation). In earlier studies, experience, organizational practices, and work conditions have been shown to affect on the quality of inspections. The quality of inspection performance is considered to benefit from adapting equipment and procedure to man`s abilities and limitations. Furthermore, work conditions and feedback are considered determinants of performance quality. However, exactly how performance is affected by these factors, and the combined effect of them, need to be studied further. Further research is needed in decision criteria, procedure, and work conditions, and their effect on the quality of inspection performance

  7. Human factors aspects of non-destructive testing in the nuclear power context. A review of research in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report reviews literature relevant to human factors and non-destructive testing. The purpose is to cover research that has been done, and to find out what still needs to be done to improve inspection performance. Methods of non-destructive testing (e.g., ultrasonics, eddy current) are complex diagnostic tools used by operators to inspect materials, e.g., components of a nuclear power plant. In order to maintain the integrity of a plant, recurrent inspections are made while the components are still in service. To control the quality of inspections, operators have to follow a procedure that determines what equipment to use and how to use it. The procedure also guides the operator in assessment of indications. There are a number of factors that can affect the inspection quality (e.g., heat, time pressure, and fear of radiation). In earlier studies, experience, organizational practices, and work conditions have been shown to affect on the quality of inspections. The quality of inspection performance is considered to benefit from adapting equipment and procedure to man's abilities and limitations. Furthermore, work conditions and feedback are considered determinants of performance quality. However, exactly how performance is affected by these factors, and the combined effect of them, need to be studied further. Further research is needed in decision criteria, procedure, and work conditions, and their effect on the quality of inspection performance

  8. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Mala in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes some of the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and the management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long-term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper. (author)

  9. Aspects of the EOS momentum dependence and of the residual NN cross section on the featuring of nuclear stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Basrak, Z; de la Mota, V

    2016-01-01

    With the semiclassical Landau-Vlasov transport model studied is the stopping observable $R_E$, the energy-based isotropy ratio, for the $^{129}$Xe\\,+\\,$^{120}$Sn reaction at beam energies spanning 12$A$ to 100$A$ MeV. Investigated is the impact of the non-locality of the nuclear mean field, of the in-medium modified nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) cross-section and of the reaction centrality. A fixed set of model parameters yield the $R_E$ values that favourably compares with the experimental ones but only for energies below the Fermi energy $E_F$. Above $E_F$ the agreement is readily possible but by a smooth evolution with energy of the parameter that controls the in-medium modification of $NN$ cross-section. By confronting the simulation correction factor ${\\cal F}$ to be applied to the free $NN$ cross-section with the one which has been deduced from experimental data [Phys.\\ Rev.\\ C\\,{\\bf 90}, 064602 (2014)] one infers that the zero-range mean field almost entirely reproduces it. Also, in accordance with what has b...

  10. Images and symbols in the Argentinean public opinion on the nuclear energy and the environment: 'The necessity of a new communicational strategy'; Imagenes y simbolos en la opinion publica argentina sobre la energia nuclear y el medio ambiente: 'La necesidad de una nueva estrategia comunicacional'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahab, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Argentina, A. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mchahab@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The present work expresses some ideas on certain characteristics of the public opinion in Argentina with regard to the perception that one has of the use of the nuclear energy and the care of the environment. The work tried to explain the reasons that although Argentina has a long tradition and a considerable international prestige in the generation, investigation and controls of the nuclear energy, at the same time, the argentinean public opinion has not shown in favor of the development of the same one, perceiving that the use of this energy would bring problems for the environment. In the work it was to explain some of the reasons of this opinion state that takes it as a psychological state of people, and that would have elements, symbols and negative interior images in people that work as strongly ingrained beliefs so that the fellows ponder to the nuclear option as the one that less it is wanted for the development of the country. The idea was also developed that these images and negative symbols toward the development of the nuclear energy could have origin in information of the massive media of communication, among other sources that could be persuading to the public opinion through the repetition and to study in depth of these messages toward psychological states contrary to the development of the nuclear energy. The present work tried to explore and to describe this internal universe of the argentinean public opinion with the objective of outlining mechanisms, strategies or action plans from the institutions linked to the nuclear energy that try to open the internal space of people toward an approach more positive with the perception of the development of the nuclear energy in its links with the environment. On this objective, the present work outlined the idea that the opening of the perceptive mark in people would have that to generate it 'not in opposition to the existent beliefs' but trying to win alternative mental spaces in the people. In

  11. Aspects of the physics and chemistry of water radiolysis by fast neutrons and fast electrons in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, D.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Tsang, K.T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Laughton, P.J

    1998-09-01

    Detailed radiation physics calculations of energy deposition have been done for the coolant of CANDU reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The geometry of the CANDU fuel channel was modelled in detail. Fluxes and energy-deposition rates for neutrons, recoil ions, photons, and fast electrons have been calculated using MCNP4B, WIMS-AECL, and specifically derived energy-transfer factors. These factors generate the energy/flux spectra of recoil ions from fast-neutron energy/flux spectra. The energy spectrum was divided into 89 discrete ranges (energy bins).The production of oxidizing species and net coolant radiolysis can be suppressed by the addition of hydrogen to the coolant of nuclear reactors. It is argued that the net dissociation of coolant by gamma rays is suppressed by lower levels of excess hydrogen than when dissociation is by ion recoils. This has consequences for the modelling of coolant radiolysis by homogeneous kinetics. More added hydrogen is required to stop water radiolysis by recoil ions acting alone than if recoil ions and gamma rays acted concurrently in space and time. Homogeneous kinetic models and experimental data suggest that track overlap is very inefficient in providing radicals from gamma-ray tracks to recombine molecular products in ion-recoil tracks. An inhomogeneous chemical model is needed that incorporates ionizing-particle track structure and track overlap. Such a model does not yet exist, but a number of limiting cases using homogeneous kinetics are discussed. There are sufficient uncertainties and contradictions in the data relevant to the radiolysis of reactor coolant that the relatively high CHC's (critical hydrogen concentration) observed in NRU reactor experiments (compared to model predictions) may be explainable by errors in fundamental data and understanding of water radiolysis under reactor conditions. The radiation chemistry program at CRL has been focused to generate quantitative water-radiolysis data in a

  12. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  13. Energy and economy; Energia y Economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    This article, which reflects the authors presentation at the opening of the Congress of the Spanish Nuclear Society, examines the relationship between the Spanish economy and energy consumption in our country compared with major industrialized countries. (Author)

  14. Asjatundja soovitab Eesti Energia kiiresti börsile viia / Tiit Nigul ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nigul, Tiit

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia endine juhatuse liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riigi energiapoliitikat ja -varustust, elektrienergia hinnatõusu, energiafirma börsileminekut, tasakaalu konkurentsiameti ja Eesti Energia vahel, ettevõtte tulusid, Narva Elektrijaamade tootmisvõimsust, koostööd Leedu tuumajaama projektiga, elektriturgu, ettevõtja Urmas Sõõrumaa süüdistamist siseinfo kasutamises, Eesti Energia strateegilist eesmärki saavutada aastaks 2015 kaks miljonit klienti

  15. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  16. Applications of the renewable energies; Aplicaciones de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rocha, Luis Martin [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The solar energy manifests itself in different forms and its application has been fundamental for the humankind development. These forms are known as renewable energies, since they are energy forms that are renewed or remade with time or that are so abundant on Earth, that they will last for hundreds or thousands of years, either we use them or not. The main advantage of the utilization of the renewable energies in comparison with hydrocarbons is the one of having smaller impact on the environment, which brings about the conservation of nonrenewable resources, and to postpone its exhaustion. They allow the distributed generation, diminishing the power losses in the transmission and distribution systems, which increases the overall efficiency. In addition they can be the drive for regional development and generation of employment, because when having applications in remote zones and being a field still not completely developed in Mexico, the possibility exists of enabling professionals and technicians. From the point of view of the power sector, the renewable energies extend the supply and availability of energy, making more flexible and independent the operation and reliability of the national power system. [Spanish] La energia solar se manifiesta de diversas formas y su aplicacion ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo de la humanidad. A estas formas se les conoce como energias renovables, ya que son formas de energia que se van renovando o rehaciendo con el tiempo o que son tan abundantes en la tierra, que perduraran por cientos o miles de anos, las usemos o no. La principal ventaja del aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en comparacion con los hidrocarburos es la de tener menor impacto al medio ambiente, lo que trae consigo la conservacion de recursos no renovables, y posponer su termino. Permiten la generacion distribuida, disminuyendo las perdidas energeticas en los sistemas de transmision y distribucion, lo que incrementa la eficiencia general. Ademas

  17. Calls for proposals for Indirect IDT Action within the specific (Euratom) Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy (2002-2006); Convocatorias de propuestas de accion indirecta de IDT dentro del progrma especifico (Euratom) de investigacion y formacion sobre energia nuclear (2002-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The official diary of the European Union C 273 of 14 November, 2003, published the Calls for Indirect IDT Action for the Euratom Research and Training Programme on Nuclear Energy. The complete text of these Calls are reproduced in page 29. (Author)

  18. Kätega ravimine ehk me kõik oleme energia / Kerttu Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Kerttu, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Erinevatest energia vahendamisel põhinevatest psühhotehnikatest ja ravimeetoditest: reiki, Silva ultra, maagiline maatriks ehk MM, elektromagnetvälja tasakaalustamise tehnika EMF, kvantpuudutus, bioenergeetika

  19. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  20. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  1. Eesti Energia senine juhatus jätkab veel vähemalt aasta / Anneli Ammas, Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas jätta ettevõtte juhatuse veel aastaks ametisse, juhikonkursi korraldamise kohta otsust ei langetatud. Nõukogu liikmete kommentaare. Lisa: Eesti Energia kasvatas eksporti

  2. Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Is there a need for an international convention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognised that illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials is a serious problem, and one that must be tackled with a comprehensive response involving national governments as well as a number of intergovernmental organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA notes that 1 773 incidents were reported to its Illicit Trafficking Database, or ITDB, between January 1993 and December 2009, and that 351 of these involved '... unauthorized possession and related criminal activities' such as '... illegal possession, movement or attempts to illegally trade in or use nuclear material or radioactive sources'. The IAEA adds that 222 more incidents were confirmed between July 2009 and June 2010 and concludes that: - the availability of unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material persists; - effective border control measures help to detect illicit trafficking, although effective control is not uniformly implemented at all international border points; and - individuals and groups are prepared to engage in trafficking this material. A disturbing trend is trafficking in particularly sensitive regions of the world, such as in countries that were formerly a part of the former Soviet Union. In November 2010, Georgian officials seized four individuals allegedly trying to sell cesium-137, which though fairly common can be used to make a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. This closely followed a court case in Georgia involving Armenian nationals who had attempted to sell weapon-grade plutonium. More recently, in June 2011, Moldovan police arrested six individuals suspected of trafficking in uranium-235. In view of the problem, this paper considers whether an international convention specifically targeting illicit trafficking is needed or not. The paper does not go conceptually beyond the legal aspects of controlling and repressing illicit trafficking; rather, it will look at whether the existing

  3. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  4. A pedagogia do conceito de energia: contributo para a utilização formativa do conceito de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Mariana de Jesus Pedreira

    1993-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Ciências da Educação: área de Educação e Desenvolvimento Quando nasce um novo conceito é necessário um termo para o designar. O termo energia é utilizado para designar o conceito científico que emerge, a meados do século dezanove, com o estabelecimento do, então, Princípio de Conservacão da Força. Que relações se podem estabelecer entre o novo conceito e a ideia de energia que nos finais do século dezoito usufruía de tão grande sucesso? Na prime...

  5. Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmed Jaotusvõrgu hinnatõusutaotlust kommenteerima ei kipu / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu liige Kalle Palling kommenteerib peaminister Andrus Ansipi öeldut, et Eesti Energia investeeringud tuleb üle vaadata. Nõukogu liikme Rein Kilgi sõnul tunduvad talle rünnakud Eesti Energia vastu ülekohtused

  6. Ethical aspects on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the translation of the outline of some salient points at the seminar in Swedish published in KASAM's annual report 1987. The chapters are as follows: Starting points; Different types of uncertainty - mankind's built-in limitations - Uncertainty about society's development - Uncertainty about environmental development; Systems that diminish uncertainty; Risk; The shifting of paradigms in ethics; Our responsibility - The responsibility of coming generations- The needs for controls. (HSCH)

  7. Energy of our planet; La energia de nuestro planeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alvarado, Ignacio; Santoyo Gutierrez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The total heat flowing from the Earth's interior to the surface is estimated at {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) of which 19% comes from the crust, the 76% comes from the mantle and the 5% comes from the nucleus. The ability to drive the heat of the rocks is very low, causing the need of hundreds of millions of years to exhaust this energy resource. Based on the properties of the renewable heat flow and the long geological times required for its exhaustion, the Earth energy is considered by many scientists as a source of inexhaustible renewable energy, and by its natural availability in all parts of our planet, perhaps the best distributed, together with solar energy. One of the most important advantages of geothermal energy is that its energy can be used not only to generate electric power, but in a large number of applications or direct uses: the heating of buildings, greenhouses or incubators; aquaculture; in various industrial processes (drying products, food packaging, paper manufacturing, chemicals, etc.); balneology for recreational purposes and medicines, and many other applications. In fact, geothermal applications can be integrally one after another or in processes in cascade to fully utilize its energy content. [Spanish] El calor total que fluye del interior de la Tierra hacia la superficie se estima en {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) del cual 19% proviene de la corteza, el 76% proviene del manto y el 5% proviene del nucleo. La capacidad para conducir el calor de las rocas es muy baja, lo que ocasiona que se necesiten cientos de millones de anos para agotar este recurso energetico. Basado en las propiedades renovables del flujo de calor y los largos tiempos geologicos requeridos para su agotamiento, la energia de la Tierra es considerada por muchos cientificos como una fuente de energia renovable, practicamente inagotable, y por su disponibilidad natural en todo nuestro planeta, quizas la mejor distribuida, junto con la energia solar. Una de las ventajas mas

  8. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  9. Eesti Energia juhi küsimus jäi ajapuudusel lahendamata / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu jättis otsustamata, kas ettevõtte juhatuse esimehe kohale kuulutatakse välja avalik konkurss. Vt. samas: Oki valulaps on elektri hind; Kronoloogia: Eesti Energia on Gunnar Oki juhtimisel kõvasti kosunud

  10. Roheline energia läheb müüki topelthinnaga / Ervin Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Ervin

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Energia on märtsi keskel käivitanud Rohelise Energia kampaaniaga leidnud võtte, kuidas kaks korda kõrgema elektri müügihinnaga katta alternatiivenergia kohustusliku kokkuostu järjest kasvavaid kulusid

  11. Eesti Energia kärpis elektrihinna tõusu / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. veebr. 2004, lk. 1. Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas vähendada taotletavat elektrienergia hinnatõusu 15%ni ja lükkas hinnapakettide lõpliku kinnitamise edasi nädala võrra. Riigikogu ja Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme Janno Reiljani arvamus

  12. Eesti Energia börsile! Argus riputaks ta meile kiviks kaela / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimalikust börsileviimisest. Autori sõnul poleks börsikavagi täieliku riskita, peaküsimus võib hakata puudutama nn. rahvaaktsia kava. Kõige halvem oleks Eesti Energia puhul otsustamatus

  13. Ülikoolihõnguline personalikoolitus Eesti Energias / Annika Kaseorg ; küsitlenud Kadri Kiigema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaseorg, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Energia alustatud uuest projektist "Nädalalõpu Ülikool" räägib Eesti Energia Jaotusvõrgu personali arendamise projektijuht Annika Kaseorg. Avaseminaril tegi ettekande töövõime säilitamisest TLÜ terviseteaduste ja spordi teaduskonna dekaan Kristjan Port

  14. Avaliação económica de um investimento em geração de energia das ondas e energia solar térmica

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Ruben Fernando Lopes

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo efectuar a avaliação económica e determinar a viabilidade com e sem os incentivos fiscais de duas tecnologias de conversão de duas fontes distinta e emergentes de energia renovável, o Concentrador Cilindro-parabólico e a Torre Solar para a energia solar termoeléctrica e a Coluna de Água Oscilante e o Pelamis para a energia das ondas. Realiza-se uma curta abordagem à energia Solar e à energia dos Oceanos, e às tecnologias existentes para estes tipos de en...

  15. Potencial de produção de energia eólica em parques offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Sérgio Emanuel Carvalho; Almeida, Tiago António de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    A produção de energia eólica é essencial para o cumprimento dos objetivos europeus, no âmbito das energias renováveis. De acordo com as previsões da União Europeia (UE), a produção hidroelétrica irá manter a sua posição dominante como fonte de energia renovável para a produção de energia elétrica. No entanto, o uso da energia eólica irá continuar a expandir e, em 2020 a capacidade eólica instalada deverá superar o setor hidroelétrico [1]. O setor eólico offshore começa...

  16. PERSPECTIVAS DE INSERÇÃO DA ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA NA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto César Fialho Wanderley; Antonio Luiz P. Siqueira Campos

    2013-01-01

    A geração de energia elétrica no Brasil é predominantemente renovável, com a geração interna hidráulica sendo superior a 74% do total de sua matriz energética. O racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido em 2001, devido à falta de chuvas, levou o país a incrementar a participação de fontes alternativas de energia. Esta necessidade por novas fontes de energia faz com que as potencialidades regionais sejam aproveitadas, o que configura a mudança do modelo de geração, passando de geração central...

  17. TTÜ energia- ja sisekliimalabor : energiasääst passiivse arhitektuurilise jahutuse ja/või küttemeetodite kavandamise abil / Hendrik Voll, Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia- ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  18. KIT EDUCACIONAL PARA ESTUDO DE GERAÇÃO ELÉTRICA A PARTIR DE ENERGIA EÓLICA

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos; Aécio Vinícius Amorim Farias; Débora Raiane Farias de Azevedo Fernande; Felipe José Santana de Sales; Francelio Ferreira; Juliana Ramos da Silva; Manassés Albuquerque de Sousa Melo

    2010-01-01

    Vários estudos desenvolvidos nos últimos anos apontam para as implicações e impactos sócio-ambientais do consumo de energia. Fontes de energias renováveis são apresentadas como alternativa para atender as demandas da sociedade com qualidade, segurança e redução dos danos ambientais decorrentes do consumo de energia. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de kit educacional para ensino do uso de energia eólica na geração de energia elétrica. Inicialmente, o artigo descreve a evolução do aproveitam...

  19. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  20. A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico; Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico of the Secretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo (main directorate of technological development of the secretariat of planning and technological development) of the Secretaria de Energia (Sener), with the support of the World Bank performed a study, coordinated by Pablo Mulas del Pozo to analyze the possible penetration of the renewable energy sources in Mexico between today and year 2030. In this project are included as small renewable sources the small hydroelectric plants (mini, micro and smaller than 20 MW), the geothermal, the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass. As part of this study three large lines of reflection are contemplated: (1) a bibliographical revision of the possible futures of the renewable energies, including some projections over the future evolution of the national power sector, and over the technological status of the same ones; (2) Projections on the possible future evolution of the national power sector and the possible penetration of the renewable sources of energy in it, using a simulation model (LEAP model); and (3) Groups of approach to consult experts on different aspects related to the possible future penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico (especially, on present and future obstacles that face the renewable sources in our country, the possible carrying events of future which could modify the rate of penetration of these energies, and possible policy guidelines that could benefit the penetration of the same ones as of today). [Spanish] La Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Secretaria Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Sener, con el apoyo del Banco Mundial realizo un estudio, coordinado por el Pablo Mulas del Pozo, para analizar la posible penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico entre hoy y el ano 2030. En dicho proyecto se incluyen como fuentes renovables a las pequenas hidroelectricas (micro y mini, menores de 20 MW), la

  1. Efficiency of the low energy detection system for the measurement of {sup 235} U in lung of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority; Eficiencia del sistema de deteccion de baja energia para la medicion de {sup 235} U en pulmon de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, M.R.; Krimer, M.; Gregori, B.N.; Rojo, A.M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mspinell@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the results of the calibration process of the detection system of {sup 235} U in lung of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The phantom used in the calibration is the denominated Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom, provided of lungs and active nodules and of 4 thoracic covers that its simulate muscular tissue with thickness that vary between 1.638 and 3.871 cm. The spectra are acquired by four detecting of denominated LEGe ACTII Canberra marks, each one with an active area of 3800 mm{sup 2}, a diameter of 70 mm and a thickness of 20 mm, the sign is processed by a SYSTEM100 multichannel and the spectra are analyzed with the GENIE2K program. The detectors are suspended by mobile structures that allow to vary the position with regard to a horizontal stretcher that defines the measurement geometry. The whole system is located in the interior of an armored enclosure of 200 x 150 x 200 cm{sup 3} of steel of 15 cm thickness, inside recovered with layers of 0.5 cm lead and 0.05 cm cadmium. The total weight of the enclosure is 40 ton. For the described system the efficiency curves versus muscular thoracic tissue thickness (ETM) corresponding to the energy of 143.76, 163.358 and 185.72 keV of the {sup 235} U radioisotope were obtained. Its were also practiced displacements of those detectors of approximately 1 cm with respect to the reference position and its were analyzed the corresponding changes of magnitude in the efficiencies. The obtained variations oscillate, for vertical displacements, between 5% and 7.8% for the smallest value in ETM (1.638 cm) and between 4.2% to 6.7% for the ETM 3.871 cm. While for the practiced lateral displacements, the variations go from 4% to 15%. The detection limits corresponding to each energy and thickness were determined. The results showed for the photopeak of 185.72 keV, the more outstanding in the evaluations that saying limit it oscillates between 3.7 and 6.4 Bq {sup 235} U inside the considered thickness range

  2. Correlações entre a densitometria do cristalino através da imagem de Scheimplufg, tempo e gasto de energia na cirurgia de facoemulsificação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Freitas Valbon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Correlacionar a densitometria do cristalino(PNS - patient nuclear scorepor meio da imagem de Scheimplufgcom o tempo de facoemulsificação e o gasto de energia. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo, envolvendo 22 olhos de 22 pacientes que se submeteram à cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação com implante de lente intraocular. A densitometria do cristalino (PNS foi medida através da tomografia de segmento anterior e córnea (Pentacam no pré-operatório com a imagem de Scheimplufg. O tempo de facoemulsificação e o gasto de energia foram verificados e anotados ao término de cada cirurgia. O teste de correlação de Pearson foi utilizado para análise estatística através do programa Bioestat 5.0. Foi considerado como estatisticamente significante p < 0,05%. RESULTADOS: As correlações entre PNS x Tempo de Facoemulsificação (s e PNS x Gasto de Energia obtiveram respectivamente um p < 0,0050 e RP (Coeficiente de Pearson de 0,5757 e p < 0,0029 e RP (Coeficiente de Pearson de 0,6034. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos uma forte associação entre o método objetivo de classificação da catarata através da imagem de Scheimplufg (PNS, tempo e gasto de energia. Assim há possibilidade de realizarmos um planejamento cirúrgico pré-operatório baseado em métodos objetivos da classificação da catarata, reduzindo a fluídica, energia e tempo na cirurgia de facoemulsificação.

  3. Caracterização do potencial de energia eólica na Beira Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Francisco Manuel Serra

    2010-01-01

    O presente Relatório de Mestrado em Engenharia Electromecânica pretende avaliar e caracterizar o potencial de energia eólica na Beira Interior (Portugal). Para isso, irão ser analisadas as capacidades instaladas de produção de energia eólica, bem como os respectivos potenciais na região referida. Atendendo a esta proliferação dos sistemas de produção de energia apoiados na força do vento é necessário conhecer, optimizar e inovar os procedimentos que se relacionam com a produ...

  4. Marketing Communications Plan for the Electricity Sales of Pori Energia OY

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Janette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create an enhanced marketing communications plan for a local electricity seller Pori Energia Oy. With the help of the new plan, it was desired that Pori Energia would improve its company image and increase its clientele. In addition, possible new ways to store and follow-up the plan were considered. Pori Energia felt that their marketing communications plan, as it was at present, was not serving the company in the right way. Their current plan had some de...

  5. Cenário actual das energias renováveis em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Daniela Sá

    2008-01-01

    O cenário actual das energias origem fósseis provou ser insustentável. A preocupação constante com o nosso planeta, o aumento constante do preço petróleo, assim como de outras fontes de energias poluentes, faz com que as energias renováveis sejam a solução mais vantajosa e rentável. Tendo em vista a procura insistente por soluções que salvaguardem o nosso planeta, é cada vez mais importante explorar os meios e matérias-primas existentes de maneira a retirar maior partido daq...

  6. Minema kupatatud nõukoguliikmed: Eesti Energia projektid kukkusid läbi / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium peab tagandatud nõukoguliikmete väiteid, et Eesti Energia juhtkond käitub omanikust riigiga omatahtsi ja peab endiselt plaani siirduda börsile, absurdiks. Ministeerium: ei mingit IPO-t

  7. A demanda por energia elétrica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alkmin Junqueira Schmidt

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é estimar, por cointegração, as elasticidades, preço e renda, de longo prazo da demanda por energia elétrica nas três classes de consumo: residencial, comercial e industrial. Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com outros resultados empíricos de que a elasticidade-renda deve ser igual ou superior à unidade e que a elasticidade-preço deve ter uma magnitude inferior a um, em módulo. Além disso são realizadas previsões para o consumo de energia elétrica para o período de 2001 a 2005.The purpose of the present study is to estimate, by cointegration, the long-run elasticities, mainly the price and income, of the demand for electric energy in the three consumption categories: residential, commercial and industrial. The obtained results support the premise that the income elasticity should be near or beyond a unity, and that the magnitude of price-elasticity should be lower one, in terms of absolute value. Predictions for the electric energy consumption for the 2001-2005 period are also made

  8. Legal aspects of wind energy exploration; Aspectos legais da exploracao da energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Heli A. de [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1984-12-31

    This work proposes to analyse the laws which are applicable by correspondence concerning to licence to construct; licence to operate and environment. It is also called the attention how the existing concessions would be in the that the energy companies decide to explore this source to be transformed into electricity, and if they`d be included in the Decree of Permission. 3 refs

  9. The nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. First, the progress in theoretical modeling of nuclei is reviewed. This is followed by the discussion of nuclear time scales, nuclear collective modes, and nuclear deformations. Some perspectives on nuclear structure research far from stability are given. Finally, interdisciplinary aspects of the nuclear many-body problem are outlined. (orig.)

  10. The Navy help in nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author tell us historical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania, its effects and the solicitation made to the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias to take care of the victims. He mentions the arrival of the patients and the human resources that there was when was established the seriousness of the fact, what made a need the mobilization of medical officers specialists in related subjects to the problem and also nursing personnel of high and technical level. He also describes the effort made to gather all the necessary personnel that came from many different organizations including ships. Emphasis is made on the previous qualifications of the personnel in the area of radio protection through courses and training given by the Brazilian Navy and the role played by the nursing personnel. Very important was the integration accomplished among all the clinical departments inside Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias and civilian organizations like Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Furnas, The Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the precious participation of foreign specialists. The author finishes telling the reasons why a Navy Hospital was chosen to do this job, accentuating the fact that a radiological accident is event that involves high risk and demands appropriate care and an organized hierarchical structure that only can be found in military hospitals

  11. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?; Pollina: utilizzo agronomico o fonte di energia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration. [Italian] Nel primo decennio del 2000 in Italia potrebbero sorgere tre impianti di incenerimento in grado di produrre energia utilizzando quale combustibile le deiezioni avicole. In tale lavoro sono stati considerati i vantaggi e gli svantaggi di tale scelta, sia dal punto di vista ambientale che economico, sottolienando come sia necessario tenere presente innanziutto la qualita' agronomica di tale biomassa organica. L'analisi effettuata suggerisce che il settore agricolo recuperi le deiezioni avicole in maniera preponderante, attraverso l'utilizzo immediato quale fertilizzante organico ed a seguito di processi alternativi in grado di esaltarne le caratteristiche agronomiche, rimandando al settore energetico il compito di smaltirne l'eventuale surplus mediante l'incenerimento.

  12. The awareness of the functional and near population with the relation to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanni, Silvia R.; Martins, Maria da Penha S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    After the natural accident that hit Japan in the beginning of March of 2011, and that ended into an accident of great proportions in the nuclear installations of Fukushima, it has now the debate over the lack of information that the population in general has over the nuclear energy. The dissemination of information, about the operation and security of the nuclear reactors, has the purpose of softening the effect that the pessimistic atmosphere has over its using. This study was reinforced by the memories of serious consequences due to other nuclear accidents that have already happened (Chernobyl, Three-Mile and Hiroshima/Nagasaki event), bringing insecurity, fear and even revenge from part of the public. Over all, people are not sufficiently informed about the positives and negatives aspects of the nuclear energy. It is necessary the adoption of a clear and aware policy with the population, about the pacific use of nuclear energy. Today, the international and national organizations of control of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), have respectively, published information about this subject using a more professional way and of hard access for the public in general. This work has the goal of checking the level of information that the population of workers and individuals of the close public to the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1, located in the Institute of Nuclear Research (IPEN), University City, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has over it. The way used for this study, involved questionnaires with straight questions and of simple language over the subject, to people of all different social, economic and cultural classes, from 12 to 80 years old. From the results found after this work, it was verified the necessity to elaborate a project of awareness of information and clarification about the nuclear energy, using ways of communication that exist and that are easy for the public to understand. (author)

  13. Role of the Moroccan Research Reactor in the Development of a National Infrastructure Needed for a Nuclear Power Programme and Regional Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: The National Centre of Nuclear Energy, Sciences and Technologies (CNESTEN) was created in 1986 to support the development of a nuclear power program, promote the use of nuclear techniques in different socio-economic fields et play a role of a Technical Support Organization (TSO) for the State for nuclear safety. CNESTEN has constructed a Nuclear Center called Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CENM). This Center includes a 2 MW research reactor, radioactive waste treatment, conditioning and interim storage facilities, and radiation protection labs. The main use of the reactor is Radioisotope Production, Neutron Activation Analysis, Training, Basic and Applied Research and Non Destructive Testing. CNESTEN got the operation license in January 2009. Through the construction and operation of the CENM facilities (mainly the research reactor), Morocco has developed capabilities and capacity building that are essential to the development of a Nuclear Power Program, according to the requirements specified in IAEA safety standards GSR1 in terms of legal and regulatory framework, establishment of an independent and competent safety authority, emergency preparedness and response framework and technical services for safety. The main achievements in this regard are related to the following: - Development of a legal and regulatory framework establishing a licensing process, inspection provisions, and nuclear civil liability requirements. This legal and regulatory framework is being improved by a new law, in compliance with the international obligations of Morocco, mainly those related to the conventions on nuclear safety, safety of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, early notification and assistance, physical protection, and safeguards. Under this new framework, the establishment of an independent safety authority is planned for 2012; - Enhancement of emergency preparedness and response capabilities to face a radiation emergency at the national level

  14. Operational period for the nuclear power plant Borssele. Memo on aspects with regard to decision making on the operational period for the nuclear power plant Borssele; Bedrijfsduur kerncentrale Borssele. Notitie over aspecten die een rol spelen bij de besluitvorming over de bedrijfsduur van de kerncentrale Borssele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, D

    2005-04-01

    A number of aspects with respect to the closure of the nuclear power plant Borssele in the Netherlands are discussed: nuclear safety and service life; environmental aspects; proliferation and terrorism; judicial aspects; cost; other (comparisons with closures in other countries, employment, supply security); and a state-of-the-art with regard to a motion that was introduced by a delegate of the Dutch parliament (Spies) in 2004. [Dutch] In deze notitie worden enkele met de sluiting samenhangende aspecten nader toegelicht, te weten: nucleaire veiligheid en levensduur; milieuaspecten; proliferatie en terrorisme; juridische aspecten; kostenaspecten; overige aspecten (sluitingsregelingen in het buitenland, werkgelegenheid en leveringszekerheid); en stand van zaken met betrekking tot de uitvoering van de motie Spies van juli 2004.

  15. Eesti Energia korraldas OSELCA projekti raames Tallinnas rahvusvahelise seminari / Reigo Lehtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtla, Reigo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia AS korraldas 12.-13. septembrini 2005. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli energeetikahoones rahvusvahelise seminari olelusringi hindamise (Life Cycle Assessment) metoodika hetkeseisust Ida-Euroopa regioonis

  16. Eesti Energia müüb ettevõtte juhtkond / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2000-01-01

    Valitsus kavatseb määrata Narva Elektrijaamade enamusaktsiate müüjaks USA energeetikakontsernile NRG Energy Eesti Energia juhatuse esimehe Gunnar Oki. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. jaan. lk. 6

  17. Dimensionamento de sistemas de produção de electricidade baseados em energia solar fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Vítor Alexandre Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Estágio realizado na Jayme da Costa e orientado pelo Eng.º Francisco Ribeiro Tese de mestrado integrado. Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores - Major Energia. Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Porto. 2008

  18. Energia ja sisekliima labor aitab parandada arhitektide ja inseneride koostööd / Hendrik Voll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  19. The Ciudad Universitaria and the energy; La ciudad universitaria y la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola Valdes, Eduardo; Villanueva Moreno, Carlos; Alvarez Watkins, Pablo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    The fundamental intention of the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia is to turn to the university campus of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) into a model of intelligent use of the different necessary forms of energy for the satisfaction of its necessities. In order to do so, the macro project is sustained in six lines of investigation and development: Solar energy, energy from biomass; hydrogen energy; diagnosis and energy saving; use and energy saving; and energy culture. The macro project is framed in an effort of the UNAM to foment the trans-disciplinary collaboration and therefore, under the coordination of the Faculty of Engineering the following university dependencies participate in this persistence: Faculty of Sciences; Faculty of Chemistry; Faculty of Architecture; Faculty of Accountants and Administration; Faculty of Economy; FES Aragon; Institute of Engineering; Institute of Geophysics; Institute of Physics; Research Center in Energy; Center of Applied Sciences and Technological Development. For that intention, in the period the 2005-2007 the Trans-disciplinary Program in Investigation and Development for Faculties and Schools of the UNAM will contribute with 30 million pesos to the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia. [Spanish] El proposito fundamental del macroproyecto La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia es el convertir al campus universitario de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) en un modelo de utilizacion inteligente de las diferentes formas de energia necesarias para la satisfaccion de sus necesidades. Para lograrlo, el macroproyecto se sustenta en las seis lineas de investigacion y desarrollo: Energia solar, energia de biomasa; energia del hidrogeno; diagnostico y ahorro de energia; utilizacion y ahorro de energia; y cultura energetica. El macroproyecto se enmarca en un esfuerzo de la UNAM por fomentar la colaboracion transdisciplinaria y por tanto, bajo la coordinacion de la Facultad

  20. Eesti Energia kuulutas naabritele elektrisõja / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia plaanib Läti ja Leedu kohtusse anda, kui läbirääkimised ei too lahendust. Sandor Liive peab oluliseks, et EL kehtestaks tollimaksu Vene elektrile. Käimas on lobitöö Põhjamaade elektribörsi laiendamiseks Eestisse 2009. aastast, mis tooks siia avatud turu läbipaistva hinnakujunduse; peetakse reaalseks, et Eesti Energia võib saada äriosaluse kavandatavas Olkiluoto 6. reaktoris. Lisa: Elektri hind võib 1. jaanuarist kahekordistuda

  1. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  2. Previsão de produção de energia elétrica através de fontes de energia renováveis

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, João Filipe Inácio

    2015-01-01

    A capacidade de prever precisamente a produção de energia renovável é extremamente relevante tanto do ponto de vista económico como para controlo da estabilidade da rede elétrica. Para tal, é necessário realizar uma previsão das condições meteorológicas adjacentes à produção de energia a partir de fontes de energia renovável. Vários modelos de previsão têm sido utilizados para este fim, desde modelos atmosféricos a modelos estatísticos, onde se destacam métodos como Redes Neuronais Artificiai...

  3. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  4. PERSPECTIVAS DE INSERÇÃO DA ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA NA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Fialho Wanderley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A geração de energia elétrica no Brasil é predominantemente renovável, com a geração interna hidráulica sendo superior a 74% do total de sua matriz energética. O racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido em 2001, devido à falta de chuvas, levou o país a incrementar a participação de fontes alternativas de energia. Esta necessidade por novas fontes de energia faz com que as potencialidades regionais sejam aproveitadas, o que configura a mudança do modelo de geração, passando de geração centralizada para geração distribuída. Dentre as fontes alternativas de energia, a solar apresenta-se como uma fonte bastante promissora para o Brasil, tendo em vista que a maior parte do seu território está localizada próximo à linha do equador, o que acarreta em um dia de maior duração solar. O Rio Grande do Norte (RN tem um dos maiores índices de incidência solar do território brasileiro, o que o torna apto a receber investimentos para a instalação de usinas solares fotovoltaicas. Este artigo analisará o potencial de geração da energia solar fotovoltaica no RN através de medições solarimétricas realizadas em Natal, capital do estado.

  5. Russian RSC Energia employees inspect DM in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia prepare to conduct final inspections of the Russian-built Docking Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  6. Russian RSC Energia employees attach trunnions to DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia attach trunnions to the Russian-built docking module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC so that it can be mounted in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  7. Favonius, farola alimentada per energia eòlica

    OpenAIRE

    Prat Pueyo, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Aquest projecte desenvolupa el disseny, la fabricació i l’emplaçament d’una turbina eòlica d’eix vertical que funciona com a font d’energia elèctrica per a petits consums. Aquesta iniciativa sorgeix amb el propòsit d’aprofitar el recurs eòlic i aportar alternatives a l’ús de combustibles fòssils o d’altres energies menys netes. L’objectiu del projecte és dissenyar una turbina eòlica que generi 120 W de potència i que sigui capaç de satisfer aquest consum també a baixes velocitats ...

  8. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  9. Energy saving programs and renewable energies in Chihuahua, Mexico; Programas de ahorro de energia y energias renovables en Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra Noris, Jose Luis [Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The high index of economic and technological growth registered in the border zone of northern Mexico in the last years, has simultaneously caused an annual growth in the electrical energy demand in a percentage higher than 6%. In this document are included the economic and environmental impacts caused by the projects developed in the Chihuahua State on energy efficiency and on the available potential of renewable energies. In order to evaluate the environmental impact that is caused when saving electrical energy in the diverse projects in process, the emission of CO{sub 2} is the only emission taken into account (even though also emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Hg exist) for being this polluting agent the one that contributes in greater amount to the global warming and the greenhouse effect. The emission index of CO{sub 2} that we considered in this presentation is of 600 kg/mwh, on the basis of the type of fuel and volume of generation of the plants in operation of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in the Chihuahua State. [Spanish] El alto indice de crecimiento economico y tecnologico registrado en la zona fronteriza del norte de Mexico en los ultimos anos, ha ocasionado paralelamente un crecimiento en la demanda de energia electrica superior al 6% anual. En este documento se incluyen los impactos economicos y ambientales de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el estado de Chihuahua en eficiencia energetica y en el potencial que se tiene de energias renovables. Para evaluar el impacto ambiental que se obtiene al ahorrar energia electrica en los diversos proyectos en proceso, se toma en cuenta unicamente emisiones de CO{sub 2} (aun cuando tambien existen emisiones de SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} y Hg) por ser este el contaminante que en mayor cantidad afecta al calentamiento global y al efecto invernadero. El indice de emisiones de CO{sub 2} que consideramos en esta presentacion es de 600 kg/mwh, en base al tipo de combustible y volumen de generacion de las

  10. Financial balance of the recovery of energy starting from the thermal-destruction; Bilancio economico del recupero di energia dalla termodistruzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, E. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. Energetica

    2000-08-01

    This work deals with the main economical, energetic and environmental aspects related to the energy recovery from the combustion of municipal solid waste, without studying the technological aspects, being these themes treated by other teachers of the energy recovery from municipal solid waste (political, authoritative, ecological, energetic and financial). It is clear the limited diffusion of the technology today achieved in our country, production and the contribution given to the tele heating from the municipal solid waste. Are then listed the main quantities that intervene in the financial evaluations (costs of investment, useful life of the plant, economical indexes, periods for implementation, operating efficiency, yield, reliability and availability of the plant, actual value of the electric and thermal power produced, revenues from waste disposal), pointing out the importance of the size of the plant, which is the real decisive element. Some explicative examples of the weight of several items are produced. The role of the energy obtained from municipal solid waste in the new electrical market liberalized is particularly studies, pointing out the advantages in comparison with the energy of conventional sources. At last, the potential of the <> plants is discussed. They conjugate the incineration of the municipal solid waste to the technology of the gas-fired combined cycles. [Italian] Il presente lavoro tratta le principali problematiche economiche, energetiche ed ambientali legate al recupero energetico dalla combustione di rifiuti solidi urbani, senza approfondirne gli aspetti tecnologici, essendo questi ultimi temi assegnati ad altri relatori del corso. Dapprima si illustrano le motivazioni a favore dell'effettuazione del recupero di energia da RSU (politiche-autorizzative, ecologiche, energetiche ed economiche). Si evidenzia la modesta diffusione raggiunta oggi nel nostro Paese dalla tecnologia, commentando i dati relativi alla potenza

  11. Nel contratto di «service» l'erogatore di energia elettrica non è soggetto passivo di accisa

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzza, D

    2011-01-01

    In materia di accise sull'energia elettrica, soggetto passivo del tributo è il fornitore professionale del bene «energia elettrica» che procede alla fatturazione dell'operazione di vendita in forza di un contratto di somministrazione; il soggetto che fornisce l'energia elettrica a terzi quale componente di una prestazione complessa nell'ambito di un contratto di «service», alla luce del contesto unitario di tale contratto, non può essere considerato soggetto venditore di energia elettrica ...

  12. Integració de l'energia fotovoltaica en l'arquitectura catalana actual: casos d'estudi

    OpenAIRE

    Usón Guardiola, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Una de les tecnologies mes prometedores per l’aprofitament de la inesgotable energia solar es la cèl·lula fotovoltaica (L’energia en forma de radiació solar que arriba a la Terra en una hora equival a la totalitat de l’energia que consumeix el planeta en un any ). Mitjançant l’efecte fotoelèctric la cèl·lula fotovoltaica transforma la llum solar en electricitat de una manera similar a com les plantes sintetitzen la radiació solar amb la clorofil·la, per obtenir l’energia necess...

  13. 核或辐射事故应急威胁评估兼论其它%On Nuclear or Radiological Accident Emergency Threat Assessment and Related Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢盛甲

    2013-01-01

    It was presented for object of nuclear or radiological accident emergency, according to national regulations of nuclear or radiological emergency, and base on IAEA Safety Standards for requirement for preparedness of a nuclear or radiological emergency in the paper. To avoid empty in nuclear or radiological accident emergency arrangement, propose to set up regions arrangement for nuclear or radiological accidents emergency in on threat I or II of provinces according to IAEA threat category IV exist situation in Sino.%  本文根据国家核或辐射应急相关法规,参照国际子能机构有关安全出版物对核或辐射应急准备与响应的要求,提出国内核或辐射事故应急准备和应急响应的目标。鉴国际子能机构划分的核或辐射威胁类型 IV 各国和地区都存在的事实,建议我国在无威胁类型 I 和 II 的省份,考虑区应急管理,避免部分省或地区核或辐射事故应急管理出现盲区。

  14. Variables that influence in the consumption of electrical energy; Variables que influyen en el consumo de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul; Maqueda Zamora, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sada Gamiz, Jesus; Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It is said that when a program of saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is implemented it must be business for three: user, society and electrical utility. Regarding to the user his decision making is very simple: it is to me more cheap or more expensive, the benefit for the society can be seen from very diverse aspects, being the most important conservation of the natural resources and the environment, as far as the electric utility factors of more weight are the differing of investments and the reliability of the system. The present paper shows the importance of monitoring of the ways of energy use in different types of users, to be able to make decisions of programs: ALD, DMS (Demand Side Management) in very diverse scenarios: cities, types of users, income levels et cetera. [Spanish] Se dice que cuando se implanta un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia eletrica debe ser negocio para tres: usuario, sociedad y empresa eletrica. En lo que respecta al usuario su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro, el beneficio para la sociedad puede verse desde muy diversos aspectos, siendo el mas importante la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el medio ambiente, en cuanto a la empresa los factores de mas peso son el diferimiento de inversiones y la confiabilidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia que tiene el monitoreo de las formas de uso de la energia en diferentes tipos de usuarios, para poder tomar decisiones de programas ALD, DMS por sus siglas en ingles (Demand Side Managenment) en muy diversos escenarios: ciudades, tipos de usuarios, niveles de ingresos, etcetera.

  15. Financial Control and Safety. An investigation on how financial and safety aspects are integrated in the decision making at the Swedish nuclear power plants; Ekonomistyrning och saekerhet. En utredning om hur ekonomi- och saekerhetsaspekter integreras vid beslutsfattandet vid kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaernild, Ola [OV Konsult i Vaesteraas AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The alleged inter-relationship between economy and nuclear safety has been investigated. Through interviews and review of instructions and other documents, information on how management at Swedish nuclear power plants integrates financial control and safety management has been compiled. Owners of nuclear power plants have well founded expectations on that the plants are profitable and that the operations are rationalized in order to reduce costs. This could allegedly threaten the nuclear safety. However, it is not to be expected that there are any obvious relationships between expenditures and safety. The quality of the safety management has to be judged in terms of how well safety requirements are met irrespective of the associated costs. The owners have imposed clear financial objectives on the nuclear power plants. At the same time they have also established policies for nuclear safety. The nuclear power plants have systems for operations management, which basically comprise separate parts for operations planning and quality management. Financial control and safety management are included in the operations planning and quality management respectively. The quality management impose restrictions to be adhered to in the operations planning. This means that from a formal point of view, the safety management is superior to the operations planning. There are examples of simple as well as advanced approaches to financial management at the nuclear power plants. In all cases the methods used are reasonably well adapted to the needs. Typical for all plants is the focus on long-term aspects. Investments are for example analysed in a plant life-time perspective. With regard to safety, profitability calculations are not required to the same extent for safety related investments as for other investments. A number of factors, which tend to warrant that safety aspects are given the appropriate attention in the decision making, have been identified. Examples of such factors are

  16. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  17. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic Of Germany) for Co-Operation in The Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994

  18. Integration of real-time operational data in geographical information for power and gas business; Integrando em tempo real os dados operacionais aos sistemas geo referenciados do negocio gas e energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, Fernando Jose de Carvalho; Carvalho, Ronaldo Jose Seixas de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Strategical Management of Data and Information of the Gas e Energia, has as its being reason, the provision of right information, in the right place and in the right time, based on the correct sources, adding strategic value to Business. The SCADA systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), give to the Thermoelectrical Plant Operators and Electrical Transporting Operators the integration with the operational stations, measurement and energy delivery. The Geographical Information Systems - GIS, give the maps visualization with geopolitics aspects, gas pipeline infrastructure and satellite images. The Historical Data systems, have as its requirements the interface between many SCADA systems by means of accompaniment of historical data, real time data of the common variables of the process (outflow, pressure, temperature, egg.) and KPI's visualization - typical performance indicators of energy systems (non-availability, generation efficiency and distribution, egg.). Based on the business systemic vision, the Real-Time Enterprise Architecture - Real Time data integration and Performance Indicators based on the GIS software platform was developed in the Gas e Energia enterprise scenario. The present action has, as its focus, the dynamic visualization in real-time of the integrated data to the GIS infrastructure of the Gas Pipelines and Thermoelectrical Plants, guaranteeing the integrity, the audit trail of the information and a pro active vision for the Management of the Gas e Energia Business. (author)

  19. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  20. Gunnar Okk jääb vähemalt aastaks Eesti Energia etteotsa / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas, et Eesti Energia juhi kohale korraldatakse konkurss aasta pärast ning nõukogu esimees Urmas Sõõrumaa sai volituse juhatuse liikmetega läbi rääkida ja nende lepinguid aasta võrra pikendada. Lisa: Gunnar Oki töö

  1. interdisciplinary aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Symmetry is a universal principle in nature, sciences and arts. Generally speaking symmetry means that something looks the same when observed from certain different aspects. Symmetry is almost always broken – more or less, directly (in praxis) or spontaneously (in quantum field theory). There are discrete and continuous symmetries. Various forms of discrete symmetries – like bilateral, translative or rotative – associated with the field of arts, can also be recognized in our natu...

  2. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  3. Nuclear power plants making a comeback in Japan; El retorno de la centrales nucleares en Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralbo, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    We reproduce in this magazine the interesting article published by the president of the SNE in issue 46 of Cuadernos de Energia in October 2015, which describes the events that have taken place since the March 11, 2011 earthquake in Japan, the largest in its history, and the subsequent tsunami, which affected the Fukushima power plant, as well as the measures implemented since then and how some of this country nuclear power plants are being started up again. (Author)

  4. Injustiças da sustentabilidade: Conflitos ambientais relacionados à produção de energia “limpa” no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Firpo de Souza Porto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as contradições existentes na implementação de projetos de energia “limpa”, a partir de quatro casos do contexto brasileiro: agrocombustíveis via cana‑de‑açúcar, hidrelétricas, parques eólicos e, por fim, energia nuclear. Todos geram inúmeros impactos sociais, ambientais e à saúde que caracterizam o que denominamos provocativamente “injustiças da sustentabilidade”. Assumimos que os conflitos ambientais existentes nos casos são inevitáveis em sociedades de mercado, cuja visão hegemônica de desenvolvimento econômico das corporações e, frequentemente, órgãos de governo é confrontada por populações atingidas e movimentos sociais. Portanto, consideramos estratégico reconhecer as injustiças ambientais como forma de articular as bases materiais da sustentabilidade com questões econômicas, sociais, culturais e filosóficas acerca da noção de progresso.

  5. Basic aspects of the concept of reactor compartment (including damaged compartments) management during utilization of nuclear powered submarines -- High priority R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale decommissioning of Russian nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and their utilization prospects gave rise to numerous complicated scientific and technical, as well as economic, problems. Problems of handling of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartments (RC) are among the vital ones, arousing a growing concern with the public. Without solution of the problems the processes of NPS utilization can not be considered completed. It involves potential hazard, for the environment both from NPS being paid up (temporal on-float storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and RC, cut from submarine hull, containing highly radioactive equipment and materials but no SNF. Diverse variations of the concept of reactor compartment handling of NPS subject to, utilization are possible, but, in principle, there are essentially two variants: (1) RC utilization directly in the course of NPS utilization, envisaging removal of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartment and its cutting; (2) RC utilization after preliminary long-term storage of radioactive equipment of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in the standard sites within RC, when radioactivity of SGF equipment and materials as a result of natural decay of radionuclides is reduced to the values permitting RC cutting without employment of special means. When analyzing this or that variant of the concept, various factors are to be allowed for. First and foremost, the technology of RC handling is to provide: (1) minimum amount of radioactive wastes; (2) minimum radiation burden to the environment and personnel; (3) minimum material and financial expenditures; and (4) maximum radiation and ecological safety. RDIPE in cooperation with the leading enterprises of RF Minatom, Goskomoboronprom and Ministry of Defense has developed a concept of handling radioactive equipment in NPS reactor compartments, and its principle concepts are presented here

  6. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  7. Importance of static quadrupole moments for determining collective aspects of nuclear structure: N=Z calculations with four and eight valence particles

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, S. J. Q.; Hoang, T.; Zamick, L.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Escuderos, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we look at the low lying nuclear structure of several N=Z nuclei residing between the doubly magic nucei ^{40} Ca and ^{100} Sn. Using large shell model codes we calculate and discuus the systematics of enegies. We show energy levels, B(E2)'s, static quadrupule moments and g factors. In all cases we compare the results of 2 different interactions which yield significanly different occupation numbers. We compare with the simplest versions of the rotational and vibrational models. ...

  8. Ventos de Mudança – A Energia Eólica em Port

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jorge; Martins, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    No contexto das energias renováveis, a energia eólica em Portugal tem registado um forte incremento nos últimos anos, sendo hoje uma referência incontornável no panorama europeu e mundial. A dependência externa de fontes energéticas fósseis, o crescimento da procura interna e a actual política de protecção ambiental, tornaram cada vez mais atractiva a exploração de energias renováveis. Entre as várias modalidades disponíveis (solar, hídrica, eólica, geotérmica, das marés e das ondas), a energ...

  9. Aproveitamento de energia eólica em ambiente urbano e construído

    OpenAIRE

    Estanqueiro, Ana; Simões, T.

    2010-01-01

    Na última década assistiu-se em Portugal a um desenvolvimento das energias renováveis, em particular da Energia Eólica. No final de 2009, encontrava-se instalada e em operação uma capacidade eólica superior a 3.500 MW, colocando Portugal entre os primeiros dez países do mundo neste sector e ultrapassando mesmo países pioneiros, como a Dinamarca e a Espanha, respectivamente em potência instalada e na percentagem da energia eléctrica consumida com origem no vento. A inovação no sector eólico em...

  10. Book Presentation: “L’Energia del vuoto” by Bruno Arpaia

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    “It is nighttime on a Swiss highway. A car travels at high speed, heading to Marseilles. Pietro Leone, UN Geneva civil servant, is at the wheel. His son Nico is asleep next to him. The two are fleeing from something unknown...   ... Pietro only knows that, for the past few days, someone has been discreetly following him and his family, and that his wife Emilia, a CERN researcher, vanished from home a few days before…” Would you like to know what happens next? The Library, in cooperation with the association “Cultura Italia”, is organizing a presentation of “L’energia del vuoto”. A brief introduction to this book will be followed by a debate among the participants. Bruno Arpaia, journalist, writer and translator, has written 3 novels and 4 political essays. “L’energia del vuoto” is his latest novel, inspired by a visit he paid to CERN.   “L’energia del...

  11. Interactive applications for energy saving; Aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, Alejandro; Ramirez Anaya, Cesar; Gutierrez, Hector; Dominguez Ojeda, Xerxes; Aguilar Galvan, Alfredo [Ingenieria Energetica Integral S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A series of ideas are presented that can help in the development of interactive applications for energy saving. Emphasis is made on the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE)`s Interactive Course on Demand Management and Power Factor Compensation, in order to demonstrate how far one can go with the multimedia development. [Espanol] Se presenta un conjunto de ideas que pueden auxiliar en la elaboracion de aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia. Se hace principal enfasis sobre el curso interactivo Administracion de la Demanda y Compensacion del Factor de Potencia del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) con la finalidad de mostrar hasta donde puede llegarse con un desarrollo multimedia.

  12. Energy saving, social and government communication; Ahorrro de energia, sociedad y comunicacion gubernamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo

  13. Themes in nuclear law; Temas de Derecho Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers.

  14. Energia eòlica i vehicle elèctric: Sinergia de futur

    OpenAIRE

    Bordas Geli, Maria Neus

    2011-01-01

    Català: L’objectiu d’aquest estudi és analitzar la interacció entre la implantació del vehicle elèctric i el desenvolupament de l’energia eòlica a Catalunya en els propers anys. L’estudi consisteix en la creació d’un model que desenvolupa diferents escenaris futurs a Catalunya amb diferents implantacions del vehicle elèctric considerant sempre que l’electricitat consumida per ells prové exclusivament de l’energia eòlica. L’estudi es centra en analitzar els impactes i les conseqüèn...

  15. Geology and geotechnic in the implantation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a general methodology for geological and geotechnical investigations to be performed in sites selected for the construction of nucldar power plants. Items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of a nuclear power plants, the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. It is also provided an aid to the writing of technical reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a nuclear power plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. (Author)

  16. Intercomparison of activity measures of 1 {sup 31}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl in nuclear medicine services in Recife/PE; Intercomparacao de medidas de atividade de {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga e {sup 201}Tl em servicos de medicina nuclear do Recife/PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Iris Tairini V. do, E-mail: iristairini@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de F.; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we intend to evaluate the performance of radionuclide calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the Recife (Brazil), the measurement procedures used by the professionals of these services and the frequency of the application of quality control testing required by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) and the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), performing an intercomparison of radionuclides measurements.

  17. KIT EDUCACIONAL PARA ESTUDO DE GERAÇÃO ELÉTRICA A PARTIR DE ENERGIA EÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos desenvolvidos nos últimos anos apontam para as implicações e impactos sócio-ambientais do consumo de energia. Fontes de energias renováveis são apresentadas como alternativa para atender as demandas da sociedade com qualidade, segurança e redução dos danos ambientais decorrentes do consumo de energia. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de kit educacional para ensino do uso de energia eólica na geração de energia elétrica. Inicialmente, o artigo descreve a evolução do aproveitamento da energia eólica. Depois, o artigo apresenta algumas experiências sobre o ensino desse tipo de energia no ensino médio e superior. O kit educacional é apresentado, mostrando-se resultados obtidos com o aerogerador tais como tensão gerada e circuitos eletrônicos utilizados. Algumas práticas são sugeridas. Por fim, as principais conclusões acerca do sistema são apresentadas.

  18. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  19. Correlações entre a densitometria do cristalino através da imagem de Scheimplufg, tempo e gasto de energia na cirurgia de facoemulsificação

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Freitas Valbon; Ana Laura Canedo; Renata Siqueira Silva; Leonardo Pimentel; Guillermo Velaverde; Renato Ambrósio Junior

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO:Correlacionar a densitometria do cristalino(PNS - patient nuclear score)por meio da imagem de Scheimplufgcom o tempo de facoemulsificação e o gasto de energia. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo, envolvendo 22 olhos de 22 pacientes que se submeteram à cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação com implante de lente intraocular. A densitometria do cristalino (PNS) foi medida através da tomografia de segmento anterior e córnea (Pentacam) no pré-operatório com a imagem de Scheimp...

  20. Aspects of the momentum dependence of the equation of state and of the residual N N cross section, and their effects on nuclear stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrak, Z.; Eudes, P.; de la Mota, V.

    2016-05-01

    With the semiclassical Landau-Vlasov transport model we studied the stopping observable RE, the energy-based isotropy ratio, for the 129Xe+120Sn reaction at beam energies spanning 12 A to 100 A MeV. We investigated the impacts of the nonlocality of the nuclear mean field, of the in-medium modified nucleon-nucleon (N N ) cross section, and of the reaction centrality. A fixed set of model parameters yields RE values that favorably compare with the experimental ones, but only for energies below the Fermi energy EF. Above EF agreement is readily possible, but by a smooth evolution with energy of the parameter that controls the in-medium modification of N N cross section. By comparing the simulation correction factor F applied to the free N N cross section with the one deduced from experimental data [Phys. Rev. C 90, 064602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.064602], we infer that the zero-range mean field almost entirely reproduces it. Also, in accordance with what has been deduced from experimental data, around EF a strong reduction of the free N N cross section is found. In order to test the impact of sampling central collisions by multiplicity, an event generator (hipse) was used. We obtain that high multiplicity events are spread over a broad impact parameter range, but it turns out that this has a small effect on the observable RE and, thus, on F as well.