WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspect ratio

  1. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  2. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  3. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  4. Effect of grid aspect ratio on convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, P. E. O.; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of high-aspect-ratio grids on algorithm convergence are considered by means of vector stability theory and computational experiments. The results indicate that approximately factored implicit schemes experience convergence deterioration because of nonoptimum local time-stepping procedures and increased need for viscous preconditioning. Based on this insight, an enhanced algorithm is devised using improved selection of the local time step, appropriate definition of the viscous preconditioning matrix, and proper implementation of the boundary conditions. The new algorithm provides uniformly efficient convergence at all aspect ratios for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations for a variety of test problems.

  5. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bodo, G; Cattaneo, F; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratio, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with aspect ratio unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  6. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  7. Low-aspect-ratio toroidal equilibria of electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal electron clouds with a low aspect ratio (as small as 1.3) and lasting for thousands of poloidal rotation periods have been formed in the laboratory. Characteristic toroidal effects like a large inward shift of the minor axis of equipotential contours, elliptical and triangular deformations, etc., have been observed experimentally for the first time. The results of new analytic and numerical investigations of low-aspect-ratio electron cloud equilibria, which reproduce many of the observed features, are also presented

  8. Deep Reactive Ion Etching for High Aspect Ratio Microelectromechanical Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jacobsen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Hansen, Ole

    A deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) process for fabrication of high aspect ratio trenches has been developed. Trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 and vertical sidewalls with low roughness have been demonstrated. The process has successfully been used in the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator (S......) released comb drive based resonators and tunable capacitors for MEMS applications. Brief characterizations of the devices are presented....

  9. Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of dust particle aspect ratios on single- and multiple-scattering processes are studied using the spheroidal model in order to obtain a better understanding of the radiance and polarization signals at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) under various dust-aerosol-loading conditions. Specifically, the impact of the particle aspect ratio on the polarization state of the TOA radiation field is demonstrated by comparing the normalized polarized radiances observed by the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) instrument on board the PARASOL (Polarisation et Anisotropie des Reflectances au sommet de l'Atmosphère, couples avec un Satellite d'Observation emportant un Lidar) satellite with the corresponding theoretical counterparts. Furthermore, presented are the aspect ratio values inferred from multi-angular polarized radiance measurements of Saharan and Asian dust by the POLDER/PARASOL. - Highlights: • The radiative effect of dust aerosol aspect ratio is investigated. • A computational efficient vector radiative transfer model is developed. • Spaceborne Polarimetric measurements are used to retrieve aerosol properties. • A case study of Saharan dust shows a mean aspect ratio of 2.5. • Asian dust exhibits two aspect ratio values, 2.5 and 1.25

  10. Aspect ratio effect on shock-accelerated elliptic gas cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liyong; Liao, Shenfei; Liu, Cangli; Wang, Yanping; Zhai, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of an elliptic heavy-gas (SF6) cylinder accelerated by a planar weak shock wave is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) diagnostics, and the emphasis is on the aspect ratio effect on shock-elliptic cylinder interaction. Experiments are conducted at five different aspect ratios (the ratio of length in streamwise and spanwise directions) varied from 0.25 to 4.0. PIV raw images and quantitative flow field data are obtained at t = 0.6 ms after the shock impact. As the aspect ratio increases, the interface morphology develops faster owing to more vorticity produced along the interface and smaller vortex spacing between the two vortex cores. For each case in this study, the maximal fluctuating velocity locates at the middle point of the two counter-vortices. The histograms of fluctuating velocity reveal that a distinct double-peak structure appears in the largest aspect ratio case in comparison with a single-peak structure in the smallest aspect ratio case. The vortex velocities predicted by the theoretical model [G. Rudinger and L. M. Somers, "Behaviour of small regions of different gases carried in accelerated gas flows," J. Fluid Mech. 7, 161-176 (1960)] agree well with the experimental ones. With the increase of aspect ratio, the maximal value of vorticity increases as well as the circulation, and more low-magnitude quantities are generated, which indicates the formation of multi-scale flow structure in the late mixing process. It is found that the experimental circulation of the vortex motion is reasonably estimated by the ideal point vortex-pair model.

  11. Turbulent convection at high Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratio 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of the Nusselt number, Nu, in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical container of aspect ratio 4. The highest Rayleigh number achieved was Ra=2x1013. Except for the last half a decade or so of Ra, experimental conditions obey the Boussinesq approximation accurately. For these conditions, the data show that the log Nu-log Ra slope saturates at a value close to 1/3, as observed previously by us in experiments with smaller aspect ratios. The increasing slope over the last half a decade of Ra is inconclusive because the corresponding conditions are non-Boussinesq. Finally, we report a modified scaling relation between the plume advection frequency and Ra that collapses data for different aspect ratios. (author)

  12. Transitions in Dynamo Modes Controlled by the Domain Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudard, L.; Dormy, E.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic fields of internal origin are observed on many planets in the solar system. The Sun itself acts as a dynamo. While these natural objects are very different in their composition, when it comes to dynamo modeling the governing equations are remarkably similar. One of the controlling parameters to distinguish between these objects is the aspect ratio of the convecting domain. Comparing the Sun to the Earth raises the issue of the nature of reversals. A challenging issue is to determine why the geomagnetic field reverses polarity on an irregular basis, whereas the Sun --which is a much larger object, governed by stronger nonlinearities-- reverses its magnetic polarity on a quasi-periodic timescale of 11 yrs. We use a three-dimensional Boussinesq model (the Parody code) to investigate the transition between these two types of behavior. We show that the aspect ratio of the convecting domain controls the nature of the dynamo field. We report a butterfly-like diagram at large aspect ratio, with magnetic activity near 30° of latitudes, which migrates with time toward the equator. We trace the existence of the dynamo wave solution at various aspect ratio and suggest possible consequences for the geomagnetic secular variation.

  13. Cyclotron wave adsorption in large aspect ratio elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse dielectric susceptibility elements are derived for radio frequency waves in a large aspect ratio toroidal plasma with elliptic magnetic surfaces by solving the Vlasov equation for untrapped, t-trapped and d-trapped particles. These dielectric characteristics are suitable for estimating the wave absorption by the fundamental cyclotron resonance damping in the frequency range of ion-cyclotron and electron cyclotron resonances.

  14. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached in...

  15. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  16. High-aspect-ratio fine-line metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chienliu; Chang, Peizen; Yen, Kaihsiang; Lu, Sheyshi

    1998-08-01

    This study is aimed at making metallic fine lines characterized with high aspect ratio. There are two methods we have developed. One is the trilevel lift-off method with submicron lithography, and the other is the lift-off method by using the commercial negative photoresist SU-8 made by IBM. First, the trilevel lift-off method is described. A pre- imidized, soluble polyimide layer of OCG Probimide 293 A is spun on a wafer with thickness 4 micrometer. A 120 nm thick layer of silicon oxynitride was formed on the polyimide by PECVD. A layer photoresist layer was applied and patterned. This photoresist layer is used as the etching mask of silicon oxynitride by RIE with the gas CF4 plasma. Similarly, the silicon oxynitride is used as the etching mask of the thick polyimide layers by RIE with the gas O2 plasma. After metallization the pre-imidized polyimide is dissolved in methylene chloride lifting off the oxynitride and metal layers. Following this way, the submicron lithography, such as silylation technology, is suitable to make the aspect ratio up to 10 and the metal line will still have 3 micrometer height. The other is the lift-off method by using negative photoresist SU-8. This SU-8 is originally used as high aspect ratio molding. The linewidth of SU-8 is reduced to 2 micrometer linewidth with 12 micrometer height, and used as the remover to lift off after metallization. This SU-8 makes the fine-line metallization of 2 micrometer linewidth to achieve the aspect- ratio up to 5.

  17. Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels of Various Aspect Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, John P.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer in the thermal entrance region of trapezoidal microchannels is investigated for hydrodynamically fully developed, single-phase, laminar flow with no-slip conditions. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed using a finite-volume approach for trapezoidal channels with a wide range of aspect ratios. The sidewall angles of 54.7 degrees and 45 degrees are chosen to correspond to etch-resistant planes in the crystal structure of silicon. Local and average Nusselt number...

  18. Rayleigh-Benard Convection in Large-Aspect-Ratio Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, M. R.; Chiam, K-H.; Cross, M. C.; Fischer, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The coarsening and wavenumber selection of striped states growing from random initial conditions are studied in a non-relaxational, spatially extended, and far-from-equilibrium system by performing large-scale numerical simulations of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection in a large-aspect-ratio cylindrical domain with experimentally realistic boundaries. We find evidence that various measures of the coarsening dynamics scale in time with different power-law exponents, indicating that multiple lengt...

  19. Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chiam, Sher-Yi; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Bettiol, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    We study ways to enhance the sensitivity and dynamic tuning range of the fundamental inductor-capacitor (LC) resonance in split ring resonators (SRRs) by controlling the aspect ratio of the SRRs and their substrate thickness. We conclude that both factors can significantly affect the LC resonance. We show that metafilms consisting of low height SRRs on a thin substrate are most sensitive to changes in their dielectric environment and thus show excellent potential for sensing applications.

  20. Controlling the profile of high aspect ratio gratings in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Forsberg, Pontus; Absil, Olivier; Karlsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is an excellent material for infrared optics and for applications in harsh environments. Some of those desirable properties, i.e. hardness and chemical inertness, also make it a challenging material to machine and etch. In this study we have tested a wide range of etch parameters in an inductively coupled plasma etcher, in order to produce highly controlled, high aspect ratio gratings in diamond. We discuss the effects of pressure, bias power, and some gas mixture variation (pure oxyg...

  1. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  2. Instability of low viscosity elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun

    2011-11-01

    In this work an analytical description of capillary instability of liquid elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio is presented. Linear stability analysis in the long wave approximation with negligible gravitational effects is employed. Elliptic cylindrical coordinate system is used and perturbation velocity potential substituted in the Laplace equation to yield Mathieu and Modified Mathieu differential equations. The dispersion relation for elliptical orifices of any aspect ratio is derived and validated for axisymmetric disturbances with m = 0, in the limit of aspect ratio, μ = 1 , i.e. the case of a circular jet. As Mathieu functions and Modified Mathieu function solutions converge to Bessel's functions in this limit the Rayleigh-Plateau instability criterion is met. Also, stability of solutions corresponding to asymmetric disturbances for the kink mode, m = 1 and flute modes corresponding to m >= 2 is discussed. Experimental data from earlier works is used to compare observations made for elliptical orifices with μ ≠ 1 . This novel approach aims at generalizing the results pertaining to cylindrical jets with circular cross section leading to better understanding of breakup in liquid jets of various geometries.

  3. Second regime tokamak operation at large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of large aspect ratio tokamaks operating at the second stability regime are described theoretically using numerical and analytical techniques. It has been shown that, at large aspect ratio, significant current profile control is possible with relatively modest amounts of neutral beam current drive, and the power needed to access and maintain the second regime operation is calculated to be about 3 MW using the results of an integrated 1.5D transport and stability code. An example second regime experiment has been described and the results are presented of extensive calculations illustrating several possible operating scenarios, external and internal model stability boundaries, and the experimental features needed to evaluate and test the high beta tokamak theories. The theory which describes the stabilizing effect of energetic particles during high beta operation was extended to finite aspect ratio. A key technical problem for application of this technique appears to be caused by ripple transport. Plasma rotation effects are found to be generally destabilizing and several other schemes for improved access to the second stability regime are discussed including ponderomotive stabilization of the plasma edge region and active feedback control

  4. Self-masked high-aspect-ratio polymer nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple, cost effective, and potentially universal method is proposed for the formation of high-aspect-ratio nanopillars on various polymers. Our method involves direct reactive ion etching (RIE) using self-formed nanomasks oriented from a dummy material (cover glass). The mechanism is evaluated using nanopillar characterization and surface analysis results from x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and Auger electron microscopy (AES). By varying the dummy material configuration and modifying the RIE etching time, the distribution and dimensions of the nanopillars can be manipulated to meet a range of requirements. The maximum structural aspect ratio of 60 (6.7 μm high and 112 nm thick nanopillars) can be easily prepared using a 60 min self-masked high-aspect-ratio polymer nanopillars fabrication (SMHAR) process on poly(monochloro-p-xylylene) (Parylene C). Furthermore, nanopillars can also be generated using the same SMHAR process on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and SU-8 photoresist, creating nanostructured PDMS or SU-8 materials in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or nano/micro-electromechanical systems (N/MEMS).

  5. High-aspect ratio magnetic nanocomposite polymer cilium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, M.; Tseng, H. Y.; Gray, B. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new fabrication technique to achieve ultra high-aspect ratio artificial cilia micro-patterned from flexible highly magnetic rare earth nanoparticle-doped polymers. We have developed a simple, inexpensive and scalable fabrication method to create cilia structures that can be actuated by miniature electromagnets, that are suitable to be used for lab-on-a chip (LOC) and micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS) applications such as mixers and flow-control elements. The magnetic cilia are fabricated and magnetically polarized directly in microfluidic channels or reaction chambers, allowing for easy integration with complex microfluidic systems. These cilia structures can be combined on a single chip with other microfluidic components employing the same permanently magnetic nano-composite polymer (MNCP), such as valves or pumps. Rare earth permanent magnetic powder, (Nd0.7Ce0.3)10.5Fe83.9B5.6, is used to dope polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), resulting in a highly flexible M-NCP of much higher magnetization and remanence [1] than ferromagnetic polymers typically employed in magnetic microfluidics. Sacrificial poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) is used to mold the highly magnetic polymer into ultra high-aspect ratio artificial cilia. Cilia structures with aspect ratio exceeding 8:0.13 can be easily fabricated using this technique and are actuated using miniature electromagnets to achieve a high range of motion/vibration.

  6. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of very high aspect ratio microstructures, as well as ultra-high precision manufacturing is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications. Fields as diverse as micromechanics, robotics, integrated optics, and sensors benefit from this technology. The scale-length of this spatial regime is between what can be achieved using classical machine tool operations and that which is used in microelectronics. This requires new manufacturing techniques, such as the LIGA process, which combines x-ray lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding

  7. Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with superconducting TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coils has been proposed. A center solenoid coil system and an inboard blanket were discarded. The key point was how to find the engineering design solution of the TF coil system with the high field and high current density. The coil system with the center post radius of less than 1 m can generate the maximum field of ∼ 20 T. This coil system causes a compact reactor concept, where the plasma major and minor radii of 3.75 m and 1.9 m, respectively and the fusion power of 1.8 GW. (author)

  8. Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with superconducting TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coils has been proposed. A center solenoid coil system and an inboard blanket were discarded. The key point was how to find the engineering design solution of the TF coil system with the high and high current density. The coil system with the center post radius of less than 1 m can generate the maximum field of ∼20 T. This coil system causes, a compact reactor concept, where the plasma major and minor radii o 3.75 m and 1.9 m, respectively and the fusion power of 1.8 GW. (author)

  9. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality as described by height, width and uniformity of the nanoscopic features. Use of a mold temperature transiently above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) was the most important factor in increasing the replication fidelity. Surface coating of the nickel molds with a fluorocarbon-containing thin film (FDTS) greatly enhanced the quality of replicated features, in particular at transient mold temperatures above Tg. Injection molding using the latter mold temperature regime resulted in a bimodal distribution of pillar heights, corresponding to either full or very poor replication of the individual pillars. The poorly replicated structures on nickel molds with or without FDTS coatings all appeared fractured. We investigated the underlying mechanism in a macroscopic model system and found reduced wetting and strongly decreased adhesion of solidified COC droplets on nickel surfaces after coating with FDTS. Reduced adhesion forces are consistent with lowered friction that reduces the risk of fracturing the nanoscopic pillars during demolding. Optimized mold surface chemistry and associated injection molding conditions permitted the fabrication of square arrays of 40 nm wide and 107 nm high (aspect ratio >2.5) pillars on a 200 nm pitch. (paper)

  10. Aspect ratio effects in turbulent duct flows studied with DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, R.; Noorani, A.; Lozano-Durán, A.; Schlatter, P.; Fischer, P.; Nagib, H.

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional effects present in turbulent duct flows, i.e., side-wall boundary layers and secondary motions, are studied by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS). The spectral element code Nek5000, developed by Fischer et. al. (2008), is used to compute turbulent duct flows with aspect ratios 1 and 3 in streamwise-periodic boxes of length 25 h (long enough to capture the longest streamwise structures). The total number of grid points is 28 and 62 million respectively, and the inflow conditions were adjusted iteratively in order to keep the same bulk Reynolds number at the centerplane (Reb , c = 2800) in both cases. Spanwise variations in wall shear, mean-flow profiles and turbulence statistics were analyzed with aspect ratio, and also compared with the 2D channel. The simulations were started from a laminar duct profile, and transition to turbulence was triggered by means of trip-forcing in the wall-normal direction, applied at the two horizontal walls. In addition, we developed a convergence criterion aimed at assessing the necessary averaging time TA for converged statistics. We find that econdary motions present in duct flows require longer averaging times and the total shear-stress profile is not necessarily linear.

  11. Measuring the aspect ratio renormalization of anisotropic-lattice gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using tadpole-improved actions we investigate the consistency between different methods of measuring the aspect ratio renormalization of anisotropic-lattice gluons for bare aspect ratios χ0=4,6,10 and inverse lattice spacing in the range as-1=660--840 MeV. The tadpole corrections to the action, which are established self-consistently, are defined for two cases, mean link tadpoles in the Landau gauge and gauge invariant mean plaquette tadpoles. Parameters in the latter case exhibited no dependence on the spatial lattice size L, while in the former, parameters showed only a weak dependence on L easily extrapolated to L=∞. The renormalized anisotropy χR was measured using both the torelon dispersion relation and the sideways potential method. There is general agreement between these approaches, but there are discrepancies which are evidence for the presence of lattice artifact contributions. For the torelon these are estimated to be O(αSas2/R2), where R is the flux-tube radius. We also present some new data that suggest that rotational invariance is established more accurately for the mean-link action than the plaquette action

  12. Current drive and profile control in low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key to the theoretically predicted high performance of a low aspect ratio tokamak (LAT) is its ability to operate at very large plasma current*Ip. The plasma current at low aspect ratios follows the approximate formula: Ip ∼ (5a2Bt/Rqψ) [(1 + κ2)/2] [A/(A - 1)] where A quadruple-bond R/a which was derived from equilibrium studies. For constant qψ and Bt, Ip can increase by an order of magnitude over the case of tokamaks with A approx-gt 2.5. The large current results in a significantly enhanced βt (quadruple-bond βNIp/aBt) possibly of order unity. It also compensates for the reduction in A to maintain the same confinement performance assuming the confinement time τ follows the generic form ∼ HIpP-1/2R3/2κ1/2. The initiation and maintenance of such a large current is therefore a key issue for LATs

  13. HAREM: high aspect ratio etching and metallization for microsystems fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2008-07-01

    We report a simple bulk micromachining method for the fabrication of high aspect ratio monocrystalline silicon MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) in a standard silicon wafer. We call this two-mask microfabrication process high aspect ratio etching and metallization or HAREM: it combines double-side etching and metallization to create suspended micromechanical structures with electrically 'insulating walls' on their backside. The insulating walls ensure a proper electrical insulation between the different actuation and sensing elements situated on either fixed or movable parts of the device. To demonstrate the high potential of this simple microfabrication method, we have designed and characterized electrostatically actuated microtweezers that integrate a differential capacitive sensor. The prototype showed an electrical insulation better than 1 GΩ between the different elements of the device. Furthermore, using a lock-in amplifier circuit, we could measure the position of the moving probe with few nanometers resolution for a displacement range of about 3 µm. This work was presented in part at the 21st IEEE MEMS Conference (Tucson, AZ, USA, 13-17 January, 2008) (doi:10.1109/MEMSYS.2008.4443656).

  14. Residual strain effects on large aspect ratio micro-diaphragms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijab, R.S.; Muller, R.S. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1988-09-30

    Highly compliant, large aspect ratio diaphragms for use in low-pressure, capacitive-readout sensors, have been investigated. In such structures, unrelaxed strain in the diaphragms can radically alter mechanical behavior. Although strain can be reduced by thermal annealing, it usually reaches a remnant irreducible minimum. The purpose of this paper is to describe techniques that result in low-strain materials and that reduce the effects of residual strain in micro-diaphragms. Square polysilicon grilles and perforated diaphragms made from both single and double polysilicon layers and from single-crystal silicon, with aspect ratios (side/thickness) of up to 1000 and very low compressive strain ({approx}6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}), have been fabricated. Strain reduction is achieved by combining thermal annealing with one of two mechanical design techniques. The first technique makes use of a series of cantilever beams to support the diaphragms. In a second procedure, corrugated surfaces in thinned membranes of single-crystal silicon are formed. The corrugations result from the use of boron doping and anisotropic silicon etching. In both of these techniques to produce low-strain diaphragms, an etched cavity is purposely formed in the substrate crystal below them. Only one-sided processing of wafers is employed, thus aiding reproducibility and providing ease of compatibility with an MOS process. A fast-etching sacrificial-support layer (phosphorus-doped CVD oxide) is used. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Tilt stability of arbitrary aspect ratio ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the low-frequency tilt stability of finite aspect ratio field-reversed ion rings. A new analytic-numerical method is described which overcomes the large-aspect-ratio assumption of previous analytical treatments. The method involves the numerical evaluation of the Vlasov time history integrals for the ring particles using orbits determined numerically in numerically calculated self-consistent equilibria. The method is applied to the tilt stability of fat, noncircular cross-section rings. The condition for tilt instability is found to be of the form ω/sub z/>kΩ, where the parameter k varies from 0.7 to 1.0 for the cases studied, and where ω/sub z/ is the mean axial betatron frequency and Ω is the mean toroidal circulation frequency. For weak rings (field-reversal factor delta = B/sub self//B/sub e/x< or =1), k approaches unity, whereas for strong rings (deltaroughly-equal2), kroughly-equal0.7. As a given ring is elongated axially it is found that ω/sub z/ decreases, while Ω changes relatively little. A saturation mechanism is proposed whereby tilt unstable rings reach a stable equilibrium through axial lengthening

  16. Improving acousto-optical interaction by high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    using these new types of SAWs compared to using the waves generated by the conventional interdigital transducer with thin electrodes. Thus, this indicates a way to improve acousto-optical interaction for integrated modulators, which have important applications such as optical phase shifters....... conventional interdigital transducers consisting of thin electrodes deposited at the surface. In this work the finite element method is employed to investigate if the acousto-optical interaction can be enhanced by generating the SAWs by interdigital transducers consisting of high aspect ratio electrodes. With...... a periodic model it is first shown that these tall electrodes introduce several new confined SAW modes with slow phase velocities because of mechanical energy storage in the electrodes. The periodic model is then extended to a finite model by using perfectly matched layers at the substrate borders...

  17. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-01-01

    We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality......-containing thin film (FDTS) greatly enhanced the quality of replicated features, in particular at transient mold temperatures above Tg. Injection molding using the latter mold temperature regime resulted in a bimodal distribution of pillar heights, corresponding to either full or very poor replication of the...... coating with FDTS. Reduced adhesion forces are consistent with lowered friction that reduces the risk of fracturing the nanoscopic pillars during demolding. Optimized mold surface chemistry and associated injection molding conditions permitted the fabrication of square arrays of 40 nm wide and 107 nm high...

  18. Vortices in rotating and stratified flows: aspect ratio and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In linear stratifications, vortices have a typical flat shape that appears to be not only a compromise between the rotation and the stratification of the background flow through their Coriolis parameter f and buoyancy frequency hbox{$ar{N}$} N̅ , but also involves the buoyancy frequency Nc within the vortices and their Rossby number Ro. We derive an analytical solution for the self-similar ellipsoidal shape of the vortices and the law for their aspect ratio. From this law, we show that long-lived vortices must necessary be either weakly stratified anticyclones or superstratified cyclones (which is less likely to occur. These predictions are experimentally and numerically verified and agree with published measurements for Jovian vortices and ocean meddies. This approach can be applied to a gaussian stratification to give good insights of the shape of vortices in protoplanetary disks and their sustainability.

  19. Fabrication of high aspect ratio micro electrode by using EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejid Elsiti, Nagwa; Noordin, M. Y.; Umar Alkali, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process inherits characteristics that make it a promising micro-machining technique. Micro electrical discharge machining (micro- EDM) is a derived form of EDM, which is commonly used to manufacture micro and miniature parts and components by using the conventional electrical discharge machining fundamentals. Moving block electro discharge grinding (Moving BEDG) is one of the processes that can be used to fabricate micro-electrode. In this study, a conventional die sinker EDM machine was used to fabricate the micro-electrode. Modifications are made to the moving BEDG, which include changing the direction of movements and control gap in one electrode. Consequently current was controlled due to the use of roughing, semi-finishing and finishing parameters. Finally, a high aspect ratio micro-electrode with a diameter of 110.49μm and length of 6000μm was fabricated.

  20. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  1. Study of aspect ratio effects on MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aspect ratio affects kinetic instabilities in many ways. In this paper we describe explicit aspect ratio scaling studies of kinetic instabilities using the NSTX and DIII- D devices and introduce new theoretical work on the general kinetic physics of KBM, TAE, CAE with applications on NSTX. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the DIII-D tokamak are nearly ideal for an Alfven mode similarity experiment, with similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but the major radius differs by a factor of two. A similarity study of the toroidal Alfven mode (TAE) shows that the most unstable toroidal mode number scales as expected, supporting an expectation of a 'sea' of unstable modes in a reactor. Alfvenic instabilities with frequencies that chirp rapidly are common in NSTX but rare in DIII-D. Efforts to understand this difference in terms of the hole-clump theory of Berk and Breizman are reported. Compressional Alfven modes (CAE) on NSTX have the frequency scaling, polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, and low frequency limit qualitatively consistent with CAE theory. Experiments are planned to compare the stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. The ballooning instability results from the release of free energy of non- uniform pressure that has a gradient in the same direction as the magnetic field curvature. We show that the combined kinetic effect of trapped electron dynamics and ion Larmor radii produces a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension. We are grateful to the NSTX and DIII-D teams. (author)

  2. Bootstrap current for small aspect ratio TOKAMAK equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. We present equilibrium features of the very small ratio tokamak, TBR-2 E, with the aspect ratio of 1.6, which is being designed in Brazil - a joint project with the participation of the University of Sao Paulo, the State University of Campinas, and the National Institute for Space Research. The equilibria have been studied by using the SELENE-J code developed at JAERI, Japan, by Tokuda et al. We have concentrated our study on the determination of the stability limit by using the critical pressure criterion for ballooning stability and Mercier criterion for other MHD modes. The β-limit values were calculated for the case of the non-inductive current and found that its maximum lies at elongation of 1.7. Increasing the triangularity, the β-limit values increase, but the maximum continues to stay at the same value of elongation. We have also studied the effect of the neo-classical transport properties by changing the plasma temperature (or β values). In particular, we have studied the trapped particles and bootstrap current. We have found that at temperatures as low as 600 eV the transport is already in banana regime and that the bootstrap current may account for a significant part of the total plasma current. (author)

  3. Effect of high aspect ratio on ITER maintenance design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) baseline machine configuration and auxiliary systems design specify maintainability and repairability as fundamental requirements. Two important maintenance requirements for ITER are a device that is fully remotely maintainable, with the provision for hands-on maintenance wherever possible, and the ability to maintain components with short lives or high failure rates without moving other components or disturbing the machine's internal or external environment. Some of the maintenance tasks are accomplished through the use of specialized remote maintenance equipment that will perform crucial in-vessel and ex-vessel operations. In-vessel maintenance will be performed with a combination of horizontal and vertical access. Since the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA), systems studies by the US ITER design team have pointed to the possible benefits of a high aspect ratio design (HARD). The alternative HARD has been shown to have better performance characteristics than the present baseline. The HARD machine configuration modified in size a number of major components that must be remotely maintained or replaced. This required reevaluation of the maintenance scenarios of these components with respect to changes in physical accessibility, assembly and disassembly, and remote maintenance equipment. The CDA baseline design and HARD are compared from an assembly and maintenance feasibility perspective for some critical operations. 1 ref., 6 figs

  4. Geodesic Acoustic Modes in Rotating Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Analytical theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM's) is modified for a general case of rotating tokamak plasma. Both toroidal and poloidal components of steady-state plasma rotation are taken into account. For large aspect ratio tokamaks, the dispersion relation of electrostatic perturbations is derived analytically in the frame of one-fluid ideal magneto-hydrodynamics. In the case of small (compared to the sound frequency) angular rotation velocity, two solutions of dispersion relation are found. The first one is the standard GAM modified by the rotation effects. The second mode has a frequency close to the frequency of acoustic mode. The new GAM is induced by poloidal plasma rotation. This mode appears as a consequence of the Doppler frequency shift in the side-band components of plasma density, pressure and parallel velocity perturbations. The side-bands arise as the curvature driven response to the electrostatic potential perturbation with m =0(m is the poloidal wavenumber). The Doppler frequency shift is caused by poloidal rotation and has opposite signs for the m = 1 and m = -1 side-bands. Unlike the case of tokamak equilibrium with isothermal magnetic flux surfaces, no new low-frequency GAM arises in the case of purely toroidal plasma rotation in tokamak with isentropic magnetic surfaces. The pure toroidal flow results only in the up-shift of GAM frequency. (author)

  5. Model for aspect ratio dependent etch modulated processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-multiplexed, anisotropic, inductively coupled plasma Si deep reactive ion etch process is characterized in terms of the Si macroload, cross-wafer spatial variation, local pattern density, and feature size. The process regime is established as neutral flux limited, in which material transport occurs in the molecular flow to transition flow regimes. For this process regime, a semiempirical, unified analytic model and a numeric model are developed using the Dushman and Clausing vacuum conductance correction factors, respectively, in the Coburn and Winters model of aspect ratio dependent etching. The experimental reaction probability for etching of Si by F was found to be 0.24 for Dushman's factor and 0.22 for Clausing's factor. Each model is validated to ±10% against experimental depth data for microdonut and trench test structures and match each other to within 10% for depths of up to 160 μm. The observed depth range is 64 μm at a depth of 160 μm.

  6. High-aspect-ratio bulk micromachining of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi, Marco F; Rao, Masa P; MacDonald, Noel C; Zuruzi, Abu Samah; Bothman, David P

    2004-02-01

    Recent process developments have permitted the highly anisotropic bulk micromachining of titanium microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By using the metal anisotropic reactive ion etching with oxidation (MARIO) process, arbitrarily high-aspect-ratio structures with straight sidewalls and micrometre-scale features have been bulk micromachined into titanium substrates of various thicknesses, ranging from 0.5-mm sheet down to 10-microm free-standing titanium foils. Bulk micromachined structures are generally free of residual stresses and are preferred when large, rigid, flat and/or high-force actuators are desired. However, so far there has been a limited ability to select materials on the basis of specific application in bulk micromachining, primarily because of the predominance of MEMS processes dedicated to single-crystal silicon, such as silicon deep reactive ion etching. The MARIO process permits the creation of bulk titanium MEMS, which offers potential for the use of a set of material properties beyond those provided by traditional semiconductor-based MEMS. Consequently, the MARIO process enables the fabrication of novel devices that capitalize on these assets to yield enhanced functionalities that would not be possible with traditional micromechanical material systems. PMID:14743212

  7. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ∼ 0.1 MA m−2) and low magnetic field (B ∼ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ⩽ 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink. (paper)

  8. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Um

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE in the tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS campaign at mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T between −87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D', length (L', and width (W' of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were further distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. The dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, the dimension of the major axis divided by the dimension of the minor axis of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased with temperature. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W' of the minor axis (i.e., a axis for a given dimension (i.e., D' orL' of the major axis (i.e., c axis, and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50 ± 1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32 ± 1.34 (5.46 ± 1.34; 4.95 ± 1.01 during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC. The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationships determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.

  9. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  10. Near-field properties of plasmonic nanostructures with high aspect ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Agha, Y Ould; Girard, C; Bouhelier, A; Francs, G Colas des

    2015-01-01

    Using the Green's dyad technique based on cuboidal meshing, we compute the electromagnetic field scattered by metal nanorods with high aspect ratio. We investigate the effect of the meshing shape on the numerical simulations. We observe that discretizing the object with cells with aspect ratios similar to the object's aspect ratio improves the computations, without degrading the convergency. We also compare our numerical simulations to finite element method and discuss further possible improvements.

  11. Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W

    2014-04-25

    Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity. PMID:24674643

  12. Dielectrophoretically structured piezoelectric composites with high aspect ratio piezoelectric particles inclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van Kempen, S.E.; Wu, X.; Groen, W.A.; Randall, C.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites were prepared by dielectrophoretic alignment of high aspect ratio piezoelectric particles in a thermosetting polymer matrix. A high level of alignment was achieved in the cured composite from a resin containing randomly oriented high aspect ratio particles. Upon application

  13. Seasonal dependence of the urban heat island on the street canyon aspect ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, N.E.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Ronda, R.J.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the relation between the urban heat island (UHI) in the urban canyon and street geometry, in particular the aspect ratio. Model results and observations show that two counteracting processes govern the relation between the nocturnal UHI and the building aspect ratio: i.e. trap

  14. Metallization of high aspect ratio, out of plane structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    This work is dedicated to developing a novel three dimensional structure for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The final prototype will allow not only for the study and culture on chip of neuronal cells, but also of brain tissue. The use of out-of-plane electrodes instead of planar...... ones increases the sensitivity of the system and increases the signal-to-noise ratio in the recorded signals, due to the higher availability of surface area. The main bottleneck of the out-of-plane electrode fabrication lies in the metallization process for transforming them into active electrodes......, since the coverage of the side walls of almost vertical pillars is not trivial by standard processes in a clean room facility. This paper will discuss the different steps taken towards this goal and present the results that we have obtained so far....

  15. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  16. Aspect ratio scaling of toroidal plasma equilibria and the tokamak bootstrap effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aspect ratio scaling of toroidal plasma equilibria is examined using a parametrization of an exact Solov close-quote ev solution to the Grad endash Shafranov equation in Boozer coordinates. The equilibrium analysis suggests that simultaneous enhancements in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and the bootstrap effect are possible in tight aspect ratio (A→1) tokamaks. The fundamental physical mechanism causing the enhancements is shown to be the natural increase of the MHD safety factor q in tight aspect ratio toroidal geometries. The results of the scaling model suggest that the lowest bootstrap current fractions are obtained in tokamaks with aspect ratios A∼3. It is also shown that a tight aspect ratio bootstrapped tokamak can be a weakly paramagnetic device. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. A Sense of Proportion: Aspect Ratio and the Framing of Television Space

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, Sarah E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspect ratio’ is frequently overlooked or naively characterised. Yet it plays a fundamental, determining role in forming and framing television’s spaces. A balanced reappraisal of television’s varied aspect ratios and their unique dramatic and aesthetic possibilities can enhance our close analyses and our understanding of television’s ‘art history’. This paper challenges myths, misunderstandings and preconceptions about TV’s aspect ratios and their spatial properties. Countering prevailing p...

  18. Development path of low aspect ratio tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in tokamak physics indicate that a spherical tokamak may offer a magnetic fusion development path that can be started with a small size pilot plant and progress smoothly to larger power plants. Full calculations of stability to kink and ballooning modes show the possibility of greater than 50% β-toroidal with the normalized β [βN=βT/(I/ab)] as high as 10 and fully aligned 100% bootstrap current. Such β-values coupled with 2-3 T toroidal fields imply a pilot plant about the size of the present DIII-D tokamak could produce ∝800 MW thermal, 160 MW net electric, and would have a ratio of gross electric power over recirculating power (QPLANT) of 1.9. The high β values in the ST mean that E x B shear stabilization of turbulence should be ten times more effective in the ST than in present tokamaks, implying that the required high quality of confinement needed to support such high beta values will be obtained. The anticipated β values are so high that the allowable neutron flux at the blanket sets the device size, not the physics constraints. The ST has a favorable size scaling so that at 2-3 times the pilot plant size the QPLANT rises to 4-5, an economic range and 4 GW thermal power plants result. Current drive power requirements for 10% of the plasma current are consistent with the plant efficiencies quoted. The unshielded copper centerpost should have an adequate lifetime against nuclear transmutation induced resistance change and the low voltage, high current power supplies needed for the 12 turn TF coil appear reasonable. (orig.)

  19. High aspect ratio composite structures with 48.5% thermal neutron detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Q.; Voss, L. F.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J. [Center for Micro and Nano Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dar, M. A.; Cheung, C. L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    The pillar structured thermal neutron detector is based on the combination of high aspect ratio silicon p-i-n pillars surrounded by the neutron converter material {sup 10}B. By etching high aspect ratio pillar structures into silicon, the result is a device that efficiently absorbs the thermal neutron flux by accommodating a large volume fraction of {sup 10}B within the silicon pillar array. Here, we report a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 48.5% using a 50 {mu}m pillar array with an aspect ratio of 25:1.

  20. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth;

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...... in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several...

  1. Distribution over pore radii in random and isotropic systems of polydisperse rods with finite aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    2016-06-01

    Excluded-volume arguments are applied toward modeling the pore-size distribution in systems of randomly arranged cylindrical rods with finite and nonuniform aspect ratios. An explicit expression for the pore-size distribution is obtained by way of an analogy to a hypothetical system of fully penetrable objects, through a mapping that is designed to preserve the volume fraction occupied by the particle cores and the specific surface area. Results are presented for the mean value and standard deviation of the pore radius as functions of the rod aspect ratio, volume fraction, and polydispersity (degree of nonuniformity in the aspect ratios of the particles).

  2. Tailored Au nanorods: optimizing functionality, controlling the aspect ratio and increasing biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Xiaoqing; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Chien, Chia-Chi; Lai Shengfeng; Chen Yiyun; Hua, Tzu-En; Kempson, Ivan M; Hwu, Y [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Yang, C S [Center for Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Margaritondo, G, E-mail: phhwu@sinica.edu.tw [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-20

    Monodisperse gold nanorods with high aspect ratio were synthesized by x-ray irradiation. Irradiation was first used to stimulate the creation of seeds. Afterward, nanorod growth was stimulated either by chemical reduction or again by x-ray irradiation. In the last case, the entire process took place without reducing agents. The shape of the final products could be controlled by modulating the intensity of the x-ray irradiation during the seed synthesis. In turn, the nanorod aspect ratio determines the absorption wavelength of the nanorods that can thus be optimized for different applications. Likewise, the aspect ratio influences the uptake of the nanorods by HeLa cells.

  3. Effect of Aspect Ratio on Field Emission Properties of ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Huibiao; Guo Yanbing; Li Yuliang; Qian Xuemin; Song Yinglin

    2008-01-01

    AbstractZnO nanorod arrays are prepared on a silicon wafer through a multi-step hydrothermal process. The aspect ratios and densities of the ZnO nanorod arrays are controlled by adjusting the reaction times and concentrations of solution. The investigation of field emission properties of ZnO nanorod arrays revealed a strong dependency on the aspect ratio and their density. The aspect ratio and spacing of ZnO nanorod arrays are 39 and 167 nm (sample C), respectively, to exhibit the best field ...

  4. Thorough tuning of the aspect ratio of gold nanorods using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We are finely controlling the aspect ratio of gold nanorods. •We study the effect of variables on aspect ratio (AR) of gold nanorods simultaneously. •We use response surface methodology to make the relation among parameters affect on AR. -- Abstract: In the present work a central composite design based on response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for fine tuning of the aspect ratios of seed-mediated synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs). The relations between the affecting parameters, including ratio of l-ascorbic acid to Au3+ ions, concentrations of silver nitrate, CTAB, and CTAB-capped gold seeds, were explored using a RSM model. It is observed that the effect of each parameter on the aspect ratio of developing nanorods highly depends on the value of the other parameters. The concentrations of silver ions, ascorbic acid and seeds are found to have a high contribution in controlling the aspect ratios of NRs. The optimized parameters led to a high yield synthesis of gold nanorods with an ideal aspect ratio ranging from 1 (spherical particle) to 4.9. In addition, corresponding tunable surface Plasmon absorption band has been extended to 880 nm. The resulted nanorods were characterized by UV–visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy

  5. Effect of Aspect Ratio on Field Emission Properties of ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huibiao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractZnO nanorod arrays are prepared on a silicon wafer through a multi-step hydrothermal process. The aspect ratios and densities of the ZnO nanorod arrays are controlled by adjusting the reaction times and concentrations of solution. The investigation of field emission properties of ZnO nanorod arrays revealed a strong dependency on the aspect ratio and their density. The aspect ratio and spacing of ZnO nanorod arrays are 39 and 167 nm (sample C, respectively, to exhibit the best field emission properties. The turn-on field and threshold field of the nanorod arrays are 3.83 V/μm and 5.65 V/μm, respectively. Importantly, the sample C shows a highest enhancement of factorβ, which is 2612. The result shows that an optimum density and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorod arrays have high efficiency of field emission.

  6. Configuration studies for a small-aspect-ratio tokamak stellarator hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of modulated toroidal coils offers a new path to the tokamak-stellarator hybrids. Low-aspect-ratio configurations can be found with robust vacuum flux surfaces and rotational transform close to the transform of a reverse-shear tokamak. These configurations have clear advantages in minimizing disruptions and their effect and in reducing tokamak current drive needs. They also allow the study of low-aspect-ratio effects on stellarator confinement in small devices

  7. The Effect of Nano seed Concentration on the Aspect Ratio of Gold Nano rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the synthesis of gold nano rod with controlled aspect ratio prepared by varying the concentration of nano seed addition into the growth solution via the seed mediated growth method. In typical process, the gold nano rod with aspect ratio from ca. 2.2 to 4.2 can be successfully obtained. Owing to its simplicity, the present approach could be used to produce gold nano rod with special properties for SERS and catalyst application. (author)

  8. Primary oscillatory instability in low-aspect-ratio rotating disk - cylinder system (rotor - stator cavity)

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfgat, A. Yu

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional instability of axisymmetric flow in a rotating disk - cylinder configuration is studied numerically for the case of low cylinders with the height/radius aspect ratio varying between 1 and 0.1. A complete stability diagram for the transition from steady axisymmetric to oscillatory three-dimensional flow regime is reported. A good agreement with experimental results is obtained. It is shown that critical azimuthal wavenumber grows with the decrease of the aspect ratio, reachin...

  9. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; D. V. Karpov; Beresna, M; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as ...

  10. Dynamic Light Scattering of Short Au Rods with Low Aspect Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Fernández, J.; Perez-Juste, J.; L.M. Liz-Marzán; Lang, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    The translational and rotational diffusion of a series of gold nanorods with low aspect ratios was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). It is shown that the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients can be determined because the particle shape causes an anisotropy of the polarizability. This gives rise to two clearly distinguishable relaxation modes in the time correlation function of the scattered light. The particle length and aspect ratio were determined independently ...

  11. Vortex formation and drag on low aspect ratio, normal flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringuette, Matthew James

    Experiments were done to investigate the role of vortex formation in the drag force generation of low aspect ratio, normal flat plates starting from rest. This very simplified case is a first, fundamental step toward understanding the more complicated flow of hovering flight, which relies primarily on drag for propulsion. The relative importance of the plate's free end, or tip, with varying aspect ratio was also studied. Identifying the relationship among aspect ratio, vortex formation, and drag force can provide insight into the wing aspect ratios and kinematics found nature, with the eventual goal of designing man-made flapping wing micro air vehicles. The experiments were carried out using flat plate models in a towing tank at a moderate Reynolds number of 3000. Two aspect ratios, 6 and 2, were considered, the latter in order to have a highly tip-dominated case. A force balance measured the time-varying drag, and multiple, perpendicular sections of the flow velocity were measured quantitatively using digital particle image velocimetry. Vorticity fields were calculated from the velocity data, and features in the drag force for different aspect ratios were related to the vortex dynamics. Finally, since the flow is highly three-dimensional, dye flow visualization was done to characterize its structure and to augment the two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry data.

  12. Variable aspect ratio method in the Xu–White model for shear-wave velocity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shear-wave velocity logs are useful for various seismic interpretation applications, including bright spot analyses, amplitude-versus-offset analyses and multicomponent seismic interpretations. This paper presents a method for predicting the shear-wave velocity of argillaceous sandstone from conventional log data and experimental data, based on Gassmann's equations and the Xu–White model. This variable aspect ratio method takes into account all the influences of the matrix nature, shale content, porosity size and pore geometry, and the properties of pore fluid of argillaceous sandstone, replacing the fixed aspect ratio assumption in the conventional Xu–White model. To achieve this, we first use the Xu–White model to derive the bulk and shear modulus of dry rock in a sand–clay mixture. Secondly, we use Gassmann's equations to calculate the fluid-saturated elastic properties, including compressional and shear-wave velocities. Finally, we use the variable aspect ratio method to estimate the shear-wave velocity. The numerical results indicate that the variable aspect ratio method provides an important improvement in the application of the Xu–White model for sand–clay mixtures and allows for a variable aspect ratio log to be introduced into the Xu–White model instead of the constant aspect ratio assumption. This method shows a significant improvement in predicting velocities over the conventional Xu–White model. (paper)

  13. Effect of tip vortices on membrane vibration of flexible wings with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Mustafa Serdar; Hakan Açikel, Halil; Demir, Hacımurat; Özden, Mustafa; Çağdaş, Mücahit; Isabekov, Iliasbek

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the aspect ratio on the aerodynamics characteristic of flexible membrane wings with different aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3) is experimentally investigated at Reynolds number of 25000. Time accurate measurements of membrane deformation using Digital Image Correlation system (DIC) is carried out while normal forces of the wing will be measured by helping a load-cell system and flow on the wing was visualized by means of smoke wire technic. The characteristics of high aspect ratio wings are shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds number. It is concluded that the camber of membrane wing excites the separated shear layer and this situation increases the lift coefficient relatively more as compared to rigid wings. In membrane wings with low aspect ratio, unsteadiness included tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices and vortex shedding causes complex unsteady deformations of these membrane wings. The characteristic of high aspect ratio wings was shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers whereas the deformations of flexible wing with low aspect ratio affected by tip vortices and leading edge separation bubbles.

  14. Effect of tip vortices on membrane vibration of flexible wings with different aspect ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genç Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the aspect ratio on the aerodynamics characteristic of flexible membrane wings with different aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3 is experimentally investigated at Reynolds number of 25000. Time accurate measurements of membrane deformation using Digital Image Correlation system (DIC is carried out while normal forces of the wing will be measured by helping a load-cell system and flow on the wing was visualized by means of smoke wire technic. The characteristics of high aspect ratio wings are shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds number. It is concluded that the camber of membrane wing excites the separated shear layer and this situation increases the lift coefficient relatively more as compared to rigid wings. In membrane wings with low aspect ratio, unsteadiness included tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices and vortex shedding causes complex unsteady deformations of these membrane wings. The characteristic of high aspect ratio wings was shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers whereas the deformations of flexible wing with low aspect ratio affected by tip vortices and leading edge separation bubbles.

  15. Controlled Aspect Ratios of Gold Nanorods in Reduction-Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeob Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspect ratios of gold nanorods have been finely modified in reduction-limited conditions via two electrochemical ways: by changing the amount of a growth solution containing small gold clusters in the presence of already prepared gold nanorods as seeds or by changing electrolysis time in the presence or absence of a silver plate. While the atomic molar ratio of gold in the growth solution to gold in the seed solution is critical in the former method, the relative molar ratio of gold ions to silver ions in the electrolytic solution is important in the latter way for the control of the aspect ratios of gold nanorods. The aspect ratios of gold nanorods decrease with an increase of electrolysis time in the absence of a silver plate, but they increase with an increase of electrolysis time in the presence of a silver plate.

  16. Bootstrap current in low aspect ratio tokamaks using Maschke equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of relevant aspects of equilibrium and bootstrap current in low-aspect-ratio tokamaks is made using the Maschke equilibrium model, which provides analytic and exact solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. The current profile in the Maschke model is parabolic, which is a good approximation for actual experimentally observed ones. The results are compared with the Soloviev equilibrium model, that has the current profile almost flat. It is shown that the bootstrap current depends on the geometrical parameter of the plasma column, that is, elongation. The bootstrap current increases with the inverse aspect ratio for elongated cross-section of the plasma column. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  17. Size Dependent Cellular Uptake of Rod-like Bionanoparticles with Different Aspect Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Wu, Fengchi; Tian, Ye; Wu, Man; Zhou, Quan; Jiang, Shidong; Niu, Zhongwei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the cellular internalization mechanism of nanoparticles is essential to study their biological fate. Especially, due to the anisotropic properties, rod-like nanoparticles have attracted growing interest for the enhanced internalization efficiency with respect to spherical nanoparticles. Here, to elucidate the effect of aspect ratio of rod-like nanoparticles on cellular uptake, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a typical rod-like bionanoparticle, is developed as a model. Nanorods with different aspect ratios can be obtained by ultrasound treatment and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. By incubating with epithelial and endothelial cells, we found that the rod-like bionanoparticles with various aspect ratios had different internalization pathways in different cell lines: microtubules transport in HeLa and clathrin-mediated uptake in HUVEC for TMV4 and TMV8; caveolae-mediated pathway and microtubules transport in HeLa and HUVEC for TMV17. Differently from most nanoparticles, for all the three TMV nano-rods with different aspect ratios, macropinocytosis takes no effect on the internalization in both cell types. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the influence of aspect ratio on cellular uptake decoupled from charge and material composition. PMID:27080246

  18. Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, S.; Yashiro, H.; Sato, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tomita, H.

    2015-10-01

    We examine the influence of the grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing on turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in a large-eddy simulation (LES). In order to clarify and distinguish them from other artificial effects caused by numerical schemes, we used a fully compressible meteorological LES model with a fully explicit scheme of temporal integration. The influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the mixing length of the eddy viscosity and diffusion due to sub-grid-scale turbulence plays an essential role in reproducing the theoretical -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum. If we define the filter length in LES modeling based on consideration of the numerical scheme, and introduce a corrective factor for the grid aspect ratio into the mixing length, the theoretical slope of the energy spectrum can be obtained; otherwise, spurious energy piling appears at high wave numbers. We also found that the grid aspect ratio has influence on the turbulent statistics, especially the skewness of the vertical velocity near the top of the PBL, which becomes spuriously large with large aspect ratio, even if a reasonable spectrum is obtained.

  19. Formation of high aspect ratio polyamide-6 nanofibers via electrically induced double layer during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6 was investigated as a function of applied voltage ranging from 15 to 25 kV using electrospinning technique. All other experimental parameters were kept constant. The electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). FE-SEM images of polyamide-6 nanofibers showed that the diameter of the electrospun fiber was decreased with increasing applied voltage. At the critical applied voltage, the polymer solution was completely ionized to form the dense high aspect ratio nanofibers in between the main nanofibers. The diameter of the polyamide-6 nanofibers was observed to be in the range of 75-110 nm, whereas the high aspect ratio structures consisted of regularly distributed very fine nanofibers with diameters of about 9-28 nm. Trends in fiber diameter and diameter distribution were discussed for the high aspect ratio nanofibers. TEM results revealed that the formation of double layers in polyamide-6 nanofibers and then split-up into ultrafine fibers. The electrically induced double layer in combination with the polyelectrolytic nature of solution is proposed as the suitable mechanisms for the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6.

  20. Effects of Aspect Ratio on Water Immersion into Deep Silica Nanoholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Zhang, Junqiao; Tan, Lu; Li, Debing; Huang, Liangliang; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yingchun

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the influence of aspect ratio on water immersion into silica nanoholes is of significant importance to the etching process of semiconductor fabrication and other water immersion-related physical and biological processes. In this work, the processes of water immersion into silica nanoholes with different height/width aspect ratios (ϕ = 0.87, 1.92, 2.97, 4.01, 5.06) and different numbers of water molecules (N = 9986, 19972, 29958, 39944) were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. A comprehensive analysis has been conducted about the detailed process of water immersion and the influence of aspect ratios on water immersion rates. Five distinguishable stages were identified for the immersion process with all studied models. The results reveal that water can easily immerse into the silica nanoholes with larger ϕ and smaller N. The calculation also suggests that aspect ratios have a greater effect on water immersion rates for larger N numbers. The mechanism of the water immersion process is discussed in this work. We also propose a mathematical model to correlate the complete water immersion process for different aspect ratios. PMID:27506253

  1. Hydrodynamic thrust generation and power consumption investigations for piezoelectric fins with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S.; Tan, D.; Erturk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bio-inspired hydrodynamic thrust generation using piezoelectric transduction has recently been explored using Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators. The MFC technology strikes a balance between the actuation force and structural deformation levels for effective swimming performance, and additionally offers geometric scalability, silent operation, and ease of fabrication. Recently we have shown that mean thrust levels comparable to biological fish of similar size can be achieved using MFC fins. The present work investigates the effect of length-to-width (L/b) aspect ratio on the hydrodynamic thrust generation performance of MFC cantilever fins by accounting for the power consumption level. It is known that the hydrodynamic inertia and drag coefficients are controlled by the aspect ratio especially for L/b< 5. The three MFC bimorph fins explored in this work have the aspect ratios of 2.1, 3.9, and 5.4. A nonlinear electrohydroelastic model is employed to extract the inertia and drag coefficients from the vibration response to harmonic actuation for the first bending mode. Experiments are then conducted for various actuation voltage levels to quantify the mean thrust resultant and power consumption levels for different aspect ratios. Variation of the thrust coefficient of the MFC bimorph fins with changing aspect ratio is also semi-empirically modeled and presented.

  2. Optimized aspect ratios of restrained thick-wall cylinders by virtue of Poisson's ratio selection. Part two: Temperature application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Incontrovertible evidence is presented that thermal stresses in cylindrical components which include nuclear reactors and containment vessels are shown to be highly dependent on the Poisson's ratio of the materials. → The key novelty is concerned with the identification of a new potential thermal applications for negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials; i.e. those that get fatter when they are stretched. → Negative Poisson's ratio (auxetic) materials exhibit lower thermal stress build-up than conventional positive Poisson's ratio materials, this conjecture being proven using thermal surface plots. - Abstract: Analytical and numerical modelling have been employed to show that the choice of Poisson's ratio is one of the principal design criteria in order to reduce thermal stress build-up in isotropic materials. The modelling procedures are all twofold; consisting of a solution to a steady-state heat conduction problem followed by a linear static solution. The models developed take the form of simplistic thick-wall cylinders such model systems are applicable at macro-structural and micro-structural levels as the underlining formulations are based on the classical theory of elasticity. Generally, the results show that the Poisson's ratio of the material has a greater effect on the magnitude of the principal stresses than the aspect ratio of the cylinders investigated. Constraining the outside of these models significantly increases the thermal stresses induced. The most significant and original finding presented is that the for both freely expanding and constrained thick-wall cylinders the optimum Poisson's ratio is minus unity.

  3. Experimental investigation on tilt stabilizing effect of external toroidal field in low aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes experimental investigations on the equilibrium and global stability of low aspect ratio tokamaks with different aspect ratios ranging from 1.1 to 1.9. The Z-θ pinch spheromak formation technique is used to produce low aspect ratio tokamaks in an external toroidal field generated by the center conductor. Using this operation, the plasma stability has been investigated in the transition regime from tokamaks to spheromaks. It has been found that there exists a lower critical value of the center conductor current to surpress the global plasma instability of the n=1 tilt and/or shift modes. The ratio of this critical current to plasma current is experimentally measured for the first time as a function of the aspect ratio. Glass-tube cylindrical limiters with different radii are installed along the symmetric center axis of the Spherical Torus-3 device [Y. Ono et al., Phys. Fluids B 5, 3691 (1993)]. As the aspect ratio is decreased from 1.9 to 1.1, it is observed that the critical ratio of the center conductor current to plasma current decreases from 1.2 to 0.2. The safety factor q at the plasma edge corresponding to this critical current is roughly 1.5 to 3.0. Similar experiments are also carried out with a thin metal cover surrounding the surface of the glass tube limiter. The thin metal cover permits the decrease in the critical current and the corresponding edge q value of q∼1. These experimental results of the critical current ratio are found to be comparable to that predicted from theoretical models where the restoring force against the tilt motion is considered to be generated by the interaction of the external toroidal field with the n=1 induced surface currents in the tilt motion. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) responds differentially to a robotic fish of varying swimming depth and aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of using bioinspired robotics to influence the behaviour of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), a social freshwater fish species that is extensively studied for the ecological issues associated with its diffusion in non-native environments. Specifically, in a dichotomous choice test, we investigate the behavioural response of small shoals of mosquitofish to a robotic fish inspired by mosquitofish in its colouration, shape, aspect ratio, and locomotion. Our results indicate that the swimming depth and the aspect ratio of the robotic fish are both determinants of mosquitofish preference. In particular, we find that mosquitofish are never attracted by a robotic fish whose colouration and shape are inspired by live subjects and that the degree of repulsion varies as a function of the swimming depth and the aspect ratio. PMID:23684918

  5. Injection moulding of ultra high aspect ratio nanostructures using coated polymer tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replication-based nanofabrication techniques offer rapid, cost effective ways to produce nanostructured devices for a host of applications in engineering, biological research and beyond. In this work we developed a method to replicate ultra high aspect ratio (UHAR) nanopillars by injection molding with failure rates lower than one pillar in a thousand. We provide a review of the literature in which replication of difficult micro- and nanostructures is facilitated through the use of different tooling materials and surface coatings, before describing the non-adhesive surface coatings which we used to translate a previously developed technique from low to high aspect ratios. This development involved a systematic study of nine different surface coatings on polymer tooling initially patterned by nanoimprint lithography. Using this method we were able to produce injection moulded pillar-like nanostructures with aspect ratios of up to 20:1, more than 6 times that reported elsewhere in the literature for this type of feature. (paper)

  6. Primary oscillatory instability in low-aspect-ratio rotating disk - cylinder system (rotor - stator cavity)

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfgat, A Yu

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional instability of axisymmetric flow in a rotating disk - cylinder configuration is studied numerically for the case of low cylinders with the height/radius aspect ratio varying between 1 and 0.1. A complete stability diagram for the transition from steady axisymmetric to oscillatory three-dimensional flow regime is reported. A good agreement with experimental results is obtained. It is shown that critical azimuthal wavenumber grows with the decrease of the aspect ratio, reaching the value of 19 at the aspect ratio 0.1. It is argued that the observed instability cannot be described as resulting from a B\\"odewadt flow or from a boundary layer only. Other reasons that can destabilize the flow are discussed.

  7. Ripple Loss of Alpha Particles in a Low-Aspect-Ratio Tokamak Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the loss of alpha particles enhanced by toroidal field (TF) ripple in a low-aspect-ratio tokamak reactor (VECTOR) have been made by using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code. In actual TF coil systems, the ripple loss of alpha particles is strongly reduced as the aspect ratio becomes low (the power loss ∝ A8.8 for A≥2.5) and the reduction of the number of TF coils results in a large amount of ripple loss even in a low-aspect-ratio tokamak. To reduce the number of TF coils from 12 to 6, about 40% of coil size enlargement is necessary in VECTOR. Ferrite plates are very effective to reduce ripple losses of alpha particles. By using ferrite plates, the coil size enlargement for N=6 can be relaxed to 15% and the number of coils can be reduced from 12 to 8 without enlargement of coil size in VECTOR. (author)

  8. Development of high-aspect-ratio microchannel heat exchanger based on multi-tool milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘敏强; 李金恒; 汤勇

    2008-01-01

    A high-aspect-ratio microchannel heat exchanger based on multi-tool milling process was developed. Several slotting cutters were stacked together for simultaneously machining several high-aspect-ratio microchannels with manifold structures. On the basis of multi-tool milling process, the structural design of the manifold side height, microchannel length, width, number, and interval were analyzed. The heat transfer performances of high-aspect-ratio microchannel heat exchangers with two different manifolds were investigated by experiments, and the influencing factors were analyzed. The results indicate that the magnitude of heat transfer area per unit volume dominates the heat transfer performances of plate-type micro heat exchanger, while the velocity distribution between microchannels has little effects on the heat transfer performances.

  9. Aspect Ratio Model for Radiation-Tolerant Dummy Gate-Assisted n-MOSFET Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Hee Chul

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire radiation-tolerant characteristics in integrated circuits, a dummy gate-assisted n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (DGA n-MOSFET) layout was adopted. The DGA n-MOSFET has a different channel shape compared with the standard n-MOSFET. The standard n-MOSFET has a rectangular channel shape, whereas the DGA n-MOSFET has an extended rectangular shape at the edge of the source and drain, which affects its aspect ratio. In order to increase its practical use, a new aspect ratio model is proposed for the DGA n-MOSFET and this model is evaluated through three-dimensional simulations and measurements of the fabricated devices. The proposed aspect ratio model for the DGA n-MOSFET exhibits good agreement with the simulation and measurement results. PMID:27350975

  10. Improvement of high aspect ratio Si etching by optimized oxygen plasma irradiation inserted DRIE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an advanced Si-deep etching process achieving a high aspect ratio with excellent verticality by the improvement of the O2 plasma source condition in the oxygen plasma irradiation inserted deep reactive ion etching (OP-DRIE) process that we have developed. The conventional DRIE process which we call the Bosch process has a trade-off relation between the high aspect ratio and verticality in the trench profile. Our developed process technique, repeating the conventional DRIE and the O2 plasma irradiation process alternately, can achieve the vertical trench profile with a higher aspect ratio than that of the conventional DRIE process. In order to maximize an advantage of the developed process, a thickness of the SiO2 layer formed by irradiation of O2 plasma should be large enough as a protection layer. However, because of insufficient SiO2 thickness formed by O2 plasma, the aspect ratio has been limited in previous work. Furthermore, mask material (SiO2) erosion which is another limitation factor of the aspect ratio is increased by the insertion of O2 plasma irradiation. In this paper, we have investigated optimum O2 plasma source conditions that allow an increase in SiO2 thickness with a high oxidation rate, and at the same time, with less mask erosion on the top of the wafer. We have clarified the effects of frequency and pulsed/CW modes of the plasma source on the effectiveness in SiO2 formation. From the obtained oxygen plasma source condition, we achieved the etched Si trench having an aspect ratio of over 70 with excellent verticality (uniform trench width)

  11. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanogrid transparent electrodes via capillary assembly of Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Juhoon; Park, Chang-Goo; Lee, Su-Han; Cho, Changsoon; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%.In this report, we describe the fabrication of periodic Ag nanogrid electrodes by capillary assembly of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) along patterned nanogrid templates. By assembling the AgNPs into these high-aspect-ratio nanogrid patterns, we can obtain high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, which can overcome the inherent trade-off between the optical transmittance and the sheet resistance of transparent electrodes. The junction resistance between the AgNPs is effectively reduced by photochemical welding and post-annealing. The fabricated high-aspect-ratio nanogrid structure with a line width of 150 nm and a height of 450 nm has a sheet resistance of 15.2 Ω sq-1 and an optical transmittance of 85.4%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01896c

  12. Simple Systematic Synthesis of Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles with Adjustable Aspect Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Paritosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One-dimensional periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO nanoparticles with tunable aspect ratios are obtained from a chain-type molecular precursor octaethoxy-1,3,5-trisilapentane. The aspect ratio can be tuned from 2:1 to >20:1 simply by variation in the precursor concentration in acidic aqueous solutions containing constant amounts of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. The mesochannels are highly ordered and are oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the PMO particles. No significant Si–C bond cleavage occurs during the synthesis according to29Si MAS NMR. The materials exhibit surface areas between 181 and 936 m2 g−1.

  13. Short Wavelength Ion Temperature Gradient Driven Instability in Noncircular Flux Surface Plasmas with Finite Aspect Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; GAO Zhe

    2006-01-01

    @@ By employing the local equilibrium of shaped tokamak plasmas, a gyrokinetic model with integral eigenmode equations is developed to investigate effects of the finite aspect ratio and noncircular flux surface on short wavelength ion temperature gradient (SWITG) driven modes. It is found that when nonadiabatic electron and trapped particle effects are not considered, the SWITG mode can be stabilized by finite aspect ratio A, elongation κ and triangularity δ, and can be destabilized by the Shafranov shift gradient (e)R0/(e)r.

  14. Laminar flow in radial flow cell with small aspect ratios: Numerical and experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J. G.; Deroanne, C.; Sindic, M.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2009-01-01

    be applied for experiments performed at higher Reynolds numbers. The present study is a numerical analysis of the radial axisymmetrical flow for aspect ratios of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 with inlet pipe Reynolds numbers varying from 0 to 2000, aiming at computing the wall shear stress distribution at...... investigations. The experimental positions of these recirculation zones corresponded well to the numerical predictions. Based on this work, a map of the flow for the different aspect ratios was developed, which can be particularly interesting for the design of experimental devices involving axisymmetrical flow....

  15. Aspect ratio analysis for ground states of bosons in anisotropic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of the initial condensate in the recent experiment on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of 87Rb atoms in an anisotropic magnetic trap are discussed. Given the aspect ratio R, the quality of BEC is estimated. A simple analytical ansatz for the initial condensate wave function is proposed as a function of the aspect ratio which, in contrast to the Baym-Pethick trial wave function, can be used for any interaction strength, reproduces both the weak and the strong interaction limits, and which is in better agreement with numerical results than the latter

  16. Effect of aspect ratio and surface defects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Xue, Yanan; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Limin; Liu, Riping

    2014-04-01

    ZnO, aside from TiO2, has been considered as a promising material for purification and disinfection of water and air, and remediation of hazardous waste, owing to its high activity, environment-friendly feature and lower cost. However, their poor visible light utilization greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of different aspect ratios of the ZnO nanorods with surface defects by mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition method. The experiments revealed that ZnO nanorods with higher aspect ratio and surface defects show significantly higher photocatalytic performances.

  17. Fabrication of high-aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for tribological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Pavlo V.; Zuiddam, Marc R.; Frenken, Joost W. M.

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the results of the fabrication of large arrays of nanopillars for future tribological experiments. This fabrication focused on achieving a constant high aspect ratio up to 1∶24 and a separation between each pair of adjacent pillars. Electron beam lithography was used to write patterns in hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative tone resist. To achieve nanopillars of high aspect ratios and with smooth sides, deep reactive ion etching was employed with SF6 and O2 at cryogenic temperatures. Finally, the residual HSQ was removed using CHF3/O2 plasma etching in order to obtain a smooth finish.

  18. A high-aspect-ratio design option for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design features and performance estimates for HARD -- the high-aspect-ratio (A = 4) International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design variant developed by the US ITER Team -- are presented. Key physics and engineering considerations associated with increased aspect ratio are described. The HARD design makes it possible for ITER to achieve both the ignition/extended-burn and steady-state/technology-testing performance goals set forth in ITER Terms of Reference. These capabilities are obtain in a device that is otherwise similar in concept, size and cost to the A = 2.8 ITER design defined by the Conceptual Design Activity

  19. Theory and observations of high frequency Alfven Eigenmodes in low aspect ratio plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New observations of sub-cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas in the National Spherical Torus experiment (NSTX) are reported, The frequencies of observed instabilities scale with the characteristic Alfven velocity of the plasma. A theory of localized Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE) and Global shear Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) in low aspect ratio plasmas is presented to explain the observed high frequency instabilities. CAE's/GE's are driven by the velocity space gradient of energetic super-Alfvenic beam ions via Doppler shifted cyclotron resonances. Properties of such instabilities are investigated. (author)

  20. Study of aspect ratio effects on kinetic MHD instabilities in NSTX and DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report general observations of kinetic instabilities on the low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and describe explicit aspect ratio scaling studies of kinetic instabilities using both the NSTX and the DIII-D tokamak. The NSTX and the DIII-D tokamak are nearly ideal for such experiments, having a factor of two difference in major radius but otherwise similar parameters. We also introduce new theoretical work on the physics of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM), toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), and compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) with applications to NSTX. (author)

  1. Proton beam writing and electroplating for the fabrication of high aspect ratio Au microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to fabricate tall high aspect ratio Au microstructures by means of proton beam direct writing. Combining proton beam direct writing and electroplating, we successfully produced gold structures with sub-micrometer lateral dimensions, structure heights in excess of 11 μm, and aspect ratios over 28. Sidewall quality of the Au structures was improved by lowering the process temperature to 20 deg. C when developing PMMA patterns with GG developer. The application of such structures as X-ray masks for deep X-ray lithography with synchrotron radiation was demonstrated.

  2. Proton beam writing and electroplating for the fabrication of high aspect ratio Au microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Weisheng [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ren Yaping [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Kan, Jeroen Anton van; Chiam, S.-Y. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jian, Linke; Moser, Herbert O. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Osipowicz, Thomas [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)], E-mail: phyto@nus.edu.sg; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    We present an approach to fabricate tall high aspect ratio Au microstructures by means of proton beam direct writing. Combining proton beam direct writing and electroplating, we successfully produced gold structures with sub-micrometer lateral dimensions, structure heights in excess of 11 {mu}m, and aspect ratios over 28. Sidewall quality of the Au structures was improved by lowering the process temperature to 20 deg. C when developing PMMA patterns with GG developer. The application of such structures as X-ray masks for deep X-ray lithography with synchrotron radiation was demonstrated.

  3. Revealing the nanoparticles aspect ratio in the glass-metal nanocomposites irradiated with femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinskii, S.; Drevinskas, R.; Karpov, D. V.; Beresna, M.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    We studied a femtosecond laser shaping of silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass. Comparing experimental absorption spectra with the modeling based on Maxwell Garnett approximation modified for spheroidal inclusions, we obtained the mean aspect ratio of the re-shaped silver nanoparticles as a function of the laser fluence. We demonstrated that under our experimental conditions the spherical shape of silver nanoparticles changed to a prolate spheroid with the aspect ratio as high as 3.5 at the laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2. The developed approach can be employed to control the anisotropy of the glass-metal composites.

  4. Bound of aspect ratio of base-isolated buildings considering nonlinear tensile behavior of rubber bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, J.; Yoshitomi, S.; Tsuji, M.; Takewaki, Izuru

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple analysis method of axial deformation of base-isolation rubber bearings in a building subjected to earthquake loading and present its applicability to the analysis of the bound of the aspect ratio of base-isolated buildings. The base shear coefficient is introduced as a key parameter for the bound analysis. The bound of the aspect ratio of base-isolated buildings is analyzed based on the relationship of the following four quantities; (i) ultimat...

  5. Lift Enhancement for Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings with Periodic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Rowley, Clarence W.; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David R

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to enhance lift on low-aspect-ratio rectangular flat-plate wings in low-Reynolds-number post-stall flows, periodic injection of momentum is considered along the trailing edge in this numerical study. The purpose of actuation is not to reattach the flow but to change the dynamics of the wake vortices such that the resulting lift force is increased. Periodic forcing is observed to be effective in increasing lift for various aspect ratios and angles of attack, achieving ...

  6. Modeling and characterization of dielectrophoretically structured piezoelectric composites using piezoceramic particle inclusions with high aspect ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Maier, R.A.; Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Zwaag, S. van der; Randall, C.A.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the piezoelectric properties at high electric fields of dielectrophoretically aligned PZT - polymer composites containing high aspect ratio particles (such as short fibers) are presented. Polarization and strain as a function of electric field are evaluated. The properties of the compo

  7. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...

  8. Dispersion and Polarization of Surface Waves Trapped in High Aspect Ratio Electrode Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Vincent; Dühring, Maria Bayard; Moubchir, Hanane;

    2007-01-01

    additional results on the polarization and the dispersion of the surface waves trapped by high aspect ratio electrode arrays. A finite element model, including periodic boundary conditions along the propagation direction and a perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb waves away from the surface, was...

  9. Studies on equilibrium analysis and cylindrical model of low aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-aspect-ratio tokamak is expected to realize a compact and economical fusion reactor. This paper presents a equilibrium study of low-aspect-ratio tokamaks for the basis of both of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis and cylindrical approximation model. Since its external toroidal field coil does not have enough surrounding space for the installation of neutron shielding material, it should be made of a normal conductor, whose current density and the resistive power loss should be estimated. On the basis of the cylindrical approximation model, the relationships are derived between the resistive power loss and various plasma parameters as aspect ratio, elongation, safety factor at the edge, and total beta value. The resistive power loss can be decreased by decreasing aspect ratio, however, neutron wall loading and the total beta increase. It is found that they can be in the reasonable quantitative range by the appropriate selections of the plasma parameters. The evaluation is made of the applicability of the model by comparing the results with those of the numerical MHD analysis. (author)

  10. Global gyrokinetic stability of collisionless microtearing modes in large aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear full radius gyrokinetic calculations show the existence of unstable microtearing modes (MTMs) in purely collisionless, high temperature, large aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The present study takes into account fully gyrokinetic highly passing ions and electrons. The global 2-D structures of the collisionless mode with full radius coupling of the poloidal modes is obtained and compared with another electromagnetic mode, namely, the Alfvén Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode (or Kinetic Ballooning Mode, KBM) for the same equilibrium profile. Several important characteristics of the modes are brought out and compared, such as a clear signature in the symmetry properties of the two modes, the plasma–β dependence, and radial and poloidal length scales of the electrostatic and magnetic vector potential fluctuations. Extensive parameter scans for this collisionless microtearing mode reveal the scaling of the growth rate with β and the electron temperature gradient ηe. Scans at different β values show an inverse relationship between the ηe threshold and β, leading to a stability diagram, and implying that the mode might exist at moderate to strong temperature gradients for finite β plasmas in large aspect ratio tokamaks. In contrast to small aspect ratio tokamaks where the trapped electron magnetic drift resonance is found to be important, in large aspect ratio tokamaks, a strong destabilization due to the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons is observed and is identified as a possible collisionless drive mechanism for the collisionless MTM

  11. The Flow Field Downstream of a Dynamic Low Aspect Ratio Circular Cylinder: A Parametric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Samantha; Dan, Clingman; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Flow past a static, low aspect ratio cylinder (pin) has shown the formation of vortical structures, namely the horseshoe and arch-type vortex. These vortical structures may have substantial effects in controlling flow separation over airfoils. In the present experiments, the flow field associated with a low aspect ratio cylinder as it interacts with a laminar boundary layer under static and dynamic conditions was investigated through a parametric study over a flat plate. As a result of the pin being actuated in the wall-normal direction, the structures formed in the wake of the pin were seen to be a strong function of actuation amplitude, driving frequency, and aspect ratio of the cylinder. The study was conducted at a Reynolds number of 1875, based on the local boundary layer thickness, with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. SPIV data were collected for two aspect ratios of 0.75 and 1.125, actuation amplitudes of 6.7% and 16.7%, and driving frequencies of 175 Hz and 350 Hz. Results indicate that the presence and interactions between vortical structures are altered in comparison to the static case and suggest increased large-scale mixing when the pin is driven at the shedding frequency (350 Hz). Supported by the Boeing Company.

  12. Study of blade aspect ratio on a compressor front stage aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, G. D.; Lee, D.; Snow, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A single stage compressor was designed with the intent of demonstrating that, for a tip speed and hub-tip ratio typical of an advanced core compressor front stage, the use of low aspect ratio can permit high levels of blade loading to be achieved at an acceptable level of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 1.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 88.5 percent. Both rotor and stator have multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections. Variable IGV and stator vanes permit low speed matching adjustments. The design incorporates an inlet duct representative of an engine transition duct between fan and high pressure compressor.

  13. Selective aspect ratio of CNTs based on annealing temperature by TCVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Various aspect ratios of CNTs reported based on alteration of annealing temperature using thermal-chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) method. Also the growth dependent and independent parameters of the carbon nanotube (CNTs) array were studied as a function of synthesis method. The FESEM images indicate that the nanotubes are approximately perpendicular to the surface of the silicon substrate and form carbon nanotubes in different aspect ratios according to the applied annealing temperature. Furthermore, due to the optimized results it can be observed that, the mechanism of the CNTs growth is still present in the annealing step as well as deposition process and the most CNTs with crystalline aspect, produced in the annealing temperature, which was optimized at 700 - 900 ˚C. This result demonstrates that the growth rate, mass production, diameter, density, and crystallinity of CNT can be controlled by the annealing temperature.

  14. A 3-dimensional in vitro model of epithelioid granulomas induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurt Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of granulomatous inflammation are persistent pathogens and poorly-degradable irritating materials. A characteristic pathological reaction to intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of carbon nanotubes is formation of epithelioid granulomas accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the lungs. In the mesothelium, a similar response is induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including asbestos fibers, following intraperitoneal injection. This asbestos-like behaviour of some engineered nanomaterials is a concern for their potential adverse health effects in the lungs and mesothelium. We hypothesize that high aspect ratio nanomaterials will induce epithelioid granulomas in nonadherent macrophages in 3D cultures. Results Carbon black particles (Printex 90 and crocidolite asbestos fibers were used as well-characterized reference materials and compared with three commercial samples of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Doses were identified in 2D and 3D cultures in order to minimize acute toxicity and to reflect realistic occupational exposures in humans and in previous inhalation studies in rodents. Under serum-free conditions, exposure of nonadherent primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages to 0.5 μg/ml (0.38 μg/cm2 of crocidolite asbestos fibers or MWCNTs, but not carbon black, induced macrophage differentiation into epithelioid cells and formation of stable aggregates with the characteristic morphology of granulomas. Formation of multinucleated giant cells was also induced by asbestos fibers or MWCNTs in this 3D in vitro model. After 7-14 days, macrophages exposed to high aspect ratio nanomaterials co-expressed proinflammatory (M1 as well as profibrotic (M2 phenotypic markers. Conclusions Induction of epithelioid granulomas appears to correlate with high aspect ratio and complex 3D structure of carbon nanotubes, not with their iron content or surface area. This model

  15. Neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity with effects of finite banana width for finite aspect ratio tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity has been developed to model transport phenomena, especially, toroidal plasma rotation for tokamaks with broken symmetry. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the results of the numerical codes in the large aspect ratio limit. The theory has since been extended to include effects of finite aspect ratio and finite plasma β. Here, β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic field pressure. However, there are cases where the radial wavelength of the self-consistent perturbed magnetic field strength B on the perturbed magnetic surface is comparable to the width of the trapped particles, i.e., bananas. To accommodate those cases, the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity is further extended here to include the effects of the finite banana width. The extended theory is developed using the orbit averaged drift kinetic equation in the low collisionality regimes. The results of the theory can now be used to model plasma transport, including toroidal plasma rotation, in real finite aspect ratio, and finite plasma β tokamaks with the radial wavelength of the perturbed symmetry breaking magnetic field strength comparable to or longer than the banana width.

  16. Thermal stability of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods with different aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different temperatures (up to 900 °C) on the morphology of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods was systematically investigated. Gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (AR ranging from 2.5 to 4.3) were coated with a 15 nm thick mesoporous silica shell. Silicon supported monolayers of the particles were annealed in the temperature range of 300–900 °C. The resulting changes in particle morphology were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and visible wavelength extinction spectroscopy. The silica coating generally improved the stability of the nanorods from ca. 250 °C by several hundreds degree Celsius. For nanorods with AR < 3 the shape and the aspect ratio change is only moderate up to 700 °C. At 900 °C these nanorods became spherical. For nanorods with AR>3, lower stability was found as the aspect ratio decrease was more significant and they transformed into spherical particles already at 700 °C. It was confirmed by investigating empty silica shells that the observed conformal change of the shell material when annealing core/shell particles is dictated by the deformation of the core particle. This also implies that a significant mechanical stress is exerted on the shell upon core deformation. In accordance with this, for the highest aspect ratio (AR ∼ 4) nanorod the shell breaks up at 900 °C and the gold cores were partially released and coalesced into large spherical particles. - Highlights: • Deformation of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods upon annealing up to 900 °C. • The silica shell protects the gold cores from turning into spheres up to 500 °C. • Decreasing thermal stability with increasing aspect ratio. • Deformation of the silica shell dictated by the shape change of the gold core. • Core induced break-up of the shell for high aspect ratio nanorods

  17. First estimate of bootstrap current in the ETE small aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first estimate of the bootstrap current in the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) small aspect ratio tokamak using the Hirshman single-ion collisionless model shows that we can expect a ratio of 15 to 30% of total bootstrap current in relation to the total equilibrium current depending on the optimization level of the plasma profile parameters. Bootstrap current levels basically depend on the βp values which must be kept under a critical level due to stability conditions and current alignment requirements. Preliminary studies of Shaing's predictions regarding bootstrap current calculations in collisional plasmas are briefly described and different methods for the trapped particle fraction calculation are also illustrated. (Author)

  18. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials. PMID:27135862

  19. Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio SU-8 Structures for Integrated Spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the fabrication of integrated spectrometers for use in miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also called 'lab-on-a-chip'-systems. The spectrometers are based on concave re ection gratings, and are fabricated in the epoxy-based material SU-8 by means of...... photolithography. Successful fabrication of re ection gratings requires a high degree of precision in the photolithographic process. The fabrication process has thus been optimized by optimizing the photolithographic process for fabrication of high aspect ratio structures, i.e. structures with details that are...... small compared to the height of the structure. A decisive factor is the ability of the process to separate closely- spaced structures. The primary measure of quality is thus the aspect ratio of the narrowest trench which it is possible to resolve in the lithographic process. The optimization of the...

  20. Integral transform solution for natural convection in three-dimensional porous cavities: Aspect ratio effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz Neto, H. [National Institute of Technology, INT/MCT Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quaresma, J.N.N. [Chemical and Food Engineering Department, DEQAL/UFPA, Universidade Federal do Para Belem, PA (Brazil); Cotta, R.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, POLI/COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68503, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    Three-dimensional natural convection in box-like cavities filled with a porous material is revisited, by considering a transient formulation for the energy balance and a quasi-steady formulation for the flow problem. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the Darcy law based model for vertical cavities (insulated vertical walls with differentially prescribed horizontal wall temperatures), employing the vorticity-vector potential formulation. Comparisons with previously reported numerical solutions are performed and the transition between conductive and convective states is illustrated, centering on the aspect ratio influence on the flow and heat transfer phenomena. A set of reference results for the steady-state behavior under different aspect ratio is provided for covalidation purposes. (author)

  1. Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Gorelick, Sergey; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Faerm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko, E-mail: joan.vila@psi.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland)

    2010-07-16

    We investigated the fabrication of dense, high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography. The samples were developed using a high contrast developer and supercritically dried in carbon dioxide. Dense gratings with line widths down to 25 nm were patterned in 500 nm-thick resist layers and semi-dense gratings with line widths down to 10 nm (40 nm pitch) were patterned in 250 nm-thick resist layers. The dense HSQ nanostructures were used as molds for gold electrodeposition, and the semi-dense HSQ gratings were iridium-coated by atomic layer deposition. We used these methods to produce Fresnel zone plates with extreme aspect ratio for scanning transmission x-ray microscopy that showed excellent performance at 1.0 keV photon energy.

  2. Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Gorelick, Sergey; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Färm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; David, Christian

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the fabrication of dense, high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) nanostructures by 100 keV electron beam lithography. The samples were developed using a high contrast developer and supercritically dried in carbon dioxide. Dense gratings with line widths down to 25 nm were patterned in 500 nm-thick resist layers and semi-dense gratings with line widths down to 10 nm (40 nm pitch) were patterned in 250 nm-thick resist layers. The dense HSQ nanostructures were used as molds for gold electrodeposition, and the semi-dense HSQ gratings were iridium-coated by atomic layer deposition. We used these methods to produce Fresnel zone plates with extreme aspect ratio for scanning transmission x-ray microscopy that showed excellent performance at 1.0 keV photon energy.

  3. Rapid fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainiemi, Lauri; Keskinen, Helmi; Aromaa, Mikko; Luosujärvi, Laura; Grigoras, Kestas; Kotiaho, Tapio; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Franssila, Sami

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a method for fabrication of high aspect ratio silicon nanopillars is presented. The method combines liquid flame spray production of silica nanoparticle agglomerates with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching. First, the nanoparticle agglomerates, having a diameter of about 100 nm, are deposited on a silicon wafer. Then, during the subsequent cryogenic deep reactive ion etching process, the particle agglomerates act as etch masks and silicon nanopillars are formed. Aspect ratios of up to 20:1 are demonstrated. The masking process is rapid, cheap and has the potential to be scaled up for large areas. Three other structured silicon surfaces were fabricated for comparison. All four surfaces were utilized as desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) sample plates. The mass spectrometry results indicate that nanopillar surfaces masked with the liquid flame spray technique are well suited as DIOS sample plates.

  4. High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report high aspect ratio nanochannel fabrication in glass using single-shot femtosecond Bessel beams of sub-3 μJ pulse energies at 800 nm. We obtain near-parallel nanochannels with diameters in the range 200-800 nm, and aspect ratios that can exceed 100. An array of 230 nm diameter channels with 1.6 μm pitch illustrates the reproducibility of this approach and the potential for writing periodic structures. We also report proof-of-principle machining of a through-channel of 400 nm diameter in a 43 μm thick membrane. These results represent a significant advance of femtosecond laser ablation technology into the nanometric regime.

  5. Synthesis of High-Aspect-Ratio Nickel Nanowires by Dropping Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Minghao; Zhao, Kun

    2016-12-01

    A facile and high-yield route, dropping method, has been used to synthesize Ni nanowires (NWs) with a high aspect ratio. Compared to the conventional chemical reduction method, the diameter of Ni NWs prepared by the dropping method distinctively decreased and the surface roughness was improved. After optimizing the process parameters such as the Ni ion concentration and volume of the dropped NiCl2·6H2O solution, the diameter and aspect ratio of the NWs are 70 nm and ~600, respectively. The possible synthesized process of the dropping method was discussed. This work presents a preferred approach to fabricate high-quality one-dimensional magnetic materials which have potential applications in electrochemical devices, magnetic sensors, and catalytic agents. PMID:26925866

  6. Synthesis of High-Aspect-Ratio Nickel Nanowires by Dropping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Minghao; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-01

    A facile and high-yield route, dropping method, has been used to synthesize Ni nanowires (NWs) with a high aspect ratio. Compared to the conventional chemical reduction method, the diameter of Ni NWs prepared by the dropping method distinctively decreased and the surface roughness was improved. After optimizing the process parameters such as the Ni ion concentration and volume of the dropped NiCl2·6H2O solution, the diameter and aspect ratio of the NWs are 70 nm and ~600, respectively. The possible synthesized process of the dropping method was discussed. This work presents a preferred approach to fabricate high-quality one-dimensional magnetic materials which have potential applications in electrochemical devices, magnetic sensors, and catalytic agents.

  7. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  8. The Effect of Building Aspect Ratio on Energy Efficiency: A Case Study for Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Philip McKeen; Fung, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the energy consumption of varying aspect ratio in multi-unit residential buildings in Canadian cities. The aspect ratio of a building is one of the most important determinants of energy efficiency. It defines the building surface area by which heat is transferred between the interior and exterior environment. It also defines the amount of building area that is subject to solar gain. The extent to which this can be beneficial or detrimental depends on the aspect ratio and ...

  9. Effects of Variable Aspect-Ratio Inclusions on the Electrical Impedance of an Alumina Zirconia Composite at Intermediate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia composites containing either a high aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) hexagonal platelet alumina or an alumina low aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) spherical particulate was used to determine the effect of the aspect ratio on the temperature-dependent impedance of the composite material. The highest impedance across the temperature range of 373 to 1073 K is attributed to the grain boundary of the hexagonal platelet second phase in this alumina zirconia composite.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL MICROMACHINING USING VIBRATILE TUNGSTEN WIRE FOR HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO MICROSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical micromachining can remove electrically conductive materials with the transferring of ions, so that high precision is achievable. A novel method for fabricating high-aspect-ratio microstructures by electrochemical micromachining using vibratile tungsten wire was proposed in this paper. The slight vibration of tungsten wire can improve the machining stability. The relations between the machining accuracy and machining parameters were experimentally studied. Micro groove with the...

  11. Size Dependent Cellular Uptake of Rod-like Bionanoparticles with Different Aspect Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangxiang Liu; Fengchi Wu; Ye Tian; Man Wu; Quan Zhou; Shidong Jiang; Zhongwei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the cellular internalization mechanism of nanoparticles is essential to study their biological fate. Especially, due to the anisotropic properties, rod-like nanoparticles have attracted growing interest for the enhanced internalization efficiency with respect to spherical nanoparticles. Here, to elucidate the effect of aspect ratio of rod-like nanoparticles on cellular uptake, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a typical rod-like bionanoparticle, is developed as a model. Nanorods with ...

  12. Improving surface acousto-optical interaction by high aspect ratio electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes that are strongly confined to the surface, causing a significant increase in the strain underneath the surface. A finite element method is employed to model the surface acoustic waves generated by a finite length ...

  13. Concept definition of KT-2, a large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with FWCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept definition of the KT-2 tokamak is made. The research goal of the machine is to study the 'advanced tokamak' physics and engineering issues on the mid size large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with intense RF heating (>5 MW). Survey of the status of the research fields, the physics basis for the concept, operation scenarios, as well as machine design concept are presented. (Author) 86 refs., 17 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  15. Reducing the aspect ratio of contact holes by in situ low-angle cross sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Auger analysis of high-aspect ratio topographical structures is a challenging analytical task. In an Auger microprobe, equipped with a CMA and a coaxially mounted electron gun, due to a geometrical shadowing, the primary electron beam and the energy analyser did not have the required direct line of sight to the analysis area at the contact hole bottom simultaneously. • To enable Auger analysis of these high aspect ratio contact holes, some kind of suitable sample preparation is indispensable to reduce the pronounced topography. • Here the new sample preparation method ‘in situ low-angle cross sectioning’ is presented. Simply the sample is covered by a mask and it is sputtered by Ar+ ions at nearly crazing incidence utilizing the masks edge. In the shadow of the mask a bevel develops, which is flatter than give by the geometrical setup due to self-alignment effects. Since the bevel is produced inside the instrument, it is free of contaminations. • The benefit of in situ low-angle cross sectioning is demonstrated by an analysis of a contact hole bottom after a post reactive ion etching cleaning. - Abstract: Auger analysis of high-aspect ratio contact holes of integrated microelectronic devices is a challenging analytical task. Due to geometrical shadowing the primary electron beam and the energy analyser have not the required direct line of sight to the analysis area simultaneously. To solve this problem sample preparation is needed to flatten the three-dimensional geometry. Here the new approach of in situ low-angle cross sectioning is applied. By this method material gets removed inside the Auger instrument while the sample is sputtered by Ar+ ions at nearly grazing incidence utilizing the edge of a mask, which partly covers the sample. A very shallow bevel with respect to the sample surface is produced. Thus along the bevel contact holes with suitable aspect ratios are available for the Auger analysis

  16. An in vitro testing strategy towards mimicking the inhalation of high aspect ratio nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Endes, Carola; Schmid, Otmar; Kinnear, Calum; Mueller, Silvana; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Foster, E Johan; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Weder, Christoph; Martin J. D. Clift

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge remains to reliably mimic human exposure to high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) via inhalation. Sophisticated, multi-cellular in vitro models are a particular advantageous solution to this issue, especially when considering the need to provide realistic and efficient alternatives to invasive animal experimentation for HARN hazard assessment. By incorporating a systematic test-bed of material characterisation techniques, a specific air-liquid cell exposure system wi...

  17. High aspect ratio sub-15 nm silicon trenches from block copolymer templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zuwei; Gunkel, Ilja; Chourou, S T; Hong, Sung Woo; Olynick, Deirdre L; Russell, Thomas P

    2012-11-01

    High-aspect-ratio sub-15-nm silicon trenches are fabricated directly from plasma etching of a block copolymer mask. A novel method that combines a block copolymer reconstruction process and reactive ion etching is used to make the polymer mask. Silicon trenches are characterized by various methods and used as a master for subsequent imprinting of different materials. Silicon nanoholes are generated from a block copolymer with cylindrical microdomains oriented normal to the surface. PMID:22903820

  18. Geometrical Nonlinear Aeroelastic Stability Analysis of a Composite High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chuan Xie; Jia Zhen Leng; Chao Yang

    2008-01-01

    A composite high-aspect-ratio wing of a high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft was modeled with FEM by MSC/NASTRAN, and the nonlinear static equilibrium state is calculated under design load with follower force effect, but without load redistribution. Assuming the little vibration amplitude of the wing around the static equilibrium state, the system is linearized and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the deformed structure are obtained. Planar doublet lattice method is used to ...

  19. Reducing the aspect ratio of contact holes by in situ low-angle cross sectioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, Uwe, E-mail: scht.uhg@googlemail.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Auger analysis of high-aspect ratio topographical structures is a challenging analytical task. In an Auger microprobe, equipped with a CMA and a coaxially mounted electron gun, due to a geometrical shadowing, the primary electron beam and the energy analyser did not have the required direct line of sight to the analysis area at the contact hole bottom simultaneously. • To enable Auger analysis of these high aspect ratio contact holes, some kind of suitable sample preparation is indispensable to reduce the pronounced topography. • Here the new sample preparation method ‘in situ low-angle cross sectioning’ is presented. Simply the sample is covered by a mask and it is sputtered by Ar{sup +} ions at nearly crazing incidence utilizing the masks edge. In the shadow of the mask a bevel develops, which is flatter than give by the geometrical setup due to self-alignment effects. Since the bevel is produced inside the instrument, it is free of contaminations. • The benefit of in situ low-angle cross sectioning is demonstrated by an analysis of a contact hole bottom after a post reactive ion etching cleaning. - Abstract: Auger analysis of high-aspect ratio contact holes of integrated microelectronic devices is a challenging analytical task. Due to geometrical shadowing the primary electron beam and the energy analyser have not the required direct line of sight to the analysis area simultaneously. To solve this problem sample preparation is needed to flatten the three-dimensional geometry. Here the new approach of in situ low-angle cross sectioning is applied. By this method material gets removed inside the Auger instrument while the sample is sputtered by Ar{sup +} ions at nearly grazing incidence utilizing the edge of a mask, which partly covers the sample. A very shallow bevel with respect to the sample surface is produced. Thus along the bevel contact holes with suitable aspect ratios are available for the Auger analysis.

  20. RCD Large Aspect-Ratio Tokamak Equilibrium with Magnetic Islands: a Perturbed Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.L.Braga

    2013-01-01

    Solutions of Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation with Reversed Current Density (RCD) profiles present magnetic islands when the magnetic flux is explicitly dependent on the poloidal angle.In this work it is shown that a typical cylindrical (large aspect-ratio) RCD equilibrium configuration perturbed by the magnetic tield of a circular loop (simulating a divertor) is capable of generate magnetic islands,due to the poloidal symmetry break of the GS equilibrium solution.

  1. Alternative method for variable aspect ratio vias using a vortex mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Anthony R.; Levinson, Zac; Burbine, Andrew; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-03-01

    Historically IC (integrated circuit) device scaling has bridged the gap between technology nodes. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Exemplifying this trend are aggressive reductions in memory cell sizes that have resulted in systems with diminishing area between bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area and complex aerial image. To accommodate these trends, semiconductor device design has shifted toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free device space, preserving contact area and effectively reducing the via dimension just along a single axis. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. Vortex masks, characterized by their helically induced propagation of light and consequent dark core, afford great potential for the patterning of such features when coupled with a high resolution negative tone resist system. This study investigates the integration of a vortex mask in a 193nm immersion (193i) lithography system and qualifies its ability to augment aspect ratio through feature density using aerial image vector simulation. It was found that vortex fabricated vias provide a distinct resolution advantage over traditionally patterned contact features employing a 6% attenuated phase shift mask (APM). 1:1 features were resolvable at 110nm pitch with a 38nm critical dimension (CD) and 110nm depth of focus (DOF) at 10% exposure latitude (EL). Furthermore, iterative source-mask optimization was executed as means to augment aspect ratio. By employing mask asymmetries and directionally biased sources aspect ratios ranging between 1:1 and 2:1 were achievable, however, this

  2. "Barber pole turbulence" in large aspect ratio Taylor-Couette flow

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent, A; Dauchot, O.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations of counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow (TCF) in the narrow gap limit are conducted in a very large aspect ratio apparatus. The phase diagram is presented and compared to that obtained by Andereck et al. The spiral turbulence regime is studied by varying both internal and external Reynolds numbers. Spiral turbulence is shown to emerge from the fully turbulent regime via a continuous transition appearing first as a modulated turbulent state, which eventually relaxes locally to t...

  3. Strong geographical variation in wing aspect ratio of a damselfly, Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Zygoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Geographical patterns in body size have been described across a wide range of species, leading to the development of a series of fundamental biological rules. However, shape variables are less well-described despite having substantial consequences for organism performance. Wing aspect ratio (AR) has been proposed as a key shape parameter that determines function in flying animals, with high AR corresponding to longer, thinner wings that promote high manoeuvrability, low speed flight, and low AR corresponding to shorter, broader wings that promote high efficiency long distance flight. From this principle it might be predicted that populations living in cooler areas would exhibit low AR wings to compensate for reduced muscle efficiency at lower temperatures. I test this hypothesis using the riverine damselfly, Calopteryx maculata, sampled from 34 sites across its range margin in North America. Nine hundred and seven male specimens were captured from across the 34 sites (mean = 26.7 ± 2.9 SE per site), dissected and measured to quantify the area and length of all four wings. Geometric morphometrics were employed to investigate geographical variation in wing shape. The majority of variation in wing shape involved changes in wing aspect ratio, confirmed independently by geometric morphometrics and wing measurements. There was a strong negative relationship between wing aspect ratio and the maximum temperature of the warmest month which varies from west-east in North America, creating a positive relationship with longitude. This pattern suggests that higher aspect ratio may be associated with areas in which greater flight efficiency is required: regions of lower temperatures during the flight season. I discuss my findings in light of research of the functional ecology of wing shape across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. PMID:26336648

  4. Concept definition of KT-2, a large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with FWCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyoo; Chang, In Soon; Chung, Moon Kyoo; Hwang, Chul Kyoo; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang Ryul; Choi, Byung Ho; Hong, Bong Keun; Oh, Byung Hoon; Chung, Seung Ho; Yoon, Byung Joo; Yoon, Jae Sung; Song, Woo Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Choong Suk; Chang, Hong Yung; Choi, Duk In; Nam, Chang Heui [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoo Sun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Heui [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heui Dong [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Koo [Pohang Inst. of Science and Technology, Kyungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-01

    A concept definition of the KT-2 tokamak is made. The research goal of the machine is to study the `advanced tokamak` physics and engineering issues on the mid size large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with intense RF heating (>5 MW). Survey of the status of the research fields, the physics basis for the concept, operation scenarios, as well as machine design concept are presented. (Author) 86 refs., 17 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Mesh Regeneration Method for Jig-Shape Optimization Design of the High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, S. H.; Wang, F S; Z. Yuan; Yue, Z. F.

    2013-01-01

    A mesh regeneration method was put forward, and its application on the jig-shape optimization design of a high-aspect-ratio wing was carried out in the present study. In the mesh regeneration method, some control lines were selected based on configuration characters of the wing structure firstly. And then a new aerodynamic model was built according to the new control lines distribution which always keeps the same outline. Finally, mesh generation and quality optimization were carried out. Thr...

  6. Magnetic reversal modes in multisegmented nanowire arrays with long aspect ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, E. A.; Allende, S.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed numerical analysis of the magnetization reversal processes in multisegmented nanowire arrays was developed. The nanowires have a long aspect ratio and are formed by magnetic and non-magnetic sections alternately arranged in such a way that the array resembles magnetic layers separated by non-magnetic layers. Attention has been focused on the influence of magnetostatic interaction in the magnetic pattern formation of these magnetic nanostructures. Results from a magnetic correlation...

  7. Relation between self-organized criticality and grain aspect ratio in granular piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, D V; Villanueva, Y Y; Lőrincz, K A; May, S; Wijngaarden, R J

    2012-05-01

    We investigate experimentally whether self-organized criticality (SOC) occurs in granular piles composed of different grains, namely, rice, lentils, quinoa, and mung beans. These four grains were selected to have different aspect ratios, from oblong to oblate. As a function of aspect ratio, we determined the growth (β) and roughness (α) exponents, the avalanche fractal dimension (D), the avalanche size distribution exponent (τ), the critical angle (γ), and its fluctuation. At superficial inspection, three types of grains seem to have power-law-distributed avalanches with a well-defined τ. However, only rice is truly SOC if we take three criteria into account: a power-law-shaped avalanche size distribution, finite size scaling, and a universal scaling relation relating characteristic exponents. We study SOC as a spatiotemporal fractal; in particular, we study the spatial structure of criticality from local observation of the slope angle. From the fluctuation of the slope angle we conclude that greater fluctuation (and thus bigger avalanches) happen in piles consisting of grains with larger aspect ratio. PMID:23004752

  8. The effect of different aspect ratio and bottom heat flux towards contaminant removal using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic Interpolated Pseudo-particle (CIP) numerical simulation scheme has been anticipated to predict the interaction involving fluids and solid particles in an open channel with rectangular shaped cavity flow. The rectangular shaped cavity is looking by different aspect ratio in modelling the real pipeline joints that are in a range of sizes. Various inlet velocities are also being applied in predicting various fluid flow characteristics. In this paper, the constant heat flux is introduced at the bottom wall, showing the buoyancy effects towards the contaminant's removal rate. In order to characterize the fluid flow, the numerical scheme alone is initially tested and validated in a lid driven cavity with a single particle. The study of buoyancy effects and different aspect ratio of rectangular geometry were carried out using a MATLAB govern by Navier-Stokes equation. CIP is used as a model for a numerical scheme solver for fluid solid particles interaction. The result shows that the higher aspect ratio coupled with heated bottom wall give higher percentage of contaminant's removal rate. Comparing with the benchmark results has demonstrated the applicability of the method to reproduce fluid structure which is complex in the system. Despite a slight deviation of the formations of vortices from some of the literature results, the general pattern is considered to be in close agreement with those published in the literature

  9. Effects of fiber aspect ratio evaluated by elastic analysis in discontinuous composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Gun [Jeonju University, Juenju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    An elastic stress analysis to investigate the effects of fiber aspect ratio in short fiber reinforced discontinuous composite materials has been done for different fiber volume fractions. In order to examine the elastic internal behavior, an evaluation of the load bearing capacity of discontinuous reinforcements is needed in advance. Accordingly, analytical derivation of composite mechanics has been carried out to predict fiber stresses and fiber/matrix interfacial shear stresses in discontinuous composites. The model is based on the theoretical development of conventional shear lag theory developed by Cox. However, the major shortcoming of the Cox model is due to the calculation without normal stress transfer from the end of fibers. In order to overcome the shortcoming, both of the normal and shear stress transfer mechanisms between the fiber and the matrix are accounted for with the stress concentration effects as well as material and geometrical properties. Results of predicted stresses concerning the various fiber aspect ratios are described by using the present model that is the closed form solution and compared with the Cox model and Taya model. It is found that the effect of fiber aspect ratio is significant to composite strengthening through load transfer from the matrix to the fiber, whereas the effect of fiber volume fraction is not so sensitive, relatively. It is also found that the present model has the capability to correctly predict the values of fiber stresses and fiber/matrix interfacial shear stresses

  10. Bootstrap current and neoclassical transport in tokamaks of arbitrary collisionality and aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-species fluid model is described for the steady state parallel and radial force balance equations in axisymmetric tokamak plasmas. The bootstrap current, electrical resistivity, and particle and heat fluxes are evaluated in terms of the rotation velocities and friction and viscosity coefficients. A recent formulation of the neoclassical plasma viscosity for arbitrary shape and aspect ratio (including the unity aspect ratio limit), arbitrary collisionality, and orbit squeezing from strong radial electric fields is used to illustrate features of the model. The bootstrap current for the very low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment [J. Spitzer et al., Fusion Technol. 30, 1337 (1996)] is compared with other models; the largest differences occur near the plasma edge from treatment of the collisional contributions. The effects of orbit squeezing on bootstrap current, thermal and particle transport, and poloidal rotation are illustrated for an enhanced reverse shear plasma in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. Meade and the TFTR Group, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. I, p. 9]. Multiple charge states of impurities are incorporated using the reduced ion charge state formalism for computational efficiency. Because the force balance equations allow for inclusion of external momentum and heat sources and sinks they can be used for general plasma rotation studies while retaining the multi-species neoclassical effects. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velichko, A V; Coombs, T A [Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10{sup -3}-10{sup 3} of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%.

  12. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10-3-103 of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%

  13. Relation between self-organized criticality and grain aspect ratio in granular piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, D. V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Lőrincz, K. A.; May, S.; Wijngaarden, R. J.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate experimentally whether self-organized criticality (SOC) occurs in granular piles composed of different grains, namely, rice, lentils, quinoa, and mung beans. These four grains were selected to have different aspect ratios, from oblong to oblate. As a function of aspect ratio, we determined the growth (β) and roughness (α) exponents, the avalanche fractal dimension (D), the avalanche size distribution exponent (τ), the critical angle (γ), and its fluctuation. At superficial inspection, three types of grains seem to have power-law-distributed avalanches with a well-defined τ. However, only rice is truly SOC if we take three criteria into account: a power-law-shaped avalanche size distribution, finite size scaling, and a universal scaling relation relating characteristic exponents. We study SOC as a spatiotemporal fractal; in particular, we study the spatial structure of criticality from local observation of the slope angle. From the fluctuation of the slope angle we conclude that greater fluctuation (and thus bigger avalanches) happen in piles consisting of grains with larger aspect ratio.

  14. Fabrication process for tall, sharp, hollow, high aspect ratio polymer microneedles on a platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a new lithographic process for fabricating arrays of tall, high aspect ratio (defined as height/wall thickness), hollow, polymer microneedles on a platform. The microneedles feature a high sharpness (down to 3 µm tip radius) and aspect ratio (>65) which is a factor 2 and 4 better than the state of the art, respectively. The maximum achievable needle shaft length is over 1 mm. The improved performance was obtained by using an anisotropically patterned silicon substrate covered with an antireflective layer as mold for the needle tip and an optimized SU-8 lithographic process. Furthermore, a platform containing liquid feedthroughs holding an arbitrary number of needles out of plane can be manufactured with only one additional process step. The high aspect ratio microneedles undergo failure at the critical load of around 230 mN in the case of 1 mm long hollow needles with triangular cross section and a base of 175 µm. Penetration into human skin is demonstrated as well. (paper)

  15. Aspect ratio dependent etching lag reduction in deep silicon etch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication often involves three dimensional structures with high aspect ratios. Moreover, MEMS designs require structures with different dimensions and aspect ratios to coexist on a single microchip. There is a well-documented aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE) effect in deep silicon etching processes. For features with different dimensions etched simultaneously, the ARDE effect causes bigger features to be etched at faster rates. In practice, ARDE effect has many undesired complications to MEMS device fabrication. This article presents a physical model to describe the time division multiplex (TDM) plasma etch processes and thereafter the experimental results on ARDE lag reduction. The model breaks individual plasma etch cycles in the TDM plasma etch processes into polymer deposition, polymer removal, and spontaneous silicon etching stages. With the insights gained from the model and control over the passivation and etch steps, it has been demonstrated that ARDE lag can be controlled effectively. Experiments have shown that a normal ARDE lag can be changed to an inverse ARDE lag. Under optimized conditions, the ARDE lag is reduced to below 2%-3% for trenches with widths ranging from 2.5 to 100 μm, while maintaining good etch profile in trenches with different dimensions. Such results are achieved at etch rates exceeding 2 μm/min

  16. Effects of fiber aspect ratio evaluated by elastic analysis in discontinuous composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An elastic stress analysis to investigate the effects of fiber aspect ratio in short fiber reinforced discontinuous composite materials has been done for different fiber volume fractions. In order to examine the elastic internal behavior, an evaluation of the load bearing capacity of discontinuous reinforcements is needed in advance. Accordingly, analytical derivation of composite mechanics has been carried out to predict fiber stresses and fiber/matrix interfacial shear stresses in discontinuous composites. The model is based on the theoretical development of conventional shear lag theory developed by Cox. However, the major shortcoming of the Cox model is due to the calculation without normal stress transfer from the end of fibers. In order to overcome the shortcoming, both of the normal and shear stress transfer mechanisms between the fiber and the matrix are accounted for with the stress concentration effects as well as material and geometrical properties. Results of predicted stresses concerning the various fiber aspect ratios are described by using the present model that is the closed form solution and compared with the Cox model and Taya model. It is found that the effect of fiber aspect ratio is significant to composite strengthening through load transfer from the matrix to the fiber, whereas the effect of fiber volume fraction is not so sensitive, relatively. It is also found that the present model has the capability to correctly predict the values of fiber stresses and fiber/matrix interfacial shear stresses

  17. SMARTOR: a small-aspect-ratio torus for demonstrating thermonuclear ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tokamak with 2.6-m major radius and aspect ratio of 1.9 is proposed for demonstrating thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium. The 6-MA plasma current is established in part by coinjection only of 40 MW of 80-keV neutral beams (inducing approximately 2 MA at low density) and in part by the flux swing of the equilibrium-field system (inducing approximately 4 M as the plasma pressure is increased)--there is no central current transformer and no poloidal-field coils inboard of the plasma. The core of the device consists simply of a 1.9-m-diameter steel-reinforced conducting trunk formed by coalescence of the inner legs of the toroidal-field coils. Alternate designs are presented, each with an aspect ratio of 1.9, with R/sub 0/ = 2.6 m and a plasma density sufficiently large to provide a comfortable safety margin for achieving ignition conditions. The first design features higher beta (anti β = 0.10, b/a approx. 1.6) with low tensile stress at the copper trunk (1000 kg/cm2), while the second features lower beta (anti β = 0.06, b/a approximately 1.2) with high tensile stress (1800 kg/cm2). Extension of this small-major-radius, small-aspect-ratio configuration to an economically practical fusion reactor is also examined

  18. Effects of fluid behavior around low aspect ratio, low Reynolds number wings on aerodynamic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Matthew; Mohseni, Kamran

    2011-11-01

    The innovation of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) has brought to attention the unique flow regime associated with low aspect ratio (LAR), low Reynolds number fliers. The dominant effects of developing tip vortices and leading edge vortices create a fundamentally different flow regime than that of conventional aircraft. An improved knowledge of low aspect ratio, low Reynolds number aerodynamics can be greatly beneficial for future MAV design. A little investigated but vital aspect of LAR aerodynamics is the behavior of the fluid as the wing yaws. Flow visualization experiments undertaken in the group for the canonical case of varying AR flat plates indicate that the propagation of the tip vortex keeps the flow attached over the upstream portion of the wing, while the downstream vortex is convected away from the wing. This induces asymmetric, destabilizing loading on the wing which has been observed to adversely affect MAV flight. In addition, experimental load measurements indicate significant nonlinearities in forces and moments which can be attributed to the development and propagation of these vortical structures. A non-dimensional analysis of the rigid body equations of motion indicates that these nonlinearities create dependencies which dramatically change the conventional linearization process. These flow phenomena are investigated with intent to apply to future MAV design.

  19. Stable equilibria for bootstrap-current-driven low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low aspect ratio tokamaks (LATs) can potentially provide a high ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure β and high plasma current I at a modest size. This opens up the possibility of a high-power density compact fusion power plant. For the concept to be economically feasible, bootstrap current must be a major component of the plasma current, which requires operating at high βp. A high value of the Troyon factor βN and strong shaping is required to allow simultaneous operation at a high-β and high bootstrap fraction. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of a range of equilibria at aspect ratio 1.4 is systematically explored by varying the pressure profile and shape. The pressure and current profiles are constrained in such a way as to assure complete bootstrap current alignment. Both βN and β are defined in terms of the vacuum toroidal field. Equilibria with βN≥8 and β∼35%endash 55% exist that are stable to n=∞ ballooning modes. The highest β case is shown to be stable to n=0,1,2,3 kink modes with a conducting wall. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Simulation and Measurement of Neuroelectrodes' Characteristics with Integrated High Aspect Ratio Nano Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the interface between electrodes and neurons has been the focus of research for the last decade. Neuroelectrodes should show small geometrical surface area and low impedance for measuring and high charge injection capacities for stimulation. Increasing the electrochemically active surface area by using nanoporous electrode material or by integrating nanostructures onto planar electrodes is a common approach to improve this interface. In this paper a simulation approach for neuro electrodes' characteristics with integrated high aspect ratio nano structures based on a point-contact-model is presented. The results are compared with experimental findings conducted with real nanostructured microelectrodes. In particular, effects of carbon nanotubes and gold nanowires integrated onto microelectrodes are described. Simulated and measured impedance properties are presented and its effects onto the transfer function between the neural membrane potential and the amplifier output signal are studied based on the point-contact-model. Simulations show, in good agreement with experimental results, that electrode impedances can be dramatically reduced by the integration of high aspect ratio nanostructures such as gold nanowires and carbon nanotubes. This lowers thermal noise and improves the signal-to-noise ratio for measuring electrodes. It also may increase the adhesion of cells to the substrate and thus increase measurable signal amplitudes.

  1. Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio structures using an evaporated resist containing metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con, Celal; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Organic electron beam resists are typically not resistant to the plasma etching employed to transfer the pattern into the underlying layer. Here, the authors present the incorporation of a metal hard mask material into negative resist polystyrene by co-evaporation of the polystyrene and the metal onto a substrate. With a volume ratio of 1:15 between Cr and polystyrene, this nanocomposite resist showed an etching selectivity to silicon one order higher than pure polystyrene resist. Silicon structures of 100 nm width and 3.5 μm height (aspect ratio 1:35) were obtained using a non-switching deep silicon etching recipe with SF6 and C4F8 gas. Moreover, unlike the common spin coating method, evaporated nanocomposite resist can be coated onto irregular and non-flat surfaces such as optical fibers and AFM cantilevers. As a proof of concept, we fabricated high aspect ratio structures on top of an AFM cantilever. Nanofabrication on non-flat surfaces may find applications in the fields of (AFM) tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis and lab-on-fiber technology. PMID:24717720

  2. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  3. Impact of Aspect Ratio and Solar Heating on Street Conyn Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group version of k-? turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios one to eight and surface temperature difference (??s-a of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature of high and low AR street canyons ( AR was positive and high with higher ??s-a. Conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of ??s-a. These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers and HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements.

  4. Impact of aspect ratio and solar heating on street canyon air temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from RNG (Re-Normalization Group) version of k-and turbulence model are reported in this study. The model is adopted to elucidate the impact of different building aspect ratios (i.e., ratio of building-height-to-street-canyon-width) and solar heating on temperatures in street canyon. The validation of Navier-Stokes and energy an sport equations showed that the model prediction for air-temperature and ambient wind provides reasonable accuracy. The model was applied on AR (Aspect Ratios) one to eight and surface temperature difference (delta and theta/sub s-a/)) of 2 -8. Notably, air-temperatures were higher in high AR street canyons in particular on the leeward side of the street canyon. Further investigation showed that the difference between the air-temperature 'high and low AR street canyons (AR) was positive and high with higher delta and theta/sub s-a/) conversely, the AR become negative and low gradually with lower values of delta and theta(/sub s-a/). These results could be very beneficial for the city and regional planners, civil engineers Id HVAC experts who design street canyons and strive for human thermal comfort with minimum possible energy requirements. (author)

  5. Flow shear induced fluctuation suppression in finite aspect ratio shaped tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suppression of turbulence by the E x B flow shear and parallel flow shear is studied in an arbitrary shape finite aspect ratio tokamak plasma using the two point nonlinear analysis previously utilized in a high aspect rat ampersand tokamak plasma. The result shows that only the E x B flow shear is responsible for the suppression of flute-like fluctuations. This suppression occurs regardless of the plasma rotation direction and is therefore, relevant for the VH mode plasma core as well as for the H mode plasma edge. Experimentally observed in-out asymmetry of fluctuation reduction behavior can be addressed in the context of flux expansion and magnetic field pitch variation on a given flux surface. The adverse effect of neutral particles on confinement improvement is also discussed in the context of the charge exchange induced parallel momentum damping

  6. Deposition of a-C:H films on inner surface of high-aspect-ratio microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yuki; Choi, Junho

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared on inner surface of 100-μm-width microchannel by using a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition. The microchannel was fabricated using a silicon plate, and two kinds of microchannels were prepared, namely, with a bottom layer (open at one end) and without a bottom layer (open at both ends). The distribution of thickness and hardness of films was evaluated by SEM and nanoindentation measurements, respectively, and the microstructures of films were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to investigate the coating mechanism for the microchannel. It was found that the film thickness decreased as the depth of the coating position increased in the microchannels where it is open at one end. The uniformity of the film thickness improved by increasing the negative pulse voltage because ions can arrive at the deeper part of the microchannel. In addition, the hardness increased as the depth of the coating position increased. This is because the radicals do not arrive at the deeper part of the microchannel, and the incident proportion of ions relative to that of radicals increases, resulting in a high hardness due to the amorphization of the film. The opening area of the microchannel where the aspect ratio is very small, radicals dominate the incident flux, whereas ions prevail over radicals above an aspect ratio of about 7.5. On the other hand, in the microchannels that are open at both ends, there were great improvements in uniformity of the film thickness, hardness, and the film structure. The a-C:H films were successfully deposited on the entire inner surface of a microchannel with an aspect ratio of 20.

  7. Instabilities with polyacrylamide solution in small and large aspect ratios Taylor-Couette systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the stability of viscoelastic polyacrylamide solution in Taylor-Couette system with different aspect ratios. The first instability modes observed in a Taylor-Couette system with Γ = 10 were TVF and WVF, as for Newtonian fluid. At higher Taylor numbers moving vortices occur, a wavy mode with non-stationary vortex size. In the Taylor-Couette system with Γ = 45.9 we note a coexistence of various instability modes. In addition to TVF, counterpropagating waves developed at the transition from the base state flow. At higher Taylor number values Taylor vortices of different sizes occurred. Reduced amplitude Wavy vortex flow has also been observed.

  8. High aspect ratio MEMS capacitor for high frequency impedance matching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Jensen, Søren; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical tunable capacitor with a low control voltage, a wide tuning range and adequate electrical quality factor. The device is fabricated in a single-crystalline silicon layer using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) for obtaining high-aspect ratio (> 20) parallel comb......-drive structures with vertical sidewalls. The process sequence for fabrication of the devices uses only one lithographic masking step and can be completed in a short time. The fabricated device was characterized with respect to electrical quality factor, tuning range, self-resonance frequency and transient...

  9. Dense high-aspect ratio 3D carbon pillars on interdigitated microelectrode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Hansen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present high-aspect ratio carbon pillars (1.4 μm in diameter and ∼11 μm in height) on top of interdigitated electrode arrays to be used for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, different types of 2D and 3D pyrolysed carbon structures were fabricated and characterised...... including surface- and microstructure, electrical and electrochemical properties. A pre-treatment of oxidised Si wafers is introduced to eliminate electrode delamination and ensure structure stability in water during long time-experiments. Additionally, a heat treatment method is reported for regeneration...

  10. Non-destructive automatic determination of aspect ratio and cross-sectional properties of fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Arttu; Ojala, Antti; Wikström, Lisa;

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for computerised estimation of the aspect ratio distribution and various cross-sectional geometrical properties of fibres in short-fibre reinforced composites is proposed. The method, based on X-ray micro-computed tomography, is non-destructive and does not require user interventio...... the processing steps. Finally, the feasibility of the method is assessed by estimating parameters of a micromechanical model for flax fibre composites and comparing the results with those from tensile tests. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of two-dimensional high-aspect-ratio metal trenches acting as resonators for gap-surface plasmons and show that these resonators are highly efficient scatterers of free waves, reaching at resonance in the perfect-conductor limit the unitary dipolar limit for...... only on the resonance wavelength. For real metals with nonzero absorption, efficient monomaterial absorbers and emitters can be fabricated. We extend the analysis to tapering trenches that can be readily fabricated employing common milling or etching techniques and verify by reflection spectroscopy and...

  12. Ordered arrays of silicon pillars with controlled height and aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication of ordered arrays of silicon pillars via a combination of nanosphere lithography (NSL) and reactive ion etching (RIE). For NSL we used monolayers of silica particles self-assembled onto silicon substrates as masks for the deposition of hexagonal arrays of chromium nanoislands. By changing the amount of the deposited metal we fabricated arrays of nanoislands with different size and spacing. By using these arrays as masks for RIE, silicon pillars with different height (up to 1100 nm) and aspect ratio (up to 12:1) could be obtained

  13. Transport theory for energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.; Schlutt, M.; Lai, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Transport theory for the energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry is developed for the case where the slowing down collision operator dominates. The transport fluxes in the 1 /ν and superbanana plateau regimes are derived. Here, ν is the typical collision frequency. They can be used in modeling the energy loss of the alpha particles in thermonuclear fusion reactors. Numerical realizations of the superbanana orbits of alpha particles in tokamaks with broken symmetry are also presented. The existence of the superbananas corroborates the predictions of the theories presented here and elsewhere.

  14. Nonsolenoidal Startup and Plasma Stability at Near-Unity Aspect Ratio in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Pegasus experiment is an ultralow aspect ratio spherical tokamak. The research program on this experiment is developing non-solenoidal startup and growth techniques for tokamaks, and exploring plasma stability at near-unity aspect ratio. Helicity injection from localized current sources in the plasma periphery have produced total tokamak plasma current up to 0.17 MA with less than 4kA injected. These results are consistent with a simple theory invoking helicity balance and Taylor relaxation constraints. Startup discharges created with helicity injection and poloidal field induction produce reasonable target plasmas for further current drive. For example, they readily couple to ohmic induction after helicity injection. Increasing the nonsolenoidal startup current to 0.3 MA will test theory to the point where parallel conduction losses may dominate the helicity loss rate. This regime must be addressed for extrapolation to larger fusion-scale experiments. Nonsolenoidal plasma growth following startup may be pursued via Higher Harmonic Fast Wave heating and/or Electron Bernstein Wave heating and current drive. The ability to strongly modify the plasma current profile through helicity injection and/or detailed field programming is opening a path to the unique high normalized current, high-beta regime at near-unity aspect ratio. Earlier experiments indicated a soft limit wherein the total plasma current was limited to approximately the total toroidal field rod current. Current profile manipulation mitigates the large-scale internal tearing modes that previously limited the plasma current. This opens access to the high beta regime where the plasma current can substantially exceed the toroidal field current. Finally, operation at near-unity aspect ratio provides easy access to regimes of high peeling and ballooning mode drive in the plasma edge region. Electromagnetic filamentary structures are observed in the Pegasus edge region and they display

  15. Time-Scales for Non-Inductive Current Buildup in Low-Aspect-Ratio Toroidal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental differences between inductive and non-inductive current buildup are clarified and the associated time-scales and other implications are discussed. A simulation is presented whereby the plasma current in a low-aspect-ratio torus is increased primarily by the self-generated bootstrap current with only 10% coming from external current drive. The maximum obtainable plasma current by this process is shown to scale with the toroidal field strength. The basic physics setting the time-scales can be obtained from a 1D analysis. Comparisons are made between the timescales found here and those reported in the experimental literature

  16. Magnetic properties of large aspect ratio Co dots electrodeposited on prestructured silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silicon substrate, pre-structured by focused ion beam (FIB), is used for selective electrodeposition of cylindrical cobalt nanodots with a large aspect ratio of depth to diameter of 2. These nanostructures are characterised by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Cobalt dots grown in the pulsed mode are single domain in the remnant state with an easy magnetization perpendicular to the substrate. On the contrary, some of the dots grown, in the continuous mode, present a Co cap on top, which leads to the formation of magnetic vortices with an in-plane magnetization component

  17. Modelling and manufacture of regular microstructures with high aspect ratio in acrylic plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of manufacture of microstructures with high aspect ratio in industrial acrylic plastic by the method of deep X-ray lithography is investigated. A characteristic dependence of the rate of dissolution of the polymer on the dose of the radiation absorbed is obtained. Processing regimes for the formation of deep structures were selected. A model for computation of the profile of development of structures in view of large exhibition depth was suggested. 25x25 μm through channels were obtained in sheet acrylic plastic 1000 μm thick

  18. Dependence of the H-mode pedestal structure on aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a set of experiments between NSTX, MAST, and DIII-D to determine the aspect ratio dependence of the pedestal. The dimensionless parameters of electron collisionality (νe*) and normalized ion gyroradius (ρi*) were matched at the top of the outboard pedestal, and the widths and gradients were assessed. These experiments were motivated in part by the fact that many of the machines in the international database used for scaling the pedestal parameters for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have different aspect ratios, and the experiments were conducted through the ITPA pedestal physics working group. A significant dependence of the pedestal on aspect ratio would not be surprising, because variation of the aspect ratio primarily affects the edge magnetic topology. A common double-null shape was developed for these experiments with triangularity ∼0.5 and elongation ∼2. The toroidal fields and plasma currents used were 0.45-0.55 T and 0.6-0.8 MA in all three machines. The dimensionless parameters νe* ∼ and ρi* ∼ 0.01 were matched at the top of the outboard pedestal by variation of the target density and neutral beam heating power while maintaining ELMy H-mode. The pedestal widths and gradients were analyzed in each machine using a 'standard' modified hyperbolic tangent function; the ranges of pedestal top parameters obtained in this manner were neped : 3-5 x 1019 m-3, Teped : 100-250 eV, and Peped : 0.4-1.5 kPa. The pedestal ne, Te and Pe widths measured in DIII-D for these discharges were between 6-8% in ΨN (normalized poloidal flux), i.e. almost twice as large as the normal range of widths at the normal Bt = 2.1T. In comparison, the pedestal widths in MAST were between 1.5-4% in ΨN, and final assessment of the widths in NSTX is still in progress. Edge stability analysis has commenced and will be presented at the conference for all three machines. (author)

  19. High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K E; Bongard, M W; Barr, J L; Bodner, G M; Burke, M G; Fonck, R J; Kriete, D M; Perry, J M; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-04-29

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A≲1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A∼3 plasmas, the L-H power threshold P_{LH} is ∼15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. These ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible J_{edge}(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament. PMID:27176526

  20. Two phase pressure drop characteristics in rectangular channel with low aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on two phase pressure drop in rectangular channel with low aspect ratio (0.05) was carried on using water. The state-of-art correlations failed to satisfactorily predict the experimental data. The dimensionless Nconf, can account for the maximum size of the bubble confined in small channel during flow boiling process. The data were used to develop a new correlation based on Lockhart-Martinelli method with Nconf. The correlation is tested against the experimental data, and the relative deviation is in ±15%. (authors)

  1. Crystallographic Silicon-Etching for Ultra-High Aspect-Ratio FinFET

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, V.; Suligoj, T.; Nanver, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication process for the FinFET with ultra-high fin-height to fin-width aspect-ratio is presented. The processing is based on the crystallographic etching of (110) bulk silicon-wafers by TMAH to expose the vertical (111) planes. The nitride-spacers are used as the hard-mask for the fin-etching and the fins are isolated by the planarization and etch-back of the thick isolation oxide. The demonstration devices exhibit nearly ideal S of 62-64 mV/dec and DIBL of 10 mV/V or lower, for the g...

  2. Calibration artefact for the microscale with high aspect ratio: The fiber gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Savio, Enrico; Carmignato, Simone;

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new concept of micro-artefact, the fiber gauge, consisting of a set of optical fibers sticking out from a flat surface. The fibers are arranged as a regular array of different height cylinders, with aspect ratios up to 20:1. The artefact is produced taking advantage of optical...... fibers manufacturing technology, featuring relatively high geometrical accuracy, combined with very good mechanical properties. The fiber gauge can be applied to calibration of most contact or non-contact instruments for characterization of surface topographies and 3Dmicro-geometries, such as micro- or...

  3. Pilot Study of Inhaled Aerosols Targeted via Magnetic Alignment of High Aspect Ratio Particles in Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols have seen increased investigation in the treatment of lung cancer, where the inability to deliver adequate therapeutic drug concentrations to tumour sites may be overcome with improved targeted delivery to the site of the tumour. In this study, the feasibility of magnetically targeted delivery of high aspect ratio particles loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles was studied in 19 New Zealand White rabbits. Half of the exposed rabbits had a magnetic field placed externally over their right lung. Iron sensitive magnetic resonance images of the lungs were acquired to determine the iron concentrations in the right and left lung of each animal. The right/left ratio increased in the middle and basal regions of the lung where, due to the morphology of the rabbit lung, this method of targeting is most effective. With further optimization, this technique could be an effective method for increasing the dose of drug delivered to a specific site within the lung.

  4. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L., E-mail: riikka.puurunen@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, 02044 Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  5. Numerical simulation of the tip vortex off a low-aspect-ratio wing at transonic speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow around a low aspect ratio wing was computed by an implicit, three dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver. The grid around the geometry of interest is obtained numerically as a solution to a Dirichlet problem for the cube. A low aspect ratio wing with large sweep, twist, taper, and camber is the chosen geometry. The topology chosen to wrap the mesh around the wing with good tip resolution is a C-O type mesh. The flow around the wing was computed for a free stream Mach number of 0.82 at an angle of attack of 5 deg. At this Mach number, an oblique shock forms on the upper surface of the wing, and a tip vortex and three dimensional flow separation off the wind surface are observed. Particle path lines indicate that the three dimensional flow separation on the wing surface is part of the roots of the tip vortex formation. The lifting of the tip vortex before the wing trailing edge is observed by following the trajectory of particles release around the wing tip.

  6. Large area UV casting using diverse polyacrylates of microchannels separated by high aspect ratio microwalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W X; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2005-05-01

    Large area molding of long and deep microchannels separated by high aspect ratio microwalls is important for high sensitivity and high throughput microfluidic devices. Ultraviolet (UV) casting is a feasible, economical and convenient method of replication of such microstructures in plastics. It is shown that a wide variety of polyacrylates with diverse properties such as those made from epoxy (EP), polyurethane (UR), polyester (ES), poly (ethylene glycol) (EG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PG) can be used for the high aspect ratio (7-9) UV casting of such linear microstructures over a 100 mm diameter, enlarging the range of applications of the replicated microstructures. Some challenges arise. With the EG formulation, wavy microstructures were observed; this can be overcome by stress relaxation. With non-polar PG formulation, poor adhesion between the polyester substrate and resin can lead to delamination of the casting from the substrate during demolding; this can be overcome by pre-coating a partially cured same resin on the polyester substrate. An optimum UV irradiation time was important for cure at the deepest end of the microstructure without excessive crosslinking leading to much increased demolding forces. The viscosity and wetting capability of the formulations were found to affect replication fidelity. PMID:15856087

  7. Characterization of the optical parameters of high aspect ratio polymer micro-optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Rafal; Van Erps, Jurgen; Wissmann, Markus; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Parriaux, Olivier; Tonchev, S.; Mohr, Jurgen; Thienpont, Hugo

    2008-04-01

    Over the last decades the significant grow of interest of photonics devices is observed in various fields of applications. Due to the market demands, the current research studies are focused on the technologies providing miniaturized, reliable low-cost micro-optical systems, particularly the ones featuring the fabrication of high aspect ratio structures. A high potential of these technologies comes from the fact that fabrication process is not limited to single optical components, but entire systems integrating sets of elements could be fabricated. This could in turn result in a significant saving on the assembly and packaging costs. We present a brief overview of the most common high aspect ratio fabrication technologies for micro-optical components followed by some characterization studies of these techniques. The sidewall quality and internal homogeneity will be considered as the most crucial parameters, having an impact on the wavefront propagation in the fabricated components. We show the characterization procedure and measurement results for components prototyped with Deep Proton Writing and glass micromachining technology replicated with Hot Embossing and Elastomeric Mould Vacuum Casting technology. We discuss the pros and cons for using these technologies for the production of miniaturized interferometers blocks. In this paper we present the status of our research on the new technology chain and we show the concept of microinterferometers to be fabricated within presented technology chain.

  8. Energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in a finite aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of high toroidal mode number (n→∞) ballooning modes in tokamaks is investigated numerically in the low frequency limit, for a realistic anisotropic equilibrium with a circular cross-section and a moderate aspect ratio of 3. In the case when qm (safety factor at the magnetic axis) is close to unity, energetic ions can double the ballooning first stability beta limit. This enhanced beta value is limited by the drift non-reversal condition used here as a theoretical assumption. In this case, second stability is not achieved because, with an aspect ratio of 3, the second stability limit is either very high or does not exist. However, if qm is increased somewhat above unity, there exists a second stability region on a large fraction of the flux surfaces for moderate beta values, i.e. there is an unstable region between the first and the second stability without energetic particles. It is shown that the energetic trapped particles can partially or completely stabilize this unstable gap between first and second stability. In summary, second stability can be attained by the introduction of energetic particles, in combination with current profile control to increase qm above unity, when the parameters that determine the energetic pressure profile are properly chosen. (author)

  9. Energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in a finite-aspect-ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of high-toroidal-mode-number (n → ∞) ballooning modes in tokamaks is investigated numerically in the low frequency limit, for a realistic anisotropic equilibrium with a circular cross-section and a moderate aspect ratio of 3. In the case when qm (safety factor at the magnetic axis) is close to unity, energetic ions can double the ballooning first stability beta limit. This enhanced beta value is limited by the drift-nonreversal condition used here as a theoretical assumption. In this case, second stability is not achieved because, with an aspect ratio of 3, the second stability limit is either very high or does not exist. However, if qm is increased somewhat above unity, there exists a second stability region on a large fraction of the flux surfaces for moderate beta values; i.e., there is an unstable region between first and second stability without energetic particles. It is shown that the energetic trapped particles can partially or completely stabilize this unstable gap between first and second stability. In summary, second stability can be attained by the introduction of energetic particles, in combination with current profile control to increase qm above unity, when the parameters that determine the energetic pressure profile are properly chosen. (author)

  10. Etching of Silicon in HBr Plasmas for High Aspect Ratio Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Meyyappan, M.; Mathad, G. S.; Ranade, R.

    2002-01-01

    Etching in semiconductor processing typically involves using halides because of the relatively fast rates. Bromine containing plasmas can generate high aspect ratio trenches, desirable for DRAM and MEMS applications, with relatively straight sidewalk We present scanning electron microscope images for silicon-etched trenches in a HBr plasma. Using a feature profile simulation, we show that the removal yield parameter, or number of neutrals removed per incident ion due to all processes (sputtering, spontaneous desorption, etc.), dictates the profile shape. We find that the profile becomes pinched off when the removal yield is a constant, with a maximum aspect ratio (AR) of about 5 to 1 (depth to height). When the removal yield decreases with increasing ion angle, the etch rate increases at the comers and the trench bottom broadens. The profiles have ARs of over 9:1 for yields that vary with ion angle. To match the experimentally observed etched time of 250 s for an AR of 9:1 with a trench width of 0.135 microns, we find that the neutral flux must be 3.336 x 10(exp 17)sq cm/s.

  11. Measuring ion velocity distribution functions through high-aspect ratio holes in inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunge, G.; Darnon, M.; Dubois, J.; Bezard, P.; Mourey, O.; Petit-Etienne, C.; Vallier, L.; Despiau-Pujo, E.; Sadeghi, N.

    2016-02-01

    Several issues associated with plasma etching of high aspect ratio structures originate from the ions' bombardment of the sidewalls of the feature. The off normal angle incident ions are primarily due to their temperature at the sheath edge and possibly to charging effects. We have measured the ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) at the wafer surface in an industrial inductively coupled plasma reactor by using multigrid retarding field analyzers (RFA) in front of which we place 400 μm thick capillary plates with holes of 25, 50, and 100 μm diameters. The RFA then probes IVDF at the exit of the holes with Aspect Ratios (AR) of 16, 8, and 4, respectively. The results show that the ion flux dramatically drops with the increase in AR. By comparing the measured IVDF with an analytical model, we concluded that the ion temperature is 0.27 eV in our plasma conditions. The charging effects are also observed and are shown to significantly reduce the ion energy at the bottom of the feature but only with a "minor" effect on the ion flux and the shape of the IVDF.

  12. Fabrication of high aspect ratio microtube arrays for 2D photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the fabrication of 2D photonic crystals made of high aspect ratio Si microtube arrays. The tube fabrication is based on the creation of macropore arrays in n-doped Si substrates via photoassisted electrochemical etching. These macropores are successively filled using thermal oxidation and chemical vapor depostion. The substrate material is partially removed by a KOH immersion, and the filled macropores are exposed, forming arrays of microtubes with very high aspect ratios of up to 1:60. Point and line defects are introduced into some of the tube arrays by selectively omitting macropores during the fabrication. The mechanical properties of the tubes were investigated by measuring their stiffness and elastic modulus using an atomic force microscope based setup. Additionally, the resonant modes of the microtubes were simulated with FEM methods. Optical simulations reveal that these tube arrays form 2D photonic crystals, which can contain bandgaps for TM polarized light. It is also shown that the optical properties of the photonic crystals depend strongly on the tube filling factor. Adjusting the filling factor of the tubes allows tuning of the photonic properties of the tube arrays. (papers)

  13. Parametrization of the Gay-Berne potential for conjugated oligomer with a high aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng K.; Hua, Chi C.; Chen, Show A.

    2010-08-01

    The Gay-Berne (GB) potential has been a popular semiempirical model for describing the short-range intermolecular forces for a wide variety of aspherical molecules, including liquid crystals and anisotropic colloids, with generally small molecular dimensions and low aspect ratios (<5). This study evaluates the parametrization of the GB potential for a high-aspect-ratio (=10) oligomer belonging to a model conjugated polymer. We elaborate that the semiflexibility associated with a large oligomer species demands a variant umbrella-sampling scheme in establishing the potentials of mean force (PMFs) for four pair ellipsoid arrangements typically utilized to parametrize the GB potential. The model ellipsoid so constructed is shown to capture the PMFs of essential intermediate arrangements as well, and, according to the results of simplex optimizations, recommendations are given for the minimum set of parameters to be included in the optimization of a large oligomer or particulate species. To further attest the parametrized GB potential, the coarse-grained (CG) Monte Carlo simulations employing the GB potential and the back-mapped, full-atom atomistic molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations were performed for a dense oligomer system at two representative system temperatures. The results indicated that the CG simulations can capture, with exceptional computational efficiency, the AMD predictions with good thermal transferability. In future perspectives, we remark on potential applications to construct efficient, parameter-free CG models for capturing fundamental material properties of large oligomer/particulate species as well as long-chain conjugated polymers.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of layered double hydroxides with a high aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new route for synthesis of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg6Al2(OH)16(CO3).4H2O) has been introduced, which can be considered as a modified calcination-rehydration method. Under the hydrothermal conditions, LDHs with a high aspect ratio were synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma-atom emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal measurement (TG-DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns display the crystalline enhanced with the increase of hydrothermal temperature and aging time. TG-DTG curves show the more stable LDHs were synthesized at higher temperature. SEM images indicate the lateral size of the synthesized LDHs locates at ca. 1-6 μm and the thickness at ca. 35-60 nm. And the particle size depends strongly on the treatment temperature and aging time. A buffer solution consisted of HCO3- and CO32- keeps the pH of reaction system in a certain range and offers a low supersaturated reaction circumstance. This is of high importance for the formation of LDHs with a high aspect ratio

  15. Effect of free surface on near-wake flow of elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Daichin, -

    2003-04-01

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. The elliptic cylinders tested in this study have same cross section area. For each elliptic cylinder, the experiments were carried out under different conditions by varying the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean flow field information and spatial distribution of turbulent statistics. The near-wakes can be basically classified into three typical patterns, which are formation of Coanda effect, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structures behind the elliptic cylinder are similar to previous results for a circular submerged near to a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder are smaller than those for the circular cylinder. These trends are enhance with increasing of the cylinder aspect ratios.

  16. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasso, Carlo, E-mail: cmorasso@dongnocchi.it; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP) (Italy); Zanchetta, Giuliano [Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale (Italy); Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy); Prosperi, Davide [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, NanoBioLab, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze (Italy); Gramatica, Furio [Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS, Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Clinical Biophotonics (LABION) (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au{sup 3+} reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag{sup +} ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  17. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the “seed-growth” solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50–60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag+ ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated

  18. High aspect ratio PS-b-PMMA block copolymer masks for lithographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarese Lupi, F; Giammaria, T J; Volpe, F G; Lotto, F; Seguini, G; Pivac, B; Laus, M; Perego, M

    2014-12-10

    The control of the self-assembly (SA) process and nanostructure orientation in diblock copolymer (DBC) thick films is a crucial technological issue. Perpendicular orientation of the nanostructures in symmetric and asymmetric poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer films obtained by means of simple thermal treatments was demonstrated to occur in well-defined thickness windows featuring modest maximum values, thus resulting in low aspect ratio (h/d < 2) of the final lithographic mask. In this manuscript, the thickness window corresponding to the perpendicular orientation of the cylindrical structures in asymmetric DBC is investigated at high temperatures (190 °C ≤ T ≤ 310 °C) using a rapid thermal processing machine. A systematic study of the annealing conditions (temperature and time) of asymmetric PS-b-PMMA (Mn = 67.1, polydispersity index = 1.09) films, with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 400 nm, allowed ordered patterns, with a maximum value of orientational correlation length of 350 nm, to be obtained for film thicknesses up to 200 nm. The complete propagation of the cylindrical structures through the whole film thickness in a high aspect ratio PS template (h/d ≈ 7) is probed by lift-off process. Si nanopillars are obtained having the same lateral ordering and characteristic dimensions of the DBC lithographic mask as further confirmed by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. PMID:25387131

  19. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  20. A hypothetical model for predicting the toxicity of high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to predict nanoparticle (dimensional structures which are less than 100 nm in size) toxicity through the use of a suitable model is an important goal if nanoparticles are to be regulated in terms of exposures and toxicological effects. Recently, a model to predict toxicity of nanoparticles with high aspect ratio has been put forward by a consortium of scientists. The High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) model is a platform that relates the physical dimensions of HARN (specifically length and diameter ratio) and biopersistence to their toxicity in biological environments. Potentially, this model is of great public health and economic importance, as it can be used as a tool to not only predict toxicological activity but can be used to classify the toxicity of various fibrous nanoparticles, without the need to carry out time-consuming and expensive toxicology studies. However, this model of toxicity is currently hypothetical in nature and is based solely on drawing similarities in its dimensional geometry with that of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibres. The aim of this review is two-fold: (a) to present findings from past literature, on the physicochemical property and pathogenicity bioassay testing of HARN (b) to identify some of the challenges and future research steps crucial before the HARN model can be accepted as a predictive model. By presenting what has been done, we are able to identify scientific challenges and research directions that are needed for the HARN model to gain public acceptance. Our recommendations for future research includes the need to: (a) accurately link physicochemical data with corresponding pathogenicity assay data, through the use of suitable reference standards and standardised protocols, (b) develop better tools/techniques for physicochemical characterisation, (c) to develop better ways of monitoring HARN in the workplace, (d) to reliably measure dose exposure levels, in order to support future epidemiological

  1. The flowfield and performance of a low aspect ratio unsteady propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, James H. J.

    Thrust performance and wake structure were investigated for a rigid rectangular panel pitching about its leading edge in a free stream. Thrust coefficient was found to depend primarily on Strouhal number St and the aspect ratio of the panel S/C. Propulsive efficiency was sensitive to aspect ratio only for S/C less than 0.83; however, the magnitude of the peak efficiency of a given panel with variation in Strouhal number varied inversely with the amplitude to span ratio A/S, while the Strouhal number of optimum efficiency increased with increasing A/S. Peak efficiencies between 9% and 21% were measured. Wake structures corresponding to a subset of the thrust measurements were investigated using dye visualization and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. In general, the wakes divided into two oblique jets; however, when operating at or near peak efficiency, the near wake in many cases represented a von Karman vortex street with the signs of the vortices reversed. The three-dimensional structure of the wakes were investigated in detail for S/C = 0.54, A/S = 0.31, ReC = 640. Three distinct wake structures were observed with variation in Strouhal number. For approximately 0.20 main constituent of the wake was a horseshoe vortex shed by the tips and trailing edge of the panel. Streamwise variation in the circulation of the streamwise horseshoe legs was consistent with a spanwise shear layer bridging them. For St > 0.25, a reorganization of some of the spanwise vorticity yielded a bifurcating wake formed by trains of vortex rings connected to the tips of the horseshoes. For St > 0.5 an additional structure formed from a perturbation of the streamwise leg which caused a spanwise expansion. The wake model paradigm established here is consistent with structures observed for a wide variety of unsteady flows.

  2. The effect of wing stroke and aspect ratio on the force generation a compliant membrane flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Cosima; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2015-11-01

    Aspect ratio is one parameter used in efforts to predict a bat species' flight performance based on wing shape. Bats with high aspect ratio wings are expected to have superior lift-to-drag ratios and therefore to fly faster or be able to sustain longer flights. In contrast, bats with lower aspect ratio wings are usually thought to exhibit higher maneuverability. These assumptions are often based on fixed-wing aerodynamic theory, and do not take the wide variation in flapping kinematics observed in bats into account. To examine the influence of different stroke patterns, we measure lift and drag of highly compliant membrane wings with different bat-relevant aspect ratios. A two degree of freedom shoulder joint allows for independent control of flapping amplitude and wing sweep. We test five models with the same variations of stroke patterns, flapping frequencies, and wind speeds.

  3. Fabrication of silicon nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio by cesium chloride self-assembly and dry etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuai Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio, which have attracted much attention due to their potential applications, have been fabricated by many methods. Dry etching combined with self-assembly masks is widely used because of the convenience of dry etching and high throughput of self-assembly. In this paper, we report a method combining Cesium Chloride (CsCl self-assembly with inductively coupled plasma (ICP dry etching to fabricate silicon nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio and silicon nanotip arrays with aspect ratio 15 have been achieved after optimization of all parameters.

  4. Effect of torsional stiffness and inertia on the dynamics of low aspect ratio flapping wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro air vehicle-motivated aerodynamics in biological flight has been an important subject in the past decade. Inspired by the novel flapping wing mechanisms in insects, birds and bats, we have carried out a numerical study systematically investigating a three-dimensional flapping rigid wing with passively actuated lateral and rotational motion. Distinguishing it from the limited existing studies, this work performs a systematic examination on the effects of wing aspect ratio (AR = 1.0 to infinity), inertia (density ratio σ = 4–32), torsional stiffness (frequency ratio F = 1.5–10 and infinity) and pivot point (from chord-center to leading edge) on the dynamics response of a low AR rectangular wing under an initial zero speed flow field condition. The simulation results show that the symmetry breakdown of the flapping wing results in a forward/backward motion with a rotational pitching. When the wing reaches its stable periodic state, the induced pitching frequency is identical to its forced flapping frequency. However, depending on various kinematic and dynamic system parameters, (i.e. flapping frequency, density ratio and pitching axis), the lateral induced velocity shows a number of different oscillating frequencies. Furthermore, compared with a one degree of freedom (DoF) wing in the lateral direction only, the propulsion performance of such a two DoF wing relies very much on the magnitude of torsional stiffness adding on the pivot point, as well as its pitching axis. In all cases examined here, thrust force and moment generated by a long span wing is larger than that of a short wing, which is remarkably linked to the strong reverse von Kármán vortex street formed in the wake of a wing. (paper)

  5. Effect of torsional stiffness and inertia on the dynamics of low aspect ratio flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Hu, Jianxin; Liu, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Micro air vehicle-motivated aerodynamics in biological flight has been an important subject in the past decade. Inspired by the novel flapping wing mechanisms in insects, birds and bats, we have carried out a numerical study systematically investigating a three-dimensional flapping rigid wing with passively actuated lateral and rotational motion. Distinguishing it from the limited existing studies, this work performs a systematic examination on the effects of wing aspect ratio (AR = 1.0 to infinity), inertia (density ratio σ = 4-32), torsional stiffness (frequency ratio F = 1.5-10 and infinity) and pivot point (from chord-center to leading edge) on the dynamics response of a low AR rectangular wing under an initial zero speed flow field condition. The simulation results show that the symmetry breakdown of the flapping wing results in a forward/backward motion with a rotational pitching. When the wing reaches its stable periodic state, the induced pitching frequency is identical to its forced flapping frequency. However, depending on various kinematic and dynamic system parameters, (i.e. flapping frequency, density ratio and pitching axis), the lateral induced velocity shows a number of different oscillating frequencies. Furthermore, compared with a one degree of freedom (DoF) wing in the lateral direction only, the propulsion performance of such a two DoF wing relies very much on the magnitude of torsional stiffness adding on the pivot point, as well as its pitching axis. In all cases examined here, thrust force and moment generated by a long span wing is larger than that of a short wing, which is remarkably linked to the strong reverse von Kármán vortex street formed in the wake of a wing. PMID:24434625

  6. A small perturbation based optimization approach for the frequency placement of high aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsch, Mandy

    Design denotes the transformation of an identified need to its physical embodiment in a traditionally iterative approach of trial and error. Conceptual design plays a prominent role but an almost infinite number of possible solutions at the outset of design necessitates fast evaluations. The corresponding practice of empirical equations and low fidelity analyses becomes obsolete in the light of novel concepts. Ever increasing system complexity and resource scarcity mandate new approaches to adequately capture system characteristics. Contemporary concerns in atmospheric science and homeland security created an operational need for unconventional configurations. Unmanned long endurance flight at high altitudes offers a unique showcase for the exploration of new design spaces and the incidental deficit of conceptual modeling and simulation capabilities. Structural and aerodynamic performance requirements necessitate light weight materials and high aspect ratio wings resulting in distinct structural and aeroelastic response characteristics that stand in close correlation with natural vibration modes. The present research effort evolves around the development of an efficient and accurate optimization algorithm for high aspect ratio wings subject to natural frequency constraints. Foundational corner stones are beam dimensional reduction and modal perturbation redesign. Local and global analyses inherent to the former suggest corresponding levels of local and global optimization. The present approach departs from this suggestion. It introduces local level surrogate models to capacitate a methodology that consists of multi level analyses feeding into a single level optimization. The innovative heart of the new algorithm originates in small perturbation theory. A sequence of small perturbation solutions allows the optimizer to make incremental movements within the design space. It enables a directed search that is free of costly gradients. System matrices are decomposed

  7. Facile Route to Vertically Aligned High-Aspect Ratio Block Copolymer Films via Dynamic Zone Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kulkarni, Manish; Yager, Kevin; Smilgies, Detlef; Bucknall, David; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Directed assembly of block copolymers (BCP) can be used to fabricate a diversity of nanostructures useful for nanotech applications. The ability to vertically orient etchable high aspect ratio (˜30) ordered BCP domains on flexible substrates via continuous processing methods are particularly attractive for nanomanufacturing. We apply sharp dynamic cold zone annealing (CZA-S) to create etchable, and predominantly vertically oriented 30nm cylindrical domains in 1 μm thick poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) films on low thermal conductivity rigid (quartz) and flexible (PDMS & Kapton) substrates. Under similar static conditions, temporally stable vertical cylinders form within a narrow zone above a critical temperature gradient. Primary ordering mechanism of CZA-S involves sweeping this vertically orienting zone created at maximum thermal gradient. An optimal speed is needed since the process competes with preferential surface wetting dynamics that favors parallel orientation. GISAXS of etched BCP films confirms internal morphology.

  8. High aspect ratio micro mold machining with focused proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with surface structure-shaping process on EB resists by proton beam writing (PBW). The PBW is a direct writing lithographic technique to fabricate a deep mesa structure with sub-micrometer 2D resolution. The deep structure was obtained with MeV-energy protons which have a low proximity effect compared with electrons. Micrometer scale patterns with high aspect ratio were also obtained with a beam focusing and a scanning system. Since the range of protons in resist materials can be controlled with ion energy, energy-dependent three-dimensional structures were obtained by controlling the voltage of the ion accelerator. The PBW process enables us to fabricate a prototype for MEMS and a micro mold for nanoimprint process. (author)

  9. Economically attractive features of steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch equilibrium with low aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominant plasma self-induced current equilibrium is achieved together with the high β for the steady-state neoclassical reversed field pinch (RFP) equilibrium with low aspect ratio by broadening the plasma pressure profile. The RF-driven current, when the safety factor is smaller than unity, is much less than the self-induced current, which dominates (96%) the toroidal current. This neoclassical RFP equilibrium has strong magnetic shear or a high-stability beta (βt = 63%) due to its hollow current profile. It is shown that the obtained equilibrium is close to the relaxed-equilibrium state with a minimum energy, and is also robust against microinstabilities. These attractive features allow the economical design of compact steady-state fusion power plants with low cost of electricity (COE). (author)

  10. Calculation of Hamada coordinates for a large-aspect-ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the well-known moment equation approach to neoclassical transport requires the use of Hamada coordinates in three-dimensional toroidal plasmas. The lack of analytical expressions and the difficulty associated with the numerical calculation of these coordinates has strongly limited the use of this approach. In this paper analytical calculations of Hamada coordinates for a large-aspect-ratio tokamak are presented. Knowledge of these coordinates for this relatively simple two-dimensional case will allow, for the first time, a general analytical application of the moment equation approach, and also a check of this approach against well-known results. In particular, it is shown here that the approach correctly reproduces the Pfirsch--Schlueter diffusion rate

  11. Improving surface acousto-optical interaction by high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    propagating in a waveguide buried in the lithium niobate substrate supporting the electrodes. The interaction can be increased up to 600 times using these new types of surface acoustic waves as compared to using a conventional IDT with thin electrodes. This result could find applications in improved acousto......The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes that are...... strongly confined to the surface, causing a significant increase in the strain underneath the surface. A finite element method is employed to model the surface acoustic waves generated by a finite length IDT with 12 electrode pairs and subsequently to study their interaction with an optical wave...

  12. Static Response of Functionally Graded Material Plate under Transverse Load for Varying Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient materials (FGM are one of the most widely used materials in various applications because of their adaptability to different situations by changing the material constituents as per the requirement. Nowadays it is very easy to tailor the properties to serve specific purposes in functionally gradient material. Most structural components used in the field of engineering can be classified as beams, plates, or shells for analysis purposes. In the present study the power law, sigmoid law and exponential distribution, is considered for the volume fraction distributions of the functionally graded plates. The work includes parametric studies performed by varying volume fraction distributions and aspect ratio. The FGM plate is subjected to transverse UDL (uniformly distributed load and point load and the response is analysed.

  13. Controlled synthesis of uniform silver nanowires with high aspect ratios in aqueous solutions of gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian; LIU Weijun; LIU Honglai; HU Ying

    2007-01-01

    A simple solution-phase approach has been demonstrated for the large-scale synthesis of silver nanowires with diameters in the range of 15-25 nm,and lengths usually in the range of tens of micrometers.In the presence of gemini surfactant 1,3-bis(cetyldimethylammonium)propane dibromide(16-3-16),the growth of silver could be directed into a highly anisotropic mode to form uniform nanowires with aspect ratios up to about 2,000.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),energy-dispersive X-ray(EDX),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),electron diffraction(ED),and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy,were used to characterize the as-prepared silver nanowires,indicating the formation of a highly pure phase,good crystallinity,as well as a uniform diameter.

  14. Extreme hydrophobicity and omniphilicity of high-aspect-ratio silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Park, Cheol Woo; Hwang, Kwang-Il; Park, Choon Man; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-03-01

    We present an application of high-aspect-ratio (high-AR) silicon structures (black silicon) with high water repellency and good wettability by oils and solvents. The fabrication of black silicon consists of a deep reactive-ion etching process for extremely-high-AR silicon structures and surface treatment with C4F8 gas. Such high-AR structures were found to be highly resistant against wetting by water, but they also have good wetting characteristics with respect to certain liquids such as ethanol, hexane and mineral oil. To determine the relationship between the AR of nanostructures and wetting selectivity, four different black silicon samples with different pattern heights were used. The static contact angles of various liquid were measured for the analysis of wetting properties of the four black silicon samples. To explore feasible applications, ethanol-water separation was performed as a miniaturized experimental simulation of environmental remediation.

  15. Engineering Design Study of Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarator with Low Aspect Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering design of the quasi-axisymmetric stellarator CHS-qa is described, having a toroidal period number of 2, major radius of 1.5 m, and plasma aspect ratio of 3.2. Although the entire structure of the machine is highly nonaxisymmetric and deformative, the following major engineering concerns for the modular coils and the vacuum vessel have been resolved: (a) modular coil design (curvature and twist of conductors), (b) supporting structures for modular coils, (c) errors due to electromagnetic forces and misalignment in manufacturing processes (analysis shows that the magnetic surface is robust against such disturbances), (d) construction procedure for vacuum vessel and modular coils, and (e) ports for heating and diagnostics

  16. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting

  17. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu2O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  18. Performance and stability limits at near-unity aspect ratio in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pegasus Toroidal Experiment is a mid-sized extremely-low aspect ratio (A) spherical torus (ST). It has the dual roles of exploring limits of ST behavior as A approaches 1 and studying the physics of ST plasmas in the tokamak-spheromak overlap regime. Major parameters are R 0.25 - 0.45 m, A 1.1 - 1.4, Ip ≤ 0.15MA, and Btp=aBt is similar to that observed for NBI-heated START discharges. Achievable plasma current apparently is subject to a 'soft' limit of Ip=Itf ≤ 1. Access to higher-current plasmas appears to be restricted by the appearance of large internal MHD activity, including m/n=2/1 and 3/2 modes. Recent experiments have begun to access ideal stability limits, with disruptions observed as q95 approaches 5, in agreement with numerical predictions. (author)

  19. Gust response analysis and wind tunnel test for a high-aspect ratio wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical nonlinear aeroelastic response analysis for a flexible high-aspect ratio wing excited by harmonic gust load is presented along with a companion wind tunnel test. A multidisciplinary coupled numerical calculation is developed to simulate the flexible model wing undergoing gust load in the time domain via discrete nonlinear finite element structural dynamic analysis and nonplanar unsteady vortex lattice aerodynamic computation. A dynamic perturbation analysis about a nonlinear static equilibrium is also used to determine the small perturbation flutter boundary. A novel noncontact 3-D camera measurement analysis system is firstly used in the wind tunnel test to obtain the spatial large deformation and responses. The responses of the flexible wing under different static equilibrium states and frequency gust loads are discussed. The fair to good quantitative agreements between the theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented analysis method is an acceptable way to predict the geometrically nonlinear gust response for flexible wings.

  20. Initial performance results for high-aspect ratio gold MEMS deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Bautista; Kubby, Joel

    2009-02-01

    The fabrication and initial performance results of high-aspect ratio 3-dimensional Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Deformable Mirrors (DM) for Adaptive Optics (AO) will be discussed. The DM systems were fabricated out of gold, and consist of actuators bonded to a continuous face sheet, with different boundary conditions. DM mirror displacements vs. voltage have been measured with a white light interferometer and the corresponding results compared to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations. Interferometer scans of a DM have shown that ~9.4um of stroke can be achieved with low voltage, thus showing that this fabrication process holds promise in the manufacturing of future MEMS DM's for the next generation of extremely large telescopes.

  1. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio hole perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blue, Brent E [LLNL; Edwards, J [LLNL; Elliott, James B [LLNL; Robey, H F [LLNL; Spears, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule, current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials overpredict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (<1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  3. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kyrala, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blue, Brent [LLNL/GA; Elliott, Jim [LLNL; Edwards, John [LLNL; Robey, Harry [LLNL; Spears, Brian [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  4. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn;

    2016-01-01

    highlighted that the properties of the physical environment, such as substrate stiffness, affect cellular behavior. Here, mass-produced, injection molded polycarbonate nanopillars are presented, where the surface mechanical properties, i.e., stiffness, can be controlled by the geometric design of the...... ultrahigh aspect ratio nanopillars (stiffness can be reduced by 25.000X). It is found that tall nanopillars, yielding softer surfaces, significantly enhance the induction of defi nitive endoderm cells from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, resulting in more consistent differentiation of a pure...... population compared to planar control. By contrast, further differentiation toward the pancreatic endoderm is less successful on “soft” pillars when compared to “stiff ” pillars or control, indicating differential cues during the different stages of differentiation. To accompany the mechanical properties of...

  5. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-10-01

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu2O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  6. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Haberer, Elaine D., E-mail: haberer@ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu₂O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  7. Effect of large aspect ratio of biomass particles on carbon burnout in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gera; M.P. Mathur; M.C. Freeman; Allen Robinson [Fluent, Inc./NETL, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of comprehensive combustion sub models that include the effect of large aspect ratio of biomass (switchgrass) particles on carbon burnout and temperature distribution inside the particles. Temperature and carbon burnout data are compared from two different models that are formulated by assuming (i) the particles are cylindrical and conduct heat internally, and (ii) the particles are spherical without internal heat conduction, i.e., no temperature gradient exists inside the particle. It was inferred that the latter model significantly underpredicted the temperature of the particle and, consequently, the burnout. Additionally, some results from cofiring biomass (10% heat input) with pulverized coal (90% heat input) are compared with the pulverized coal (100% heat input) simulations and coal experiments in a tangentially fired 150 MW{sub e} utility boiler. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Penning-Malmberg Gold Plated Silicon Trap Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Narimannezhad, Alireza; Weber, Marc H; Lynn, Kelvin G

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring a portable high density charged particles trap might consist of an array of micro-Penning-Malmberg traps (microtraps) with substantially lower end barriers potential than conventional Penning-Malmberg traps [1]. We report on the progress of the fabrication of these microtraps designed for antimatter storage such as positrons. The fabrication of large length to radius aspect ratio (1000:1) microtrap arrays involved advanced techniques including photolithography, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon wafers to achieve through-vias, gold sputtering of the wafers on the surfaces and inside the vias, and thermal compression bonding of the wafers. This paper describes the encountered issues during fabrication and addresses geometry errors and asymmetries. In order to minimize the patch effects on the lifetime of the trapped positrons, the bonded stacks were gold electroplated to achieve a uniform gold surface. We show by simulation and analytical calculation that how positrons confinement time depen...

  9. Millijoule femtosecond micro-Bessel beams for ultra-high aspect ratio machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sambit; Chanal, Margaux; Clady, Raphaël; Mouskeftaras, Alexandros; Grojo, David

    2015-08-20

    We report on a functional experimental design for Bessel beam generation capable of handling high-energy ultrashort pulses (up to 1.2 mJ per pulse of 50 fs duration). This allows us to deliver intensities exceeding the breakdown threshold for air or any dielectric along controlled micro-filaments with lengths exceeding 4 mm. It represents an unprecedented upscaling in comparison to recent femtosecond Bessel beam micromachining experiments. We produce void microchannels through glass substrates to demonstrate that aspect ratios exceeding 1200∶1 can be achieved by using single high-intensity pulses. This demonstration must lead to new methodologies for deep-drilling and high-speed cutting applications. PMID:26368773

  10. Large-area thermoelectric high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoho, Mikko; Juntunen, Taneli; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2016-09-01

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of large-area high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. We fabricate the structures by atomic layer deposition of conformal ZnO thin films on track-etched polycarbonate substrate. The resulting structure consists of ZnO tubules which continue through the full thickness of the substrate. The electrical and thermal properties of the structures are studied both in-plane and out-of-plane. They exhibit very low out-of-plane thermal conductivity down to 0.15 W m‑1 K‑1 while the in-plane sheet resistance of the films was found to be half that of the same film on glass substrate, allowing material-independent doubling of output power of any planar thin-film thermoelectric generator. The wall thickness of the fabricated nanotubes was varied within a range of up to 100 nm. The samples show polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred crystal orientation.

  11. Design and Simulation of BTT Missile with High-Aspect-Ratio Wing Robust H∞ Autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Sheng-wang; LIU Li; MA Chun-yan

    2007-01-01

    For the strong coupling among the channels of bank-to-turn (BTT) missile with high-aspect-ratio wing,an autopilot is designed with a two loop control structure robust autopilot design methods.By the inner loop design,the question of pole-zero cancellation is solved,and the stabilization of structured uncertainty is achieved.Through the outer loop of H∞ controller design,the flying performance and robustness can be guaranteed.The nonlinear simulation results show that the autopilot designed has perfect time domain response,and can suppress bad influence of the inertial and kinematics couplings.It can make the missile fly stably in the large flying areas.The control is very effective.

  12. A wearable, highly stable, strain and bending sensor based on high aspect ratio graphite nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaferdov, A. V.; Savu, R.; Rackauskas, T. A.; Rackauskas, S.; Canesqui, M. A.; de Lara, D. S.; Setti, G. O.; Joanni, E.; de Trindade, G. M.; Lima, U. B.; de Souza, A. S.; Moshkalev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple and scalable method was developed for the fabrication of wearable strain and bending sensors, based on high aspect ratio (length/thickness ∼103) graphite nanobelt thin films deposited by a modified Langmuir–Blodgett technique onto flexible polymer substrates. The sensing mechanism is based on the changes in contact resistance between individual nanobelts upon substrate deformation. Very high sensor response stability for more than 5000 strain–release cycles and a device power consumption as low as 1 nW were achieved. The device maximum stretchability is limited by the metal electrodes and the polymer substrate; the maximum strain that could be applied to the polymer used in this work was 40%. Bending tests carried out for various radii of curvature demonstrated distinct sensor responses for positive and negative curvatures. The graphite nanobelt thin flexible films were successfully tested for acoustic vibration and heartbeat sensing.

  13. Clothing polymer fibers with well-aligned and high-aspect ratio carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gengzhi; Zheng, Lianxi; An, Jia; Pan, Yongzheng; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Pang, John H. L.; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai; Li, Lin

    2013-03-01

    It is believed that the crucial step towards preparation of electrical conductive polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is dispersing CNTs with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio in a well-aligned manner. However, this process is extremely challenging when dealing with long and entangled CNTs. Here in this study, a new approach is demonstrated to fabricate conductive polymer-CNT composite fibers without involving any dispersion process. Well-aligned CNT films were firstly drawn from CNT arrays, and then directly coated on polycaprolactone fibers to form polymer-CNT composite fibers. The conductivity of these composite fibers can be as high as 285 S m-1 with only 2.5 wt% CNT loading, and reach 1549 S m-1 when CNT loading is 13.4 wt%. As-prepared composite fibers also exhibit 82% retention of conductivity at a strain of 7%, and have improved mechanical properties.It is believed that the crucial step towards preparation of electrical conductive polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is dispersing CNTs with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio in a well-aligned manner. However, this process is extremely challenging when dealing with long and entangled CNTs. Here in this study, a new approach is demonstrated to fabricate conductive polymer-CNT composite fibers without involving any dispersion process. Well-aligned CNT films were firstly drawn from CNT arrays, and then directly coated on polycaprolactone fibers to form polymer-CNT composite fibers. The conductivity of these composite fibers can be as high as 285 S m-1 with only 2.5 wt% CNT loading, and reach 1549 S m-1 when CNT loading is 13.4 wt%. As-prepared composite fibers also exhibit 82% retention of conductivity at a strain of 7%, and have improved mechanical properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34208e

  14. Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al composite high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Sorrell, Melford; Kelly, Kevin W.; Ma, Evan

    1998-09-01

    High-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs) have a variety of potential applications in heat transfer, fluid mechanics, catalysts and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to fabricate high performance particulate metal-matrix composite and intermetallic micromechanical structures using the LIGA process. Well-defined functionally graded Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al high-aspect-ratio microposts were electroformed into lithographically patterned PMMA holes from a nickel sulfamate bath containing submicron alumina and a diluted Watts bath containing microsized aluminum particles, respectively. SEM image analysis showed that the volume fraction of the alumina reached up to around 30% in the Ni-Al2O3 deposit. The Vickers microhardness of these composites is in the range of 418 through 545, which is higher than those of nickel microstructures from a similar particle-free bath and other Ni-based electrodeposits. In the work on Ni-Al electroplating, a newly developed diluted Watts bath was used to codeposit micron-sized aluminum particles. The intermetallic compound Ni3Al was formed by the reaction of nickel matrices and aluminum particles through subsequent annealing at 630 degrees Celsius. WDS and XRD analyses confirmed that the annealed coating is a two-phase (Ni-Ni3Al) composite. The maximum aluminum volume fraction reached 19% at a cathode current density of 12 mA cm-2, and the Vickers microhardness of the as-deposited coatings is in the range 392 - 515 depending on the amount of aluminum incorporated.

  15. Advanced Fuels Reactor using Aneutronic Rodless Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak Hydrogenic Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Celso

    2015-11-01

    The use of advanced fuels for fusion reactor is conventionally envisaged for field reversed configuration (FRC) devices. It is proposed here a preliminary study about the use of these fuels but on an aneutronic Rodless Ultra Low Aspect Ratio (RULART) hydrogenic plasmas. The idea is to inject micro-size boron pellets vertically at the inboard side (HFS, where TF is very high and the tokamak electron temperature is relatively low because of profile), synchronised with a proton NBI pointed to this region. Therefore, p-B reactions should occur and alpha particles produced. These pellets will act as an edge-like disturbance only (cp. killer pellet, although the vertical HFS should make this less critical, since the unablated part should appear in the bottom of the device). The boron cloud will appear at midplance, possibly as a MARFE-look like. Scaling of the p-B reactions by varying the NBI energy should be compared with the predictions of nuclear physics. This could be an alternative to the FRC approach, without the difficulties of the optimization of the FRC low confinement time. Instead, a robust good tokamak confinement with high local HFS TF (enhanced due to the ultra low aspect ratio and low pitch angle) is used. The plasma central post makes the RULART concept attractive because of the proximity of NBI path and also because a fraction of born alphas will cross the plasma post and dragged into it in the direction of the central plasma post current, escaping vertically into a hole in the bias plate and reaching the direct electricity converter, such as in the FRC concept.

  16. Plasma Filaments in Dielectric Barrier Discharges Penetrating into High Aspect Ratio Cracks for Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    The ability of surface-hugging-plasmas, as produced in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), to penetrate into crevices, turn corners and navigate geometrical obstructions, is important in plasma-wound healing and sterilization. In this talk, we discuss results from a computational investigation of the plasma filaments produced in an air DBD and impinging on and penetrating into deep, high aspect ratio cracks in the bottom dielectric. The model used in this work, nonPDPSIM, is a plasma hydrodynamics model in which continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for charged and neutral species with solution of Poisson's equation for the electric potential, concurrent with radiation transport. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain ion energy distributions (IEDs) to surfaces. Cracks are 1 mm deep and 3 μm to 250 μm wide (aspect ratios of 333 to 4). We found that when impinging onto the cracked dielectric, the plasma filament conformally spreads over the surface. The conductive plasma transfers the applied potential to the opening of the crack. The width of the crack, w, then determines the penetration of the plasma. If w is large compared to the filament, the penetration is surface hugging. If w is commensurate with the filament, the plasma fills the crack. If the Debye length is about w or larger, there is not significant penetration. For the conditions investigated, penetration occurred for w > 5-6 μm. IEDs onto the surfaces of the trenches produce transient pulses of ions with energies >150 eV.

  17. The effects of volume percent and aspect ratio of carbon fiber on fracture toughness of reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites are used as advanced materials in aerospace and electronic industries. In order to investigate role of aspect ratio of carbon fiber on fracture toughness of aluminum matrix composite, the composite was produced using stir casting. Al-8.5%Si-5%Mg selected as a matrix. The samples were prepared with three volume fractions (1, 2 and 3) and three aspect ratios (300, 500 and 800). Three-point bending test was performed on the specimens to evaluate the fracture toughness of the materials. The results showed that the fracture toughness of composites depends on both fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to elucidate the fracture behavior and crack deflection of composites. The study also, showed that the toughening mechanism depends strongly on fiber volume fraction, aspect ratio and the degree of wetting between fiber and matrix

  18. Studi Eksperimental Pemanas Air Tenaga Surya Pelat Absorber Type Sinusoidal dengan Variasi Terhadap Derajat Kevacuman dan Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izha Mahendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem kolektor surya yang dirancang adalah kolektor dengan variasi tingkat kevakuman dan aspect ratio dengan tebal pelat (δ 1 mm . Untuk tingkat pemvakuman -20 cm.Hg, -40 cm.Hg, dan -60 cm.Hg serta menggunakan aspect ratio 1, 1.33, dan 2. Pengambilan data dilaksanakan dengan memvariasi debit fluida kerja dengan mengatur bukaan katup, yaitu dari 100 cc/menit sampai 300 cc/menits kenaikan 100 cc/menit. Dengan pemvariasian tingkat kevacuman di antara pelat absorber dan kaca penutup, diharapkan dapat memperkecil koefisien kehilangan, temperatur absorber naik, dan temperatur kaca penutup turun. Sehingga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi kolektor. Sehingga kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa pada tingkat kevacuman -60 cmHg efisiensi yang didapat lebih besar dibandingkan dengan tingkat kevakuman -20 cmHg dan -40 cmHg. Sedangkan untuk aspect ratio 2 memiliki efisiensi terbesar dibandingkan aspect ratio 1 dan 1,33

  19. Determination of optimum aspect ratio for laminar flow heat transfer of dilute viscoelastic solutions in flattened tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Z. [Universiti Malaya, Civil Engineering Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karim, R. [TTDI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-08-15

    Heat transfer of viscoelastic liquids in five flattened tubes with aspect ratios ranging from 1.4 to 5.7 were presented. Water was used as the heating medium; and solutions of polyacrylamide were used as the viscoelastic solutions. Heat transfer increase from flattening was 101% higher while secondary flow contributed a maximum increase of 65% for the 250 ppm solution and about 85% for the 500 ppm solutions at an aspect ratio of 1.6. (orig.)

  20. EFFECTS OF MOIST FROUDE NUMBER AND OROGRAPHIC ASPECT RATIO ON A CONDITIONALLY UNSTABLE FLOW OVER A MESOSCALE MOUNTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Zhao, Zhan; Dawn Reeves, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: A series of idealized simulations for an unsaturated, conditionally unstable flow over a two-dimensional mountain ridge were performed to investigate how the unsaturated moist Froude number (Fw) and the aspect ratio of mountain height to half-width (h/a), affect the propagation, cloud type and rainfall amount of orographically induced precipitation systems. The moist Froude number (Fw) was varied by increasing or decreasing the basic state wind speed (U) while the aspect ratio was v...

  1. Fabrication of silicon nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio by cesium chloride self-assembly and dry etching

    OpenAIRE

    Xinshuai Zhang; Jing Liu; Bo Wang; Tianchong Zhang; Futing Yi

    2014-01-01

    Nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio, which have attracted much attention due to their potential applications, have been fabricated by many methods. Dry etching combined with self-assembly masks is widely used because of the convenience of dry etching and high throughput of self-assembly. In this paper, we report a method combining Cesium Chloride (CsCl) self-assembly with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching to fabricate silicon nanotip arrays with high aspect ratio and silicon nano...

  2. The effect of the aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes on their effective reinforcement modulus in an epoxy matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Martone, A.; Faiella, G.; Antonucci, V.; Giordano, M; Zarrelli, M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The potentiality of carbon nanotubes as reinforcement material is not only due to their exceptional high modulus, but also to their high aspect ratio. Indeed, the nanotubes contribution to the mechanical reinforcement in a polymer is strongly dependent on their distribution within the hosting matrix. In fact, the clustering of carbon nanotubes does limit the theoretical enhancement of the composite mechanical properties by a reduction of their effective aspect ratio. ...

  3. Electronic transport through side-contacted graphene nanoribbons: effects of overlap, aspect ratio and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompiewski, S

    2011-11-01

    We numerically calculate the conductance and shot noise Fano factor of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) side-contacted to metallic leads. A tight-binding model and Landauer's formalism are used in combination with a modified recursion method for Green's functions. The interfaces are modeled as a contact region between an infinite metallic electrode and a segment of the GNR put on top of it. The key question to answer in this study is how the size and orientation of the GNR and the GNR/electrode interface area influence the transport properties. It turns out that in general the transport characteristics depend strongly on overlap, meant as the ratio between the electrode-supported GNR length and the unsupported one. Moreover, a speed of convergence (with the overlap length) depends on both the transport direction and the aspect ratio of the GNR. It is shown that a short overlap interface is often, but not always, advantageous in nanoelectronics. These findings reconcile some seemingly conflicting opinions reported in the literature. PMID:21975438

  4. Electronic transport through side-contacted graphene nanoribbons: effects of overlap, aspect ratio and orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompiewski, S [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M Smoluchowskiego 17, 60179 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-04

    We numerically calculate the conductance and shot noise Fano factor of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) side-contacted to metallic leads. A tight-binding model and Landauer's formalism are used in combination with a modified recursion method for Green's functions. The interfaces are modeled as a contact region between an infinite metallic electrode and a segment of the GNR put on top of it. The key question to answer in this study is how the size and orientation of the GNR and the GNR/electrode interface area influence the transport properties. It turns out that in general the transport characteristics depend strongly on overlap, meant as the ratio between the electrode-supported GNR length and the unsupported one. Moreover, a speed of convergence (with the overlap length) depends on both the transport direction and the aspect ratio of the GNR. It is shown that a short overlap interface is often, but not always, advantageous in nanoelectronics. These findings reconcile some seemingly conflicting opinions reported in the literature.

  5. Performance and stability of near-unity aspect ratio plasmas in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pegasus Toroidal Experiment [R. Fonck et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41, 1400 (1996)] is a spherical torus designed to study the limits of plasma behavior as the aspect ratio A approaches unity. Access to near-unity A is achieved through the use of a novel high-stress reinforced solenoid magnet. High toroidal beta βt is obtained in ohmically-heated plasmas by operation at low field with densities up to the Greenwald limit. Values of βt up to 20% and normalized beta up to 5 have been obtained. The ratio of plasma current to toroidal field rod current, known as the toroidal field utilization, reaches values as large as 1 but appears to approach a 'soft' boundary at that level related to both ohmic flux limitations and the onset of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. The m/n=2/1 and 3/2 modes are most frequently observed, in agreement with the inferred safety factor profiles. Experiments are beginning to access the external kink stability boundary at edge safety factor q95=5, which is significantly higher than that observed in conventional tokamaks. Calculations using the DCON code [A. H. Glasser and M. S. Chance, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42, 1848 (1997)] confirm instability to the ideal kink

  6. Emission behavior of sudan red 7B on dogbone-shaped gold nanorods: Aspect ratio dependence of the metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Dewan S.; Sharma, Debdulal; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar, E-mail: sujitkchem@gmail.com

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CTAB-stabilized gold dogbones of variable aspect ratio have been synthesized. • Sudan red 7B has been used as fluoroprobe to elucidate aspect ratio dependence of the dogbones. • The relative intensity decreases exponentially with increasing aspect ratio. • The mechanism of quenching has been ascribed to the electron and energy transfer processes. - Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized ‘dogbone-shaped’ gold nanorods of aspect ratio varying from 1 to 6 have been synthesized by seed-mediated growth method in aqueous medium. Then, sudan red 7B, an alien molecular probe has been used as local probe to elucidate aspect ratio dependence of the nanorods on the photophysical properties of the dye molecules. It is seen that the relative intensity decreases exponentially with increasing aspect ratio and has been attributed to decrease in overall surface area for a particular concentration of the nanorods. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching has been ascribed to the electron and energy transfer processes in the gold-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures.

  7. Simulation and experimental study of aspect ratio limitation in Fresnel zone plates for hard-x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Zhang, Sichao; Ma, Yaqi; Taksatorn, Nit; Mao, Chengwen; Chen, Yifang; Deng, Biao; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2015-11-10

    For acquiring high-contrast and high-brightness images in hard-x-ray optics, Fresnel zone plates with high aspect ratios (zone height/zone width) have been constantly pursued. However, knowledge of aspect ratio limits remains limited. This work explores the achievable aspect ratio limit in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by electron-beam lithography (EBL) under 100 keV, and investigates the lithographic factors for this limitation. Both Monte Carlo simulation and EBL on thick PMMA are applied to investigate the profile evolution with exposure doses over 100 nm wide dense zones. A high-resolution scanning electron microscope at low acceleration mode for charging free is applied to characterize the resultant zone profiles. It was discovered for what we believe is the first time that the primary electron-beam spreading in PMMA and the proximity effect due to extra exposure from neighboring areas could be the major causes of limiting the aspect ratio. Using the optimized lithography condition, a 100 nm zone plate with aspect ratio of 15/1 was fabricated and its focusing property was characterized at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The aspect ratio limit found in this work should be extremely useful for guiding further technical development in nanofabrication of high-quality Fresnel zone plates. PMID:26560796

  8. Vortices behavior depending on the aspect ratio of an insect-like flapping wing in hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Seob; Chang, Jo Won; Cho, Hwan-Kee

    2015-09-01

    Force measurements and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) were carried out to reveal the effects of the aspect ratio (AR) of an insect-like flapping wing. A total of seven aspect ratios around that of an insect wing including 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 were taken into account for the same hovering configurations. Time-course forces showed that both lift and drag in the translational phase were maximized in the case of AR = 3, which is the closest ratio to that of a living insect. The chordwise cross-sectional DPIV conclusively showed that the leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing of AR = 1.5 remained nearly unchanged in all cross sections. In other AR cases, however, the trailing-edge vortices (TEV) were clearly found with LEVs that lifted off the wing surfaces at the outboard cross sections. In each of these cases, the TEV interrupted the downwash, and the overall flows behind the wing became wakes similar to those found over a blunt body. The near-wake flow structures revealed that the tip vortex gradually entered the inner area from the wing tip as the AR increased. Circulations and downwash distributions showed a stretched LEV and asymmetrically developed tip and root vortices as the AR moved away from AR = 3. These results do not only indicate that the AR effects of a flapping wing are characteristics that are definitely distinctive from those of a typical aircraft, but also briefly imply that maintaining an LEV attachment by employing strong rotational accelerations is not the highest priority when attempting to achieve lift enhancements. Among the tested cases, the wing of AR = 3 had a balanced downwash flux as well as the best aerodynamic performance characteristics, including the maximum lift, reasonable efficiency, and a moderate pitching moment. This indirectly explains why the wings of living flyers adept at hovering have this AR, and it also suggests the appropriate AR for a flapping-type micro-air vehicle.

  9. High aspect ratio AFM Probe processing by helium-ion-beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Keiko; Guo, Hongxuan; Nagano, Syoko; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A Scanning Helium Ion Microscope (SHIM) is a high resolution surface observation instrument similar to a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) since both instruments employ finely focused particle beams of ions or electrons [1]. The apparent difference is that SHIMs can be used not only for a sub-nanometer scale resolution microscopic research, but also for the applications of very fine fabrication and direct lithography of surfaces at the nanoscale dimensions. On the other hand, atomic force microscope (AFM) is another type of high resolution microscopy which can measure a three-dimensional surface morphology by tracing a fine probe with a sharp tip apex on a specimen's surface.In order to measure highly uneven and concavo-convex surfaces by AFM, the probe of a high aspect ratio with a sharp tip is much more necessary than the probe of a general quadrangular pyramid shape. In this paper we report the manufacture of the probe tip of the high aspect ratio by ion-beam induced gas deposition using a nanoscale helium ion beam of SHIM.Gas of platinum organic compound was injected into the sample surface neighborhood in the vacuum chamber of SHIM. The decomposition of the gas and the precipitation of the involved metal brought up a platinum nano-object in a pillar shape on the normal commercial AFM probe tip. A SHIM system (Carl Zeiss, Orion Plus) equipped with the gas injection system (OmniProbe, OmniGIS) was used for the research. While the vacuum being kept to work, we injected platinum organic compound ((CH3)3(CH3C5H4)Pt) into the sample neighborhood and irradiated the helium ion beam with the shape of a point on the apex of the AFM probe tip. It is found that we can control the length of the Pt nano-pillar by irradiation time of the helium ion beam. The AFM probe which brought up a Pt nano-pillar is shown in Figure 1. It is revealed that a high-aspect-ratio Pt nano-pillar of ∼40nm diameter and up to ∼2000 nm length can be grown. In addition, for possible heating

  10. Aqueous base developable. Easy stripping, high aspect ratio negative photoresist for optical and proton beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A variety of different photo resists are used for the fabrication of polymer and metal high aspect ratio structures. Among them SU-8, a chemically amplified negative tone photoresist is the mostly used. However, after processing the finished resist pattern (SU-8) is hardly removed from the substrate. In the present work the formulation and process optimization of a negative tone chemically amplified photoresist (TADEP) is presented. TADEP resist consists of epoxy (EP), partially hydrogenated poly(hydroxystyrene) (PHS) components and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl) tetrahydrothiophenium triflate as PAG. In particular the component relative concentration and the PAG molecule have been optimized towards the optimum absorption in the exposure spectrum as also the dissolution rate of the uncrosslinked regions. In addition the PAB step has been studied towards the optimum conditions in terms of resist adhesion. The proton beam exposures were performed on the nuclear microprobe facility at ATOMKI. The proton energy was 2 MeV, the beam was focussed down to ∼3 μm spot size and the beam current used was in the 5-60 pA range. The scan size was typically 1000 μm and the beam step size was 1 μm. The fluence was 300 nC/mm2. The thermal processing steps (Post Apply Bake (PAB), Post Exposure Bake (PEB)) were carried out on a levelled hot plate. The development was performed in AZ726 MIF (0.26N TMAH) at room temperature in stirring mode. Before the nitrogen drying, the samples were rinsed in deionized water. Electroplating was carried out at a temperature controlled bath at 50 deg C by using a solution consisting of nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, boric acid, ferrous sulfate and saccharin and a constant current density of 40 mA/cm2. Stripping of the crosslinked regions was performed using acetone in an ultrasonic bath (Branson 2200, frequency of 47 kHz ± 6%). The resist structures are totally removed, despite the fact the width of the

  11. Engineering design study of quasi-axisymmetric stellarator with low aspect-ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator CHS-qa has been designed from physics point of view on the basis of the so-called optimization of helical magnetic field configurations. Once its engineering design was introduced briefly as a part of physics design, here the details are described. The toroidal period number N of 2 has been selected because it gives a small aspect ratio resulting in a large plasma volume favorable for physics experiments. CHS-qa has the following machine parameters: major radius R of 1.5 m, plasma minor radius a of 0.47 m (Ap(=R/a)=3.2), maximum toroidal magnetic field strength of 1.5 T, flat-top time of 1 sec at full field. Because of quasi-axisymmetry of the magnetic field structure with N=2 the whole structure of the machine is of highly non-axisymmetry and of deformation, which causes asymmetric centripetal forces on modular coils and complicated distributions of the electromagnetic force. Major engineering points on the modular coils and on the vacuum vessel are as follows: 1) modular coil design (curvature and twist of conductors), 2) supporting structures of modular coils, 3) manufacturing process of vacuum vessel and modular coils, 4) design of ports for heating and diagnostics. The following results have been obtained. 1) Shapes of modular coils are designed under the tolerable curvature and twist. 2) To cope with centripetal forces and overturning forces supporting structures for coils are designed by using elliptical plates on the inboard side and rods between modular coils. Stress analysis is also done under the condition where the ratio of modular coil currents is changed for controlling bumpiness of the magnetic field. 3) The vacuum vessel is inside the modular coils. How to make the whole assembly has been carefully examined. 4) Tangential injection of NB is available. (orig.)

  12. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  13. Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, Jan W; Quicazán-Rubio, Elsa M; van Heijst, GertJan F; Altshuler, Douglas L; Lentink, David

    2014-10-01

    Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy. Previous quasi-steady experiments with a wing spinner set-up provide no support for this prediction. To test this more carefully, we compare the quasi-steady hover performance of 26 wings, from 12 hummingbird taxa. We spun the wings at angular velocities and angles of attack that are representative for every species and measured lift and torque more precisely. The power (aerodynamic torque × angular velocity) required to lift weight depends on aerodynamic efficacy, which is measured by the power factor. Our comparative analysis shows that AR has a modest influence on lift and drag forces, as reported earlier, but interspecific differences in power factor are large. During the downstroke, the power required to hover decreases for larger AR wings at the angles of attack at which hummingbirds flap their wings (p helicopter rotor shows that they are remarkably similar. PMID:25079868

  14. Viscous Faraday waves in 2D large aspect ratio annular containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, José M.; Mancebo, Francisco J.

    2002-11-01

    A weakly nonlinear analysis of viscous Faraday waves in a two-dimensional, large aspect ratio annulus is presented that accounts for the coupled, slow dynamics of both the surface wave envelope and the associated long wave flows. The analysis can be considered as the natural extension of well known linear results by Kumar & Tuckerman (1994). Two cases are considered, depending on the comparative values of the fluid depth and the wavelength of the excited surface waves. At small depth, a long wave, viscous mean flow must be considered that is slaved to the free surface deformation. The relevant amplitude equations coincide with those first derived by Coullet & Iooss (1990) in the analysis of spatially periodic patterns, and further analyzed by Matthews & Cox (2000). At larger depth, the system exhibits (a) an inviscid, long wave, oscillatory flow that is slaved to the surface wave envelope and (b) a long wave, viscous mean flow that exhibits its own dynamics. In both cases, the asymptotic equations have been derived from an exact formulation. Some analytically obtained results will be presented on the local and global stability of the simplest spatially uniform standing waves of the system.

  15. Preparation and Properties of Nanocomposites from Pristine and Modified SWCNTs of Comparable Average Aspect Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Watson, Kent A.; Connell, John W.; Bekyarova, E.; Haddon, R.; Yu, A.

    2008-01-01

    Low color, flexible, space-durable polyimide films with inherent and robust electrical conductivity to dissipate electrostatic charge (ESC) have been under investigation as part of a materials development activity for future NASA space missions. The use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is one means to achieving this goal. Even though the concentration of SWCNTs needed to achieve ESC dissipation is typically low, it is dependent upon purity, size, dispersion, and functionalization. In this study, SWCNTs prepared by the electric arc discharge method were used to synthesize nanocomposites using the LaRC(TradeMark) CP2 backbone as the matrix. Pristine and functionalized SWCNTs were mixed with an alkoxysilane terminated amide acid of LaRC(TradeMark) CP2 and the soluble imide form of the polymer and the resultant nanocomposites evaluated for mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Due to the preparative conditions for the pristine and functionalized SWCNTs, the average aspect ratio for both was comparable. This permitted the assessment of SWCNT functionalization with respect to various interactions (e.g. van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, covalent bond formation, etc.) with the matrix and the macroscopic effects upon nanocomposite properties. The results of this study are described herein.

  16. Numerical investigation of flow on NACA4412 aerofoil with different aspect ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Hacımurat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow over NACA4412 was investigated both numerically and experimentally at a different Reynolds numbers. The experiments were carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with various angles of attack and different Reynolds numbers (25000 and 50000. Airfoil was manufactured using 3D printer with a various aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3. Smoke-wire and oil flow visualization methods were used to visualize the surface flow patterns. NACA4412 aerofoil was designed by using SOLIDWORKS. The structural grid of numerical model was constructed by ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing software. Furthermore, ANSYS FLUENT™ software was used to perform numerical calculations. The numerical results were compared with experimental results. Bubble formation was shown in CFD streamlines and smoke-wire experiments at z / c = 0.4. Furthermore, bubble shrunk at z / c = 0.2 by reason of the effects of tip vortices in both numerical and experimental studies. Consequently, it was seen that there was a good agreement between numerical and experimental results.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of large arrays of mesoscopic gold rings on large-aspect-ratio cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated large arrays of mesoscopic metal rings on ultrasensitive cantilevers. The arrays are defined by electron beam lithography and contain up to 105 rings. The rings have a circumference of 1 μm, and are made of ultrapure (6N) Au that is deposited onto a silicon-on-insulator wafer without an adhesion layer. Subsequent processing of the SOI wafer results in each array being supported at the end of a free-standing cantilever. To accommodate the large arrays while maintaining a low spring constant, the cantilevers are nearly 1 mm in both lateral dimensions and 100 nm thick. The extreme aspect ratio of the cantilevers, the large array size, and the absence of a sticking layer are intended to enable measurements of the rings' average persistent current in the presence of relatively small magnetic fields. We describe the motivation for these measurements, the fabrication of the devices, and the characterization of the cantilevers' mechanical properties. We also discuss the devices' expected performance in measurements of

  18. Large-area thermoelectric high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoho, Mikko; Juntunen, Taneli; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2016-09-01

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of large-area high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. We fabricate the structures by atomic layer deposition of conformal ZnO thin films on track-etched polycarbonate substrate. The resulting structure consists of ZnO tubules which continue through the full thickness of the substrate. The electrical and thermal properties of the structures are studied both in-plane and out-of-plane. They exhibit very low out-of-plane thermal conductivity down to 0.15 W m(-1) K(-1) while the in-plane sheet resistance of the films was found to be half that of the same film on glass substrate, allowing material-independent doubling of output power of any planar thin-film thermoelectric generator. The wall thickness of the fabricated nanotubes was varied within a range of up to 100 nm. The samples show polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred crystal orientation. PMID:27454037

  19. Bosch-like method for creating high aspect ratio poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) structures

    KAUST Repository

    Haiducu, Marius

    2012-02-02

    This paper presents a method for etching millimetre-deep trenches in commercial grade PMMA using deep-UV at 254 nm. The method is based on consecutive cycles of irradiation and development of the exposed areas, respectively. The exposure segment is performed using an inexpensive, in-house built irradiation box while the development part is accomplished using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):H2O developer. The method was tested and characterized by etching various dimension square test structures in commercial grade, mirrored acrylic. The undercut of the sidewalls due to the uncollimated nature of the irradiation light was dramatically alleviated by using a honeycomb metallic grid in between the irradiation source and the acrylic substrate and by rotating the latter using a direct current (DC) motor-driven stage. By using an extremely affordable set-up and non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and substances, this process represents an excellent alternative to microfabricating microfluidic devices in particular and high aspect ratio structures in general using PMMA as substrate. © 2012 SPIE.

  20. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O' Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ∼30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250 °C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/μm{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200 Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  1. Achieving High Aspect Ratio of Track Length to Width in Molds for Discrete Track Recording Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Piramanayagam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete track media (DTM fabricated by nanoimprint lithography (NIL is considered as a potential technology for future hard disk drives (HDD. In the fabrication of a master mold for NIL, patterning the resist tracks with a narrow distribution in the width is the first critical step. This paper reports the challenges involved in the fabrication of high aspect ratio discrete tracks on Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA resist by means of electron beam lithography. It was observed that fabrication parameters applied for successful patterning of discrete tracks in nanoscale length were not directly suitable for the patterning of discrete tracks in micron scale. Hence different approaches such as thick layer resist coating, introducing of post exposure baking process, and varying of exposure parameters were used in order to achieve uniform sharp discrete tracks in micron scale length on the resist. The optimal parameters were used to pattern 20 μm long tracks with 70 nm track pitch on the resist.

  2. High aspect ratio lead zirconate titanate tube structures: I. Template assisted fabrication - vacuum infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kovaľ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes are fabricated by a vacuum infiltration method. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. The pyrolyzed PZT tubes of a 2-µm outer diameter, extending to over 30 µm in length were released from the template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching of silicon. Free-standing microtubes, partially anchored at the bottom of the Si template, were then crystallized in pure oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C for 2 min using a rapid thermal annealer. The perovskite phase of the final PZT tubes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The XRD spectrum also revealed a small amount of the pyrochlore phase in the structure and signs of possible fluoride contamination caused most likely by the XeF2 etching process. The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the whole surface of the pore walls was conformally coated during the repeated infiltration of templates, resulting in straight tubes with closed tips formed on the opposite ends as replicas of the pore bottoms. These high aspect ratio ferroelectric structures are suggested as building units for developing miniaturized electronic devices, such as memory storage (DRAM trenched capacitors, piezoelectric scanners and actuators, and are of fundamental value for the theory of ferroelectricity in systems with low dimensionality.

  3. H-mode Characterization and Edge Stability at Near-Unity Aspect Ratio in PEGASUS Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Peguero, L. M.; Perry, J. M.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Thompson, D. S.

    2013-10-01

    Unique features of operating at near-unity aspect ratio include: ready access to Ohmic H-mode; operation in the low collisionality regime with strong neoclassical effects; and ELM instabilities driven by peeling and peeling- ballooning modes. Ohmic H-mode is achieved in both limited and diverted configurations by using high-field-side fueling. The access to and characteristics of H-mode regimes as well as various ELM types in PEGASUS is currently being explored. Characteristics of the L-H transition are: formation of an edge current pedestal; reversal of the direction of toroidal flow at the transition; doubling of the stored energy; and the presence of ELMs. Modest temperatures and pulse lengths in PEGASUS allow the use of insertable probes to measure the properties of the edge plasma with high spatial and temporal resolution, even in ELMy H-mode. A current pedestal in the edge J (R , t) profile is observed in H-mode but not in L-mode operation. This pedestal is destroyed during an ELM event cycle, but returns quickly after the ELM. Peeling modes, identified in the edge of L-mode plasmas with strong edge current, drive the formation of an edge current hole and ejection of a current-carrying filament consistent with electromagnetic blob theory. Similar behavior is indicated with ELMs in H-mode plasmas. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  4. Equilibrium properties at very low aspect ratio in the Pegasus toroidal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium reconstructions of low-aspect ratio (A < 1.3) discharges in the Pegasus toroidal experiment have been performed. Magnetic diagnostics are used for equilibrium constraint and a filament code is used to estimate the significant currents flowing in the vacuum vessel walls. This technique is able to fit the global plasma parameters of plasma current and major radius to within 5%, internal inductance to within 10% and plasma pressure to within 15% as determined by Monte Carlo estimation of the uncertainties in the fit parameters. Determination of the equilibrium properties of the plasma allows an understanding of the dynamics of internal tearing modes and external ideal kink modes that limit plasma performance. Internal tearing modes were found to degrade plasma confinement when rational surfaces are located in regions of low magnetic shear early in the discharge when temperature is lower and resistivity is higher. This confinement degradation limits the maximum achievable plasma current and pressure. Disruptions with precursors growing with a time of ∼90 μs have been found to be consistent with ideal external kink modes with a hybrid growth time

  5. Performance and stability limits at near-unity aspect ratio in the pegasus toroidal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pegasus Toroidal Experiment is a mid-sized extremely-low aspect ratio (A) spherical torus (ST). It has the dual roles of exploring limits of ST behavior as A approaches 1 and studying the physics of ST plasmas in the tokamak-spheromak overlap regime. Major parameters are R 0.25 - 0.45 m, A 1.1 - 1.4, Ip T 20% have been obtained, and the operational space of beta vs Ip/aBT is similar to that observed for NBI-heated START discharges. Achievable plasma current is subject to an apparent limit of Ip/Itf ∼ 1. Access to higher-current plasmas appears to be restricted by the appearance of large internal MHD activity, including m/n=2/1 and 3/2 modes. Recent experiments have begun to access ideal stability limits, with disruptions observed as q95 approaches 5, in agreement with numerical predictions for external kink mode onset. (author)

  6. Inkjet Printing of High Aspect Ratio Superparamagnetic SU-8 Microstructures with Preferential Magnetic Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Jacot-Descombes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structuring SU-8 based superparamagnetic polymer composite (SPMPC containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by photolithography is limited in thickness due to light absorption by the nanoparticles. Hence, obtaining thicker structures requires alternative processing techniques. This paper presents a method based on inkjet printing and thermal curing for the fabrication of much thicker hemispherical microstructures of SPMPC. The microstructures are fabricated by inkjet printing the nanoparticle-doped SU-8 onto flat substrates functionalized to reduce the surface energy and thus the wetting. The thickness and the aspect ratio of the printed structures are further increased by printing the composite onto substrates with confinement pedestals. Fully crosslinked microstructures with a thickness up to 88.8 μm and edge angle of 112° ± 4° are obtained. Manipulation of the microstructures by an external field is enabled by creating lines of densely aggregated nanoparticles inside the composite. To this end, the printed microstructures are placed within an external magnetic field directly before crosslinking inducing the aggregation of dense Fe3O4 nanoparticle lines with in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  7. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  8. High-harmonic ion cyclotron heating and current drive in ultra-small aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-small aspect ratio tokamaks present a totally new plasma environment for heating and current drive experiments and involve a number of physics issues that have not previously been explored. These devices operate at low magnetic field and relatively high density so that the effective dielectric constant of the plasma to high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), is quite high, and perpendicular wavelength of fast waves is very short. λ ∼ 2.0 cm compared with λ - 10-20 cm. This makes possible strong electron absorption at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, Ωi, and at fairly high phase velocity in relation to electron thermal velocity. If the antenna system can control the parallel wave spectrum, this offers the promise of high efficiency off-axis current drive and the possibility for current drive radial profile control. Antenna phasing is ineffective for profile control in conventional tokamaks because of central absorption. There are also challenges for antenna design in this regime because of the high dielectric constant and the large angle of the magnetic field with respect to the equatorial plane (∼45 degrees), which varies greatly during current ramp. Preliminary experiments in this HHFW regime are being carried out in CDX-U

  9. Collisionless microtearing modes in large aspect ratio Tokamaks with weak reversed shear configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Swamy, Aditya; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Brunner, Stephan; Vaclavik, Jan; Villard, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations have found Collisionless Microtearing Modes (MTM) to be linearly unstable in sharp temperature gradient regions of tokamaks, typically with high magnetic shear. The collisionless MTM is driven by the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons, aided by the closeness of Mode Rational Surfaces (MRS) arising due to the high shear. Here, the role of global safety factor profile variation on the MTM instability and global mode structure is studied, in particular in weak reverse shear (WRS) configurations in large aspect ratio tokamaks. At lower shear profiles, multiple MTM branches are found with tearing parity as well as mixed parity. The linear growth rates of MTM is found to be weakened and linearly unstable modes are found whose global mode structures of φ~ and Ã∥ exhibit Mixed Parity. For the same equilibrium profiles and parameters, AITG instability is also studied and global mode structures are compared with MTM. The growth rate spectrum is found to extend to shorter/mesoscale wavelengths in WRS. Several other characteristics of MTMs and AITG are recovered in the WRS configuration, such as the dependency on free energy source and on plasma β.

  10. Numerical investigation of flow on NACA4412 aerofoil with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hacımurat; Özden, Mustafa; Genç, Mustafa Serdar; Çağdaş, Mücahit

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the flow over NACA4412 was investigated both numerically and experimentally at a different Reynolds numbers. The experiments were carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with various angles of attack and different Reynolds numbers (25000 and 50000). Airfoil was manufactured using 3D printer with a various aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3). Smoke-wire and oil flow visualization methods were used to visualize the surface flow patterns. NACA4412 aerofoil was designed by using SOLIDWORKS. The structural grid of numerical model was constructed by ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing software. Furthermore, ANSYS FLUENT™ software was used to perform numerical calculations. The numerical results were compared with experimental results. Bubble formation was shown in CFD streamlines and smoke-wire experiments at z / c = 0.4. Furthermore, bubble shrunk at z / c = 0.2 by reason of the effects of tip vortices in both numerical and experimental studies. Consequently, it was seen that there was a good agreement between numerical and experimental results.

  11. Shafranov shift in low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MHD equilibrium properties of neutral-beam-heated plasmas have been experimentally investigated in the Compact Helical System (CHS), a low-aspect-ratio (Ap ∼ 5) heliotron/torsatron. This configuration is characterized by a strong breaking of helical symmetry. The radial profiles measured by various diagnostics have shown significant Shafranov shift due to plasma pressure. The deviation of the magnetic axis from its vacuum position has reached 50% of the minor radius. When the three-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC is used to reconstruct the equilibrium from the experimental data, the result is in good agreement with the experimentally observed Shafranov shift as well as the diamagnetic pressure in plasmas with ≤ 1.2% and β0 ≤ 3.3%. This β value corresponds to half of the conventional equilibrium β limit defined by the Shafranov shift reaching a value of half the minor radius. Although tangential neutral beam injection has caused pressure anisotropies p parallel/p perpendicular ≤ 3, the description of the equilibrium assuming isotropic pressure is consistent with the experiment. (author)

  12. Filling of microvia with an aspect ratio of 5 by copper electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filling of microvias with a diameter of 5 μm and a depth of 25 μm (aspect ratio of 5) by copper electroplating was investigated. Filling experiments were evaluated by analyzing cross-sections of filled vias with scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. The fill-up evolution shows a bottom-up mechanism, also known as superfilling mechanism. The evolution of potential with time (chronopotentiometric measurements) was recorded during the fill-up process of vias and is interpreted based on potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The bottom-up fill mode is affected by the concentration of leveler inside the vias. A differential plating rate that is responsible for bottom-up plating, develops along the profile of the via on depletion of the leveler inside the vias. Since the depleted via is less inhibited, the local electrodeposition rate increases in the via. At the top part and outside the via, the electrodeposition rate is strongly inhibited due to a higher leveler concentration comparable to the one in the bulk electrolyte, what results in a low local electrodeposition rate. In this paper, the contribution of levelers to the bottom-up mechanism during the electrodeposition of copper in microvias is investigated. The observed microstructure supports the superfilling mechanism

  13. High Aspect Ratio Sub-15 nm Silicon Trenches From Block Copolymer Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zuwei; Gunkel, Ilja; Olynick, Deirdre; Russell, Thomas; University of Massachusetts Amherst Collaboration; Oxford Instrument Collaboration; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    High-aspect-ratio sub-15 nm silicon trenches are fabricated directly from plasma etching of a block copolymer (BCP) mask. Polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) 40k-b-18k was spin coated and solvent annealed to form cylindrical structures parallel to the silicon substrate. The BCP thin film was reconstructed by immersion in ethanol and then subjected to an oxygen and argon reactive ion etching to fabricate the polymer mask. A low temperature ion coupled plasma with sulfur hexafluoride and oxygen was used to pattern transfer block copolymer structure to silicon with high selectivity (8:1) and fidelity. The silicon pattern was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray scattering. We also demonstrated fabrication of silicon nano-holes using polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) using same methodology described above for PS-b-P2VP. Finally, we show such silicon nano-strucutre serves as excellent nano-imprint master template to pattern various functional materials like poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT).

  14. Relationship between the consolidation parameter, porosity and aspect ratio in microporous carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceia, Marco A. R.; Misságia, Roseane M.; Neto, Irineu Lima; Archilha, Nathaly

    2015-11-01

    The estimation of dry bulk modulus is required for the successful application of the Biot-Gassmann theory to forecast fluid changes within a reservoir. The Pride model is one of the several models described in the literature for predicting the dry elastic moduli of rocks. However, the accuracy of the Pride model depends on the estimation of the consolidation parameter. In this paper, the consolidation parameter was estimated using the pore stiffness, mineral bulk modulus and porosity. That approach allowed calculating the dry bulk modulus of a set of microporous carbonate rocks according to the Pride model and compare those estimates to the results obtained using the elastic velocities. The change in the consolidation parameter over a range of pressures suggests that the relationship between this parameter and the unconfined porosity increases at high effective pressure. Statistical analyses of the distribution of those consolidation parameter values were performed to verify how the effective pressure influences the mean value and variance. Mean pore aspect ratios were estimated using Kuster-Toksoz methodology to establish a relationship with the consolidation parameter and the unconfined porosity. Such relationship also accounts for pressure-dependence within the studied pressure range. Although only 20 samples were analyzed, those studies can contribute to advise the estimation of the consolidation parameter in this type of carbonate rocks.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of large arrays of mesoscopic gold rings on large-aspect-ratio cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, D. Q.; Petković, I., E-mail: ivana.petkovic@yale.edu; Lollo, A. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Castellanos-Beltran, M. A. [National Institute for Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Harris, J. G. E. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We have fabricated large arrays of mesoscopic metal rings on ultrasensitive cantilevers. The arrays are defined by electron beam lithography and contain up to 10{sup 5} rings. The rings have a circumference of 1 μm, and are made of ultrapure (6N) Au that is deposited onto a silicon-on-insulator wafer without an adhesion layer. Subsequent processing of the SOI wafer results in each array being supported at the end of a free-standing cantilever. To accommodate the large arrays while maintaining a low spring constant, the cantilevers are nearly 1 mm in both lateral dimensions and 100 nm thick. The extreme aspect ratio of the cantilevers, the large array size, and the absence of a sticking layer are intended to enable measurements of the rings' average persistent current in the presence of relatively small magnetic fields. We describe the motivation for these measurements, the fabrication of the devices, and the characterization of the cantilevers' mechanical properties. We also discuss the devices' expected performance in measurements of .

  16. Confinement physic study in a small low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration parameter of the plasma position relative to the center of the helical coil winding is very effective one for controlling the MHD stability and the trapped particle confinement in Heliotron/Torsatron systems. But these two characteristics are contradictory to each other in this parameter. The inward shifted configuration is favorable for the drift-orbit-optimization but it is predicted unstable with the Mercier criterion. Various physics problems, such as electric field structure, plasma rotation and MHD phenomena, have been studied in CHS with a compromising intermediate position. With this standard configuration, CHS has supplied experimental results for understanding general toroidal confinement physics and low-aspect-ratio helical systems. In the recent experiments, it was found that the wide range of inward shifted configurations gives stable plasma discharges without any restriction to the special pressure profile. Such enhanced range of operation made it possible to study experimentally the drift-orbit-optimized configuration in the Heliotron/Torsatron systems. The effect of configuration improvement was studied with plasmas in a low collisionality regime. (author)

  17. Experimental investigation of a large aspect ratio flat plate encountering a steam-wise gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulleners, Karen; Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    While humans are capable of mimicking, and even outperform, the kinematic capabilities of natural flyers, birds and insects are still way ahead of us when it comes to anticipating and dealing with turbulent and gusty flow conditions. To tailor and improve flight control capabilities of low Reynolds number flyers in real weather, we need to bridge this gap of knowledge. As a first step, we experimentally studied the aerodynamic influence of a simplified stream-wise gust on a large aspect ratio flat plate. The experiments were conduction in the 7 × 1 . 5 × 1 m3 towing tank at UMD which was equipped with a 4-axis computer-controlled motion system. The effect of a stream-wise gust was simulated by accelerating or decelerating the wing to a new constant velocity after an initial constant surge. A high-speed camera and light sheet optics were attached to the tow carriage allowing for time-resolved particle image velocimetry along the entire motion in addition to direct force measurements. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field was carried out to study the time scales related to changes induced by the sudden acceleration or deceleration in addition to analyzing the size, position and trajectory of prominent vortices and associated forces during the gust encounter.

  18. Proposal for a risk banding framework for inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles based on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Mattheus T T; Feber, Maaike Le; Burello, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present a conceptual framework that can be used to assign risk bands to inhaled low aspect ratio nanoparticles starting from exposure bands assigned to a specific exposure situation. The framework mimics a basic physiological scheme that captures the essential mechanisms of fate and toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles and is composed of several models and rules that estimate the result of the following processes: the deposition of particles in the respiratory tract, their (de-)agglomeration, lung burden and clearance, their diffusion through the lung mucus layer, translocation and cellular uptake and local and systemic toxicity. Each model is based on a set of particle's physicochemical properties, including the size and size distribution(s), the zeta potential (or net charge at a specific pH), the surface hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, the conduction band energy (for metals, metal oxides, quantum dots, etc.) and the solubility at a specific pH. The framework takes the exposure bands as input and predicts, using the above-mentioned models, an internal dose band (module 1). Module 2 assigns a relative hazard ranking depending on the region of particle deposition in the respiratory tract, the likelihood of uptake and whether the toxicological effects are assumed to be local and/or systemic. By combining the results of Module 1 and 2, the framework provides a relative risk ranking. PMID:26763369

  19. On the flow generated by rotating flat plates of low aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoria, Adam C.

    Low-aspect-ratio propulsors typically allow for high maneuverability at low-to-moderate speeds. This has made them the subject of much recent research aimed at employing such appendages on autonomous vehicles which are required to navigate tumultuous environments. This experimental investigation focuses on the fluid dynamic aspects associated with overly-simplified versions of such biologically-inspired propulsors. In doing so, fundamental contributions are made to the research area. The unsteady, three-dimensional flow of a low-aspect-ratio, trapezoidal flat plate undergoing rotation from rest at a 90° angle of attack and Reynolds numbers of O(103) is investigated experimentally. The objectives are to develop a straightforward protocol for vortex saturation, and to understand the effects of the root-to-tip flow for different velocity programs. The experiments are conducted in a glass-walled tank, and digital particle image velocimetry is used to obtain planar velocity measurements. A formation-parameter definition is investigated and is found to reasonably predict the state corresponding to the pinch-off of the initial tip vortex across the velocity programs tested. The flow in the region near the tip is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number over the range studied. The component normal to the plate is unaffected by total rotational amplitude while the tangential component has dependence on this angle. Also, an estimate of the first tip-vortex pinch-off time is obtained from the near-tip velocity data and agrees very well with values estimated using circulation. The angle of incidence of the bulk root-to-tip flow relative to the plate normal becomes more oblique with increasing rotational amplitude. Accordingly, the peak magnitude of the tangential velocity is also increased and as a result advects fluid momentum away from the plate at a higher rate. The more oblique impingement of the root-to-tip flow for increasing rotational amplitude is shown to have a

  20. Parallel fabrication of high-aspect-ratio all-silicon grooves using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Chen, Tao; Pan, An; Li, Cunxia; Tang, Litie

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a simple method using 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching with a hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution for the parallel fabrication of high-aspect-ratio all-silicon groove arrays. In this method, one laser beam was divided into five beams by a diffractive optical element. Five laser-induced structure change (LISC) zones were formed in the silicon simultaneously with a single scan of the divided beams, and then the materials in the LISC zones were etched by HF acid solution to form groove arrays. Via this method, all-silicon grooves with aspect ratios up to 39.4 were produced, and the processing efficiency could be increased by five times in contrast with that of the single laser beam irradiation. Furthermore, high-aspect-ratio grooves with near uniform morphologies were fabricated using this method in silicon wafers with different crystal orientations.

  1. Global two-fluid simulations of geodesic acoustic modes in strongly shaped tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following recent observations suggesting the presence of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in ohmically heated discharges in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [J. R. Robinson et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105007 (2012)], the behaviour of the GAM is studied numerically using the two fluid, global code CENTORI [P. J. Knight et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 2346 (2012)]. We examine mode localisation and effects of magnetic geometry, given by aspect ratio, elongation, and safety factor, on the observed frequency of the mode. An excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data is found for simulation plasma parameters matched to those of MAST. Increasing aspect ratio yields good agreement between the GAM frequency found in the simulations and an analytical result obtained for elongated large aspect ratio plasmas

  2. The flow field in a high aspect ratio cooling duct with and without one heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlitz, Henrik; Scholz, Peter; Fuchs, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The flow in a high aspect ratio generic cooling duct is described for different Reynolds numbers and for adiabatic as well as non-adiabatic conditions. The Reynolds number is varied in a range from 39,000 to 111,000. The generic cooling duct facility allows for applying a constant temperature on the duct's lower wall, and it ensures having well-defined boundary conditions. The high-quality, optical noninvasive measurement methods, namely Particle Image Velocimetry (2C2D-PIV, i.e., two velocity components in a plane), Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (3C2D-PIV, i.e., three velocity components in a plane) and Volumetric Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3C3D-PTV, i.e., three velocity components in a volume), are used to characterize the flow in detail. Pressure transducers are installed for measuring the pressure losses. The repeatability and the validity of the data are discussed in detail. For that purpose, modifications in the test facility and in the experimental setup as well as comparisons between the different measurement methods are given. A focus lies on the average velocity distribution and on the turbulent statistics. The longitudinal velocity profile is analyzed in detail for Reynolds number variations. Secondary flows are identified with velocities of two orders of magnitude smaller than the longitudinal velocity. Reynolds stress distributions are given for several different cases. The Reynolds number dependency of overline{u'^2} and overline{v'^2} is shown, and a comparison between the adiabatic and the heated case is given. overline{u'^2} changes significantly when the lower wall heat flux is applied, whereas overline{v'^2} and overline{u'v'} almost stay constant.

  3. Geometrical Nonlinear Aeroelastic Stability Analysis of a Composite High-Aspect-Ratio Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chuan Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite high-aspect-ratio wing of a high-altitude long-endurance (HALE aircraft was modeled with FEM by MSC/NASTRAN, and the nonlinear static equilibrium state is calculated under design load with follower force effect, but without load redistribution. Assuming the little vibration amplitude of the wing around the static equilibrium state, the system is linearized and the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the deformed structure are obtained. Planar doublet lattice method is used to calculate unsteady aerodynamics in frequency domain ignoring the bending effect of the deflected wing. And then, the aeroelastic stability analysis of the system under a given load condition is successively carried out. Comparing with the linear results, the nonlinear displacement of the wing tip is higher. The results indicate that the critical nonlinear flutter is of the flap/chordwise bending type because of the chordwise bending having quite a large torsion component, with low critical speed and slowly growing damping, which dose not appear in the linear analysis. Furthermore, it is shown that the variation of the nonlinear flutter speed depends on the scale of the load and on the chordwise bending frequency. The research work indicates that, for the very flexible HALE aircraft, the nonlinear aeroelastic stability is very important, and should be considered in the design progress. Using present FEM software as the structure solver (e.g. MSC/NASTRAN, and the unsteady aerodynamic code, the nonlinear aeroelastic stability margin of a complex system other than a simple beam model can be determined.

  4. Fabrication of micro-pin array with high aspect ratio on stainless steel using nanosecond laser beam machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Won [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hong Shik, E-mail: shinhs05@ut.ac.kr [Department of Energy System Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Chong Nam [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high aspect ratio micro-pin array was fabricated by laser beam machining using the piling of a recast layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recast layer could be piled due to the chromium oxide with high surface tension and viscosity of chromium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The machining characteristics for a high aspect ratio micro-pin array were investigated according to laser beam parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments for attaching force relative to the surface roughness of the subject plane were carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed micro-pin array was successfully attached to vertical wall. - Abstract: In this paper, a micro-pin array with a high aspect ratio was fabricated on AISI 304 using laser beam ablation for attachment to a vertical wall. In recent times, there has been research in various fields, including robotics and bio-MEMS, regarding attachment to vertical walls, and micro-pin arrays may offer the best solution. For vertical wall attachment, the micro-pin should have a high aspect ratio, long length, and sharp tip. The recast layer could be piled due to the chromium oxide with high surface tension and viscosity of chromium oxide, and it composed the micro-pins with high aspect ratio. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the characteristics of the piled recast layer. The machining characteristics for a high aspect ratio micro-pin array were investigated according to laser beam machining parameters. In addition, experiments for attaching force relative to the surface roughness of the subject plane were carried out.

  5. The effects of aspect ratio on heat transfer across air layers in a slot-ventilated wall cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Akin Odewole; Rodger Edwards

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aspect ratio on heat transfer across air layers (Pr ≈ 0.71) in a slot-ventilated wall cavity were numerically studied in this paper for Rayleigh number, Raw in the range of 1.4x105 to 12.0x105 using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology. Large horizontal aspect ratios of 40 and 60 for the wall cavities investigated enable a two-dimensional approximation to be employed in the study of the heat transfer characteristics of the air layers over a range of temperatur...

  6. Low Reynolds number flow in rectangular cooling channels provided with low aspect ratio pin fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow structures around single heat transfer promoters of different shapes (square, circular, triangular and rhomboidal) have been investigated experimentally by means of a 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The geometrical configuration and flow conditions considered are typical of real liquid cooling channels. They include low aspect ratio pin fins confined at both ends by the walls of a rectangular channel, water flow at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 800, 1800, 2800), high core flow turbulence and undeveloped boundary layers at the position of the obstacle. In front of the pin fins the high turbulence level is found to promote a strong instability of the horseshoe vortex system that forms at the wall/obstacle junction. In particular, frequent events of break-away of the primary vortices and inrush of core fluid, which are known to enhance the wall heat transfer, are observed in the cases of square and circular pins already from Re = 1800. The near wake downstream of the obstacles appears to be influenced by streamwise oriented vortical structures produced at the wall/obstacle junction. They give rise to spanwise velocity components (up-wash flow) that lead to a three-dimensional mass recirculation behind the pins. The combination of up-wash flows, low Reynolds number and high core flow turbulence gives rise to a competition between the classical alternate vortex shedding and an irregular shedding mode characterized by the decoupling of the shear layers and the absence of well organized primary structures. At Re = 800, the irregular shedding prevails and the mean wake topology is almost insensitive to the obstacle shape. As the Reynolds number is increased, the junction flow structures reduce in size and strength, their effect on the wake flow weakens and the recirculation structures behind the obstacles differentiate significantly according to the pin shape. Besides investigating complex flow structures in geometrical and flow configurations of

  7. Local Current Injector System for Nonsolenoidal Startup in a Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Pegasus experiment is an ultralow aspect ratio spherical tokamak that is developing nonsolenoidal startup and current growth techniques. Helicity injection from localized current sources in the plasma periphery have produced plasma currents up to 0.15 MA with less than 4 kA injected, and the resulting plasmas provide stable target plasmas for further current drive. This localized helicity injection startup technique requires the development of robust, high current density sources (∼ 1 kA/cm2) that can exist in the plasma scrape off region during plasma initiation, growth, and possibly sustainment. An integrated assembly of active arc plasma sources and a passive electrode emitter is under development for this application to MA-class spherical tokamak applications. Compact arc plasma current sources are used for initial current injection along vacuum field lines to produce a tokamak-like plasma through null formation and Taylor relaxation. Further current growth is realized through helicity injection from these arc sources or passive electrodes in the plasma edge region. Use of passive metallic electrodes can greatly simplify the design and allow for higher injected currents to optimize the resulting plasma current. The compact, active arc sources provide an extracted current stream that appears to be governed by a double layer sheath at the arc exit region. At voltages greater than eV/kT ∼ 10 and high currents, the extracted current scales as V1/2, presumably due to sheath expansion or the Alfven-Lawson current limit for electrons. Control of the arc plasma density through active gas feed control and detailed design of the arc chamber should provide active control of the effective loop voltage applied to the tokamak plasma. The arc source and electrode structures are isolated from the edge plasma by a local BN limiter and nearby scraper limiter assembly. This mitigates interactions between the injector assembly and the plasma, and resulting

  8. SUEX process optimization for ultra-thick high-aspect ratio LIGA imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald W.; Goettert, Jost; Singh, Varshni; Yemane, Dawit

    2011-04-01

    oven, taken out and cooled to RT then relaxed up to 3 days before development to reduce stress. Development was done in PGMEA for up to 3 hours for the 1000μm thick samples followed by a short IPA rinse and drying in air. Very high aspect ratios of 100 or more have been routinely patterned with nearly perfectly straight sidewalls (~1-1.5μm deviation for a 1mm tall structure) and excellent image fidelity.

  9. Tunable Microwave Absorption Frequency by Aspect Ratio of Hollow Polydopamine@α-MnO2 Microspindles Studied by Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wen; Bi, Han; Wen, Zhiwei; Liu, Qinghe; Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Jie; Che, Renchao

    2016-04-20

    A tunable response frequency is highly desirable for practical applications of microwave absorption materials but remains a great challenge. Here, hollow lightweight polydopamine@α-MnO2 microspindles were facilely synthesized with the tunable absorption frequency governed by the aspect ratio. The size of the hard template is a key factor to achieve the unique shape; the polymer layer with uniform thickness plays an important role in obtaining spindles with homogeneous size. With the aspect ratio increasing, the maximum reflection loss, as well as the absorption bandwidth (<-10 dB), increases and then decreases; meanwhile, the microwave absorption band shifts to the low frequency. The optimized aspect ratio of the cavity about the hollow polydopamine@α-MnO2 microspindles is ∼2.8. With 3 mm thickness at 9.7 GHz, the strongest reflection reaches -21.8 dB, and the width of the absorbing band (<-10 dB) is as wide as 3.3 GHz. Via electron holography, it is confirmed that strong charge accumulates around the interface between the polydopamine and α-MnO2 layers, which mainly contributes to the dielectric polarization absorption. This study proposes a reliable strategy to tune the absorption frequency via different aspect ratio polymer@α-MnO2 microspindles. PMID:27027922

  10. Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelick, Sergey; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; Vila-Comamala, Joan; David, Christian, E-mail: sergey.gorelick@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-23

    Due to the ability of 100 keV electrons to penetrate deep into resist with little scattering, we were able to directly write various dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in 540 nm and 1.1 {mu}m thick layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resist. The PMMA molds produced by electron beam lithography were developed using a high contrast developer. The molds were used to transfer the pattern into metallic nanostructures by filling the developed trenches with Au by electroplating. By exposing lines narrower than the target width, we observed improved process latitude and line width control. The obtained aspect ratios of the dense structures are nearly 20 in 1.1 {mu}m PMMA layers and > 16 for structures electroplated into this PMMA mold. The fabrication method was successfully applied to produce Au diffractive x-ray Fresnel zone plates of exceptionally good quality with 50 and 70 nm outermost zones using 540 nm and 1.1 {mu}m thick PMMA molds. In addition, we also produced regular arrays of high aspect ratio and dense Au nanorods with periods down to 100 nm and high aspect ratio split-ring resonators.

  11. Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Sergey; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; David, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Due to the ability of 100 keV electrons to penetrate deep into resist with little scattering, we were able to directly write various dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in 540 nm and 1.1 µm thick layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resist. The PMMA molds produced by electron beam lithography were developed using a high contrast developer. The molds were used to transfer the pattern into metallic nanostructures by filling the developed trenches with Au by electroplating. By exposing lines narrower than the target width, we observed improved process latitude and line width control. The obtained aspect ratios of the dense structures are nearly 20 in 1.1 µm PMMA layers and > 16 for structures electroplated into this PMMA mold. The fabrication method was successfully applied to produce Au diffractive x-ray Fresnel zone plates of exceptionally good quality with 50 and 70 nm outermost zones using 540 nm and 1.1 µm thick PMMA molds. In addition, we also produced regular arrays of high aspect ratio and dense Au nanorods with periods down to 100 nm and high aspect ratio split-ring resonators.

  12. Large-area, high-aspect-ratio SU-8 molds for the fabrication of PDMS microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively low-cost fabrication method using soft lithography and molding for large-area, high-aspect-ratio microfluidic devices, which have traditionally been difficult to fabricate, has been developed and is presented in this work. The fabrication process includes novel but simple modifications of conventional microfabrication steps and can be performed in any standard microfabrication facility. Specifically, the fabrication and testing of a microfluidic device for continuous flow deposition of bio-molecules in an array format are presented. The array layout requires high-aspect-ratio elastomeric channels that are 350 µm tall, extend more than 10 cm across the substrate and are separated by as little as 20 µm. The mold from which these channels were fabricated consisted of high-quality, 335 µm tall SU-8 structures with a high-negative aspect ratio of 17 on a 150 mm silicon wafer and was produced using spin coating and UV-lithography. Several unique processing steps are introduced into the lithographic patterning to eliminate many of the problems experienced when fabricating tall, high-aspect-ratio SU-8 structures. In particular, techniques are used to ensure uniform molds, both in height and quality, that are fully developed even in the deep negative-aspect-ratio areas, have no leftover films at the top of the structures caused by overexposure and no bowing or angled sidewalls from diffraction of the applied UV light. Successful microfluidic device creation was demonstrated using these molds by casting, curing and bonding a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. A unique microfluidic device, requiring these stringent geometries, for continuous flow printing of a linear array of 16 protein and antibody spots has been demonstrated and validated by using surface plasmon resonance imaging of printed arrays

  13. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  14. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  15. Finite-span rotating wings: three-dimensional vortex formation and variations with aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Z. R.; Chen, C.; Ringuette, M. J.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of aspect ratio ( [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] ) on the time-varying, three-dimensional flow structure of flat-plate wings rotating from rest at 45° angle of attack. Plates of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] = 2 and 4 are tested in a 50 % by mass glycerin-water mixture, with a total rotation of ϕ = 120° and a matched tip Reynolds number of 5,000. The time-varying, three-component volumetric velocity field is reconstructed using phase-locked, phase-averaged stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in multiple, closely-spaced chordwise planes. The vortex structure is analyzed using the {Q}-criterion, helicity density, and spanwise quantities. For both [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] s, the flow initially consists of a connected and coherent leading-edge vortex (LEV), tip vortex (TV), and trailing-edge vortex (TEV) loop; the LEV increases in size with span and tilts aft. Smaller, discrete vortices are present in the separated shear layers at the trailing and tip edges, which wrap around the primary TEV and TV. After about ϕ = 20°, the outboard-span LEV lifts off the plate and becomes arch-like. A second, smaller LEV and the formation of corner vortex structures follow. For [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] = 4, the outboard LEV moves farther aft, multiple LEVs form ahead of it, and after about ϕ = 50° a breakdown of the lifted-off LEV and the TV occurs. However, for [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] = 2, the outboard LEV lift-off is not progressive, and the overall LEV-TV flow remains more coherent and closer to the plate, with evidence of breakdown late in the motion. Inboard of about 50 % span, the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] = 4 LEV is stable for the motion duration. Up to approximately 60 % span, the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] = 2 LEV is distinct from the TV and is similarly stable

  16. Nanoimprinting ultrasmall and high-aspect-ratio structures by using rubber-toughened UV cured epoxy resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and robust scheme is proposed for the fabrication of nanoscale (20 nm line width) and high-aspect-ratio (9:1) structures by using modulus-tunable UV curable epoxy resists. Additionally, the ability to control the Young’s modulus of the imprinted material from hard to rigiflex using these epoxy resists is demonstrated. The physical properties of the new epoxy resists were controlled by adjusting the ratio of bisphenol F-type epoxy resin and acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber-based epoxy resin in the formulation of the resist. The mechanical properties of the resist were tuned to obtain various aspect ratios as well as mold flexibility for conformal contact over non-planar surfaces and large areas. In order to reduce the line width of the imprinted patterns, a process to conformally coat the mold structure by atomic layer deposition of alumina was also developed. Narrow lines with high-aspect-ratio features and with very low defect density were achieved via the new approach and the high mechanical strength of the new resist formulation. (paper)

  17. Nanoimprinting ultrasmall and high-aspect-ratio structures by using rubber-toughened UV cured epoxy resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Jae; Wu, Yi-Kuei; Guo, L. Jay

    2013-06-01

    A simple and robust scheme is proposed for the fabrication of nanoscale (20 nm line width) and high-aspect-ratio (9:1) structures by using modulus-tunable UV curable epoxy resists. Additionally, the ability to control the Young’s modulus of the imprinted material from hard to rigiflex using these epoxy resists is demonstrated. The physical properties of the new epoxy resists were controlled by adjusting the ratio of bisphenol F-type epoxy resin and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber-based epoxy resin in the formulation of the resist. The mechanical properties of the resist were tuned to obtain various aspect ratios as well as mold flexibility for conformal contact over non-planar surfaces and large areas. In order to reduce the line width of the imprinted patterns, a process to conformally coat the mold structure by atomic layer deposition of alumina was also developed. Narrow lines with high-aspect-ratio features and with very low defect density were achieved via the new approach and the high mechanical strength of the new resist formulation.

  18. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroyanagi Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter were 0.8 and 1.2.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  20. Numerical Study of the Effect of the Sample Aspect Ratio on the Ductility of Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) Under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng

    2016-05-01

    In this article, a systematic numerical study was conducted to study the detailed shear banding evolution in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with various sample aspect ratios under uniaxial compression, and whereby the effect of the sample aspect ratio on the compressive ductility was elucidated. A finite strain viscoelastic model was employed to describe the shear banding nucleation, growth, and coalescence in BMG samples with the help of Anand and Su's theory, which was incorporated into the ABAQUS finite element method code as a user material subroutine VUMAT. The present numerical method was first verified by comparing with the corresponding experimental results, and then parameter analysis was performed to discuss the impact of microstructure parameters on the predicted results. The present modeling will shed some light on enhancing the toughness of BMG structures in the engineering applications.

  1. Fabrication and direct transmission measurement of high-aspect-ratio two-dimensional silicon-based photonic crystal chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional silicon-based photonic crystal (PhC) structures realized by a combination of electron-beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. PhCs of various lattices with very high aspect ratios up to 20 have been achieved, and PhC chips were prepared by standard semiconductor technologies, including thinning and cleaving. The chips consisting of high-aspect-ratio air rods or dielectric rods permit a direct transmission measurement, and they were observed to demonstrate pronounced photonic bandgap effects. Several photonic bandgap behaviors were identified by comparing transmission with reflection and experimental results with numerical results, and by considering detecting beam property. Copyright 2001 Optical Society of America

  2. The field emission properties of high aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.L. Wang, Q. Wang, H.J. Li, J.J. Li, P. Xu, Q. Luo, A.Z. Jin, H.F. Yang and C.Z. Gu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays are formed on freestanding diamond film by means of focused ion beam (FIB milling technology and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD method. The structure and phase purity of an individual diamond nanocone are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The result indicates that the diamond cones with high aspect ratio and small tip apex radius can be obtained by optimizing the parameters of FIB milling and diamond growth. The diamond nanocone arrays were also used to study the electron field emission properties and electric field shielding effect, finding high emission current density, low threshold and weak shielding effect, all attributable to the high field enhancement factor and suitable cone density of the diamond nanocone emitter

  3. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Yuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Ogura, Takashi; Häggblad, H.-Å.; Jonsén, P.; Gustafsson, G.

    2015-09-01

    Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC) was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter) were 0.8 and 1.2.

  4. High aspect ratio nano-fabrication of photonic crystal structures on glass wafers using chrome as hard mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafer-scale nano-fabrication of silicon nitride (Si xN y) photonic crystal (PhC) structures on glass (quartz) substrates is demonstrated using a thin (30 nm) chromium (Cr) layer as the hard mask for transferring the electron beam lithography (EBL) defined resist patterns. The use of the thin Cr layer not only solves the charging effect during the EBL on the insulating substrate, but also facilitates high aspect ratio PhCs by acting as a hard mask while deep etching into the Si xN y. A very high aspect ratio of 10:1 on a 60 nm wide grating structure has been achieved while preserving the quality of the flat top of the narrow lines. The presented nano-fabrication method provides PhC structures necessary for a high quality optical response. Finally, we fabricated a refractive index based PhC sensor which shows a sensitivity of 185 nm per RIU. (paper)

  5. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  6. High aspect ratio micro tool manufacturing for polymer replication using mu EDM of silicon, selective etching and electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Bissacco, Giuliano; Tang, Peter Torben;

    2008-01-01

    Mass fabrication of polymer micro components with high aspect ratio micro-structures requires high performance micro tools allowing the use of low cost replication processes such as micro injection moulding. In this regard an innovative process chain, based on a combination of micro electrical...... discharge machining (mu EDM) of a silicon substrate, electroforming and selective etching was used for the manufacturing of a micro tool. The micro tool was employed for polymer replication by means of the injection moulding process....

  7. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-01-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial a...

  8. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label

  9. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  10. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  11. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets

  12. Fabrication of high aspect ratio tungsten nanostructures on ultrathin c-Si membranes for extreme UV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delachat, F; Le Drogoff, B; Constancias, C; Delprat, S; Gautier, E; Chaker, M; Margot, J

    2016-01-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a full process for fabricating high aspect ratio diffraction optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The transmissive optics consists in nanometer scale tungsten patterns standing on flat, ultrathin (100 nm) and highly transparent (>85% at 13.5 nm) silicon membranes (diameter of 1 mm). These tungsten patterns were achieved using an innovative pseudo-Bosch etching process based on an inductively coupled plasma ignited in a mixture of SF6 and C4F8. Circular ultra-thin Si membranes were fabricated through a state-of-the-art method using direct-bonding with thermal difference. The silicon membranes were sputter-coated with a few hundred nanometers (100-300 nm) of stress-controlled tungsten and a very thin layer of chromium. Nanoscale features were written in a thin resist layer by electron beam lithography and transferred onto tungsten by plasma etching of both the chromium hard mask and the tungsten layer. This etching process results in highly anisotropic tungsten features at room temperature. The homogeneity and the aspect ratio of the advanced pattern transfer on the membranes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy after focus ion beam milling. An aspect ratio of about 6 for 35 nm size pattern is successfully obtained on a 1 mm diameter 100 nm thick Si membrane. The whole fabrication process is fully compatible with standard industrial semiconductor technology. PMID:26630379

  13. Fabrication of high aspect ratio tungsten nanostructures on ultrathin c-Si membranes for extreme UV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delachat, F.; Le Drogoff, B.; Constancias, C.; Delprat, S.; Gautier, E.; Chaker, M.; Margot, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a full process for fabricating high aspect ratio diffraction optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The transmissive optics consists in nanometer scale tungsten patterns standing on flat, ultrathin (100 nm) and highly transparent (>85% at 13.5 nm) silicon membranes (diameter of 1 mm). These tungsten patterns were achieved using an innovative pseudo-Bosch etching process based on an inductively coupled plasma ignited in a mixture of SF6 and C4F8. Circular ultra-thin Si membranes were fabricated through a state-of-the-art method using direct-bonding with thermal difference. The silicon membranes were sputter-coated with a few hundred nanometers (100-300 nm) of stress-controlled tungsten and a very thin layer of chromium. Nanoscale features were written in a thin resist layer by electron beam lithography and transferred onto tungsten by plasma etching of both the chromium hard mask and the tungsten layer. This etching process results in highly anisotropic tungsten features at room temperature. The homogeneity and the aspect ratio of the advanced pattern transfer on the membranes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy after focus ion beam milling. An aspect ratio of about 6 for 35 nm size pattern is successfully obtained on a 1 mm diameter 100 nm thick Si membrane. The whole fabrication process is fully compatible with standard industrial semiconductor technology.

  14. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    Adaptive optics MEMS deformable mirror, in conjunction with Shack Hartman wave front sensor and real-time controller, is capable of correcting time-varying aberrations in imaging applications through manipulating its mirror surface. Adaptive optics systems in astronomy for next generation large telescopes (30 meter primary mirrors) require a high stroke of 10microm of mechanical displacement. This required stroke would be achieved by MEMS deformable mirrors fabricated with high aspect ratio techniques. This thesis will review the designs of various types of high aspect actuators consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of these designs have shown the ability of each design to achieve a stroke of approximately 9.4 microm. Also, FEA simulations proved that the X-beam actuators provide the best spring support while preventing tilting. In addition, this thesis will discuss device characterization and voltage vs. displacement test results for the high aspect ratio gold MEMS 16 x 16 X-beam actuators deformable mirror that has been bonded and packaged. The results have shown that the device is capable of achieving approximately 5.5 microm in individual actuator testing and 7microm in dual actuator testing.

  15. The effect of aspect ratio on the leading-edge vortex over an insect-like flapping wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan; Knowles, Kevin; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Insect wing shapes are diverse and a renowned source of inspiration for the new generation of autonomous flapping vehicles, yet the aerodynamic consequences of varying geometry is not well understood. One of the most defining and aerodynamically significant measures of wing shape is the aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of wing length (R) to mean wing chord (c). We investigated the impact of aspect ratio, AR, on the induced flow field around a flapping wing using a robotic device. Rigid rectangular wings ranging from AR = 1.5 to 7.5 were flapped with insect-like kinematics in air with a constant Reynolds number (Re) of 1400, and a dimensionless stroke amplitude of 6.5c (number of chords traversed by the wingtip). Pseudo-volumetric, ensemble-averaged, flow fields around the wings were captured using particle image velocimetry at 11 instances throughout simulated downstrokes. Results confirmed the presence of a high-lift, separated flow field with a leading-edge vortex (LEV), and revealed that the conical, primary LEV grows in size and strength with increasing AR. In each case, the LEV had an arch-shaped axis with its outboard end originating from a focus-sink singularity on the wing surface near the tip. LEV detachment was observed for AR > 1.5 around mid-stroke at ~70% span, and initiated sooner over higher aspect ratio wings. At AR > 3 the larger, stronger vortex persisted under the wing surface well into the next half-stroke leading to a reduction in lift. Circulatory lift attributable to the LEV increased with AR up to AR = 6. Higher aspect ratios generated proportionally less lift distally because of LEV breakdown, and also less lift closer to the wing root due to the previous LEV's continuing presence under the wing. In nature, insect wings go no higher than AR ~ 5, likely in part due to architectural and physiological constraints but also because of the reducing aerodynamic benefits of high AR wings. PMID:26451802

  16. Length-dependent charge generation from vertical arrays of high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vivian Farías; Auras, Florian; Motto, Paolo; Stassi, Stefano; Canavese, Giancarlo; Celasco, Edvige; Bein, Thomas; Onida, Barbara; Cauda, Valentina

    2013-10-18

    Aqueous chemical growth of zinc oxide nanowires is a flexible and effective approach to obtain dense arrays of vertically oriented nanostructures with high aspect ratio. Herein we present a systematic study of the different synthesis parameters that influence the ZnO seed layer and thus the resulting morphological features of the free-standing vertically oriented ZnO nanowires. We obtained a homogeneous coverage of transparent conductive substrates with high-aspect-ratio nanowire arrays (length/diameter ratio of up to 52). Such nanostructured vertical arrays were examined to assess their electric and piezoelectric properties, and showed an electric charge generation upon mechanical compressive stress. The principle of energy harvesting with these nanostructured ZnO arrays was demonstrated by connecting them to an electronic charge amplifier and storing the generated charge in a series of capacitors. We found that the generated charge and the electrical behavior of the ZnO nanowires are strictly dependent on the nanowire length. We have shown the importance of controlling the morphological properties of such ZnO nanostructures for optimizing a nanogenerator device. PMID:24027171

  17. Near-wake flow structure of elliptic cylinders close to a free surface: effect of cylinder aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daichin, Sang Joon Lee [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, 790-784, Nam-gu, Pohang (Korea)

    2004-05-01

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  18. Near-wake flow structure of elliptic cylinders close to a free surface: effect of cylinder aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daichin, K. V.; Lee, Sang Joon

    The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper.

  19. UV activation of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua M; Witek, Małgorzata A; Hupert, Mateusz L; Brady, Charles; Pullagurla, Swathi; Kamande, Joyce; Aufforth, Rachel D; Tignanelli, Christopher J; Torphy, Robert J; Yeh, Jen Jen; Soper, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    The need to activate thermoplastic surfaces using robust and efficient methods has been driven by the fact that replication techniques can be used to produce microfluidic devices in a high production mode and at low cost, making polymer microfluidics invaluable for in vitro diagnostics, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis, where device disposability is critical to mitigate artifacts associated with sample carryover. Modifying the surface chemistry of thermoplastic devices through activation techniques can be used to increase the wettability of the surface or to produce functional scaffolds to allow for the covalent attachment of biologics, such as antibodies for CTC recognition. Extensive surface characterization tools were used to investigate UV activation of various surfaces to produce uniform and high surface coverage of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids in microchannels of different aspect ratios. We found that the efficiency of the UV activation process is highly dependent on the microchannel aspect ratio and the identity of the thermoplastic substrate. Colorimetric assays and fluorescence imaging of UV-activated microchannels following EDC/NHS coupling of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides indicated that UV-activation of a PMMA microchannel with an aspect ratio of ~3 was significantly less efficient toward the bottom of the channel compared to the upper sections. This effect was a consequence of the bulk polymer's damping of the modifying UV radiation due to absorption artifacts. In contrast, this effect was less pronounced for COC. Moreover, we observed that after thermal fusion bonding of the device's cover plate to the substrate, many of the generated functional groups buried into the bulk rendering them inaccessible. The propensity of this surface reorganization was found to be higher for PMMA compared to COC. As an example of the effects of material and microchannel aspect ratios on device functionality, thermoplastic devices for the

  20. Microfluidic active mixers employing ultra-high aspect-ratio rare-earth magnetic nano-composite polymer artificial cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new micromixer based on highly magnetic, flexible, high aspect-ratio, artificial cilia that are fabricated as individual micromixer elements or in arrays for improved mixing performance. These new cilia enable high efficiency, fast mixing in a microchamber, and are controlled by small electromagnetic fields. The artificial cilia are fabricated using a new micromolding process for nano-composite polymers. Cilia fibers with aspect-ratios as high as 8:0.13 demonstrate the fabrication technique's capability in creating ultra-high aspect-ratio microstructures. Cilia, which are realized in polydimethylsiloxane doped with rare-earth magnetic powder, are magnetized to produce permanent magnetic structures with bidirectional deflection capabilities, making them highly suitable as mixers controlled by electromagnetic fields. Due to the high magnetization level of the polarized nano-composite polymer, we are able to use miniature electromagnets providing relatively small magnetic fields of 1.1 to 7 mT to actuate the cilia microstructures over a very wide motion range. Mixing performances of a single cilium, as well as different arrays of multiple cilia ranging from 2 to 8 per reaction chamber, are characterized and compared with passive diffusion mixing performance. The mixer cilia are actuated at different amplitudes and frequencies to optimize mixing performance. We demonstrate that more than 85% of the total volume of the reaction chamber is fully mixed after 3.5 min using a single cilium mixer at 7 mT compared with only 20% of the total volume mixed with passive diffusion. The time to achieve over 85% mixing is further reduced to 70 s using an array of eight cilia microstructures. The novel microfabrication technique and use of rare-earth permanently-magnetizable nano-composite polymers in mixer applications has not been reported elsewhere by other researchers. We further demonstrate improved mixing over other cilia micromixers as enabled by the high

  1. A nonlinear magnetic helicity model of a tight aspect ratio bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and computational analyses of bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive (OFCD) have been developed using a nonlinear magnetic helicity model. Assuming a rigid current profile, the conditions for optimal tokamak steady-state operation are derived and are shown to agree with the results of computer calculations. Generalized limit formulae for the toroidal plasma beta and bootstrap current fraction are also obtained. The results of the analyses indicate that steady-state bootstrapped tokamak operation with high toroidal plasma beta can best be achieved in tight aspect ratio A → 1 reactors with OFCD supplying as much as a quarter of the total toroidal plasma current. (author)

  2. Freestanding membrane composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio for application in lightweight cathode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA), in which the dimension of each micro-ring is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness is successfully fabricated, as shown in the SEM image of figure (a). Due to the MRA with ultrahigh aspect ratio of dielectric-metal sidewall, the FUN-membrane can be transferred to either rigid or flexible substrate to be used as the cathode for lightweight display panel, as shown in the schematic of figure (b). - Highlights: • Exploring a new fabrication method for the freestanding ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane). • FUN-membrane is composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh aspect ratio of the insulator-metal sidewall. • The sharp metal edge of each micro-ring is preferred to be served as the micro-emitter. - Abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA) is successfully fabricated through the controllable film deposition. Each micro-ring of FUN-membrane is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness, demonstrating an ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio of 20:1. In our strategy, a silica layer (200 nm in thickness), a chromium transition layer (5 nm-thick) and a gold layer (40 nm-thick), were in sequence deposited on patterned photoresist. After removal of the photoresist by lift-off process, a FUN-membrane with MRA was peeled off from the substrate, where the gold layer acted as a protecting layer to prevent the MRA from fracture. The FUN-membrane was then transferred to a flexible polycarbonate (PC) sheet coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, which was then used as a flexible and lightweight cathode. Remarkably, the field emission effect of the fabricated FUN-membrane cathode performs a high field-enhancement factor of 1.2 × 104 and a low turn-on voltage of 2 V/μm, indicating the advantages of the sharp metal edge of MRA. Due to the

  3. Buckling of ZnS-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes – The influence of aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2014-08-16

    The mechanical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) filled with crystalline zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanowires under uniaxial compression is studied using classical molecular dynamics. These simulations were used to analyse the behaviour of SWCNT, with and without ZnS filling, in terms of critical force and critical strain. Force versus strain curves have been computed for hollow and filled systems, the latter clearly showing an improvement of the mechanical behaviour caused by the ZnS nanowire. The same simulations were repeated for a large range of dimensions in order to evaluate the influence of the aspect ratio on the mechanical response of the tubes.

  4. The Effect of Aspect Ratio and Angle of Attack on the Transition Regions of the Inverted Flag Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosse, Julia; Sader, John; Fan, Boyu; Kim, Daegyoum; Gharib, Mory

    2014-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when a pliable plate is held parallel to a free-stream, with the leading edge free to move and the trailing edge clamped. Large-amplitude flapping is observed across a slim band of non-dimensional wind speeds. This specific boundaries of this flapping band vary greatly, depending on both the aspect ratio and the angle of attack of the plate with respect to the incoming flow. In addition, both periodic and aperiodic flapping modes exist. The frequency of the plate motion was analyzed and was found to be consistent with vortex-induced vibration. This research is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  5. Freestanding membrane composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio for application in lightweight cathode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lanlan [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Hongzhong, E-mail: hzliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Jiang, Weitao, E-mail: wtjiang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Gao, Wei [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disasters and Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Bangdao [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Li, Xin [Department of Microelectronics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ding, Yucheng [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); An, Ningli [Department of Packaging Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA), in which the dimension of each micro-ring is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness is successfully fabricated, as shown in the SEM image of figure (a). Due to the MRA with ultrahigh aspect ratio of dielectric-metal sidewall, the FUN-membrane can be transferred to either rigid or flexible substrate to be used as the cathode for lightweight display panel, as shown in the schematic of figure (b). - Highlights: • Exploring a new fabrication method for the freestanding ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane). • FUN-membrane is composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh aspect ratio of the insulator-metal sidewall. • The sharp metal edge of each micro-ring is preferred to be served as the micro-emitter. - Abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA) is successfully fabricated through the controllable film deposition. Each micro-ring of FUN-membrane is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness, demonstrating an ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio of 20:1. In our strategy, a silica layer (200 nm in thickness), a chromium transition layer (5 nm-thick) and a gold layer (40 nm-thick), were in sequence deposited on patterned photoresist. After removal of the photoresist by lift-off process, a FUN-membrane with MRA was peeled off from the substrate, where the gold layer acted as a protecting layer to prevent the MRA from fracture. The FUN-membrane was then transferred to a flexible polycarbonate (PC) sheet coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, which was then used as a flexible and lightweight cathode. Remarkably, the field emission effect of the fabricated FUN-membrane cathode performs a high field-enhancement factor of 1.2 × 10{sup 4} and a low turn-on voltage of 2 V/μm, indicating the advantages of the sharp metal edge of MRA. Due

  6. Aspect-Ratio Dependent Electron Transport and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated with one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Investigated the aspect ratio dependence on electron transport proerties of ZnO. • Longer ZnO nanords showed better solar cell performance. • Low aspect ratio ZnO exhibit better light scattering effect. - Abstract: Though one-dimensional (1-D) ZnO nanrods are promising transport electron transport material in the photoanode of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC), 1-D ZnO nanorod based DSSCs exhibit poor energy conversion efficiencies. In this study, DSSCs were fabricated with 1-D ZnO nanorods having different aspect ratio and the dependence of solar cell performance on aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods was investigated. Photoanodes fabricated with different 1-D ZnO nanorods having aspect ratios of 4.4, 5.4, 5.8, 6.8 and 7.6 showed increasing solar cell performance with the increase of aspect ratio where 2.1 and 4.7% light conversion efficiencies were observed respectively for the lowest and highest aspect ratio of 1-D ZnO nanostructures. We study the electrical and operational differences between DSSC made with ZnO nanostructures with different aspect ratio. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to quantify the aspect ratio depended electron transport properties, charge recombination, life-time and charge diffusion lengths of excited electrons in 1D ZnO nanorods and electron transport properties are correlated to the observed cell performance. In addition, effect of aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods on dye loading amount and light scattering properties were also investigated

  7. Three-dimensional wake topology and propulsive performance of low-aspect-ratio pitching-rolling plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    The wake topology and propulsive performance of low-aspect-ratio plates undergoing a pitching-rolling motion in a uniform stream were numerically investigated by an in-house immersed-boundary-method-based incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solver. A detailed analysis of the vortical structures indicated that the pitching-rolling plate produced double-loop vortices with alternating signs from its trailing edge every half period. These vortices then shed and further evolved into interconnected "double-C"-shaped vortex rings, which eventually formed a bifurcating wake pattern in the downstream. As the wake convected downstream, there was a slight deflection in the spanwise direction to the plate tip, and the contained vortex ring size gradually increased. In addition, the analysis of the propulsive performance indicated that the shedding process of the double-loop vortices led to two peaks in the lift and thrust force production per half cycle. The observation of the double peaks in the force production is in agreement with previous flapping wing studies. Simulations were also used to examine the variations in the wake structures and propulsive performance of the plates over a range of major parameters. The aforementioned vortex structures were found to be quite robust over a range of Strouhal numbers, Reynolds numbers, and plate aspect ratios.

  8. New fabrication methodology for fine-feature high-aspect-ratio structures made from high-Z materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Clark, David; Appleby, Michael

    1999-08-01

    Radiological imagin relies heavily on collimators to achieve diagnostic x-ray images. These collimating structures are required due to the lack of efficient x-ray reflectors or refractors needed to make lenses or mirrors. In order to achieve higher resolution x-ray images, finer collimator geometries are needed. The two critical parameters that define the fineness of a collimator are the length of the collimator structure and the aperture size. Current collimator fabrication technology provides structures with coarse cell sizes, which require long structural lengths, to achieve image optimization. Finer collimator geometries would help reduce the overall length of collimating structures. Tecomet, of Woburn, MA has developed a new technology to fabricate fine-featured, high aspect ratio structures made from high Z materials. These collimating structures have been made from tungsten with aspect ratios above 50:1 and geometry features less than 20 microns. This technology has enabled advancements in the design of x-ray coded apertures. This has opened the door to new ideas for x-ray imaging. Optimization coders, made from tungsten, can now be designed and fabricated to achieve very high angular resolution. Significant reduction in weight is realized due to the reduction in collimator thickness. The collimators made using these fabrication methods also provide greater long-term structural stability compared to collimators used in diagnostic x-ray imaging using lead.

  9. Fabrication of Pd-Fe nanowires with a high aspect ratio by AAO template-assisted electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Vertically oriented Pd0.86Fe0.14 nanowires have been fabricated in an AAO template using electrodeposition method at room temperature. → Pd-Fe alloy nanowires are approximately 65 nm in diameter and 10 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 153. → The structural characterization of Pd-Fe alloy nanowires is done with SEM, EDX and XRD. - Abstract: In this study, vertically oriented Pd0.86Fe0.14 nanowires have been fabricated using an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template by direct voltage electrodeposition at room temperature. AAO template-assisted electrodeposition of Pd-Fe was carried out in Pd(NH3)2Cl2:FeSO4.7H2O solution. The AAO template and the Pd0.86Fe0.14 nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that the Pd0.86Fe0.14 nanowires were approximately 65 nm in diameter and 10 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 153 in a relatively large area of about 4 cm2. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus are determined from the analysis of current transients.

  10. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio microstructures using dielectrophoresis-electrocapillary force-driven UV-imprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel method for fabricating high-aspect-ratio micro-/nano-structures by dielectrophoresis-electrocapillary force (DEP-ECF)-driven UV-imprinting. The force of DEP-ECF, acting on an air–liquid interface and an air–liquid–solid three-phase contact line, is generated by applying voltage between an electrically conductive mold and a substrate, and tends to pull the dielectric liquid (a UV-curable pre-polymer) into the mold micro-cavities. The existence of DEP-ECF is explained theoretically and demonstrated experimentally by the electrically induced reduction of the contact angle. Furthermore, DEP-ECF is proven to play a critical role in forcing the polymer to fill into the mold cavities by the real-time observation of the dynamic filling process. Using the DEP-ECF-driven UV-imprinting process, high-aspect-ratio polymer micro-/nano-structures (more than 10:1) are fabricated with high consistency. This patterning method can overcome the drawbacks of the mechanically induced mold deformation and position shift in conventional imprinting lithography and maximize the pattern uniformity which is usually poor in capillary force lithography

  11. Fabrication of a high aspect ratio thick silicon wafer mold and electroplating using flipchip bonding for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Bok

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a microfabrication process for high aspect ratio thick silicon wafer molds and electroplating using flipchip bonding with THB 151N negative photoresist (JSR micro). This fabrication technique includes large area and high thickness silicon wafer mold electroplating. The process consists of silicon deep reactive ion etching (RIE) of the silicon wafer mold, photoresist bonding between the silicon mold and the substrate, nickel electroplating and a silicon removal process. High thickness silicon wafer molds were made by deep RIE and flipchip bonding. In addition, nickel electroplating was developed. Dry film resist (ORDYL MP112, TOK) and thick negative-tone photoresist (THB 151N, JSR micro) were used as bonding materials. In order to measure the bonding strength, the surface energy was calculated using a blade test. The surface energy of the bonding wafers was found to be 0.36-25.49 J m-2 at 60-180 °C for the dry film resist and 0.4-1.9 J m-2 for THB 151N in the same temperature range. Even though ORDYL MP112 has a better value of surface energy than THB 151N, it has a critical disadvantage when it comes to removing residue after electroplating. The proposed process can be applied to high aspect ratio MEMS structures, such as air gap inductors or vertical MEMS probe tips.

  12. Fabrication of a high aspect ratio thick silicon wafer mold and electroplating using flipchip bonding for MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a microfabrication process for high aspect ratio thick silicon wafer molds and electroplating using flipchip bonding with THB 151N negative photoresist (JSR micro). This fabrication technique includes large area and high thickness silicon wafer mold electroplating. The process consists of silicon deep reactive ion etching (RIE) of the silicon wafer mold, photoresist bonding between the silicon mold and the substrate, nickel electroplating and a silicon removal process. High thickness silicon wafer molds were made by deep RIE and flipchip bonding. In addition, nickel electroplating was developed. Dry film resist (ORDYL MP112, TOK) and thick negative-tone photoresist (THB 151N, JSR micro) were used as bonding materials. In order to measure the bonding strength, the surface energy was calculated using a blade test. The surface energy of the bonding wafers was found to be 0.36–25.49 J m−2 at 60–180 °C for the dry film resist and 0.4–1.9 J m−2 for THB 151N in the same temperature range. Even though ORDYL MP112 has a better value of surface energy than THB 151N, it has a critical disadvantage when it comes to removing residue after electroplating. The proposed process can be applied to high aspect ratio MEMS structures, such as air gap inductors or vertical MEMS probe tips

  13. Bioinspired active whisker sensor for geometry detection of high aspect ratio microholes with simultaneous actuation and sensing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a whisker transducer (WT)—inspired by a rat’s vibrissal tactile location perception—that can be used to detect the geometry of high aspect ratio microholes. The WT acts as both the actuator that generates whisking movement and the sensor that detects the mechanical impedance at its tip. This unique, simultaneous actuation-and-sensing capability is achieved through a 2 × 2 transduction matrix model that characterizes both the forward actuation and backward sensing functions of the transducer. The WT imitates a rat’s vibrissal location perception when driven by a special signal with a low-frequency component and a high-frequency component. The low-frequency component plays the role of the ‘whisking signal,’ encoding the whisker position over time, and the high-frequency component plays the role of the ‘touch signal,’ encoding the onset time of mechanical contact. The combination of these two signals allows the WT to detect the location of an object. The proposed transducer and location detection algorithm are validated using a miniature prototype fabricated through micro-EDM process. The achieved geometry measurement capability is of high linearity (R2 > 0.99) and low measurement uncertainty (200 nm). Its potential application in detecting the taper of high aspect ratio microholes is also demonstrated. (paper)

  14. Controllable fabrication of periodic arrays of high-aspect-ratio micro-nano hierarchical structures and their superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates a flexible and controllable fabrication of vertically aligned and high-aspect-ratio (HAR) micro-nano hierarchical structures using conventional micro-technologies. We first masked the nanopatterns on a photoresist mold by shifting the same photomask, which could be performed using conventional contact microlithography. Thereby replicating nanopatterns onto an aluminium mold and successfully fabricating silicon nanopillar arrays about 300 nm in diameter and 5 µm in height via the deep reactive etching (DRIE) process. We also fabricated micro-nano hierarchical structures with variable aspect ratios using the proposed nanopattern technology and DRIE process without using any special nanopatterning equipment or techniques. The proposed method not only simplified the fabrication process but also produced HAR (higher than 15) structures. We also investigate the replica molding steps from the fabricated silicon stamp to a UV-curable polymer replica using a PDMS mold and conventional nano-imprinting, where each nanopillar diameter was 320 nm with 95% fidelity. As a result, the hierarchical structure arrays show stable superhydrophobic surface properties with a contact angle of approximately 160°. Owing to the cost efficiency of mass production and the fidelity of the strategy, the methodology could provide a general approach for fabricating complex three-dimensional periodic hierarchical structures onto a single chip and can be applied to various fields of multifunctional applications. (paper)

  15. Fast fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio, self-ordered nanoporous alumina membrane by using high-field anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of processes for the fast fabrication of nanoporous anodic alumina membranes with high-aspect-ratio, self-ordered pore arrays was developed based on a high-field 2-step anodization in a 0.3 M oxalic electrolyte. The dielectric breakdown commonly driven by the high electric field was circumvented by using a linear sweep of the initial voltage from 0 to 140 V, followed by a constant voltage of 140 V for the first step and by using a controlled growth rate that was adjusted by varying the electrolyte concentration while applying an instantaneous constant voltage of 140 V for the second step. A thick nanoporous film of about 120 um was grown within 2 hours with an average interpore distance of 310 nm and an average pore size of 50 nm, where the aspect ratio of the pores was over 2000. In order to overcome the problems associated with a thick barrier layer formed during the high-field anodization, we applied a pulsed electrochemical detachment technique to remove the base Al metal. A through-hole membrane with a pore size of about 210 nm was fabricated after widening the pores through a chemical etching of the pore walls. These novel processes ensure reliable fabrication of a high-field nanoporous anodic alumina membrane and provide a new template for nano-scale research.

  16. X-ray fabrication of SAW resonators with narrow electrodes in thick high-aspect-ratio polymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray lithography shadow projection using silicon nitride-based x-ray masks is used to fabricate sub-micron scale, high-aspect-ratio structures in thick polymer templates for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications. Interdigital electrode patterns with 380 nm wide, free-standing polymer features are fabricated in 2 µm thick templates, representing an aspect ratio of 5.26:1. The tall and narrow polymer 'ribbons' run laterally in a serpentine arrangement of 114 electrodes over a large area of approximately 30 µm × 250 µm. Aluminum deposition and lift-off using the polymer templates are performed to construct metal electrodes for the verification of SAW resonator performance above 2.5 GHz. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to inspect the metal electrode edge and surface topology, and demonstrate the feasibility of metal lift-off with highly vertical sidewall polymer templates for SAW applications. Such precise polymer templates could offer interesting possibilities for acoustic applications requiring thick and/or narrow electrodes and reflectors not only through more traditional metal deposition approaches but also as thick etch masks for metal removal.

  17. Effects of AC/DC magnetic fields, frequency, and nanoparticle aspect ratio on cellular transfection of gene vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kris; Mair, Lamar; Fisher, Mike; Rowshon Alam, Md.; Juliano, Rudolph; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    In order to make non-viral gene delivery a useful tool in the study and treatment of genetic disorders, it is imperative that these methodologies be further refined to yield optimal results. Transfection of magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods are used as non-viral gene vectors to transfect HeLa EGFP-654 cells that stably express a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. We deliver antisense oligonucleotides to these cells designed to correct the aberrant splicing caused by the mutation in the EGFP gene. We also transfect human bronchial endothelial cells and immortalized WI-38 lung cells with pEGFP-N1 vectors. To achieve this we bind the genes to magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods and introduce magnetic fields to effect transfection. We wish to examine the effects of magnetic fields on the transfection of these particles and the benefits of using alternating (AC) magnetic fields in improving transfection rates over direct (DC) magnetic fields. We specifically look at the frequency dependence of the AC field and particle aspect ratio as it pertains to influencing transfection rate. We posit that the increase in angular momentum brought about by the AC field and the high aspect ratio of the nanorod particles, is vital to generating the force needed to move the particle through the cell membrane.

  18. Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes aspect ratio and temperature on the dielectric behavior of alternating alkene-carbon monoxide polyketone nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Al-Ramahi, Esraa; Hallak, Awni B.; Khattari, Z.

    2015-04-01

    New alternating poly(propylene-alt-carbon monoxide/ethylene-alt-carbon monoxide) (PECO)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites have been prepared. Dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and ac conductivity of the isolated materials were investigated as a function of fiber aspect ratio, frequency and temperature. For aspect ratio of 30 and 200, a transition from insulator to semiconductor was observed at frequency 1×104. However, for high aspect ratio sample (660), no transition was observed and the conductivity is frequency independent in the measured frequency range of 10-106 Hz. The conductivity increases from about 1×10-4 for the sample that contain fibers of aspect ratio 30 and reaches 5×10-2 (Ω m)-1 for aspect ratio was 660. This behavior can be modeled by a circuit that consists of a contact resistance in series with a parallel combination of resistance (R) and capacitance (C). The calculated activation energy for sample filled with fibers having aspect ratio 30 is about 0.26 eV and decreases to about 0.16 eV when the aspect ratio is 660.

  19. Rats show molar sensitivity to different aspects of random-interval-with-linear-feedback-functions and random-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil

    2015-10-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of various aspects of reinforcement contingencies on responding maintained by free-operant schedules by food-deprived rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that random interval (RI) and random-interval-with-positive-response-reinforcer-feedback (RI+) schedules maintained similar rates of responding at a variety of reinforcer frequencies. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a random ratio (RR) schedule maintained higher rates than RI or RI+ schedules, except at high rates of reinforcement, where response rates were similar on all schedules. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that RR schedules produced higher response rates than either RI or RI+ schedules, but modification of the RI+ schedule to prevent ratio strain enhanced response rates relative to an RI schedule. Together these results reveal a pattern of interacting factors in schedule controlled behavior: at high rates of reinforcement, this factor overrides the impact of other controlling factors, but as reinforcement rate decreases the joint impact of interresponse times reinforcement, response-reinforcer feedback functions, and ratio strain are observed. PMID:25915752

  20. Numerical investigation of non-Newtonian fluids in annular ducts with finite aspect ratio using lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khali, S.; Nebbali, R.; Ameziani, D. E.; Bouhadef, K.

    2013-05-01

    In this work the instability of the Taylor-Couette flow for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids) is investigated for cases of finite aspect ratios. The study is conducted numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In many industrial applications, the apparatuses and installations drift away from the idealized case of an annulus of infinite length, and thus the end caps effect can no longer be ignored. The inner cylinder is rotating while the outer one and the end walls are maintained at rest. The lattice two-dimensional nine-velocity (D2Q9) Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying the power-law model. The combined effects of the Reynolds number, the radius ratio, and the power-law index n on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of finite aspect ratio. Two flow modes are obtained: a primary Couette flow (CF) mode and a secondary Taylor vortex flow (TVF) mode. The flow structures so obtained are different from one mode to another. The critical Reynolds number Rec for the passage from the primary to the secondary mode exhibits the lowest value for the pseudoplastic fluids and the highest value for the dilatant fluids. The findings are useful for studies of the swirling flow of non-Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries using LBM. The flow changes from the CF to TVF and its structure switches from the two-cells to four-cells regime for both Newtonian and dilatant fluids. Contrariwise for pseudoplastic fluids, the flow exhibits 2-4-2 structure passing from two-cells to four cells and switches again to the two-cells configuration. Furthermore, the critical Reynolds number presents a monotonic increase with the power-law index n of the non-Newtonian fluid, and as the radius ratio grows, the transition flow regimes tend to appear for higher critical Reynolds numbers.

  1. Numerical investigation of non-Newtonian fluids in annular ducts with finite aspect ratio using lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khali, S; Nebbali, R; Ameziani, D E; Bouhadef, K

    2013-05-01

    In this work the instability of the Taylor-Couette flow for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids (dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids) is investigated for cases of finite aspect ratios. The study is conducted numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In many industrial applications, the apparatuses and installations drift away from the idealized case of an annulus of infinite length, and thus the end caps effect can no longer be ignored. The inner cylinder is rotating while the outer one and the end walls are maintained at rest. The lattice two-dimensional nine-velocity (D2Q9) Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying the power-law model. The combined effects of the Reynolds number, the radius ratio, and the power-law index n on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of finite aspect ratio. Two flow modes are obtained: a primary Couette flow (CF) mode and a secondary Taylor vortex flow (TVF) mode. The flow structures so obtained are different from one mode to another. The critical Reynolds number Re(c) for the passage from the primary to the secondary mode exhibits the lowest value for the pseudoplastic fluids and the highest value for the dilatant fluids. The findings are useful for studies of the swirling flow of non-Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries using LBM. The flow changes from the CF to TVF and its structure switches from the two-cells to four-cells regime for both Newtonian and dilatant fluids. Contrariwise for pseudoplastic fluids, the flow exhibits 2-4-2 structure passing from two-cells to four cells and switches again to the two-cells configuration. Furthermore, the critical Reynolds number presents a monotonic increase with the power-law index n of the non-Newtonian fluid, and as the radius ratio grows, the transition flow regimes tend to appear for higher critical Reynolds numbers. PMID:23767615

  2. Physics Issues in the Design of Low Aspect-Ratio, High-Beta, Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact stellarators have the potential to combine the best features of the stellarator and the advanced tokamak, offering steady state operation without current drive and potentially without disruptions at an aspect ratio similar to tokamaks. A quasi-axisymmetric stellarator is developed that is consistent with the boot-strap current and passively stable to the ballooning, kink, Mercier, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes at b=4.1 % without need for conducting walls or external feedback. The configuration has good flux surfaces and fast ion confinement. Thermal transport analysis indicates that the confinement should be similar to tokamaks of the same size, allowing access to the b-limit with moderate power. Coils have been designed to reproduce the physics properties. Initial analysis indicates the coils have considerable flexibility to manipulate the configuration properties. Simulations of the current evolution indicate the kink-mode can remain stable during the approach to h igh-beta

  3. Cultivation of the photosynthesis microorganism in a Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow with a small aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow (TVF) in a photo-bioreactor in which CO2 is changed to O2 with high efficiency by the photosynthesis ability of micro algae. Stirring by means of a screw propeller is generally used for a simple agitation. However, the problem is that there exists a very high shearing flow region just near the propeller, which causes the destruction of the alga cell by the shearing force. In contrast, the TVF mixing is expected to reduce such a local and random shearing force because of their column of steady and orderly vortices. In this study, the relationship between the microorganism growth rate and the flow structures in dilute suspensions of a TVF is investigated and the flow characteristics are measured by using an ultrasonic velocity profiler with a small aspect ratio of 3.

  4. Superior Na-ion storage properties of high aspect ratio SnSe nanoplates prepared by a spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Dae; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-06-01

    SnSe nanoplates with thin and uniform morphology are prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and are examined as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. During the spray pyrolysis process, metallic Se and Sn are prepared from SeO2 and SnO2, respectively, under a reducing atmosphere. Metallic Sn and metalloid Se, with melting points of 232 and 221 °C, respectively, form a melted Sn-Se mixture, which reacts exothermally to form SnSe nanocrystals. Several of these nanocrystals are grown simultaneously forming a micron-sized powder. Complete elimination of the excess amount of metalloid Se, by forming H2Se gas, results in aggregation-free SnSe nanoplates. The aspect ratio of these nanoplates is as high as 11.3. The discharge capacities for the SnSe nanoplates, prepared from spray solutions containing 100, 400, and 800% of the stoichiometric SeO2 content needed to form SnSe, are 407, 558, and 211 mA h g-1, respectively, after 50 cycles at a constant current density of 0.3 A g-1 their capacity retentions calculated from the second cycle onwards are 77, 100, and 60%, respectively. The phase pure SnSe nanoplates with a high aspect ratio show good cycling and rate performances for Na-ion storage.SnSe nanoplates with thin and uniform morphology are prepared by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and are examined as anode materials for Na-ion batteries. During the spray pyrolysis process, metallic Se and Sn are prepared from SeO2 and SnO2, respectively, under a reducing atmosphere. Metallic Sn and metalloid Se, with melting points of 232 and 221 °C, respectively, form a melted Sn-Se mixture, which reacts exothermally to form SnSe nanocrystals. Several of these nanocrystals are grown simultaneously forming a micron-sized powder. Complete elimination of the excess amount of metalloid Se, by forming H2Se gas, results in aggregation-free SnSe nanoplates. The aspect ratio of these nanoplates is as high as 11.3. The discharge capacities for the SnSe nanoplates, prepared from spray solutions

  5. Fabrication of free-standing subwavelength metal–insulator–metal gratings using high-aspect-ratio nanoimprint techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Hiroaki; Mitsudome, Masato; Itoh, Shintaro; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the construction of a free-standing metal–insulator–metal (MIM) subwavelength grating by nanoimprint and lift-off techniques, which can be used as a plasmonic color filter for imaging a multicolor spectrum. The free-standing subwavelength grating was designed to be composed of Al (50 nm)–SiO2 (150 nm)–Al (50 nm) layers, and the thickness of the SiO2 layer determined the wavelength selectivity for the color filter. The residual-free nanoimprint with an aspect ratio of 6:1 was applied in the lift-off process to the formation of MIM gratings. We successfully developed subwavelength MIM gratings with heights of more than 200 nm. We also demonstrated the fabrication of a free-standing MIM grating without lateral stiction, which was expected to improve the wavelength selectivity of a free-standing plasmonic color filter.

  6. Propagation delay and power dissipation for different aspect ratio of single-walled carbon nanotube bundled TSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tanu; Majumder, Manoj Kumar; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSVs) have provided an attractive solution for three-dimensional (3D) integrated devices and circuit technologies with reduced parasitic losses and power dissipation, higher input-output (I/O) density and improved system performance. This paper investigates the propagation delay and average power dissipation of single-walled carbon nanotube bundled TSVs having different via radius and height. Depending on the physical configuration, a comprehensive and accurate analytical model of CNT bundled TSV is employed to represent the via (vertical interconnect access) line of a driver-TSV-load (DTL) system. The via radius and height are used to estimate the bundle aspect ratio (AR) and the cross-sectional area. For a fixed via height, the delay and the power dissipation are reduced up to 96.2% using a SWCNT bundled TSV with AR = 300 : 1 in comparison to AR = 6 : 1.

  7. Cultivation of the photosynthesis microorganism in a Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow with a small aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, H; Yasui, S [Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran, 050-8585 (Japan); Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M, E-mail: takahashi@2phase.nr.titech.ac.j [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguro, 152-8550 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    This study focuses on the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow (TVF) in a photo-bioreactor in which CO{sub 2} is changed to O{sub 2} with high efficiency by the photosynthesis ability of micro algae. Stirring by means of a screw propeller is generally used for a simple agitation. However, the problem is that there exists a very high shearing flow region just near the propeller, which causes the destruction of the alga cell by the shearing force. In contrast, the TVF mixing is expected to reduce such a local and random shearing force because of their column of steady and orderly vortices. In this study, the relationship between the microorganism growth rate and the flow structures in dilute suspensions of a TVF is investigated and the flow characteristics are measured by using an ultrasonic velocity profiler with a small aspect ratio of 3.

  8. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  9. A triple-layer protection process for high-aspect-ratio silicon micromachining by DRIE of SOI substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the buried oxide layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers as the etch-stop layer, a triple-layer protection process integrating deep reaction ion etching (DRIE) and wet anisotropic bulk micromachining is demonstrated to fabricate various three-dimensional MEMS devices on SOI wafer. Several limitations of the DRIE process, including bottom grass formation, reactive ion etching lag and notching effects, are solved by modifying the process parameters to achieve satisfactory performance. This process is capable of various applications and is applied to fabricate a resonant pressure sensor in this study. In summary, the developed process possesses most existing merits and reduces many design constraints of the existing high-aspect-ratio micromachining process, contributing to a more competitive and convenient micromachining. (paper)

  10. Sacrificial structures for deep reactive ion etching of high-aspect ratio kinoform silicon x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas; Hübner, Jörg;

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the realization of complex high-aspect ratio silicon structures with feature dimensions from 100 lm to 100nm by deep reactive ion etching using the Bosch process. As the exact shape of the sidewall profiles can be crucial for the proper functioning of a device, the authors...... investigated how sacrificial structures in the form of guarding walls and pillars may be utilized to facilitate accurate control of the etch profile. Unlike other sacrificial structuring approaches, no silicon-on-insulator substrates or multiple lithography steps are required. In addition, the safe removal of...... the sacrificial structures was accomplished by thermal oxidation and subsequent selective wet etching. The effects of the dimensions and relative placement of sacrificial walls and pillars on the etching result were determined through systematic experiments. The authors applied this process for exact...

  11. Estimation of Particle Size Distribution and Aspect Ratio of Non-Spherical Particles From Chord Length Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Agimelen, Okpeafoh S; Vasile, Massimiliano; Nordon, Alison; Haley, Ian; Mulholland, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Information about size and shape of particles produced in various manufacturing processes is very important for process and product development because design of downstream processes as well as final product properties strongly depend on these geometrical particle attributes. However, recovery of particle size and shape information in situ during crystallisation processes has been a major challenge. The focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) provides the chord length distribution (CLD) of a population of particles in a suspension flowing close to the sensor window. Recovery of size and shape information from the CLD requires a model relating particle size and shape to its CLD as well as solving the corresponding inverse problem. This paper presents a comprehensive algorithm which produces estimates of particle size distribution and particle aspect ratio from measured CLD data. While the algorithm searches for a global best solution to the inverse problem without requiring further a priori information on ...

  12. Atmospheric pressure ionization waves propagating through a flexible high aspect ratio capillary channel and impinging upon a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure ionization waves (IWs) propagating in flexible capillary tubes are a unique way of transporting a plasma and its active species to remote sites for applications such as biomedical procedures, particularly in endoscopic procedures. The propagation mechanisms for such IWs in tubes having aspect ratios of hundreds to thousands are not clear. In this paper, results are discussed from a numerical investigation of the fundamental properties of ionization waves generated by nanosecond voltage pulses inside a 15 cm long, 600 µm wide (aspect ratio 250), flexible dielectric channel. The channel, filled with a Ne/Xe = 99.9/0.1 gas mixture at 1 atm, empties into a small chamber separated from a target substrate by 1 cm. The IWs propagate through the entire length of the channel while maintaining similar strength and magnitude. Upon exiting the channel into the chamber, the IW induces a second streamer discharge at the channel–chamber junction. This streamer then propagates across the chamber and impinges upon the target. The average speeds of the capillary-bounded IW are about 5 × 107 cm s−1 and 1 × 108 cm s−1 for positive and negative polarities, respectively. The propagation speed is sensitive to the curvature of the channel. In both cases, the peak in ionization tends to be located along the channel walls and alternates from side-to-side depending on the direction of the local instantaneous electric field and curvature of the channel. The ionization region following the IW extends up to several centimeters inside the channel, as opposed to being highly localized at the ionization front in unconstrained, atmospheric pressure IWs. The maximum speed of the IW in the chamber is about twice that in the channel. (paper)

  13. Study on morphology of high-aspect-ratio grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We studied morphologies of silicon grooves fabricated by laser irradiation and wet etching. • We found nano-ripple structures formed on the groove sidewall. • Formations of nano-ripples were due to the formation of standing wave and nanoplanes. • Remaining debris on the groove bottom was removed by KOH etching. - Abstract: Morphologies of high-aspect-ratio silicon grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and selective chemical etching of hydrofluoric acid (HF) were studied. Oxygen was deeply doped into silicon under femtosecond laser irradiation in air, and then the oxygen-doped regions were removed by HF etching to form high-aspect-ratio grooves. After HF etching, periodic nano-ripples which were induced in silicon by femtosecond laser were observed on the groove sidewalls. The ripple orientation was perpendicular or parallel to the laser propagation direction (z direction), which depended on the relative direction between the laser polarization direction and the scanning direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations perpendicular to z direction could be attributed to the standing wave generated by the interference of the incident light and the reflected light in z direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations parallel to z direction could be attributed to the formation of self-organized periodic nanoplanes (bulk nanogratings) induced by femtosecond laser inside silicon. Materials in the tail portion of laser-induced oxygen doping (LIOD) regions were difficult to be etched by HF solution due to low oxygen concentration. The specimen was etched further in KOH solution to remove remaining materials in LIOD regions and all-silicon grooves were fabricated

  14. Surface Modification Energized by Focused Ion Beam: The Influence of Etch Rates & Aspect Ratio on Ripple Wavelengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MoberlyChan, W J

    2006-11-15

    Ion beams have been used to modify surface topography, producing nanometer-scale modulations (and even subnanometer ripples in this work) that have potential uses ranging from designing self-assembly structures, to controlling stiction of micromachined surfaces, to providing imprint templates for patterned media. Modern computer-controlled Focused Ion Beam tools enable alternating submicron patterned zones of such ion-eroded surfaces, as well as dramatically increasing the rate of ion beam processing. The DualBeam FIB/SEM also expedites process development while minimizing the use of materials that may be precious (Diamond) and/or produce hazardous byproducts (Beryllium). A FIB engineer can prototype a 3-by-3-by-3 matrix of variables in tens of minutes and consume as little as zeptoliters of material; whereas traditional ion beam processing would require tens of days and tens of precious wafers. Saturation wavelengths have been reported for ripples on materials such as single crystal silicon or diamond ({approx}200nm); however this work achieves wavelengths >400nm on natural diamond. Conversely, Be can provide a stable and ordered 2-dimensional array of <40nm periodicity; and ripples <0.4nm are also fabricated on carbon surfaces and quantified by HR-TEM and electron diffraction. Rippling is a function of material, ion beam, and angle; but is also controlled by chemical environment, redeposition, and aspect ratio. Ideally a material exhibits a constant yield (atoms sputtered off per incident ion); however, pragmatic FIB processes, coupled with the direct metrological feedback in a DualBeam tool, reveal etch rates do not remain constant for nanometer-scale processing. Control of rippling requires controlled metrology, and robust software tools are developed to enhance metrology. In situ monitoring of the influence of aspect ratio and redeposition at the micron scale correlates to the rippling fundamentals that occur at the nanometer scale and are controlled by the

  15. pH-Dependent Toxicity of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanowires in Macrophages Due to Intracellular Dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    H. Müller, Karin

    2010-11-23

    High-aspect ratio ZnO nanowires have become one of the most promising products in the nanosciences within the past few years with a multitude of applications at the interface of optics and electronics. The interaction of zinc with cells and organisms is complex, with both deficiency and excess causing severe effects. The emerging significance of zinc for many cellular processes makes it imperative to investigate the biological safety of ZnO nanowires in order to guarantee their safe economic exploitation. In this study, ZnO nanowires were found to be toxic to human monocyte macrophages (HMMs) at similar concentrations as ZnCl2. Confocal microscopy on live cells confirmed a rise in intracellular Zn2+ concentrations prior to cell death. In vitro, ZnO nanowires dissolved very rapidly in a simulated body fluid of lysosomal pH, whereas they were comparatively stable at extracellular pH. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a rapid macrophage uptake of ZnO nanowire aggregates by phagocytosis. Nanowire dissolution occurred within membrane-bound compartments, triggered by the acidic pH of the lysosomes. ZnO nanowire dissolution was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Deposition of electron-dense material throughout the ZnO nanowire structures observed by TEM could indicate adsorption of cellular components onto the wires or localized zinc-induced protein precipitation. Our study demonstrates that ZnO nanowire toxicity in HMMs is due to pH-triggered, intracellular release of ionic Zn2+ rather than the high-aspect nature of the wires. Cell death had features of necrosis as well as apoptosis, with mitochondria displaying severe structural changes. The implications of these findings for the application of ZnO nanowires are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Optimization of process parameters of the activated tungsten inert gas welding for aspect ratio of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Magudeeswaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The activated TIG (ATIG welding process mainly focuses on increasing the depth of penetration and the reduction in the width of weld bead has not been paid much attention. The shape of a weld in terms of its width-to-depth ratio known as aspect ratio has a marked influence on its solidification cracking tendency. The major influencing ATIG welding parameters, such as electrode gap, travel speed, current and voltage, that aid in controlling the aspect ratio of DSS joints, must be optimized to obtain desirable aspect ratio for DSS joints. Hence in this study, the above parameters of ATIG welding for aspect ratio of ASTM/UNS S32205 DSS welds are optimized by using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA experimental design and other statistical tools such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pooled ANOVA techniques. The optimum process parameters are found to be 1 mm electrode gap, 130 mm/min travel speed, 140 A current and 12 V voltage. The aspect ratio and the ferrite content for the DSS joints fabricated using the optimized ATIG parameters are found to be well within the acceptable range and there is no macroscopically evident solidification cracking.

  17. Optimization of process parameters of the activated tungsten inert gas welding for aspect ratio of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel welds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. MAGUDEESWARAN; Sreehari R. NAIR; L. SUNDAR; N. HARIKANNAN

    2014-01-01

    The activated TIG (ATIG) welding process mainly focuses on increasing the depth of penetration and the reduction in the width of weld bead has not been paid much attention. The shape of a weld in terms of its width-to-depth ratio known as aspect ratio has a marked influence on its solidification cracking tendency. The major influencing ATIG welding parameters, such as electrode gap, travel speed, current and voltage, that aid in controlling the aspect ratio of DSS joints, must be optimized to obtain desirable aspect ratio for DSS joints. Hence in this study, the above parameters of ATIG welding for aspect ratio of ASTM/UNS S32205 DSS welds are optimized by using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) experimental design and other statistical tools such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pooled ANOVA techniques. The optimum process parameters are found to be 1 mm electrode gap, 130 mm/min travel speed, 140 A current and 12 V voltage. The aspect ratio and the ferrite content for the DSS joints fabricated using the optimized ATIG parameters are found to be well within the acceptable range and there is no macroscopically evident solidification cracking.

  18. Effect on plasma performance of a single MHD mode feedback control in low-aspect-ratio RFP RELAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feedback control system for the stabilization of resistive wall mode (RWM) was applied to a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP) with minimum power supply capabilities to control the single mode. The system consists of 64 saddle coils (4 and 16 in poloidal and toroidal direction, respectively) in the actuator covering the whole torus on the outer surface of the vacuum vessel. The sensor coils also have the same structure. The saddle coils are connected in series to control the single m/n = 1/2 mode, which has the largest growth rate in RELAX. The radial component of the magnetic field from the sensor coils was suppressed to the preset level and the m/n = 1/2 magnetic mode, which otherwise grows with field penetration time of the vessel, was reduced to 0.1% of the edge poloidal field throughout the discharge. The RFP discharge duration has been extended to ∼3.5 ms, the upper bound determined by the saturation of the iron core. Finally, the MHD control issues in a low-A machine are discussed. (author)

  19. Oxide mediated liquid-solid growth of high aspect ratio aligned gold silicide nanowires on Si(110) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nanowires grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method are promising candidates for nanoelectronics applications. The nanowires grow from an Au-Si catalyst during silicon chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, the effect of temperature, oxide at the interface and substrate orientation on the nucleation and growth kinetics during formation of nanogold silicide structures is explained using an oxide mediated liquid-solid growth mechanism. Using real time in situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy (with 40 ms time resolution), we show the formation of high aspect ratio (∼15.0) aligned gold silicide nanorods in the presence of native oxide at the interface during in situ annealing of gold thin films on Si(110) substrates. Steps observed in the growth rate and real time electron diffraction show the existence of liquid Au-Si nano-alloy structures on the surface besides the un-reacted gold nanostructures. These results might enable us to engineer the growth of nanowires and similar structures with an Au-Si alloy as a catalyst.

  20. Formation of High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nano tube Arrays by Anodization of Ti Foil in Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nano tubes were successfully formed by anodization of pure titanium foil in a standard two-electrode bath consisting of ethylene glycol solution containing 5 wt % NH4F. The pH of the solution was ∼7 and the anodization voltage was 60 V. It was observed that such anodization condition results in ordered arrays of TiO2 nano tubes with smooth surface and a very high aspect ratio. It was observed that a minimum of 1 wt % water addition was required to form well ordered TiO2 nano tubes with length of approximately 18.5 μm. As-anodized sample, the self-organized TiO2 nano tubes have amorphous structure and annealing at 500 degree Celsius of the nano tubes promote formation of anatase and rutile phase. Photo catalytic activity of well ordered TiO2 nano tubes with two different lengths was evaluated by measuring the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The elaboration of this observation is described in detail in this paper. (author)

  1. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO2 patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, together with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 108 cm−2, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries

  2. Feasibility study on 3-D shape analysis of high-aspect-ratio features using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Weck, Peter; Kramar, John A; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2016-07-25

    In-line metrologies currently used in the semiconductor industry are being challenged by the aggressive pace of device scaling and the adoption of novel device architectures. Metrology and process control of three-dimensional (3-D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) features are becoming increasingly important and also challenging. In this paper we present a feasibility study of through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) for 3-D shape analysis of HAR features. TSOM makes use of 3-D optical data collected using a conventional optical microscope for 3-D shape analysis. Simulation results of trenches and holes down to the 11 nm node are presented. The ability of TSOM to analyze an array of HAR features or a single isolated HAR feature is also presented. This allows for the use of targets with area over 100 times smaller than that of conventional gratings, saving valuable real estate on the wafers. Indications are that the sensitivity of TSOM may match or exceed the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) measurement requirements for the next several years. Both simulations and preliminary experimental results are presented. The simplicity, lowcost, high throughput, and nanometer scale 3-D shape sensitivity of TSOM make it an attractive inspection and process monitoring solution for nanomanufacturing. PMID:27464112

  3. A high aspect ratio SU-8 fabrication technique for hollow microneedles for transdermal drug delivery and blood extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein drugs, e.g. hormonal drugs, cannot be delivered orally to a patient as they get digested in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Thus, it is imperative that these kinds of drugs are delivered transdermally through the skin. To provide for real-time feedback as well as to test independently for various substances in the blood, we also need a blood sampling system. Microneedles can perform both these functions. Further, microneedles made of silicon or metal have the risk of breaking inside the skin thereby leading to complications. SU-8, being approved of as being biocompatible by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) of the United States, is an attractive alternative because firstly it is a polymer material, thereby reducing the chances of breakages inside the skin, and secondly it is a negative photoresist, thereby leading to ease of fabrication. Thus, here we present very tall (around 1600 µm) SU-8 polymer-based hollow microneedles fabricated by a simple and repeatable process, which are a very good candidate for transdermal drug delivery as well as blood extraction. The paper elaborates on the details that allow the fabrication of such extreme aspect ratios (>100).

  4. Optimization of laser energy deposition for single-shot high aspect-ratio microstructuring of thick BK7 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzillo, Valerio; Jukna, Vytautas; Couairon, Arnaud; Grigutis, Robertas; Di Trapani, Paolo; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the generation of high aspect ratio microstructures across 0.7 mm thick glass by means of single shot Bessel beam laser direct writing. We study the effect on the photoinscription of the cone angle, as well as of the energy and duration of the ultrashort laser pulse. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters for the writing of a regular microstructure due to index modification along the whole sample thickness. By using a spectrally resolved single pulse transmission diagnostics at the output surface of the glass, we correlate the single shot material modification with observations of the absorption in different portions of the retrieved spectra, and with the absence or presence of spectral modulation. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the Bessel pulse intensity and of the energy deposition inside the sample help us interpret the experimental results that suggest to use picosecond pulses for an efficient and more regular energy deposition. Picosecond pulses take advantage of nonlinear plasma absorption and avoid temporal dynamics effects which can compromise the stationarity of the Bessel beam propagation.

  5. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzali, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.orzali@sematech.org; Vert, Alexey; O' Brien, Brendan; Papa Rao, Satyavolu S. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd Suite 2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Herman, Joshua L.; Vivekanand, Saikumar [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Hill, Richard J. W. [Now at Micron Technologies, 8000 S Federal Way, Boise, Idaho 83716 (United States); Karim, Zia [AIXTRON, Inc., 1139 Karlstad Dr., Sunnyvale, California 94089 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO{sub 2} patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, together with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  6. A high aspect ratio SU-8 fabrication technique for hollow microneedles for transdermal drug delivery and blood extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Buddhadev Paul; Ceyssens, Frederik; De Moor, Piet; Van Hoof, Chris; Puers, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Protein drugs, e.g. hormonal drugs, cannot be delivered orally to a patient as they get digested in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Thus, it is imperative that these kinds of drugs are delivered transdermally through the skin. To provide for real-time feedback as well as to test independently for various substances in the blood, we also need a blood sampling system. Microneedles can perform both these functions. Further, microneedles made of silicon or metal have the risk of breaking inside the skin thereby leading to complications. SU-8, being approved of as being biocompatible by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) of the United States, is an attractive alternative because firstly it is a polymer material, thereby reducing the chances of breakages inside the skin, and secondly it is a negative photoresist, thereby leading to ease of fabrication. Thus, here we present very tall (around 1600 µm) SU-8 polymer-based hollow microneedles fabricated by a simple and repeatable process, which are a very good candidate for transdermal drug delivery as well as blood extraction. The paper elaborates on the details that allow the fabrication of such extreme aspect ratios (>100).

  7. Heat transport by turbulent Rayleigh-B'enard Convection in cylindrical cells with aspect ratio one and less

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, A; Funfschilling, D; Ahlers, G; Nikolaenko, Alexei; Brown, Eric; Funfschilling, Denis; Ahlers, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the Nusselt number N as a function of the Rayleigh number R for cylindrical samples of water (Prandtl number sigma = 4.4) with a diameter D of 49.7 cm and heights L = 116.3, 74.6, and 50.6 cm, as well as for D = 24.8 cm and L = 90.2 cm. For each aspect ratio Gamma = D/L = 0.28, 0.43, 0.67, and 0.98 the data cover a range of a little over a decade of R. The maximum R ~= 10^12 and Nusselt number N ~= 600 were reached for Gamma = 0.43 and D = 49.7. The data were corrected for the influence of the finite conductivity of the top and bottom plates on the heat transport in the fluid to obtain estimates of N_infty for plates with infinite conductivity. The results for N_infty and Gamma >= 0.43 are nearly independent of Gamma. For Gamma = 0.275 N_infty falls about 2.5 % below the other data. For R ~ 1/3.

  8. Application of Self-Assembled Monolayers to the Electroless Metallization of High Aspect Ratio Vias for Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, R.; Molazemhosseini, A.; Cervati, M.; Armini, S.; Magagnin, L.

    2016-07-01

    All-wet electroless metallization of through-silicon vias (TSVs) with a width of 5 μm and a 1:10 aspect ratio was carried out. Immersion in a n-(2-aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used to enhance the adhesion between the metal film and substrate. Contact angle variation and atomic force microscopy were used to verify the formation of a SAM layer. A PdCl2 solution was later used to activate the silanized substrates, exploiting the affinity of the -NH3 functional group of AEAPTMS to palladium. A nickel-phosphorus-boron electroless bath was employed to deposit the first barrier layer onto silicon. The NiPB growth rate was evaluated on flat silicon wafers, while the structure of the coating obtained was investigated via glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope observations were carried out on metallized TSVs to characterize the NiPB seed, the Cu seed layer deposited with a second electroless step, and the Cu superfilling obtained with a commercial solution. Complete filling of TSV was achieved.

  9. A minimally invasive micro sampler for quantitative sampling with an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Wang, Yan; Yao, Jinyuan; Yang, Cuijun; Ding, Guifu

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel micro sampler consisting of an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator. The microneedle was fabricated by a new method which introduced reshaped photoresist technology to form a flow channel inside. The microneedle includes two parts: shaft and pedestal. In this study, the shaft length is 1500 μm with a 45° taper angle on the tip and pedestal is 1000 μm. Besides, the shaft and pedestal are connected by an arc connection structure with a length of 600 μm. The microneedles have sufficient mechanical strength to insert into skin with a wide safety margin which was proved by mechanics tests. Moreover, a PDMS actuator with a chamber inside was designed and fabricated in this study. The chamber, acting as a reservoir in sampling process as well as providing power, was optimized by finite element analysis (FEA) to decrease dead volume and improve sampling precision. The micro sampler just needs finger press to activate the sampling process as well as used for quantitative micro injection to some extent. And a volume of 31.5 ± 0.8 μl blood was successfully sampled from the ear artery of a rabbit. This micro sampler is suitable for micro sampling for diagnose or therapy in biomedical field. PMID:27372944

  10. Numerical investigation of the interaction between upstream cavity purge flow and main flow in low aspect ratio turbine cascade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wei; Liu Huoxing

    2013-01-01

    In modem gas turbines,rim seal located between the stator-disc and rotor-disc is used to prevent hot-gas ingestion into the inner stage-gap of high pressure turbine.However,the purge flow supplied to the cavity through the rim seal interacts with the main flow,producing additional aerodynamic loss due to the mixing process which plays a significant role in the formation,development and evolution of downstream secondary flow.In this paper,a set of cascade representative of low aspect ratio turbine is selected to numerically investigate the influence of upstream cavity purge flow on the hub secondary flow structure and aerodynamic loss.Cascade with/without upstream cavity and four different purge mass flow rates are all taken into account in this simulation.Then,a deep insight into the loss mechanism of interaction between purge flow and main flow is gained.The results show that the presence of cavity and purge flow has a significant impact on the main flow which not only changes the vortex structure in both the passage and upstream cavity,but also alters the cascade exit flow angle distribution along the spanwise.Moreover,aerodynamic loss in the cascade rises with the increase of purge flow rate while the sealing effect is also enhanced.Therefore,the effect of upstream cavity purge flow must be considered in the process of turbine aerodynamic design.What is more,it is necessary to minimize the purge flow rate in order to reduce aerodynamic loss on the premise of satisfying cooling requirements.

  11. On the onset of secondary flow and unsteady solutions through a loosely coiled rectangular duct for large aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Poly Rani; Rudro, Sajal Kanti; Poddar, Nayan Kumar; Mondal, Rabindra Nath

    2016-07-01

    The study of flows through coiled ducts and channels has attracted considerable attention not only because of their ample applications in Chemical, Mechanical, Civil, Nuclear and Biomechanical engineering but also because of their ample applications in other areas, such as blood flow in the veins and arteries of human and other animals. In this paper, a numerical study is presented for the fully developed two-dimensional flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a loosely coiled rectangular duct of large aspect ratio. Numerical calculations are carried out by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Dean number, Dn, for two types of curvatures of the duct. The main concern of the present study is to find out effects of curvature as well as formation of secondary vortices on unsteady solutions whether the unsteady flow is steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic or chaotic, if Dn is increased. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces are performed with a view to study the non-linear behavior of the unsteady solutions, and it is found that the steady-state flow turns into chaotic flow through various flow instabilities, if Dn is increased no matter what the curvature is. It is found that the unsteady flow is a steady-state solution for small Dn's and oscillates periodically or non-periodically (chaotic) between two- and twelve-vortex solutions, if Dn is increased. It is also found that the chaotic solution is weak for small Dn's but strong as Dn becomes large. Axial flow distribution is also investigated and shown in contour plots.

  12. Solution of Full Wave Equation for Global Modes in Small Aspect Ratio Tokamaks with Non-Circular Cross-Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wave equation for strongly toroidal small aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks with non-circular cross-section is properly formulated and solved for global waves, in the Alfven frequency range. The current-carrying toroidal plasma is surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna, which is enclosed within a perfectly conducting wall. The problem is formulated in terms of the vector and scalar potentials (A,Φ), thus avoiding the numerical solution occurring in the case of (E,B) formulation. Adequate boundary conditions are applied at the vacuum - metallic wall interface and the magnetic axis. A recently derived dielectric tensor-operator, able to describe the anisotropic plasma response in spherical tokamaks, is used for this purpose; except for its linear character, no physical or geometrical limitations are imposed on it. The equilibrium profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) are obtained from a numerical solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. Specifically, the wave equation is solved by the aid of a numerical code we developed for the present problem, based on the well documented 2(1/2)D finite element solver proposed by E.G. Sewell. With the definitions Vi(θ,ρ) = Ui(-θ,ρ) (ViUi = Aj, Φ; j = ρ,φ,θ), our code solves simultaneously 16 second order partial differential equations (eight equations for each of real and imaginary set of functions Vi, Ui). A systematic analysis of the solutions obtained for various values and combinations of wavenumbers and frequencies in the Alfven range is presented

  13. Optical properties of high aspect ratio plasma etched silicon nanowires: fabrication-induced variability dramatically reduces reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnakis, A; Almpanis, E; Constantoudis, V; Papanikolaou, N; Gogolides, E

    2015-02-27

    In this work we investigate both experimentally and theoretically the optical properties of aligned, perpendicular to the substrate, high aspect ratio (AR), plasma etched Si nanowires (SiNWs) with controlled variability. We focus on the role of imperfections in fabrication, which manifest themselves as dimensional variability of SiNW, lattice defects or positional randomization. SiNW arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography (perfectly ordered array) or colloidal particle self-assembly (quasi-ordered array) followed by cryogenic Si plasma etching, which offers fast etch rate (up to 3 μm min(-1)) combined with clean, smooth, and controllable sidewall profile, but induces some dimensional variability on the diameters of the SiNWs. Sub-200 nm diameter SiNWs having AR as high as 37:1 are demonstrated. The total reflectance of SiNWs is below 2% in a wide range of the optical spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate improved light absorption when moving from a perfectly ordered (after e-beam lithography) to a defective and quasi-ordered (after colloidal self-assembly) SiNW array. In addition our measured reflectivity (for both ordered and quasi-ordered SiNWs) is much lower compared to the one predicted theoretically for a perfect SiNWs array, using full-electrodynamic calculations with the layer-multiple-scattering method. To explain such low reflectivity, we model the influence of disorder using the average T-matrix approximation and show that even small dimensional variability (10-20%) leads to dramatic reduction of the reflectance (matching the experimental results) and increased light trapping inside the SiNW justifying their possible application in photovoltaic devices. PMID:25648611

  14. Aspect ratio control of Au nanorods via covariation of the total amount of HAuCl4 and ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The AR value decreased as the total amount of [HAuCl4] and [AA] increasing. • The UV–vis absorption spectra showed the peak wavelength of TSPR at around 530 nm. • The wavelength of LSPR had a red-shifted effect. - Abstract: Controlling the aspect ratio (AR) of gold nanorods (GNRs) via covariation of the total concentrations of HAuCl4 ([HAuCl4]) and ascorbic acid ([AA]) has been studied. Characteristics of GNRs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometry. TEM results showed that single crystalline GNRs grew along an elongated growth direction of [100]. TEM results also revealed that the quantity of plate shaped and nearly spherical nanoparticles increased as the total amount of [HAuCl4] and [AA] decreased. The AR value measured from TEM images decreased from 4.74 to 2.41 as the total amount of [HAuCl4] and [AA] was increased from 0.305 to 2.44 mM. The UV–vis absorption spectra of all samples showed that the wavelength of transverse surface plasmon resonance (TSPR) peak appeared at around 530 nm for all samples. The wavelength of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak increased from 640 to 894 nm as the total amount of [HAuCl4] and [AA] decreased from 2.44 to 0.305 mM. The wavelength of LSPR peak shows a red-shifted effect except when the total amount of [HAuCl4] and [AA] was 0.122 mM

  15. Influence of platelet aspect ratio on the mechanical behaviour of bio-inspired nanocomposites using molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiazhagan, S; Anup, S

    2016-06-01

    Superior mechanical properties of biocomposites such as nacre and bone are attributed to their basic building blocks. These basic building blocks have nanoscale features and play a major role in achieving combined stiffening, strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Bioinspired nanocomposites based on these basic building blocks, regularly and stairwise staggered arrangements of hard platelets in soft matrix, have huge potential for developing advanced materials. The study of applicability of mechanical principles of biological materials to engineered materials will guide designing advanced materials. To probe the generic mechanical characteristics of these bioinspired nanocomposites, the model material concept in molecular dynamics (MD) is used. In this paper, the effect of platelets aspect ratio (AR) on the mechanical behaviour of bioinspired nanocomposites is investigated. The obtained Young׳s moduli of both the models and the strengths of the regularly staggered models agree with the available theories. However, the strengths of the stairwise staggered models show significant difference. For the stairwise staggered model, we demonstrate the existence of two critical ARs, a smaller critical AR above which platelet fracture occurs and a higher critical AR above which composite strength remains constant. Our MD study also shows the existence of mechanisms of platelet pull-out and breakage for lower and higher ARs. Pullout mechanism acts as a major source of plasticity. Further, we find that the regularly staggered model can achieve an optimal combination of high Young׳s modulus, flow strength and toughness, and the stairwise staggered model is efficient in obtaining high Young׳s modulus and tensile strength. PMID:26741376

  16. Optical properties of high aspect ratio plasma etched silicon nanowires: fabrication-induced variability dramatically reduces reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we investigate both experimentally and theoretically the optical properties of aligned, perpendicular to the substrate, high aspect ratio (AR), plasma etched Si nanowires (SiNWs) with controlled variability. We focus on the role of imperfections in fabrication, which manifest themselves as dimensional variability of SiNW, lattice defects or positional randomization. SiNW arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography (perfectly ordered array) or colloidal particle self-assembly (quasi-ordered array) followed by cryogenic Si plasma etching, which offers fast etch rate (up to 3 μm min−1) combined with clean, smooth, and controllable sidewall profile, but induces some dimensional variability on the diameters of the SiNWs. Sub-200 nm diameter SiNWs having AR as high as 37:1 are demonstrated. The total reflectance of SiNWs is below 2% in a wide range of the optical spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate improved light absorption when moving from a perfectly ordered (after e-beam lithography) to a defective and quasi-ordered (after colloidal self-assembly) SiNW array. In addition our measured reflectivity (for both ordered and quasi-ordered SiNWs) is much lower compared to the one predicted theoretically for a perfect SiNWs array, using full-electrodynamic calculations with the layer-multiple-scattering method. To explain such low reflectivity, we model the influence of disorder using the average T-matrix approximation and show that even small dimensional variability (10–20%) leads to dramatic reduction of the reflectance (matching the experimental results) and increased light trapping inside the SiNW justifying their possible application in photovoltaic devices. (paper)

  17. Aspect Ratio Plays a Role in the Hazard Potential of CeO2 Nanoparticles in Mouse Lung and Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dong, Yuan; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Song, Tze-Bin; Kohan, Sirus; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Lin, Shuo; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that there is a relationship between the aspect ratio (AR) of CeO2 nanoparticles and in vitro hazard potential. CeO2 nanorods with AR ≥ 22 induced lysosomal damage and progressive effects on IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in the human myeloid cell line, THP-1. In order to determine whether this toxicological paradigm for long aspect ratio (LAR) CeO2 is also relevant in vivo, we performed comparative studies in the mouse lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) ...

  18. Fabrication and characterization of high aspect ratio perpendicular patterned information storage media in an Al2O3/GaAs substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Joyce; Scherer, Axel; Todorovic, Mladen; Schultz, Sheldon

    1999-01-01

    In a new approach, we have fabricated 6:1 aspect ratio magnetic nanocolumns, 60–250 nm in diameter, embedded in a hard aluminum-oxide/gallium-arsenide (Al2O3/GaAs) substrate. The fabrication technique uses the highly selective etching properties of GaAs and AlAs, and highly efficient masking properties of Al2O3 to create small diameter, high aspect ratio holes. Nickel (Ni) is subsequently electroplated into the holes, followed by polishing, which creates a smooth and hard surface appropriate ...

  19. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  20. Template synthesis and magnetoresistance property of Ni and Co single nanowires electrodeposited into nanopores with a wide range of aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopores with a wide range of aspect ratios were fabricated in an anodized aluminium oxide layer on bulk metallic aluminium. The aspect ratios (L/D) were around 20-1000 (pore length, L, 1000-60 000 nm; pore diameter, D, 50-100 nm). For comparison, nanopores in polymer films were also prepared using heavy-ion-track etched polyimide films (L, 70 000 nm; D, 70 nm; L/D 1000) and polycarbonate films (L, 30 000 nm; D, 100 nm; L/D = 300). The pore diameter of the anodized aluminium oxide layer was controlled by the anodization voltage, while the pore diameter of the heavy-ion-tracked polyimide and polycarbonate films was controlled by the etching time in a sodium hydroxide alkaline solution. Ni and Co homogeneous single nanowires were fabricated using the electrodeposition and in situ contacted techniques in the nanoporous templates. The Ni and Co nanowires with the largest aspect ratios (L/D = 1000) showed around 2.3% and 1.6% of the typical anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), and the effects of aspect ratio on the resistance and AMR were investigated

  1. A facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanorods with a controllable aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pai; Ryan, Kevin M

    2015-09-18

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanorods were synthesized with a controllable aspect ratio via a facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis. This synthesis can be readily extended to obtain Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanorods with tunable Zn content. PMID:26235602

  2. Low-temperature plasma etching of high aspect-ratio densely packed 15 to sub-10 nm silicon features derived from PS-PDMS block copolymer patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuwei; Gu, Xiaodan; Hwu, Justin; Sassolini, Simone; Olynick, Deirdre L

    2014-07-18

    The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature's shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. PMID:24971641

  3. Low-temperature plasma etching of high aspect-ratio densely packed 15 to sub-10 nm silicon features derived from PS-PDMS block copolymer patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature’s shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. (paper)

  4. The effect of the geometry aspect ratio on the silicon ellipse-shaped surrounding- gate field-effect transistor and circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silicon (Si) surrounding-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has ultimate gate structures and is a potential candidate for use in next-generation high-performance nano-devices. However, because of limitations of the fabrication process, theoretically ideally round shape of the surrounding gate may not always guarantee. These limitations may lead to the formation of an ellipse-shaped surrounding gate with major (a) and minor (b) axes of different lengths. In this study, the effect of the geometry aspect ratio, a/b, on the dc and ac characteristics of the 16 nm gate ellipse-shaped surrounding-gate MOSFETs and circuits is examined by using a three-dimensional coupled device-circuit simulation technique. The dependences of electrical characteristics on the geometry aspect ratio are evaluated with reference to various device characteristics and the circuit properties, including the circuit gain, the 3 dB bandwidth, the unity-gain bandwidth, the rise/fall time and the delay time. In analog circuits, the device with an aspect ratio of less than 1 is promising because the short-channel effect is suppressed. However, for a digital circuit configuration, the transient response of the circuit relies on the charge/discharge capability of the transistor. Thus, a device with a large aspect ratio, such as 2, will be more suitable for digital applications

  5. Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas;

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanostructured gratings with an aspect ratio of up to 50. The gratings were made by a combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and dry etch techniques. The workflow included fabrication of a Si template using deep reactive ion etching...

  6. Influence of Aspect Ratio on the Onset of Thermocapillary Oscillatory Convection in a Floating Half Zone of Large Prandtl Number Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐泽眉; 胡文瑞

    2003-01-01

    The onset of oscillatory thermocapillary convection in a floating half zone of l0cst silicon oil (Prandtl number 105.6) is studied by the three-dimensional and unsteady numerical simulation in microgravity environment (g =10--4gearth). The results show that the steady and axi-symmetric convection, for a fixed liquid bridge volume ratio Ve/Vo = 1, transits directly to the oscillatory convection if geometrical aspect ratio A is larger than the critical value Ac = 1.25, but transits to the oscillatory convection via the steady and non-axisymmetric flow if A is smaller than the critical value Ac. The result means that there are two bifurcation transitions in a liquid bridge of the large Prandtl number fluid with a smaller aspect ratio A.

  7. Single-photon-multi-layer-interference lithography for high-aspect-ratio and three-dimensional SU-8 micro-/nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddharth; Ananthasuresh, G. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report microstructures of SU-8 photo-sensitive polymer with high-aspect-ratio, which is defined as the ratio of height to in-plane feature size. The highest aspect ratio achieved in this work exceeds 250. A multi-layer and single-photon lithography approach is used in this work to expose SU-8 photoresist of thickness up to 100 μm. Here, multi-layer and time-lapsed writing is the key concept that enables nanometer localised controlled photo-induced polymerisation. We use a converging monochromatic laser beam of 405 nm wavelength with a controllable aperture. The reflection of the converging optics from the silicon substrate underneath is responsible for a trapezoidal edge profile of SU-8 microstructure. The reflection induced interfered point-spread-function and multi-layer-single-photon exposure helps to achieve sub-wavelength feature sizes. We obtained a 75 nm tip diameter on a pyramid shaped microstructure. The converging beam profile determines the number of multiple optical focal planes along the depth of field. These focal planes are scanned and exposed non-concurrently with varying energy dosage. It is notable that an un-automated height axis control is sufficient for this method. All of these contribute to realising super-high-aspect-ratio and 3D micro-/nanostructures using SU-8. Finally, we also address the critical problems of photoresist-based micro-/nanofabrication and their solutions. PMID:26725843

  8. Aspect ratio-related three-photon absorption and mechanism of α-FeOOH nanorods in the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Chong; Cao, Yawan; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Jiayu; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-07-20

    Tuning a semiconductor nanomaterial with large three-photon absorption (3PA) cross section in the near infrared and investigating the relationship between the nanostructure and nonlinear optical properties is a challenging topic, which is of significance in potential applications. Here, we report the aspect ratio-related 3PA response of α-FeOOH nanorods (NRs) in the near infrared. Large 3PA cross section at room temperature is achieved as high as ~10(-77) cm(6) s(2) photon(-2) when the distribution of photo-induced and intrinsic surface polarization charges of excitons to both ends of NRs is tuned through the aspect ratio, yielding total enhancement more than three times larger than that of NRs with 12.1 nm diameter. PMID:27218307

  9. Aspect ratio-related three-photon absorption and mechanism of α-FeOOH nanorods in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Chong; Cao, Yawan; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Jiayu; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-07-01

    Tuning a semiconductor nanomaterial with large three-photon absorption (3PA) cross section in the near infrared and investigating the relationship between the nanostructure and nonlinear optical properties is a challenging topic, which is of significance in potential applications. Here, we report the aspect ratio-related 3PA response of α-FeOOH nanorods (NRs) in the near infrared. Large 3PA cross section at room temperature is achieved as high as ~10‑77 cm6 s2 photon‑2 when the distribution of photo-induced and intrinsic surface polarization charges of excitons to both ends of NRs is tuned through the aspect ratio, yielding total enhancement more than three times larger than that of NRs with 12.1 nm diameter.

  10. High-Yield Synthesis of Uniform Ag Nanowires with High Aspect Ratios by Introducing the Long-Chain PVP in an Improved Polyol Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Jun Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP with different molecular weights was used as capping agent to synthesize silver nanowires through a polyol process. The results indicated that the yields and aspect ratios of silver nanowires were controlled by the chain length of PVP and increased with increasing the molecular weight (MW of PVP. When the long-chain PVP-K90 (MW = 800,000 was used, the product was uniform in size and was dominated by nanowires with high aspect ratios. The growth mechanism of the nanowires was studied. It is proposed that the chemical adsorption of Ag+ on the PVP chains at the initial stage promotes the growth of Ag nanowires.

  11. Ultraviolet and near-infrared femtosecond temporal pulse shaping with a new high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional micromirror array

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Stefan M.; Extermann, Jérôme; Bonacina, Luigi; Noell, Wilfried; Kiselev, Denis; Waldis, Severin; Rooij, Nico F. de; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the capabilities of a new optical microelectromechanical systems device that we specifically developed for broadband femtosecond pulse shaping. It consists of a one-dimensional array of 100 independently addressable, high-aspect-ratio micromirrors with up to 3μm stroke. We apply linear and quadratic phase modulations demonstrating the temporal compression of 800 and 400nm pulses. Because of the device’s surface flatness, stroke, and stroke resolution, phase shaping over an unpr...

  12. Study on the change of aspect ratios of small surface cracks emanated from a toe of corner boxing; Mawashi yosetsudome tanbu kara hassei denpasuru bishi bisho hyomen kiretsu no aspect hi henka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyosada, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Takeda, K.; Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The fatigue test of specimens with a stiffener was carried out to examine the change in aspect ratio (crack depth/length) of fatigue cracks in a stress concentration field and residual stress field. The aspect ratio of surface cracks just after generation can be represented with the single virtual surface crack with the same value as K value at the deepest point considering an interference effect from near cracks. No discontinuous change in K value is found at the deepest point even during growth and combination of cracks on a surface. The change in K value at the deepest point is thus the criterion to represent growth and combination of surface cracks considering the interference effect. The change in aspect ratio of the typical single virtual surface crack linearly decreases with an increase in crack depth. The shape of surface cracks generating and growing in a residual stress field is more flat than that in no residual stress field. In addition, in a residual stress field, surface cracks are longer at the same crack depth, and fatigue lives are shorter. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Stress intensity factor solution for a surface crack with high aspect ratio subjected to an arbitrary stress distribution using the influence function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants, a number of cracks attributed to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been detected in welds made with nickel alloy weld metals. One of characteristics of these cracks is that the crack depth is greater than one half of the crack length. When a crack is detected in a component of a nuclear power plant during an in-service inspection, a flaw evaluation is conducted according to the requirement of fitness-for-service codes such as the JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Here, the stress intensity factor plays an important role for predicting crack growth behavior due to fatigue and/or SCC. Although several solutions of the stress intensity factor are already given in the codes, no solutions are available for the cracks having an aspect ratio greater than unity. Surface cracks with an aspect ratio greater than unity are characterized as semicircular. To evaluate these cracks in a rational manner, we developed a database of influence coefficients by means of the influence function method in conjunction with the finite element method. By using these influence coefficients, a solution for the stress intensity factor was developed for a semi-elliptical surface crack with high-aspect-ratio up to 8.0 subjected to a fifth-order-polynomial stress distribution

  14. Low initial aspect-ratio direct-drive target designs for shock- or self-ignition in the context of the laser Megajoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of low initial aspect ratio direct-drive target designs is carried out by varying the implosion velocity and the fuel mass. Starting from two different spherical targets with a given 300 µg-DT mass, optimization of laser pulse and drive power allows to obtain a set of target seeds referenced by their peak implosion velocities and initial aspect ratio (A = 3 and A = 5). Self-ignition is achieved with higher implosion velocity for A = 5-design than for A = 3-design. Then, rescaling is done to extend the set of designs to a huge amount of mass, peak kinetic energies and peak areal densities. Self-ignition kinetic energy threshold Ek is characterized by a dependance of Ek ∼ vβ with β-values which depart from self-ignition models. Nevertheless, self-ignition energy is seen lower for smaller initial aspect ratio. An analysis of Two-Plasmons Decay threshold and Rayleigh–Taylor instability e-folding is carried out and it is shown that two-plasmon decay threshold is always overpassed for all designs. The hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed by embedded models to deal with linear and non-linear regime. It is found that the A = 5-designs are always at the limit of disruption of the shell. (paper)

  15. Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in groups with different sex ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VU Cromberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1, two (2:1, three (3:1 and four (4:1 females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1, in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05. Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00, and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90. Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.

  16. Evaluation of a strain-gage load calibration on a low-aspect-ratio wing structure at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Lawrence F.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental aspect of elevated temperature and its relationship to the science of strain gage calibrations of aircraft structures are addressed. A section of a wing designed for a high-speed aircraft structure was used to study this problem. This structure was instrumented with strain gages calibrated at both elevated and room temperatures. Load equations derived from a high-temperature load calibration were compared with equations derived from an identical load calibration at room temperature. The implications of the high temperature load calibration were studied from the viewpoint of applicability and necessity. Load equations derived from the room temperature load calibration resulted in generally lower equation standard errors than equations derived from the elevated temperature load calibration. A distributed load was applied to the structure at elevated temperature and strain gage outputs were measured. This applied load was then calculated using equations derived from both the room temperature and elevated temperature calibration data. It was found that no significant differences between the two equation systems existed in terms of computing this applied distributed load, as long as the thermal shifts resulting from thermal stresses could be identified. This identification requires a heating of the structure. Therefore, it is concluded that for this structure, a high temperature load calibration is not required. However, a heating of the structure is required to determine thermal shifts.

  17. The Effects of pH on the Growth and Aspect Ratio of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Crystals Prepared in Different Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, U. J.; Horrell, E. E.; Kou, Y.; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the nucleation and aspect ratio of CEWL crystals grown by vapor diffusion in acetate, butyrate, carbonate, succinate, and phosphate buffers in a range of pH spanning the pK(sub a) of these buffers. The nucleation numbers drop off significantly in the vicinity of pK(sub a) for each of the buffers except the phosphate system, in which we used only the pH range around the second titration point(pK2). There is a concomitant increase in the sizes of the crystals. Some typical nucleation number results are shown. These data support and extend other observations. In addition, we have examined changes in aspect ratio which accompany the suppression of nucleation within each buffer system. The length of the face in the [001] direction was measured, and compared to the width of the (110) face in the [110] type directions. We find that while the aspect ratio of the crystals is affected by pH, it is dominated by a correlation with the size of the crystals. Small crystals are longer in the [0011 direction than crystals that are larger (higher pH within a buffer system). This relationship is found to hold independent of the choice of buffer. These results are consistent with those of Judge et al, who used a batch process which resulted in uniform sizing of crystals at each pH. In these experiments, we specifically avoid agitating the protein/salt buffer mixture when combining the two. This permits the formation of a range of sizes at a given pH. The results for a .05 M acetate 5% NaCl buffer are also shown. We will discuss these results in light of a growth model.

  18. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  19. Precisely rectilinear electro-thermal microactuator using a high-aspect ratio microstructured Si/SU-8 composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Si/SU-8 composite electro-thermal microactuator that can generate a precisely rectilinear in-plane stroke. The microactuator consists of a pair of electro-thermally activated composite bimorphs which are joined at their tips through a central Si beam. When activated, the central beam deflects and outputs an in-plane rectilinear stroke at its center. The central stroke is precisely rectilinear along the plane of symmetry due to very high stiffness in the orthogonal directions to the stroke. This composite thermal microactuator produces a much larger rectilinear stroke and blocked force per unit temperature rise compared to an all-silicon one. At a temperature rise below 87 °C (driven below 8.0 V), the stroke increases linearly with the temperature rise up to 8.0 µm. Analytical and finite element models are developed for this range of actuation. Beyond an 87 °C temperature rise, the stroke was further enhanced by Poisson's ratio effect on SU-8 which increases the effective coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite. The microactuator could produce a maximum rectilinear stroke of 42 µm and a maximum estimated blocked force of 60 mN at a driving voltage of 14.5 V which causes a SU-8 average temperature rise of 266 °C. (paper)

  20. Imaging properties of high aspect ratio absorption gratings for use in preclinical x-ray grating interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimborn, Barbara; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Zuber, Marcus; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    X-ray grating interferometry is one among various methods that allow extracting the so-called phase and visibility contrasts in addition to the well-known transmission images. Crucial to achieving a high image quality are the absorption gratings employed. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of how the grating type and lamella heights influence the final images. Benchmarking gratings of two different designs, we show that a frequently used proxy for image quality, a grating’s so-called visibility, is insufficient to predict contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Presenting scans from an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the CNRs obtained for transmission and visibility images anti-correlate. This is explained by the stronger attenuation implied by gratings that are engineered to provide high visibilities by means of an increased lamella height. We show that even the visibility contrast can suffer from this effect when the associated reduced photon flux on the detector is not outweighed by a corresponding gain in visibility. Resulting in an inevitable trade-off between the quality of the two contrasts, the question of how an optimal grating should be designed can hence only be answered in terms of Pareto optimality.

  1. Imaging properties of high aspect ratio absorption gratings for use in preclinical x-ray grating interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimborn, Barbara; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Zuber, Marcus; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Baumbach, Tilo; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-21

    X-ray grating interferometry is one among various methods that allow extracting the so-called phase and visibility contrasts in addition to the well-known transmission images. Crucial to achieving a high image quality are the absorption gratings employed. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of how the grating type and lamella heights influence the final images. Benchmarking gratings of two different designs, we show that a frequently used proxy for image quality, a grating's so-called visibility, is insufficient to predict contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Presenting scans from an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the CNRs obtained for transmission and visibility images anti-correlate. This is explained by the stronger attenuation implied by gratings that are engineered to provide high visibilities by means of an increased lamella height. We show that even the visibility contrast can suffer from this effect when the associated reduced photon flux on the detector is not outweighed by a corresponding gain in visibility. Resulting in an inevitable trade-off between the quality of the two contrasts, the question of how an optimal grating should be designed can hence only be answered in terms of Pareto optimality. PMID:26683256

  2. Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali-Toudert, Fazia; Mayer, Helmut [Meteorological Institute, University of Freiburg,Werderring 10, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street design, i.e. aspect ratio (or height-to-width ratio, H/W) and solar orientation, towards the development of a comfortable micro climate at street level for pedestrians. The investigation is carried out by using the three-dimensional numerical model ENVI-met, which simulates the microclimatic changes within urban environments in a high spatial and temporal resolution. Model calculations are run for a typical summer day in Ghardaia, Algeria (32.40{sup o}N, 3.80{sup o}E, 469ma.s.l.), a region characterized by a hot and dry climate. Symmetrical urban canyons, with various height-to-width ratios (i.e. H/W=0.5, 1, 2 and 4) and different solar orientations (i.e. E-W, N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE), have been studied. Special emphasis is placed on a human bio-meteorological assessment of these microclimates by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The results show contrasting patterns of thermal comfort between shallow and deep urban streets as well as between the various orientations studied. A comparison of all case studies reveals that the time and period of day during which extreme heat stress occurs, as well as the spatial distribution of PETs at street level, depend strongly on aspect ratio and street orientation. This is crucial since it will directly influence the design choices in relation to street usage, e.g. streets planned exclusively for pedestrian use or including motor traffic, and also the time of frequentation of urban spaces. Both investigated urban factors can mitigate extreme heat stress if appropriately combined. The solar access indoors has been briefly discussed as an additional criterion in designing the street by including winter needs for solar energy. (author)

  3. Growth of High-Quality, Thickness-Reduced Zeolite Membranes towards N2 /CH4 Separation Using High-Aspect-Ratio Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Song, Zhuonan; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Miao

    2015-09-01

    Greatly improved zeolite membranes were prepared by using high-aspect-ratio zeolite seeds. Slice-shaped seeds with a high aspect ratio (AR) facilitated growth of thinner continuous SAPO-34 membranes of much higher quality. These membranes showed N2 permeances as high as (2.87±0.15)×10(-7)  mol m(-2)  s(-1)  Pa(-1) at 22 °C while maintaining a decent N2 /CH4 selectivity (9-11.2 for equimolar mixture). On the basis of these thinner high-quality SAPO-34 membranes, fine-tuning the local crystal structure by incorporating more silicon further increased the N2 permeance by 1.4 times without sacrificing the N2 /CH4 selectivity. We expect that application of large AR zeolite seeds might be a viable strategy to grow thin high-quality zeolite membranes. In addition, fine-tuning of the crystal structure by changing the crystal composition might be a feasible way for further improving the separating performance of high-quality zeolite membranes. PMID:26248951

  4. Protein-enabled layer-by-layer syntheses of aligned, porous-wall, high-aspect-ratio TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrigan, John D.; Cai, Ye; Sandhage, Kenneth H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Air Force Center of Excellence on Bio-Nano-Enabled Inorganic/Organic Nanocomposites and Improved Cognition (BIONIC), Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Kang, Tae-Sik; Deneault, James R.; Durstock, Michael F. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 45433-7702 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    An aqueous, protein-enabled (biomimetic), layer-by-layer titania deposition process is developed, for the first time, to convert aligned-nanochannel templates into high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays with thin (34 nm) walls composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanocrystals (15 nm ave. size). Alumina templates with aligned open nanochannels are exposed in an alternating fashion to aqueous protamine-bearing and titania precursor-bearing (Ti(IV) bis-ammonium-lactato-dihydroxide, TiBALDH) solutions. The ability of protamine to bind to alumina and titania, and to induce the formation of a Ti-O-bearing coating upon exposure to the TiBALDH precursor, enables the layer-by-layer deposition of a conformal protamine/Ti-O-bearing coating on the nanochannel surfaces within the porous alumina template. Subsequent protamine pyrolysis yields coatings composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanoparticles. Selective dissolution of the underlying alumina template through the porous coating then yields freestanding, aligned, porous-wall titania nanotube arrays. The interconnected pores within the nanotube walls allow enhanced loading of functional molecules (such as a Ru-based N719 dye), whereas the interconnected titania nanoparticles enable the high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays to be used as electrodes (as demonstrated for dye-sensitized solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 5.2 {+-} 0.4%). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  6. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications. (paper)

  7. Elimination of nanovoids induced during electroforming of metallic nanostamps with high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by the pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied a technique for fabricating metallic nanostamps with void-free, high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, using a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. During conventional electroforming of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, a high current distribution is concentrated at the top and bottom corners, resulting in relatively fast growth of the nickel electroformed layer. This phenomenon leads to the formation of nanovoids in a metallic nanostamp, causing degradation of the stamp performance. To prevent the formation of nanovoids, we controlled the current waveform during the electroforming process. In this way, the process suppressed the formation of nanovoids, while effectively achieving a uniform current distribution. As practical examples, two types of metallic nanostamps were fabricated via direct current and PRC electroforming processes, one with a pitch of 0.8 µm and a height of 1.8 µm, and another with a pitch of 350 nm and a height of 525 nm. The internal nanovoids developed during the electroforming process were measured and analyzed. (paper)

  8. A Novel Method to Prepare High-aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods%一种制备高长径比金纳米棒的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩; 钱勇; 夏炎; 蒋彩云; 钱卫平

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to high-aspect ratio gold nanorods has been presented.The gold nanorods as long as(200±18.62) nm with aspect ratio of above 10 were prepared with optimizing the concentration of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB) by seed-mediated growth method at 25 ℃.Mechanism for gold nanorods formation is discussed.It is shown that the aspect ratio and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance(SPR) can be correlated with the concentration of CTAB.Moreover,by simply enhancing the ion strength of the reaction solution,the as-prepared gold nanorods can be purified for the different electrostatic aggregation effects between gold nanorods and spherical nanoparticles.Shape change of gold nanorods is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images(TEM) and scan electron microscopy(SEM).%报道了一种制备高长径比金纳米棒的新方法.在25℃条件下,采用种子介导生长法,通过优化表面活性剂十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)的浓度,制备了长度(200±18.62)nm,长径比大于10的金纳米棒,并讨论了金纳米棒的形成机制.结果表明,金纳米棒的长径比和纵向吸收波长与CTAB的浓度有关.此外,通过提高反应液的离子强度,利用制备的金纳米棒与球形颗粒不同的静电作用将金纳米棒分离纯化.运用透射电子显微镜(TEM)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对金纳米棒的表面形貌进行表征.

  9. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Complex Fiber Geometry RaFC Materials with High Volume Fraction and High Aspect Ratio based on ABAQUS PYTHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, BoCheng

    2011-12-01

    Organic and inorganic fiber reinforced composites with innumerable fiber orientation distributions and fiber geometries are abundantly available in several natural and synthetic structures. Inorganic glass fiber composites have been introduced to numerous applications due to their economical fabrication and tailored structural properties. Numerical characterization of such composite material systems is necessitated due to their intrinsic statistical nature, which renders extensive experimentation prohibitively time consuming and costly. To predict various mechanical behavior and characterizations of Uni-Directional Fiber Composites (UDFC) and Random Fiber Composites (RaFC), we numerically developed Representative Volume Elements (RVE) with high accuracy and efficiency and with complex fiber geometric representations encountered in uni-directional and random fiber networks. In this thesis, the numerical simulations of unidirectional RaFC fiber strand RVE models (VF>70%) are first presented by programming in ABAQUS PYTHON. Secondly, when the cross sectional aspect ratios (AR) of the second phase fiber inclusions are not necessarily one, various types of RVE models with different cross sectional shape fibers are simulated and discussed. A modified random sequential absorption algorithm is applied to enhance the volume fraction number (VF) of the RVE, which the mechanical properties represents the composite material. Thirdly, based on a Spatial Segment Shortest Distance (SSSD) algorithm, a 3-Dimentional RaFC material RVE model is simulated in ABAQUS PYTHON with randomly oriented and distributed straight fibers of high fiber aspect ratio (AR=100:1) and volume fraction (VF=31.8%). Fourthly, the piecewise multi-segments fiber geometry is obtained in MATLAB environment by a modified SSSD algorithm. Finally, numerical methods including the polynomial curve fitting and piecewise quadratic and cubic B-spline interpolation are applied to optimize the RaFC fiber geometries

  10. Optimization and Experiment of Electromagnetic Energy Harvester by Using NdFeB Sputtered on High-aspect-ratio Corrugated Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows a design optimization of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) electromagnetic energy harvester by using finite element method (FEM) analysis to obtain a maximum generated power. The electromagnetic energy harvester consists of the sputtered NdFeB magnet film on a high-aspect-ratio corrugated Si structure and a counter Au serpentine coil. The each dimension of the device is optimally designed by using FEM simulation. After the prototyping with MEMS fabrication process, the measurement results of the power generation are 2.65 mV of the induced electromotive force and 7.60 nW of the output power with optimum load resistance of 231 Ω at the vibration condition of 100 Hz, 294 μmp-p

  11. Ultrasmall Ge islands with low diameter-to-height aspect ratio on Si(1 0 0)-(2 x 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) studies have been used to investigate the formation of Ge nanocrystals grown on Si(1 0 0)-(2 x 1) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observe relatively high density of Ge islands where small 'pyramids', small 'domes' and facetted 'domes' of various sizes co-exist in the film. As revealed from XTEM images, a large fraction of islands, especially dome-shaped Ge islands have been found to have an aspect ratio of ∼1 (diameter):1 (height). Observation of truncated-sphere-shaped Ge islands with a narrow neck contact with the wetting layer is reported.

  12. Ultrasmall Ge islands with low diameter-to-height aspect ratio on Si(1 0 0)-(2 x 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Roy, Anupam [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P.V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Dev, B.N., E-mail: msbnd@iacs.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2009-10-30

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) studies have been used to investigate the formation of Ge nanocrystals grown on Si(1 0 0)-(2 x 1) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observe relatively high density of Ge islands where small 'pyramids', small 'domes' and facetted 'domes' of various sizes co-exist in the film. As revealed from XTEM images, a large fraction of islands, especially dome-shaped Ge islands have been found to have an aspect ratio of {approx}1 (diameter):1 (height). Observation of truncated-sphere-shaped Ge islands with a narrow neck contact with the wetting layer is reported.

  13. Effect of low numerical-aperture femtosecond two-photon absorption on (SU-8) resist for ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microstereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the quantitative characterization and analysis on the solidification of SU-8, a chemically amplified near-ultraviolet ultrathick resist, based on two-photon-absorbed (TPA) near-infrared photopolymerization. The resolution of TPA photopolymerized SU-8 voxels and lines is studied as a function of laser-pulse energy, single-shot exposure time, and scanning speed. Two-photon microstereolithography using SU-8 as the matrix material was verified by the fabrication of SU-8 photoplastic structures with subdiffraction-limit resolution. We show that the nonlinear velocity dependence of TPA photopolymerization can be used as the shutter mechanism for disruptive three-dimensional (3D) lithography. This mechanism, when combined with low numerical-aperture optics is exploited for the rapid 3D microfabrication of ultrahigh-aspect-ratio (up to 50:1) photoplastic pillars, planes, and cage structures

  14. Static load cycle testing of a low-aspect-ratio four-inch wall, TRG-type structure, TRG-5-4 (1.0, 0.56)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of test reports that details the quasi-static cyclic testing of low height-to-length aspect ratio reinforced concrete structures. The test structures were designed according to the recommendations of a technical review group for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored Seismic Category I Structures Program. The structure tested and reported here had 4-in.-thick shear and end walls, and the elastic deformation was dominated by shear. The background of the program and previous results are given for completeness. Details of the geometry, material property tests, construction history, ultrasonic testing, and modal testing to find the undamaged dynamic characteristics of the structures are given. Next, the static test procedure and results in terms of stiffness and load deformation behavior are given. Finally, results are shown relative to other known results, and conclusions are presented. 33 refs., 140 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Fei; Cheng Ya; Lin Jintian; Ni Jielei; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China); Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi, E-mail: ycheng-45277@hotmail.com, E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [Laser Technology Laboratory, RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    We theoretically and experimentally show that independent control of aspect ratios of cross-sectional shapes of a focal spot in both axial and lateral directions can be achieved for three-dimensional (3D) femtosecond laser micromachining by the use of a combination of a slit beam shaping technique and a temporal focusing technique. The simultaneous employment of the spatial and temporal beam shaping techniques allows us to achieve isotropic resolution in 3D space even for an objective lens of low numerical aperture. We also present analytical expressions of the peak-intensity distributions near the focus for the spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beams with and without utilizing the slit beam shaping technique.

  16. Reinforcement of a poly(dimethyl siloxane) mold with high aspect ratio microstructures via a gas–liquid phase sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas–liquid phase sol–gel process was proposed to reinforce a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) mold with high aspect ratio microstructures (HARMs) for micromolding. Unlike the conventional sol–gel process or in situ precipitation of silicate nanoparticles (SiO2) inside the PDMS network, the vapor of water and aminomethyl propanol-95 permeated through the PDMS which was pre-soaked with tetraethoxy silane (TEOS), leading to the occurrence of hydrolysis and condensation and reinforcement of the PDMS. The reinforced PDMS mold with HARMs was used for micromolding, and high replication accuracy was achieved. The proposed technique not only prevents the surface of microstructures on the mold from potential agglomeration of particles but also allows for the repetitive usage of the silicon mother mold without damage

  17. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  18. Rapid breakdown anodization technique for the synthesis of high aspect ratio and high surface area anatase TiO2 nanotube powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters of high aspect ratio, high surface area anatase-TiO2 nanotubes with a typical nanotube outer diameter of about 18 nm, wall thickness of approximately 5 nm and length of 5-10 μm were synthesized, in powder form, by breakdown anodization of Ti foils in 0.1 M perchloric acid, at 10 V (299 K) and 20 V (∼275 and 299 K). The surface area, morphology, structure and band gap were determined from Brunauer Emmet Teller method, field emmission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. The tubular morphology and anatase phase were found to be stable up to 773 K and above 773 K anatase phase gradually transformed to rutile phase with disintegration of tubular morphology. At 973 K, complete transformation to rutile phase and disintegration of tubular morphology were observed. The band gap of the as prepared and the annealed samples varied from 3.07 to 2.95 eV with increase in annealing temperature as inferred from photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance studies. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → High aspect ratio anatase-titania nanotube powders were synthesized electrochemically. → The surface area of the nanotubes were much higher than those reported. → The annealing temperature limit for maintaining tubular morphology was established. → The photoluminiscence spectroscopy reflected the presence of defects, annealing of defects and phase transformation. → The nanotubes were of ∼5 nm wall thickness as revealed by TEM studies.

  19. Ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires fabricated with plasma etching: plasma processing, mechanical stability analysis against adhesion and capillary forces and oleophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room-temperature deep Si etching using time-multiplexed deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) processes is investigated to fabricate ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires (SiNWs) perpendicular to the silicon substrate. Nanopatterning is achieved using either top-down techniques (e.g. electron beam lithography) or colloidal polystyrene (PS) sphere self-assembly. The latter is a faster and more economical method if imperfections in diameter and position can be tolerated. We demonstrate wire radii from below 100 nm to several micrometers, and aspect ratios (ARs) above 100:1 with etching rates above 1 μm min−1 using classical mass flow controllers with pulsing rise times of seconds. The mechanical stability of these nanowires is studied theoretically and experimentally against adhesion and capillary forces. It is shown that above ARs of the order of 50:1 for spacing 1 μm, SiNWs tend to bend due to adhesion forces between them. Such large adhesion forces are due to the high surface energy of silicon. Wetting the SiNWs with water and drying also gives rise to capillary forces. We find that capillary forces may be less important for SiNW collapse/bending compared to adhesion forces of dry SiNWs, contrary to what is observed for polymeric nanowires/nanopillars which have a much lower surface energy compared to silicon. Finally we show that SiNW arrays have oleophobic and superoleophobic properties, i.e. they exhibit excellent anti-wetting properties for a wide range of liquids and oils due to the re-entrant profile produced by the DRIE process and the well-designed spacing. (paper)

  20. Ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires fabricated with plasma etching: plasma processing, mechanical stability analysis against adhesion and capillary forces and oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniou, A; Ellinas, K; Olziersky, A; Gogolides, E

    2014-01-24

    Room-temperature deep Si etching using time-multiplexed deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) processes is investigated to fabricate ultra-high aspect ratio Si nanowires (SiNWs) perpendicular to the silicon substrate. Nanopatterning is achieved using either top-down techniques (e.g. electron beam lithography) or colloidal polystyrene (PS) sphere self-assembly. The latter is a faster and more economical method if imperfections in diameter and position can be tolerated. We demonstrate wire radii from below 100 nm to several micrometers, and aspect ratios (ARs) above 100:1 with etching rates above 1 μm min(-1) using classical mass flow controllers with pulsing rise times of seconds. The mechanical stability of these nanowires is studied theoretically and experimentally against adhesion and capillary forces. It is shown that above ARs of the order of 50:1 for spacing 1 μm, SiNWs tend to bend due to adhesion forces between them. Such large adhesion forces are due to the high surface energy of silicon. Wetting the SiNWs with water and drying also gives rise to capillary forces. We find that capillary forces may be less important for SiNW collapse/bending compared to adhesion forces of dry SiNWs, contrary to what is observed for polymeric nanowires/nanopillars which have a much lower surface energy compared to silicon. Finally we show that SiNW arrays have oleophobic and superoleophobic properties, i.e. they exhibit excellent anti-wetting properties for a wide range of liquids and oils due to the re-entrant profile produced by the DRIE process and the well-designed spacing. PMID:24346308

  1. Planform curvature effects on flutter characteristics of a wing with 56 deg leading-edge sweep and panel aspect ratio of 1.14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Donald F.; Sandford, Maynard C.; Pinkerton, Theresa L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was initiated to determine the effects of planform curvature (curving the leading and trailing edges of a wing in the X-Y plane) on the transonic flutter characteristics of a series of three moderately swept wing models. Experimental flutter results were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel for Mach numbers from 0.60-1.00, with air as the test medium. The models were semispan cantilevered wings with a 3 percent biconvex airfoil and a panel aspect ratio of 1.14. The baseline model had straight leading and trailing edges (i.e., no planform curvature). The radii of curvature of the leading edges for these two models were 200 and 80 inches. The radii of curvature of the leading edges of the other two models were determined so that the root and tip chords were identical for all three models. Experimental results showed that flutter-speed index and flutter frequency ratio increased as planform curvature increase (radius of curvature of the leading edge was decreased) over the test range of Mach numbers. Analytical flutter results were calculated with a subsonic flutter-prediction program, and they agreed well with the experimental results.

  2. Design, fabrication and characterization of high-stroke high-aspect ratio micro electro mechanical systems deformable mirrors for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rocha, Bautista

    Adaptive optic (AO) systems for next generation of extremely large telescopes (30--50 meter diameter primary mirrors) require high-stroke (10 microns), high-order (100x100) deformable mirrors at lower-cost than current technology. The required specifications are achievable with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices fabricated with high-aspect ratio processing techniques. This dissertation will review simulation results compared with displacement measurements of actuators utilizing a white-light interferometer. It will also review different actuator designs, materials and post-processing procedures fabricated in three different high-aspect ratio processes, Microfabrica's Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB(TM)), HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication Technology (HTPF(TM)), and Innovative Micro Technologies (IMT) fabrication process. These manufacturing processes allow high-precision multilayer fabrication and their sacrificial layer thicknesses can be specified by the designer, rather than by constraints of the fabrication process. Various types of high-stroke gold actuators for AO consisting of folded springs with rectangular and circular membranes as well as X-beam actuators supported diagonally by beams were designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested individually and as part of a continuous facesheet DM system. The design, modeling and simulation of these actuators are compared to experimental measurements of their pull-in voltages, which characterizes their stiffness and maximum stroke. Vertical parallel plate ganged actuators fabricated with the EFAB(TM) process have a calculated pull-in voltage of 95V for a 600mum size device. In contrast, the pull-in voltages for the comb-drive actuators ranged from 55V for the large actuator, to 203V for the smallest actuator. Simulations and interferometer scans of actuator designs fabricated with HT-Micro's Precision Fabrication (HTPF(TM)) two wafer bonded process with different spring supports have shown the ability of

  3. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 104 in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case

  4. Material versatility using replica molding for large-scale fabrication of high aspect-ratio, high density arrays of nano-pillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrays of high aspect-ratio (AR) nano-pillars have attracted a lot of interest for various applications, such as for use in solar cells, surface acoustic sensors, tissue engineering, bio-inspired adhesives and anti-reflective surfaces. Each application may require a different structural material, which can vary in the required chemical composition and mechanical properties. In this paper, a low cost fabrication procedure is proposed for large scale, high AR and high density arrays of nano-pillars. The proposed method enables the replication of a master with high fidelity, using the subsequent replica molds multiple times, and preparing arrays of nano-pillars in a variety of different materials. As an example applied to bio-inspired dry adhesion, polymeric arrays of nano-pillars are prepared in this work. Thermoset and thermoplastic nano-pillar arrays are examined using an atomic force microscope to assess their adhesion strength and its uniformity. Results indicate the proposed method is robust and can be used to reliably prepare nano-structures with a high AR. (paper)

  5. Effect of Partial Shrouds on the Performance and Flow Field of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Axial-Flow Fan Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sitaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow field at the rotor exit of a low aspect ratio axial flow fan for different tip geometries and for different flow coefficients is measured in the present study. The following configurations are tested: (1 rotor without partial shroud, designated as rotor (wos, (2 rotor with partial shroud, designated as rotor (ws, and (3 rotor with perforated (perforations in the shape of discrete circular holes partial shroud, designated as rotor (wps. From steady state measurements, the performance of rotor (wps is found to be the best. Both the rotors with partial shrouds have stalled at a higher flow coefficient compared to that of rotor (wos. From periodic flow measurements, it is concluded that the low velocity region near the tip section is considerably reduced with the use of partial shrouds with perforations. The extent of this low velocity region for both rotor (wos and rotor (wps increases with decreasing flow coefficient due to increased stage loading. This core of low momentum fluid has moved inwards of the annulus and towards the pressure side as the flow coefficient decreases. The extent of the low momentum fluid is smaller for rotor (wps than that of rotor (wos at all flow coefficients.

  6. Circularity, Solidity, Axes of a Best Fit Ellipse, Aspect Ratio, and Roundness of the Foramen Ovale: A Morphometric Analysis With Neurosurgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdilla, Matthew J; Hatfield, Scott A; McLean, Kennedy A; Cyrus, Leah M; Laslo, Jillian M; Lambert, H Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the foramen ovale of the sphenoid bone is clinically important, particularly with regard to surgical procedures that cannulate the foramen such as percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, percutaneous biopsy of parasellar lesions, and electroencephalographic analysis of the temporal lobe among patients undergoing selective amygdalohippocampectomy. Differences in the morphology of the foramen ovale (FO) have been reported to contribute to difficulties in the cannulation of the FO. Reports regarding the structure of the FO, however, use subjective and ambiguous descriptions of morphology, including "oval," "truly oval," "elongated oval," "elongated," "semicircular," "almond," "round," "rounded," "slit," "irregular," "D shape," and "pear." Therefore, it is necessary to describe the structure of the FO with reproducible objective morphometric data. This study analyzed 169 foramina to determine normative morphometric shape descriptions of the following: area, perimeter, circularity, solidity, axes of a best fit ellipse, aspect ratio, and roundness. The shape descriptors reported herein may aid in identification and description of structural variation in FO including bony projections encroaching upon the foramina and may improve surgical approaches to transovale cannulation. PMID:26703050

  7. The Young's modulus of high-aspect-ratio carbon/carbon nanotube composite microcantilevers by experimental and modeling validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao; He, Liang, E-mail: hel@whut.edu.cn, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn; Hao, Zhimeng; Luo, Wen; Xiong, Biao; Xu, Xu; Niu, Chaojiang; Yan, Mengyu; Mai, Liqiang, E-mail: hel@whut.edu.cn, E-mail: mlq518@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-03-16

    This paper reports the Young's modulus of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced carbon/CNT (C/CNT) composite microcantilevers measured by laser Doppler vibrometer and validated by finite element method. Also, the microfabrication process of the high-aspect-ratio C/CNT microcantilever arrays based on silicon micromolding and pyrolysis is presented in detail. With the in-plane natural resonant frequencies of the microcantilevers measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer, a single degree of freedom (SDoF) model based on Euler-Bernoulli (E-B) beam theory is used to calculate the Young's modulus of this composite. To figure out whether this SDoF model can be applied to these composite microcantilevers, the finite element (FE) simulation of these microcantilevers was performed. The Young's modulus of C/CNT composite microcantilevers fabricated by the pyrolysis process at 600 °C is 9391 MPa, and a good agreement between the results from experiments and FE simulation is obtained.

  8. The Young's modulus of high-aspect-ratio carbon/carbon nanotube composite microcantilevers by experimental and modeling validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the Young's modulus of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced carbon/CNT (C/CNT) composite microcantilevers measured by laser Doppler vibrometer and validated by finite element method. Also, the microfabrication process of the high-aspect-ratio C/CNT microcantilever arrays based on silicon micromolding and pyrolysis is presented in detail. With the in-plane natural resonant frequencies of the microcantilevers measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer, a single degree of freedom (SDoF) model based on Euler-Bernoulli (E-B) beam theory is used to calculate the Young's modulus of this composite. To figure out whether this SDoF model can be applied to these composite microcantilevers, the finite element (FE) simulation of these microcantilevers was performed. The Young's modulus of C/CNT composite microcantilevers fabricated by the pyrolysis process at 600 °C is 9391 MPa, and a good agreement between the results from experiments and FE simulation is obtained

  9. Inverted Ge islands in {111} faceted Si pits-a novel approach towards SiGe islands with higher aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the so far unexplored Ge island nucleation on Si (001) substrates patterned with {111} faceted pyramidal pits is reported. The pits are defined by an anisotropic wet-chemical etch through a SiNx hard mask. Due to the self-limiting of the wet etch, an extremely uniform pit pattern is achieved. On these substrates, Ge layers were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy at various growth temperatures TGe. For TGe=550 0C, Ge fills the pits in the form of inverted {111} pyramids with a rounded apex and a (001)-oriented top surface. These islands have aspect ratios much larger than upright pyramids and domes that are usually obtained on substrates with cylindrical pits fabricated by lithographic techniques and reactive ion etching. Based on the experimentally determined shape, three-dimensional (3D) energy level calculations in an envelop function approach have been performed for the inverted pyramids. They show that, due to the orientation of the pyramid square base along (110) directions, the overlap between the hole ground states and electron states confined to the Si conduction band valleys perpendicular to the growth direction is much larger than for upright SiGe domes and {105} pyramids. For elevated growth temperatures around 700 0C, already a Ge coverage of five monolayers induces a strong Si transfer into the {111} pits, effectively converting them towards {1 1 10} faceted ones.

  10. An efficient top-down approach for the fabrication of large-aspect-ratio g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jincheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Fei; Li, Mingming; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-09-28

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets with large aspect ratios were fabricated from bulk g-C3N4 through an efficient top-down approach of moderate disintegration-exfoliation using diluted H2SO4 as an "efficient knife". By prior disintegration in a diluted H2SO4 solution, the exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 was effectively accelerated. The as-prepared g-C3N4 nanosheets possess a two-dimensional (2D) thin-layer structure with seven-atom thickness, a large lateral size of about 1 μm, and a high specific surface area of 80 m(2) g(-1). Compared with the bulk precursor, the g-C3N4 nanosheets showed much higher efficiency of photogenerated charge transfer and separation, and consequently exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution and pollutant decomposition under both full-sunlight and visible-light irradiation. PMID:26299637

  11. Material versatility using replica molding for large-scale fabrication of high aspect-ratio, high density arrays of nano-pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Ng, H W; Gates, B D; Menon, C

    2014-07-18

    Arrays of high aspect-ratio (AR) nano-pillars have attracted a lot of interest for various applications, such as for use in solar cells, surface acoustic sensors, tissue engineering, bio-inspired adhesives and anti-reflective surfaces. Each application may require a different structural material, which can vary in the required chemical composition and mechanical properties. In this paper, a low cost fabrication procedure is proposed for large scale, high AR and high density arrays of nano-pillars. The proposed method enables the replication of a master with high fidelity, using the subsequent replica molds multiple times, and preparing arrays of nano-pillars in a variety of different materials. As an example applied to bio-inspired dry adhesion, polymeric arrays of nano-pillars are prepared in this work. Thermoset and thermoplastic nano-pillar arrays are examined using an atomic force microscope to assess their adhesion strength and its uniformity. Results indicate the proposed method is robust and can be used to reliably prepare nano-structures with a high AR. PMID:24971845

  12. Characterization and Suppression of Anti-Phase-Boundary Defects in GA-AS-ON-SI Films Using SHG and Aspect-Ratio-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Farbod; Lei, Ming; Wong, Man Hoi; Downer, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The semiconductor industry is exploring hetero-epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on Si substrates as a way to marry the superior optical properties and high carrier mobility of III-V semiconductors to the established low-cost, high-volume Si platform for electro-optic, solar cell, and high-performance electronics applications. The dominant technical challenge is the III-V film's tendency to form ``anti-phase domains'' (APDs) -- i . e . areas of 0.1 to 1 micron lateral size in which polar Ga-As bonds are inverted in neighboring domains, resulting in undesirable Ga-Ga and As-As bonds at the anti-phase boundaries (APBs). To evaluate strategies for suppressing them, a strong need exists for fast, non-destructive methods of detecting APBs that distinguish them from other defects (e . g . threading dislocations, or TDs). Here we show that optical SHG characterizes APDs sensitively, selectively and non-invasively. Using SHG as an APD monitor, we then show that growing the GaAs film on a Si substrate patterned with SiO2 trenches - a strategy originally designed to trap TDs - can also dramatically suppress APDs. While molecular mechanisms by which ``aspect-ratio trapping'' (ART) suppresses APDs are not yet clear, the high-throughput SHG diagnostic enables unprecedented freedom in exploring effective trench pattern designs

  13. Dynamics of Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) of linear chains consisting of n circular discs - Role of aspect ratio and departure from convexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, Pradip B.; Limaye, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    We study Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) of linear chains consisting of n circular discs on a two-dimensional continuum substrate. The study has been carried out for n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 50, 70, 100 and 300. For all values of n, instantaneous coverage, Θ(t), in late time regime, is found to approach to jammed state coverage, Θ(∞), in a power law fashion, Θ(∞) - Θ(t) ~ t- p. It is observed that, with the increase in n, the exponent p goes on decreasing from the value 0.33 for n = 2 to the value 0.20 for n = 20 and then again starts rising to reach the value of 0.33 for large n. It is also found that for n ≤ 20, the exponent p has near perfect correlation with the coefficient of departure from convexity. On the other hand the jammed state coverage Θ(∞) is found to depend both on the coefficient of departure from convexity as well as on the aspect ratio of the chain.

  14. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio double-slot photonic crystal waveguide in InP heterostructure by inductively coupled plasma etching using ultra-low pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyu Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW in InP heterostructure is fabricated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP etching. Due to using an ultra-low pressure of 0.05 Pa, etch depths up to 3.5 μm for holes with diameter of 200 nm and 1.8 μm for slots of ∼40 nm are achieved, which indicate a record-high aspect-ratio, i.e. 45, for such narrow slots in InP heterostructure. Moreover, etching quality is evaluated based on both the transmission performance and the linewidth of micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL. In our measurement, a structure-dependent transmission-dip about 17 dB is obtained from a 17-μm-long W3 PCW, and a PL widening as small as 19 nm compared to the corresponding wafer is observed. These promising experimental results evidence the high etching quality realized in this work and confirm the feasibility of etching small-feature-size patterns by ICP technology for InP based devices in future mono-/hetero-integrated photonic circuits.

  15. Material versatility using replica molding for large-scale fabrication of high aspect-ratio, high density arrays of nano-pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Ng, H. W.; Gates, B. D.; Menon, C.

    2014-07-01

    Arrays of high aspect-ratio (AR) nano-pillars have attracted a lot of interest for various applications, such as for use in solar cells, surface acoustic sensors, tissue engineering, bio-inspired adhesives and anti-reflective surfaces. Each application may require a different structural material, which can vary in the required chemical composition and mechanical properties. In this paper, a low cost fabrication procedure is proposed for large scale, high AR and high density arrays of nano-pillars. The proposed method enables the replication of a master with high fidelity, using the subsequent replica molds multiple times, and preparing arrays of nano-pillars in a variety of different materials. As an example applied to bio-inspired dry adhesion, polymeric arrays of nano-pillars are prepared in this work. Thermoset and thermoplastic nano-pillar arrays are examined using an atomic force microscope to assess their adhesion strength and its uniformity. Results indicate the proposed method is robust and can be used to reliably prepare nano-structures with a high AR.

  16. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (pcultures were assayed for TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (pculture (pcultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by HARV culture. The clinical and physiological significance of these observations remains to be determined.

  17. Catalytic Synthesis of Substrate-Free, Aligned and Tailored High Aspect Ratio Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in an Ultrasonic Atomization Head CVD Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ali Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD method has proven its benchmark, over other methods, for the production of different types of carbon nanotubes (CNT on commercial and lab scale. In this study, an injection vertical CVD reactor fitted with an ultrasonic atomization head was used in a pilot-plant scale (height 274 cm, radius 25 cm for semicontinuous production of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. p-Xylene was used as a hydrocarbon precursor in which ferrocene was dissolved and provided the cracking catalyst. Atomization of the feed solution resulted in full and even dispersion of the catalytic solution. This dispersion led to the production of high aspect ratio MWCNTs (ranging from 8,000 to 12,000 at 850°C. Different experimental parameters affecting the quality and quantity of the produced CNTs were investigated. These included temperature, reaction time, and flow rate of the reaction and carrier gases. Different properties of the produced CNTs were characterized using SEM and TEM, while TGA was used to evaluate their purity. Specific surface area of selected samples was calculated by BET.

  18. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  19. The combined toroidicity, ellipticity and triangularity effects on the energy deposition of Alfven modes in pre-heated, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined plasma non-uniformity effects on the energy deposition of Alfven waves launched by an external antenna in pre-heated spherical tokamaks are investigated. The following relevant physical processes are here possible: (a) the emergence of gaps in the shear Alfven continuum spectrum and the generation of discrete global Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the gaps; (b) multi-wave interactions, interactions of gaps of the same kind (e.g., toroidicity induced) and of different kinds (toroidicity, ellipticity and triangularity induced) as well as of secondary order gaps arising when a pair of modes is coupled to one or more modes through other coupling parameters; (c) basic wave-plasma interactions as propagation, reflection, mode-conversion, tunneling and deposition. Thus, we solved numerically the full 2D wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, using a quite general two-fluid resistive tensor-operator, without any geometrical limitations. The results obtained indicate the existence of antenna-launched wave characteristics for which the power is most efficiently coupled in outer regions of plasmas, which is of special interest for low aspect ratio tokamaks, e.g., for the generation of non-inductive current drive as well as for turbulence suppression and transport barriers formation

  20. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (pcultures were assayed for TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (pcells are present in islets and that LPS stimulates TNF secretion in isolated islets. A decrease in insulin concentration was demonstrated in the islet medium of the LPS stimulated HARV culture (pcultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by HARV culture. The clinical and physiological significance of these observations remains to be determined.

  1. Design and fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio parylene-based comb-drive actuator for large displacements at a low driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comb-drive actuator integrated with parylene-based flexible beams for large displacements at a low driving force. Single-crystal silicon and polysilicon are the traditional materials used for comb-drive actuators in the microeletromechanical systems industry. However, the larger Young's modulus limits the displacement at a low applied voltage. This study uses the parylene beams with the characteristic of a low modulus of the elastic comb-drive actuator as a compliant suspension to create a larger displacement (>50 µm) with smaller driving forces than that of silicon. High-aspect-ratio parylene beams can be fabricated through the deposition and removal of parylene in multiple stages on a silicon micro-trench. The proposed process uses a silicon-on-insulator wafer as the substrate to fabricate suspended silicon and parylene beams as rigid and compliant structures, respectively. The test devices of parylene- and silicon-based comb-drive actuators were fabricated with 100 pairs of comb fingers with gaps of 5 µm, and compliant beams of 15 µm in width, 2000 µm in span and 50 µm in thickness. When a driving voltage of 40 V dc was applied, the parylene-based comb-drive actuator generated a displacement of up to 55 µm, whereas the silicon-based comb-drive actuator generated a displacement of 2 µm. The parylene-based comb-drive actuator can generate about 27 times of displacement than that of silicon. This design is suitable for application in devices with large in-plane displacement and low switching speed. (paper)

  2. Aspect ratio control of Au nanorods via covariation of the total amount of HAuCl{sub 4} and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Feng, Jinyang [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China); Zhao, Xiujian, E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The AR value decreased as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] increasing. • The UV–vis absorption spectra showed the peak wavelength of TSPR at around 530 nm. • The wavelength of LSPR had a red-shifted effect. - Abstract: Controlling the aspect ratio (AR) of gold nanorods (GNRs) via covariation of the total concentrations of HAuCl{sub 4} ([HAuCl{sub 4}]) and ascorbic acid ([AA]) has been studied. Characteristics of GNRs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometry. TEM results showed that single crystalline GNRs grew along an elongated growth direction of [100]. TEM results also revealed that the quantity of plate shaped and nearly spherical nanoparticles increased as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] decreased. The AR value measured from TEM images decreased from 4.74 to 2.41 as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] was increased from 0.305 to 2.44 mM. The UV–vis absorption spectra of all samples showed that the wavelength of transverse surface plasmon resonance (TSPR) peak appeared at around 530 nm for all samples. The wavelength of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak increased from 640 to 894 nm as the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] decreased from 2.44 to 0.305 mM. The wavelength of LSPR peak shows a red-shifted effect except when the total amount of [HAuCl{sub 4}] and [AA] was 0.122 mM.

  3. The ratio of students to certain aspects of the distribution of educational material on physical training between subjects of the school curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Khokhlova L.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the sociological questioning of schoolboys are considered 9-11 classes. In all it was polled a 321 student. In the process of research the questionnaire of the closed type was used. Attitudes of schoolboys are rotined toward some aspects of maintenance of school educational discipline the «Physical culture». Theoretical knowledges about the health of man most effectively will be mastered during their teaching within the framework of other educational disciplines. Priority theor...

  4. Some aspects of reproductive biology of two sciaenids, Otolithes cuvieri Trewavas and Johnius elongatus Mohan: maturation, spawning, sex ratio and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsul Hoda, S.M.; Ajazuddin, S.

    1992-01-01

    The gonads of Otolithes cuvieri and Johnius elongatus are described in seven maturity stages. O. Cuvieri spawns once a year from April to September as evidence by ova diameter frequency distribution and GSI values. 50% maturity is attained at 210mm TL in males and 200mm TL in females. Fecundity ranged from 2387 to 104379 with a mean value of 33502. Log-Log relationship between fecundity and total lenght, body weight and ovary weight were determined. An overall sex ratio of 1.54:1.00 was unequ...

  5. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DETERMINATION OF BANKRUPTCY RISK BY SOLVENCY AND LIQUIDITY RATIOS IN THE COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Hada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues related to determining the bankruptcy risk for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.The purpose of this paper is to determine the percentage of companies falling within the normal range. In the introduction, we set the goal, the research methodology, and the novelty value of this work. Hereinafter, we presented different views of risk concepts, bankruptcy, solvency and liquidity. After that, based on theoretical presentations, a case study was conducted to determine the solvency and liquidity ratios. In the end, on the basis of the above considerations, the conclusions were established and some proposals were listed.

  6. Stress intensity factors for large aspect ratio surface and corner cracks at a semi-circular notch in a tension specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Stress intensity factor solutions for semielliptic surface and quarter-elliptic corner cracks emanating from a semicircular notch in a tension specimen are presented. A three-dimensional finite-element analysis in conjunction with the equivalent domain integral was used to calculate stress intensity factors (SIF). SIF solutions for surface or corner crack (crack length to depth ratio of 2) at a notch are presented for a wide range of crack sizes and notch radii. Results showed that the SIF are larger for larger crack lengths and for larger notch radii. The SIF are nearly constant all along the crack front for deep surface cracks and for all corner cracks analysed.

  7. The effect of the size of the system, aspect ratio and impurities concentration on the dynamic of emergent magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.leon@udp.cl

    2013-08-15

    In this work we study the dynamical properties of a finite array of nanomagnets in artificial kagome spin ice at room temperature. The dynamic response of the array of nanomagnets is studied by implementing a “frustrated celular autómata” (FCA), based in the charge model and dipolar model. The FCA simulations allow us to study in real-time and deterministic way, the dynamic of the system, with minimal computational resource. The update function is defined according to the coordination number of vertices in the system. Our results show that for a set geometric parameters of the array of nanomagnets, the system exhibits high density of Dirac strings and high density emergent magnetic monopoles. A study of the effect of disorder in the arrangement of nanomagnets is incorporated in this work. - Highlights: • The dynamics of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems strongly dependent on the size of the system. • Number of emerging magnetic monopoles, in the phase of magnetic reversal, depend of the aspect. • Different systems can be created based on this idea, for information technology.

  8. The effect of the size of the system, aspect ratio and impurities concentration on the dynamic of emergent magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study the dynamical properties of a finite array of nanomagnets in artificial kagome spin ice at room temperature. The dynamic response of the array of nanomagnets is studied by implementing a “frustrated celular autómata” (FCA), based in the charge model and dipolar model. The FCA simulations allow us to study in real-time and deterministic way, the dynamic of the system, with minimal computational resource. The update function is defined according to the coordination number of vertices in the system. Our results show that for a set geometric parameters of the array of nanomagnets, the system exhibits high density of Dirac strings and high density emergent magnetic monopoles. A study of the effect of disorder in the arrangement of nanomagnets is incorporated in this work. - Highlights: • The dynamics of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems strongly dependent on the size of the system. • Number of emerging magnetic monopoles, in the phase of magnetic reversal, depend of the aspect. • Different systems can be created based on this idea, for information technology

  9. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of forward-located spoilers and trailing splines as trailing-vortex hazard-alleviation devices on an aspect-ratio-8 wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley V/STOL tunnel in order to determine, by the trailing-wing sensor technique, the effectiveness of either a forward-mounted spoiler or a tip-mounted spline as trailing-vortex attenuation devices on an unswept aspect-ratio-8 wing model. The trailing-wing rolling-moment data taken in the tunnel diffuser section show good agreement with the data taken in the tunnel test section. This agreement indicates that reasonable results may be obtained in the Langley V/STOL tunnel in experimental investigations of the trailing-vortex hazard at relatively great distances behind aircraft models.

  10. 大展弦比机翼屈曲及后屈曲分析%BUCKLING AND POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF HIGH ASPECT-RATIO WING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏盛来; 何景武; 海尔瀚

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the FEM( finite element method) ,the buckling and post-buckling analyses are conducted based on the wing structure from some high aspect-ration composite material UAV( unmanned aerial vehicle) . During the analysis,the buckling of the wing structure is analyzed firstly with the help of Patran and Nastran software, aiming to ensure the sectors where the wing structure easily buckles. Then different buckling sectors are analyzed to make sure the detail model that needs the post-buckling analysis,during which the Patran and Marc software are adopted with the arc-length method. Through the post-buckling analysis, the buckling-path in the structure can be found out. The result indicates that the buckling phenomena exist in the wing. The result of the static test on the ground verifies the dependability of the analysis result.%针对某大展弦比复合材料无人机机翼结构,利用有限元素法进行机翼结构的屈曲及后屈曲分析.首先采用MSC.Patran/Nastran软件进行结构屈曲分析,目的是确定机翼结构易发生屈曲的区域;然后对不同区域进行分析,确定需要进行后屈曲分析的细节模型.对细节模型进行后屈曲分析时采用MSC.Patran/Marc软件,分析方法采用弧长法.通过机翼结构的后屈曲分析,可以分析出结构的失稳路径.结果表明,该机翼存在屈曲失稳问题.该机翼的地面静力试验结果验证分析结果的可信性.

  11. Reaction kinetics aspect of U3O8 kernel with gas H2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO2 kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics aspect of U3O8 kernel with gas H2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO2 kernel had been studied. U3O8 kernel was reacted with gas H2 in a reduction furnace at varied reaction time and temperature. The reaction temperature was varied at 600, 700, 750 and 850 °C with a pressure of 50 mmHg for 3 hours in gas N2 atmosphere. The reation time was varied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours at a temperature of 750 °C using similar conditions. The reaction product was UO2 kernel. The reaction kinetic aspect between U3O8 and gas H2 comprised the minimum activation energy (ΔE), the reaction rate constant and the O/U ratio of UO2 kernel. The minimum activation energy was determined from a straight line slope of equation ln [{Db. Ro{(1 - (1 - Xb)⅓} / (b.t.Cg)] = -3.9406 x 103 / T + 4.044. By multiplying with the straight line slope -3.9406 x 103, the ideal gas constant (R) 1.985 cal/mol and the molarity difference of reaction coefficient 2, a minimum activation energy of 15.644 kcal/mol was obtained. The reaction rate constant was determined from first-order chemical reaction control and Arrhenius equation. The O/U ratio of UO2 kernel was obtained using gravimetric method. The analysis result of reaction rate constant with chemical reaction control equation yielded reaction rate constants of 0.745 - 1.671 s-1 and the Arrhenius equation at temperatures of 650 - 850 °C yielded reaction rate constants of 0.637 - 2.914 s-1. The O/U ratios of UO2 kernel at the respective reaction rate constants were 2.013 - 2.014 and the O/U ratios at reaction time 1 - 4 hours were 2.04 - 2.011. The experiment results indicated that the minimum activation energy influenced the rate constant of first-order reaction and the O/U ratio of UO2 kernel. The optimum condition was obtained at reaction rate constant of 1.43 s-1, O/U ratio of UO2 kernel of 2.01 at temperature of 750 °C and reaction time of 3 hours. The UO2 kernel produced was

  12. Effect of Manganese Addition and the Initial Aspect Ratios on the Densification Mechanism/S and Barrelling In Sintered Hyper Eutectoid P/M Steel Preforms During Hot Upset Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation pertains to evaluate the materials behaviour during hot upset forging of sintered hyper eutectoid P/M steels containing manganese and these steels are Fe-1.0%C-0.0%Mn, Fe-1.0%C- 1.75%Mn,Fe-1.0%C,Fe-1.0%c-2.75%Mn and Fe-1.0%C-3.75%Mn respectively. These compositions from individual elemental powders were homogeneously blended separately in a potmill for a period of 36 hours. Preforms of initial aspect ratio of 0.43 and 0.83 with a diameter of 27.5mm were compacted to a density level of 85±1 per cent of theoretical by applying pressures in the range of 480±10 MPa and by taking pre-weighed powder blends. These compacts were coated with the indigenously developed ceramic coating to protect them against oxidation during sintering at 1150˚±10˚C in an electric muffle furnace for a period of ninety minutes. Once sintering schedule was completed, the sintered preforms of all compositions and both aspect ratios were hot upset forged to different height strains and then oil quenched. Quenched discs were thoroughly cleaned and dried. Initial and final dimensions of sintered and forged discs of all compositions were made including density measurements. Based on the initial parameters, various parameters were calculated such as true diameter and height strains, bulging ratios, relative densities, Poisson's ratios and diameter strains considering circular and parabolic bulging. Various plots were drawn among the calculated parameters and were critically analyzed. Critical analyses of these plots have yielded various empirical relationships fully describing the material behaviour during hot upset forging.

  13. 利用光化学二次生长精细控制金纳米棒的长径比%Aspect Ratio Fine Control of Gold Nanorods by Photochemical Secondary Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董守安; 杨辅龙; 何晓光; 张世文; 方卫

    2013-01-01

    研究了晶种媒介的金纳米棒光化学二次生长及其长径比的精细调控.在单一组份的表面活性剂生长溶液中,以十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)封端的带正电荷的金纳米粒子作晶种,形貌均一的金纳米棒通过二次生长获得,其二次生长是在晶种媒介的化学生长反应达到平衡后于丙酮存在下用300 nm的紫外光照射来实现.通过改变银离子的加入量,具有约10 nm直径金纳米棒的长径比被精细调控在2.3~4.0范围内,相应的纵向等离子体带最大在730~840 nm之间.另外,纵向等离子体带达到最大之后,进一步的紫外光照射使金纳米棒变短.通过这一途径,金纳米棒的长径比也能够调控在上述同样范围.简要讨论了紫外光照射使金纳米棒变短的机理.%The seed-mediated photochemical secondary growth of gold nanorods (Au NRs) and their aspect ratio fine control were studied.In a single-component surfactant growth solution containing CTAB-capped positive charge gold nanoparticles as seed,Au NRs with uniform shape were obtained by the secondary growth which was realized by UV irradiation of 300 nm light in the presence of acetone after reaching the reaction equilibrium of seed-mediated chemical growth.The aspect ratios of Au NRs with an average 10 nm in diameter were finely controlled in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 by changing amount of Ag+ ions added and corresponding longitudinal plasmon band (LPB) maxima were between 730 and 840nm.In addition,after reaching LPB maximum,the further UV irradiation made Au NRs shortening.By this approach the aspect ratios of Au NRs could be also controlled in the above same range.The mechanism of shortening Au NRs by UV light is discussed briefly.

  14. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...... using native nickel molds only lead to slight improvements in replication quality. In contrast, a fluorocarbon based antistiction coating (FDTS) was found to improve the replication quality significantly....

  15. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recent......' (which will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  16. On the influence of magnetic field processing on the texture, phase assemblage and properties of low aspect ratio Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 Ox /AgMg wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Liu and Justin Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 Ox /AgMg conductors are potentially important for many applications up to 20 K, including magnets for cryogen-free magnetic resonance imaging and high field nuclear magnetic resonance research. One promising approach to increased critical current density is partial-melt processing in the presence of a magnetic field which has been shown to enhance c-axis texturing of wide, thin tape conductors. Here, we report on low aspect ratio rectangular conductors processed in an 8 T magnetic field. The magnetic field is applied during different stages of the heat treatment process. The conductors are electrically characterized using four-point critical current measurements as a function of magnetic field and magnetic field orientation relative to the conductor. The superconductive transition and magnetization hysteresis are measured using a SQUID magnetometer. The microstructures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy and analyzed using digital image processing. It is found that the presence of a magnetic field during split melt processing enhances the electrical transport and magnetic behavior, but that the anisotropy is not consistently affected. The magnetic field also affects development of interfilamentary Bi2212 bridges, and that this depends on the initial shape of the Bi2212 filament. At least two behaviors are identified; one impacts the oxide phase assemblage and the other impacts textured growth.

  17. On the influence of magnetic field processing on the texture, phase assemblage and properties of low aspect ratio Bi{sub 2} Sr{sub 2} CaCu{sub 2} O{sub x} /AgMg wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaotao; Schwartz, Justin [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz@magnet.fsu.edu

    2009-01-15

    Bi{sub 2} Sr{sub 2} CaCu{sub 2} O{sub x} /AgMg conductors are potentially important for many applications up to 20 K, including magnets for cryogen-free magnetic resonance imaging and high field nuclear magnetic resonance research. One promising approach to increased critical current density is partial-melt processing in the presence of a magnetic field which has been shown to enhance c-axis texturing of wide, thin tape conductors. Here, we report on low aspect ratio rectangular conductors processed in an 8 T magnetic field. The magnetic field is applied during different stages of the heat treatment process. The conductors are electrically characterized using four-point critical current measurements as a function of magnetic field and magnetic field orientation relative to the conductor. The superconductive transition and magnetization hysteresis are measured using a SQUID magnetometer. The microstructures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy and analyzed using digital image processing. It is found that the presence of a magnetic field during split melt processing enhances the electrical transport and magnetic behavior, but that the anisotropy is not consistently affected. The magnetic field also affects development of interfilamentary Bi2212 bridges, and that this depends on the initial shape of the Bi2212 filament. At least two behaviors are identified; one impacts the oxide phase assemblage and the other impacts textured growth.

  18. Strain gauge balance development for force test on small aspect ratio flying wing high speed standard model%小展弦比飞翼布局高速标模测力天平研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史玉杰; 黄勇; 田正波

    2015-01-01

    There is a large difference between the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic charac-teristics of a small aspect ratio flying wing aircraft,which presents a major challenge to the meas-urement and calibration of a strain gauge balance.According to the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet the aerodynamic test requirements of the aircraft,a specialized balance is designed by improving the combination element which is made up of sheet-beams and bar-beams.The sensi-tivities of the five components of the babance except for the axial force component are high e-nough for measurement,with the lateral components especially improved in the balance design. The lengthening thwart Π beam is adopted as the axial force element of the balance which can re-duce the interference to the axial force measurement.Longitudinal shock vibration is enforced on the load-adapter to take down it from the balance,and this is also the way to take down the test model.The balance has already passed relevant force tests in the wind tunnel.%小展弦比飞翼布局的纵横向气动特性差异大,对天平测量与校准提出了较大挑战。专用天平针对其气动载荷特点和气动力试验需求,通过对常规片梁和柱梁组合的组合测量元件进行改进,提高了横向载荷的测量灵敏度,使得组合元件满足天平除轴向力外的5个分量的灵敏度测量需要。天平选用横Π型梁作为轴向力的测量梁,降低了其他分量对轴向力的干扰。在天平校准时通过施加纵向冲击振动的工程方法完成天平加载头的安全拆卸并应用于模型的拆卸。研制的天平已完成了相关风洞测力试验。

  19. 大展弦比复合材料机翼刚心分析与剪裁设计%Analysis and Tailoring Design of stiffness-center of a High-ratio-aspect Composite Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永朋; 霍世慧; 华林; 王富生; 岳珠峰

    2013-01-01

    A simple method was presented by means of FE software to fix on the location of stiffness—center axis of a high—ratioaspect composite wing model. The most difference was 7. 5%, comparing the results of FE method with that of theoretical method. It was applied to an example of engineering. The optimal design was carried out with the location of stiffness—center axis of a composite wing as objective function and static strength and stability as constraints. The design variables were the lay—up thickness of panel and spar web, and the cross —section area of stringer and spar edge. Through the iterative calculation by multi—island genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming, the optimized location of stiffness —center axis of composite wing model was obtained finally. Compared with that optimized before, the location of stiffness—center axis is closer to leading edge of the wing.%介绍了一种运用有限元分析软件确定大展弦比复合材料机翼刚心位置的方法,并将该有限元分析方法得到的计算结果与理论方法进行比较,两者最多相差7.5%.将该方法运用到工程中,以大展弦比复合材料机翼刚心轴线的位置作为目标函数,静强度和稳定性作为约束,蒙皮、梁腹板各个铺层角的厚度和桁条、梁缘条的横截面积作为设计变量进行优化设计.经过多岛遗传算法和序列二次规划算法的迭代计算,最终得到机翼模型刚心轴线的最佳位置,与优化前相比刚心轴线位置更靠近于机翼前缘.

  20. interdisciplinary aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Symmetry is a universal principle in nature, sciences and arts. Generally speaking symmetry means that something looks the same when observed from certain different aspects. Symmetry is almost always broken – more or less, directly (in praxis) or spontaneously (in quantum field theory). There are discrete and continuous symmetries. Various forms of discrete symmetries – like bilateral, translative or rotative – associated with the field of arts, can also be recognized in our natu...

  1. The characteristics of internal waves excited by towed bodies with different aspect ratios in a stratified fluid%密度分层流体中不同长径比拖曳潜体激发内波特性实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 尤云祥; 胡天群; 朱敏慧; 王小青; 魏岗

    2012-01-01

    在具有连续密度跃层的分层流体中,针对3种不同长径比拖曳潜体激发内波的运动学与动力学特性进行了系列实验.从拖曳潜体产生扰动密度场的动态时间序列测量结果入手,表明体积效应激发内波属于一种相对于拖曳潜体定常的多模态Lee波结构,而尾迹效应激发主控内波为相对于拖曳潜体非定常的拟Lee波结构,这是一类由湍流尾迹中大尺度相干结构作为移动源激发的内波结构.研究表明,在Lee波与拟Lee波之间存在一个与长径比近似为线性关系的临界转捩Froude数Frc,而且转捩后拟Lee波相关速度相应Froude数近似为一个常数0.8.研究进一步表明,存在一个与长径比近似为线性关系的Froude数Frp,当Fr<Frp时,Lee波为主控内波,无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大而增大;当Frp<Fr<Frc时,虽然Lee波仍为主控内波,但无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大而减小,而拟Lee波的影响逐渐增大;当Fr>Frc时,拟Lee波为主控内波,无因次内波峰-峰幅值随Fr增大近似线性增大,而且长径比的影响可以忽略,其中Fr为拖曳潜体特征直径Froude数.%Experiments are conducted for the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the internal waves excited by horizontally towed bodies with three aspect ratios in a stratified fluid with a pycnocline. Based on the dynamic measurements of the density perturbation generated by towed bodies, it is shown that the body-generated waves are a type of stationary Lee wave structures with multi-modes; moreover the wake-generated waves are a type of non-stationary quasi-Lee wave structures with respect to the towed bodies, where the quasi-Lee waves are shown to be produced by the large-scale coherent structure in turbulent wakes acting as a moving excitation. Results show that the transition between the Lee and quasi-Lee waves occurs at a critical Froude number Frc which is shown to be linearly dependent of the aspect ratio, and

  2. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Chantal Khan; Jackson, Keith H.; Bonivert, William D.; Hruby, Jill

    1996-06-01

    The requirements for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) masks are reviewed and a recently developed cost effective mask fabrication process is described. The review includes a summary of tabulated properties for materials used in the fabrication of DXRL masks. X-ray transparency and mask contrast are calculated for material combinations using simulations of exposure at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley, and compared to the requirements for standard x-ray lithography (XRL) mask technology. Guided by the requirements, a cost-effective fabrication process for manufacturing high contrast masks for DXRL has been developed. Thick absorber patterns (0960-1317/6/2/004/img7) on a thin silicon wafer (0960-1317/6/2/004/img8m) were made using contact printing in thick positive (Hoechst 4620) and negative (OCG 7020) photoresist and subsequent gold electrodeposition. Gold was deposited using a commercially available gold sulphite bath with low current density and good agitation. The resultant gold films were fine-grained and stress-free. Replication of such masks into 0960-1317/6/2/004/img9 thick acrylic sheets was performed at the ALS.

  3. Physical processes in relativistic large aspect ratio diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the detailed structure of the electron distribution function in relativistic diodes. We have shown (using linear stability analysis) that due to velocity space instability the finite spread of axial and radial momenta causes a similar spread in azymuthal momentum in a time shorter than the electron transit time. As a result, in the region of predominant radial flow, the electron momentum distribution is isotropic (in the field rest frame). The existance of angular momentum spread is The existance of angular momentum spread is significant at small radii, (yet, since angular momentum is NOT conserved microscopically, the situation is too complex and cannot be described by linear relation between emission and pinch radii). We present a diode model in the region of average radial flow which is not based on a single particle picture and also introduces a finite spread in the electron angular momentum relative to diode axis. The electron distribution function, which is a solution of Valsov equation, is taken with equal spread of axial and azymuthal momenta. This simulates at least partially the isotropization effect. The effect of the presence of ions is introduced in an approximate way allowing a fully analytical solution without any adjustable parameter. Simple scaling laws are obtained. The total currents predicted agree with experimental data. Various single particle models are obtained as special cases, zero angular momentum trajectories coincide with electron's trajectories of Ron's and Bergeron's models. The r, z plane projection of electron trajectories with maximum angular momentum are straight lines like the parapotential trajectories. If we artificially omit ions, the internal energy (due to azymuthal and axial motion) vanishes, and the results are reduced to those of the parapotential model. We have also converted an existing two dimensional diode particle simulation code into a 2 1/2 D code (two space coordinates and three velocity directions). The simulation results were in good agreement with the analytical predictions. (author)

  4. Downsizing of single crystalline high aspect ratio tungsten nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Directional solidification of eutectic NiAl-W alloys offers an intuitive method to produce tungsten nanowires. Through the use of two different methods, the well-established Bridgman method and a newer type floating zone method, the direct influence of process parameters, like the withdrawal rate and the temperature gradient, onto the sample microstructure were studied. The sharp temperature gradient, built up using a four mirror system focusing the light emitted by halogen lamps inside the optical floating zone furnace allows producing nanowires with a diameter as small as 75 nm. Differences in the solid/liquid interface morphology depending on the solidification method used are discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Fabrication of high-aspect ratio SU-8 micropillar arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Keller, Stephan S.; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2012-01-01

    resolution limit of photolithography. This paper describes process optimization for the fabrication of dense SU-8 micropillar arrays (2.5μm spacing) with nominal height ⩾20μm and nominal diameter ⩽2.5μm (AR ⩾8). Two approaches, differing in temperature, ramping rate and duration of the baking steps were...... compared as part of the photolithographic processing, in order to evaluate the effect of baking on the pattern resolution. Additionally, during the post-processing, supercritical point drying and hard baking were introduced yielding pillars with diameter 1.8μm, AR=11 and an improved temporal stability....

  6. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Sams, Clarence; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1992-01-01

    Cylindrical rotating cell-culture vessel with thin culture-medium layer of large surface area provides exchange of nutrients and products of metabolism with minimal agitation. Rotation causes averaging of buoyant forces otherwise separating components of different densities. Vessel enables growth of cells in homogeneous distribution with little agitation and little shear stress.

  7. Downsizing of single crystalline high aspect ratio tungsten nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkovic, Srdjan [IMDEA Materials Institute, Eric Kandel 2, 28906, Getafe (Spain); Drensler, Stefanie [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040, Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040, Linz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040, Linz (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Directional solidification of eutectic NiAl-W alloys offers an intuitive method to produce tungsten nanowires. Through the use of two different methods, the well-established Bridgman method and a newer type floating zone method, the direct influence of process parameters, like the withdrawal rate and the temperature gradient, onto the sample microstructure were studied. The sharp temperature gradient, built up using a four mirror system focusing the light emitted by halogen lamps inside the optical floating zone furnace allows producing nanowires with a diameter as small as 75 nm. Differences in the solid/liquid interface morphology depending on the solidification method used are discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Radio frequency current drive for small aspect ratio tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-inductive current drive (CD) is required during plasma initiation and for current sustainment in NSTX. The physics of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) and the design of an antenna system for NSTX are studied. It is found that the theoretical current drive efficiency for HHFW can be high, and a general survey of parameters gives a good target for the antenna design. The primary issue for HHFW during plasma initiation is loading since the CD efficiency is very high for low density plasmas. For high beta operation at full current launching in the usual manner from the equatorial plane may lead to marginal CD performance. However, advanced antenna designs exploiting the theoretical results show some promise for high beta operation. Two methods to optimize the CD efficiency have been explored. The first non-zero poloidal mode excitation, provides enhanced efficiency because of improved penetration and a reduction of detrimental trapped particle effects. A second, placement of the antenna away from the equatorial plane, can also be used to reduce trapped particle effects. These methods can be used separately or together, yielding potential improvements of more than a factor of 2 in CD efficiency for NSTX

  9. Radio Frequency Current Drive Considerations for Small Aspect Ratio Tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninductive current drive is required during plasma initiation and for current sustainment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this paper, the physics of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) and the design of an antenna system for NSTX are considered using numerical models. For high current discharges in NSTX, the static magnetic field component in the poloidal direction varies widely during the discharge and can become comparable to the toroidal component in NSTX. Therefore, they calculate the plasma loading for a broad range of antenna and plasma geometries in a three-dimensional model, so that the results can be used to influence the antenna design. Two-dimensional calculations of the wave propagation and absorption in the core plasma indicate that the theoretical current drive efficiency for HHFW can be high, and a general survey of parameters gives a good target for the antenna design. The current drive efficiency calculation is sensitive to the equilibrium model because finite beta effects can substantially alter the calculation of the trapped particle fraction. Traditional methods of toroidally phasing an antenna array as well as poloidal phasing are studied to optimize the current drive efficiency for a range of equilibria. Non-zero poloidal model excitation is also found to affect the antenna performance and flexibility. Performance expectations for a preliminary antenna design are given

  10. The Ultra-Low Aspect Ratio Stellarator SCR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Mora, Jaime; Zamora, Esteban; Asenjo, Jose; Ribas, Leonardo; Guadamuz, Saul

    2012-10-01

    The world most compact stellarator is currently being designed at the Costa Rica Institute of Technology (ITCR). The SCR-1(Stellarator of Costa Rica 1) is a 2-field period modular device with a circular cross-section vessel (Ro=0.238m, a=0.097m, Ro{/a≈ 2.5}, 0.014m3, {4mm} thickness 6061-T6 aluminum). The expected D-shaped high elongated plasma cross section has a maximum average radius of ≈ 0.062m, leading to Ro/ ≥ 3.8. Such compactness was reached after a SCR-1 earlier proposal [1] was redesigned, both based on the low shear stellarator UST/1: Ro/ ≈ 6, ι =0.32/0.28 (core/edge) [2]. The set field at centre is 88mT produced by 12 copper modular coils, 8.7kA-turn each. This field is EC resonant at Ro with a 2.45GHz μ w, 1st harmonic, from 2/3kW magnetrons which will produce a second time-scale plasma pulse. The coil current will be produced by a bank of cell batteries. Poincar'{e} and EC deposition plots will be presented using COMSOL Multiphysics software. SCR-1 will be synergetic to the ST MEDUSA currently under donation to ITCR [3]. Both will benefit of the local new activities in technological plasmas.[4pt] [1] Barillas L et al., Proc.19th Int.Conf. Nucl.Eng., Japan, 2011[0pt] [2] Queral V, Stellarator News, 118, 2008[0pt] [3] Ribeiro C et al., 54th APS, Plasma Phys. Div., US, 2012

  11. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using Aspect......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  12. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend on...... demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  13. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  14. Genetic aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Rosane da Cruz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the genetic aspects of strabismus. Methods: Ophthalmic and orthoptic evaluations were performed prospectively on 110 strabismic probands and 478 relatives. We used 3 different criteria in the diagnosis of strabismus: primary diagnosis (dx1 defined as any manifest horizontal or vertical deviation, a secondary diagnosis (dx2 including esophoria (>7 prism diopters or exophoria (>9 prism diopters, and a tertiary diagnosis (dx3 including abnormal fusional amplitudes, accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A ratio, and/or stereopsis; monofixation syndrome; 4 prism diopters base out; and/or abnormal Maddox test responses. Analyses were carried out within mating types. Results: Hypotheses of autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance with no sporadics were rejected. Based on the dx1, 25% of the families had more than one individual affected and there was vertical transmission in 13%; adding dx2 there were 36% of the families with more than one affected and 21% had vertical transmission; and adding dx3, there were 73% with more than one affected and 51% with vertical transmission. Conclusions: There is evidence for a pattern consistent with an autosomal dominant form of strabismus in most families.

  15. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  16. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  19. Sodium to phosphate ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate chemistry is widely used in fossil-fired utility boilers and many of these phosphate programs use the sodium to phosphate ratio as the controlling parameter. This paper steps through the fundamental chemical analyses to determine a systems Na/PO4 ratio. A mathematical equation is introduced to simply calculate the ratio using the pH and phosphate concentration. This equation is also used to build graphs to chart the boiler's phosphate chemistry. By looking at the dynamic nature of the chemistry, boiler health can be determined. (orig.)

  20. Aspect model unweaving

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jacques; Kienzle, J. (ed.); Morin, B.; Jézéquel, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Since software systems need to be continuously available, their ability to evolve at runtime is a key issue. The emergence of models@runtime, combined with Aspect-Oriented Modeling techniques, is a promising approach to tame the complexity of adaptive systems. However, with no support for aspect unweaving, these approaches are not agile enough in an adaptive system context. In case of small modifications, the adapted model has to be generated by again weaving all the aspects, even those uncha...

  1. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  2. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Petersen, P H;

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  3. 小展弦比飞翼标模三座高速风洞气动力数据相关性研究%Investigation on the correlation of high-speed force test results of flying-wing calibration model with low-aspect ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永红; 刘会龙; 黄勇; 钟世东; 苏继川

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the correlation of force test results of flying-wing calibration model with low-aspect ratio and analyze the precision level of wind tunnel experiments in different wind tunnels,repeated tests and comparison tests on the flying-wing calibration model are con-ducted in three different wind tunnels based on a same balance and a set of stings with the same geometry.Test results indicate that the flow characteristics have huge influent on the correlation relations and the precision levels of the three wind tunnel test data.At small angels of attack when attached flow is dominant,the correlation of test data is good and the precision is high enough.However,as angles of attack increase and the leading-edge vortex will breakdown,both the correlation and the precision may fall down.Due to the complex flow characteristics at tran-sonic flow,both correlation and precision are worse than that of supersonic flow.The main differences between test data of the three wind tunnels lie in the angle of attack of inflexion of the lift curve,zero-lift drag coefficient and zero-lift angle of attack.%为研究飞翼布局模型在不同风洞的测力试验数据的相关性,分析飞翼布局模型风洞测力试验精度水平,为以融合体飞翼布局为代表的未来作战飞机气动力试验精度提供参考,采用同一台测力天平及外形相同的尾支杆在国内三座1.2 m 风洞中对小展弦比飞翼标模进行了重复性试验和对比试验。试验结果表明,小展弦比飞翼标模风洞测力试验精度及不同风洞数据相关性与飞翼布局流动特性关系较大,在小迎角附着流状态,不同风洞的数据相关性较好,测力精度较高,随着迎角的增加,飞翼布局背风面前缘涡会发生破裂,涡破裂后不同风洞的数据相关性和试验精度都有不同程度的降低。跨声速条件下由于飞翼布局背风面复杂的流动特性,使得其试验精度较超声速略

  4. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  5. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  6. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  7. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia;

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  8. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di...

  10. Multivariate variance ratio statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seok Young; Linton, Oliver; Zhang, Hui Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose several multivariate variance ratio statistics. We derive the asymptotic distribution of the statistics and scalar functions thereof under the null hypothesis that returns are unpredictable after a constant mean adjustment (i.e., under the Efficient Market Hypothesis). We do not impose the no leverage assumption of Lo and MacKinlay (1988) but our asymptotic standard errors are relatively simple and in particular do not require the selection of a band- width parameter. We extend the...

  11. Aspect in Greek Future Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Medieval Greek had three future periphrases making use of a finite verb and an infinitive: μέλλω + INF, ἔχω + INF, θέλω + INF. Given the parallel nature of the periphrases as well as the fact that the infinitive existed in both a perfective and an imperfective version, it might be expected that...... the Modern Greek verbal system: μέλλω + INF has a much higher ratio of imperfective infinitives than the two other periphrases especially in AD I, ἔχω + INF starts out using only the perfective infinitive when referring to the future, and θέλω + INF distinguishes for aspect before it gains future...

  12. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  13. Ratio Estimation in SIMS Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OGLIORE, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing ...

  14. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  15. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made

  16. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  17. Quantum Chromodynamics: Computational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to QCD, the QCD phase diagram, and non-equilibrium phenomena in QCD. We emphasize aspects of the theory that can be addressed using computational methods, in particular euclidean path integral Monte Carlo, fluid dynamics, kinetic theory, classical field theory and holographic duality.

  18. Gout. Radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we reviewed the clinical and radiological aspects of gout, showing the most frequent radiological findings that can guide to the correct diagnosis of the disease. The cases that we presented here have been analyzed for many years in our rheumatology service, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Bogota

  19. Financial and economic aspects of district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grooten, J.; van Bemmelen, J.H.A.

    1982-05-01

    Financial and economic aspects play a large role in the decision-making process about the feasibility of district heating projects. Factors to consider include the relationship of district heating and gas and electricity supplies, annual cost per unit of energy conserved, fuel type, gas price for district heating, cost/benefit ratio for district heating, side effects of district heating, and the relative tariff situation.

  20. Medicolegal aspects of doping in football

    OpenAIRE

    Graf‐Baumann, T

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the historical background of the medicolegal aspects of doping in sports and especially in football. The definitions of legal terms are explained and the procedure of individual case management as part of FIFA's approach to doping is presented. Finally, three medicolegal problems awaiting urgent solution are outlined: firstly, the difficulties in decision making arising from the decrease of the T/E ratio from 6 to 4; secondly, the therapeutic application of α‐reductase ...