Sample records for aspect pattern formation

  1. Mathematical aspects of pattern formation in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Juncheng


    This monograph is concerned with the mathematical analysis of patterns which are encountered in biological systems. It summarises, expands and relates results obtained in the field during the last fifteen years. It also links the results to biological applications and highlights their relevance to phenomena in nature. Of particular concern are large-amplitude patterns far from equilibrium in biologically relevant models.The approach adopted in the monograph is based on the following paradigms:• Examine the existence of spiky steady states in reaction-diffusion systems and select as observabl

  2. Pattern Formation (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca


    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  3. High Aspect Pattern Formation by Integration of Micro Inkjetting and Electroless Plating

    CERN Document Server

    Gian, P W; Liang, Y N; Lok, B K; Lu, C W; Ooi, B L


    This paper reports on formation of high aspect micro patterns on low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates by integrating micro inkjetting with electroless plating. Micro inkjetting was realized by using an inkjetting printer that ejects ink droplets from a printhead. This printhead consists of a glass nozzle with a diameter of 50 micrometers and a piezoelectric transducer that is coated on the nozzle. The silver colloidal solution was inkjetted on a sintered CT800 ceramic substrate, followed by curing at 200 degrees C for 60 minutes. As a result, the silver trace with a thickness of 200 nm was obtained. The substrate, with the ejected silver thin film as the seed layer, was then immersed into a preinitiator solution to coat a layer of palladium for enhancing the deposition of nickel. Electroless nickel plating was successfully conducted at a rate of 0.39 micrometers /min, and the thickness of traces was plated up to 84 micrometers. This study demonstrates that the integration of inkjetting with plat...

  4. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation (United States)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.


    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  5. Pattern formations and oscillatory phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, Shuichi


    Patterns and their formations appear throughout nature, and are studied to analyze different problems in science and make predictions across a wide range of disciplines including biology, physics, mathematics, chemistry, material science, and nanoscience. With the emergence of nanoscience and the ability for researchers and scientists to study living systems at the biological level, pattern formation research has become even more essential. This book is an accessible first of its kind guide for scientists, researchers, engineers, and students who require a general introduction to thi

  6. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B


    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  7. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Denis


    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers and the accumulation of complexe...

  8. Modeling generic aspects of ideal fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, D., E-mail: [Universite de Rennes1-IRSET, Campus de Beaulieu Bat. 13, 35042 Rennes (France)


    Many different proteins self-aggregate into insoluble fibrils growing apically by reversible addition of elementary building blocks. But beyond this common principle, the modalities of fibril formation are very disparate, with various intermediate forms which can be reshuffled by minor modifications of physico-chemical conditions or amino-acid sequences. To bypass this complexity, the multifaceted phenomenon of fibril formation is reduced here to its most elementary principles defined for a linear prototype of fibril. Selected generic features, including nucleation, elongation, and conformational recruitment, are modeled using minimalist hypotheses and tools, by separating equilibrium from kinetic aspects and in vitro from in vivo conditions. These reductionist approaches allow to bring out known and new rudiments, including the kinetic and equilibrium effects of nucleation, the dual influence of elongation on nucleation, the kinetic limitations on nucleation and fibril numbers, and the accumulation of complexes in vivo by rescue from degradation. Overlooked aspects of these processes are also pointed: the exponential distribution of fibril lengths can be recovered using various models because it is attributable to randomness only. It is also suggested that the same term “critical concentration” is used for different things, involved in either nucleation or elongation.

  9. Pattern formations and optimal packing. (United States)

    Mityushev, Vladimir


    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite.

  10. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  11. The reliance of insolation pattern on surface aspect (United States)

    Saad, N. Md; Hamid, J. R. Abdul; Mohd Suldi, A.


    The Sun's radiated energy is an important source in realizing the green technology concept construction. When interacting with the atmosphere and objects on the Earth's surface incoming solar radiation (insolation) will create insolation patterns that are ambiguous and as a result need to be investigated further. This paper explores the insolation pattern and ambiguities against topographic surfaces in the context of direct, diffuse, and reflectance irradiance. The topography is modeled from LiDAR data as Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The generated DSM and DTM were converted to Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) format within the Arc GIS environment before the insolation pattern could be visualized. The slope and aspect of the topography has an impact on the insolation which is the emphasis of this paper. The main outcome from the study is the insolation map and plots of relationship between the insolation and surface aspect. The findings from this study should contribute to the sustainable practices of green building technology.

  12. Pattern Formation and Complexity Emergence (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.


    Success of nonlinear modelling of pattern formation and self-organization encourages speculations on informational and number theoretical foundations of complexity emergence. Pythagorean "unreasonable effectiveness of integers" in natural processes is perhaps extrapolatable even to universal emergence "out-of-nothing" (Leibniz, Wheeler). Because rational numbers (R = M/N) are everywhere dense on real axis, any digital string (hence any "book" from "Library of Babel" of J.L.Borges) is "recorded" infinitely many times in arbitrary many rationals. Furthermore, within any arbitrary small interval there are infinitely many Rs for which (either or both) integers (Ms and Ns) "carry" any given string of any given length. Because any iterational process (such as generation of fractal features of Mandelbrot Set) is arbitrary closely approximatable with rational numbers, the infinite pattern of integers expresses itself in generation of complexity of the world, as well as in emergence of the world itself. This "tunnelling" from Platonic World ("Platonia" of J.Barbour) to a real (physical) world is modern recast of Leibniz's motto ("for deriving all from nothing there suffices a single principle").

  13. Leader Election Problem Versus Pattern Formation Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dieudonné, Yoann; Villain, Vincent


    Leader election and arbitrary pattern formation are fundammental tasks for a set of autonomous mobile robots. The former consists in distinguishing a unique robot, called the leader. The latter aims in arranging the robots in the plane to form any given pattern. The solvability of both these tasks turns out to be necessary in order to achieve more complex tasks. In this paper, we study the relationship between these two tasks in the semi-synchronous model (SSM), wherein the robots are weak in several aspects. In particular, they have no direct means of communication. They cannot remember any previous observation nor computation performed in any previous step. Such robots are said to be oblivious. The robots are also uniform and anonymous, i.e, they all have the same program using no global parameter (such that an identity) allowing to differentiate any of them. Moreover, none of them share any kind of common coordinate mechanism or common sense of direction, except that they agree on a common handedness (chir...

  14. Separation vortices and pattern formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis


    In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge....

  15. Pattern formation in rotating fluids (United States)

    Bühler, Karl


    Flows in nature and technology are often associated with specific structures and pattern. This paper deals with the development and behaviour of such flow pattern. Flow structures are important for the mass, momentum and energy transport. The behaviour of different flow pattern is used by engineers to obtain an efficient mass and energy consumption. Mechanical power is transmitted via the momentum of rotating machine parts. Therefore the physical and mathematical knowledge of these basic concepts is important. Theoretical and experimental investigations of principle experiments are described in the following. We start with the classical problem of the flow between two concentric cylinders where the inner cylinder rotates. Periodic instabilities occur which are called Taylor vortices. The analogy between the cylindrical gap flow, the heat transfer in a horizontal fluid layer exposed to the gravity field and the boundary layer flow along concave boundaries concerning their stability behaviour is addressed. The vortex breakdown phenomenon in a cylinder with rotating cover is also described. A generalization to spherical sectors leads then to investigations with different boundary conditions. The spherical gap flow exhibits interesting phenomena concerning the nonlinear character of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiple solutions in the nonlinear regime give rise to different routes during the laminar-turbulent transition. The interaction of two rotating spheres results in flow structures with separation and stagnation lines. Experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  16. Evolution of Web Applications with Aspect-Oriented Design Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    It is more convenient to talk about changes in a domainspecific way than to formulate them at the programming construct level or-even worse-purely lexical level. Using aspect-oriented programming, changes can be modularized and made reapplicable. In this paper, selected change types in web...... applications are analyzed. They are expressed in terms of general change types which, in turn, are implemented using aspect-oriented programming. Some of general change types match aspect-oriented design patterns or their combinations....

  17. Cellular Automaton Modeling of Pattern Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlijst, M.C.


    Book review Andreas Deutsch and Sabine Dormann, Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation, Characterization, Applications, and Analysis, Birkhäuser (2005) ISBN 0-8176-4281-1 331pp..

  18. Pattern Formation in Driven Systems (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine

    Model colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, will in two dimensions segregate into lanes, a phenomenon studied extensively by Lowen and co-workers [Dzubiella et al. Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002)]. We have simulated mixtures of oppositely-driven particles using three numerical protocols. We find that laning results from enhanced diffusion, in the direction perpendicular to the drive, of particles surrounded by particles of the opposite type, consistent with the observation of Vissers et al. [Soft Matter 7, 6, 2352 (2011)]. By comparing protocols we find that enhanced diffusion follows from a simple geometrical constraint: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This constraint implies that the effective lateral diffusion constant grows linearly with drive speed and as the square root of the packing fraction, a prediction supported by our numerics. By invoking an analogy between hard particles with environment-dependent mobilities and mutually attractive particles we argue that there exists an equilibrium system whose pattern-forming properties are similar to those of the driven system. Katherine Klymko acknowledges support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  19. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications. (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei


    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis.

  20. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    CERN Document Server

    Zachreson, Cameron; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Toth, Milos


    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment, and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient {\\gamma}), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological ...

  1. Pattern formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsek, Matthew R.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    Bacteria are capable of forming elaborate multicellular communities called biofilms. Pattern formation in biofilms depends on cell proliferation and cellular migration in response to the available nutrients and other external cues, as well as on self-generated intercellular signal molecules...... and the production of an extracellular matrix that serves as a structural 'scaffolding' for the biofilm cells. Pattern formation in biofilms allows cells to position themselves favorably within nutrient gradients and enables buildup and maintenance of physiologically distinct subpopulations, which facilitates...... survival of one or more subpopulations upon environmental insult, and therefore plays an important role in the innate tolerance displayed by biofilms toward adverse conditions....

  2. Transverse optical and atomic pattern formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L


    The study of transverse optical pattern formation has been studied extensively in nonlinear optics, with a recent experimental interest in studying the phenomenon using cold atoms, which can undergo real-space self-organization. Here, we describe our experimental observation of pattern formation in cold atoms, which occurs using less than 1 microWatt of applied power. We show that the optical patterns and the self-organized atomic structures undergo continuous symmetry-breaking, which is characteristic of non-equilibrium phenomena in a multimode system. To theoretically describe pattern formation in cold atoms, we present a self-consistent model that allows for tight atomic bunching in the applied optical lattice. We derive the nonlinear refractive index of a gas of multi-level atoms in an optical lattice, and we derive the threshold conditions under which pattern formation occurs. We show that, by using small detunings and sub-Doppler temperatures, one achieves two orders of magnitude reduced intensity thres...

  3. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian


    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  4. Chaotic Turing pattern formation in spatiotemporal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jing-hua; LI Hai-hong; YANG Jun-zhong; HU Gang


    The problem of Turing pattern formation has attracted much attention in nonlinear science as well as physics,chemistry and biology.So far spatially ordered Turing patterns have been observed in stationary and oscillatory media only.In this paper we find that spatially ordered Turing patterns exist in chaotic extended systems.And chaotic Turing patterns are strikingly rich and surprisingly beautiful with their space structures.These findings are in sharp contrast with the intuition of pseudo-randomness of chaos.The richness and beauty of the chaotic Turing patterns are attributed to a large variety of symmetry properties realized by various types of self-organizations of partial chaos synchronizations.

  5. Fractals in Spatial Patterns of Vegetation Formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhiyuan; HUANG Daming; Masae Shiyomi; WANG Yusheng; Shigeo Takahashi; Hori Yoshimichi; Yasuo Yamamuru; CHEN Jun


    The spatial distribution patterns of species are always scale-dependent and spatially self-similar in ecological systems. In this work, vegetation distribution data collected from the vegetation map of the Xigazê region was analyzed using a box-counting method. The power law of the box-counting dimension (DB) across a range of scales (5-160 km) confirms the fractal patterns for most vegetation formations, while the fluctuations of the scale-specific DB among the different abundance groups indicate limitations of fractal coherence. The fractal method is shown to be a useful tool for measuring the distribution patterns of vegetation formations across scales, which provides important information for both species and habitat conservation, especially in landscape management.

  6. Pattern formation in superdiffusion Oregonator model (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Yan, Jia; Liu, Fu-Cheng; He, Ya-Feng


    Pattern formations in an Oregonator model with superdiffusion are studied in two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations. Stability analyses are performed by applying Fourier and Laplace transforms to the space fractional reaction-diffusion systems. Antispiral, stable turing patterns, and travelling patterns are observed by changing the diffusion index of the activator. Analyses of Floquet multipliers show that the limit cycle solution loses stability at the wave number of the primitive vector of the travelling hexagonal pattern. We also observed a transition between antispiral and spiral by changing the diffusion index of the inhibitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. Y2012009 and ZD2015025), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project.

  7. Pattern formation during C. elegans vulval induction. (United States)

    Wang, M; Sternberg, P W


    Studies of C. elegans vulval development provide insights into the process of pattern formation during animal development. The invariant pattern of vulval precursor cell fates is specified by the integration of at least two signaling systems. Recent findings suggest that multiple, partially redundant mechanisms are involved in patterning the vulval precursor cells. The inductive signal activates the LET-60/RAS signaling pathway and induces the 1 degree fate, whereas the lateral signal mediated by LIN-12/Notch is required for specification of the 2 degrees fate. Several regulatory pathways antagonize the RAS signaling pathway and specify the non-vulval 3 degrees fate in the absence of induction. The temporal and spatial regulation of VPC competence and production of the inductive and the lateral signal are precisely coordinated to ensure the wild-type vulval pattern.

  8. Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S


    Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

  9. Sarcomeric pattern formation by actin cluster coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Friedrich

    Full Text Available Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells.

  10. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos


    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  11. Sarcomeric Pattern Formation by Actin Cluster Coalescence (United States)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S.; Safran, Samuel A.


    Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells. PMID:22685394

  12. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    CERN Document Server

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip


    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  13. Femtosecond Laser Patterning of the Biopolymer Chitosan for Biofilm Formation (United States)

    Estevam-Alves, Regina; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique Dias; Coatrini, Andrey C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Mendonca, Cleber Renato


    Controlling microbial growth is crucial for many biomedical, pharmaceutical and food industry applications. In this paper, we used a femtosecond laser to microstructure the surface of chitosan, a biocompatible polymer that has been explored for applications ranging from antimicrobial action to drug delivery. The influence of energy density on the features produced on chitosan was investigated by optical and atomic force microscopies. An increase in the hydrophilic character of the chitosan surface was attained upon laser micromachining. Patterned chitosan films were used to observe Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilm formation, revealing an increase in the biofilm formation in the structured regions. Our results indicate that fs-laser micromachining is an attractive option to pattern biocompatible surfaces, and to investigate basic aspects of the relationship between surface topography and bacterial adhesion. PMID:27548153

  14. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns (United States)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas


    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  15. Geometry-induced protein pattern formation. (United States)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Halatek, Jacob; Frey, Erwin


    Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern formation? Current models invoke mechanisms based on dynamic instabilities arising from nonlinear interactions between proteins but neglect the influence of the spatial geometry itself. Here, we show that patterns can emerge as a direct result of adaptation to cell geometry, in the absence of dynamical instability. We present a generic reaction module that allows protein densities robustly to adapt to the symmetry of the spatial geometry. The key component is an NTPase protein that cycles between nucleotide-dependent membrane-bound and cytosolic states. For elongated cells, we find that the protein dynamics generically leads to a bipolar pattern, which vanishes as the geometry becomes spherically symmetrical. We show that such a reaction module facilitates universal adaptation to cell geometry by sensing the local ratio of membrane area to cytosolic volume. This sensing mechanism is controlled by the membrane affinities of the different states. We apply the theory to explain AtMinD bipolar patterns in [Formula: see text] EcMinDE Escherichia coli. Due to its generic nature, the mechanism could also serve as a hitherto-unrecognized spatial template in many other bacterial systems. Moreover, the robustness of the mechanism enables self-organized optimization of protein patterns by evolutionary processes. Finally, the proposed module can be used to establish geometry-sensitive protein gradients in synthetic biological systems.

  16. Excitable Pattern Formation in Inhomogeneous Systems (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kaumudi; Gholami, Azam; Zykov, Vladimir; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    On starvation, the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum signal via the chemo-attractant cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The amoebae sense cAMP through membrane receptors and produce their own cAMP. Simultaneously they produce a basal level of Phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that degrades cAMP. Soon a pattern of rotating spiral waves or circular waves is formed at the multi-cellular level. The causal reasons for the selection of one or the other pattern are still unclear. Here we report experimental and theoretical investigations of the pattern-formation of mixtures of cells starved for different times. The excitability of the amoebae depends on the starvation time due to time dependent gene expressions. Cells starved for longer times are known to exhibit increased excitability. We report phase maps of the patterns for mixtures of different combinations of excitability. Numerical simulations of a modified Kessler-Levine model allow us to explain the experimental results and provide new insights into the dynamical behavior of the system. This work is supported by the Max Planck Society.

  17. Pattern formation in nanoporous titania templates. (United States)

    Richter, C; Wu, Z; Menon, L


    We have carried out a systematic investigation into the formation of nanoscaled patterns in titania (TiO2) templates under dc anodization of Ti in HF acid. At lower acid concentrations (around 0.5 wt% HF) either pores or tubes form at the surface of anodized titanium foil. The pores or nanotubes are separated from the bottom Ti layer by a thin barrier layer of TiO2. The critical voltage where the transition from pores to tubes occurs has been determined. It is observed that the transition voltage shift towards higher voltages as acid concentration is increased, with pore formation disappearing altogether at high acid concentrations. We have also carried out a systematic investigation into the dependence of pore and tube parameters on the applied dc anodization voltage. Our results indicate that the barrier layer thickness, pore and tube length increase as a function of applied voltage.

  18. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.


    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  19. Ecological aspects of the use of lost foam patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz


    Full Text Available The paper discusses some aspects of ecology in the use of lost foam patterns for piece production of large castings poured from ferrousalloys under the conditions of Metalodlew SA. Foundry. The technological processes used in the manufacture of castings are related with numerous hazards. Numerous problems requiring prompt solution occur also during the process of foundry mould pouring, to mention only various contaminants, air pollution, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment. Varioustechnological processes cause strenuous work conditions in foundry shops. Many of the publications that have appeared so far dealing withthe problems of environmental protection and hard work conditions in foundries [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] discuss in both general anddetailed way problems related with various pollutants, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment,responsible for hazards faced by foundry workers. Studies carried out by various R&D centres are mainly focussed on the problem of howto reduce the harmful effect of technological processes on the environment through modification of the already existing or development of new ecological and energy-saving materials and technologies. This paper shows the opportunities and threats resulting from the application of the Lost Foam Process in a foundry, which up to now has been using a more traditional technology.

  20. Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation (United States)

    Vasudevan, Ravikumar


    Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference

  1. Features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlanova M.M.


    Full Text Available The article examines the peculiarities of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men. The urgency of this work due to the fact that currently in Russia to study the influence of the bodily aspect to the whole structure of gender identity is given little attention. At the present time the problem of studying the physicality involved in domestic psychologists: Arina G. A., V. V. Nikolaev, A. S. Kostov, A. N. Borojevic, B. T. Sokolov, V. Yu., Baskakov, who agree in opinion on the necessity to study the influence of the morpho-biological patterns of gender identity, her social and personal "add-on" – of sex-role stereotypes, perceptions, behavior, preferences. However, studies supporting their interaction was not performed [7]. In the paper the following definitions: "gender identity", "gender", "differential socialization", "the Adonis complex". Produced comprehensive analysis of foreign sources for a detailed understanding of the studied phenomenon; analysis of the structural components and characteristics of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men with the help of specifically chosen tutorials. Discovered the distinctive features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men and their reflection in sex-role behavior. We assume that men who are not satisfied with the perception of his own body, prone to distorted perceptions of sex-role images. The data obtained can provide the basis and prospects for development of programs of prevention, diagnostics and correction.

  2. Mathematical study on robust tissue pattern formation in growing epididymal tubule. (United States)

    Hirashima, Tsuyoshi


    Tissue pattern formation during development is a reproducible morphogenetic process organized by a series of kinetic cellular activities, leading to the building of functional and stable organs. Recent studies focusing on mechanical aspects have revealed physical mechanisms on how the cellular activities contribute to the formation of reproducible tissue patterns; however, the understanding for what factors achieve the reproducibility of such patterning and how it occurs is far from complete. Here, I focus on a tube pattern formation during murine epididymal development, and show that two factors influencing physical design for the patterning, the proliferative zone within the tubule and the viscosity of tissues surrounding to the tubule, control the reproducibility of epididymal tubule pattern, using a mathematical model based on experimental data. Extensive numerical simulation of the simple mathematical model revealed that a spatially localized proliferative zone within the tubule, observed in experiments, results in more reproducible tubule pattern. Moreover, I found that the viscosity of tissues surrounding to the tubule imposes a trade-off regarding pattern reproducibility and spatial accuracy relating to the region where the tubule pattern is formed. This indicates an existence of optimality in material properties of tissues for the robust patterning of epididymal tubule. The results obtained by numerical analysis based on experimental observations provide a general insight on how physical design realizes robust tissue pattern formation.

  3. Pattern formation by dewetting and evaporating sedimenting suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Moller, P.; Fall, A.; Rafaï, S.; Bonn, D.


    Pattern formation from drying droplets containing sedimenting particles and dewetting of thin films of such suspensions was studied. The dewetting causes the formation of finger-like patterns near the contact line which leave behind a deposit of branches. We find that the strikingly low speed of dew

  4. Formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. The aspect of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, S.


    The present work describes different techniques to control some major parameters of colloidal nanocrystals. The individual techniques rely on the manipulation of the nucleation event. The sensitive control of the nanocrystals' size and shape is discussed. Furthermore the formation of hybrid nanocrystals composed of different materials is presented. The synthesis technique for the production of the different samples involves organic solvents and surfactants and reactions at elevated temperatures. The presence of magic size clusters offers a possibility to control the size of the nanocrystals even at very small dimensions. The clusters produced comprise ca. 100 atoms. In the case of CdSe, nanocrystals of this size emit a blue fluorescence and therefore extend the routinely accessible spectrum for this material over the whole visible range. Samples fluorescing in the spectral range from green to red are produced with standard recipes. In this work a reaction scheme for magic size clusters is presented and a theoretical model to explain the particular behaviour of their growth dynamics is discussed. The samples are investigated by optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. A method to form branched nanocrystals is discussed. The branching point is analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and proves for the occurrence of a multiple twinned structure are strengthened by simulation of the observed patterns. Two different techniques to generate nanocrystals of this type are presented. The first relies on a seeded growth approach in which the nucleation of the second material is allowed only on de ned sites of the seeds. The second technique uses the tips of pre-formed nano-dumbbells as sacrificial domains. The material on the tips is replaced by gold. Hybrid materials are formed by a seeded-growth mechanism. Pre-formed nanocrystals provide the nucleation sites for the second material. (orig.)

  5. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients (United States)

    Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank


    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentation between different animal species.

  6. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Jörg, David J; Jülicher, Frank


    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentatio...

  7. Pattern Formation in a Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 叶茂福; 王龙; 江南


    A rich variety of dust patterns have been observed in a capacitively coupled rf discharge dusty plasma system. Dust particles are synthesized through chemical reaction of the filled gas mixture during discharge. Different patterns are formed in different stages of particle growth. In the early stage of particle growth, dust cloud can be formed by a large number of small particles, and its behavior appears to be fluid-like. Such interesting nonlinear phenomena as dust void and complex dust cloud patterns are observed in this stage. As dust particles grow, the particle size and structure can be controlled to follow two different routes. In one of the routes, the particles grow up in a ball-like shape and can be formed into regular lattice and cluster patterns.In the other, the particles grow up in a fractal shape.

  8. Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, Max; Koppel, Johan van de


    Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant theore

  9. Pattern formations in chaotic spatio-temporal systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ying Zhang; Shihong Wang; Jinhua Xiao; Hilda A Cerdeira; S Chen; Gang Hu


    Pattern formations in chaotic spatio-temporal systems modelled by coupled chaotic oscillators are investigated. We focus on various symmetry breakings and different kinds of chaos synchronization–desynchronization transitions, which lead to certain types of spontaneous spatial orderings and the emergence of some typical ordered patterns, such as rotating wave patterns with splay phase ordering (orientational symmetry breaking) and partially synchronous standing wave patterns with in-phase ordering (translational symmetry breaking). General pictures of the global behaviors of pattern formations and transitions in coupled chaotic oscillators are provided.

  10. Pattern formation in oscillatory media without lateral inhibition (United States)

    Ali, Rehman; Harris, Jeremy; Ermentrout, Bard


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking instabilities are the most common mechanism for how biological, chemical, and physical systems produce spatial patterns. Beginning with Turing's original paper, so-called lateral inhibition—in which negative feedback has greater spread than positive feedback—has been the underlying mechanism for pattern formation in biological models. Despite this, there are many biological systems that exhibit pattern formation but do not have lateral inhibition. In this paper, we present an example of such a system that is able to generate robust patterns emerging from a spatially homogeneous state. In fact, patterns can arise when there is only spatial spread of the activator. Unlike classic Turing pattern formation, these patterns arise from a spatially homogeneous oscillation rather than from a constant steady state.

  11. Comparing investigation of pattern formation in glow and streamer DBD (United States)

    Li, Ben; Ouyang, Jiting


    In this paper, we investigate the behaviors of patterns in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in glow and streamer regimes under different operating conditions (driving frequency and voltage) and external electric/magnetic field to explore the similarity and difference of pattern formation. It is found that patterns in both glow and streamer DBDs can be homogenized by decreasing the driving frequency to a low level. But filamentary streamers can still appear at low frequency when the voltage is much higher. With an additional lateral electric field, patterns in both regimes can be homogenized. However, an axial magnetic field makes the glow DBD homogeneous, while the streamer DBD decreases in filamentary size. In both regimes, dynamics and distribution of the space charges, rather than the surface charges, play the predominant role in the formation of DBD patterns. But the surface charges may also play an important role in pattern formation, especially in streamer DBD.

  12. Gonorrhoea in men: diagnostic aspects and changing antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sandeepkumar om nanda


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea since the ancient times is causing significant morbidity. Though a number of methods are available for diagnosis in men, culture still remains the gold standard. Gonococci are delicate and fastidious bacteria but its remarkable ability to develop resistance to a variety of antibiotics makes it a major threat to public health. OBJECTIVES: - To detect the incidence in symptomatic men and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the gonococcal isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS: - 100 urethral swabs from men with urethritis were screened for presence of gonococci by gram stain and culture on Chocolate Agar and Modified Thayer-Martin medium. The isolated gonococci were screened for Penicillinase production and susceptibility to antibiotics was subsequently carried out by standard disc diffusion method. RESULTS: - Gonorrhoea was detected in 56 of the urethral swabs giving a incidence of 56%. The difference of detection in gram stain and culture was insignificant (P>0.05. Of all the isolated gonococci considerable resistance was seen to ciprofloxacin(46.4%, tetracycline(23.2% and Penicillin(17% with Incidence of PPNG being 12.5%. All strains were uniformly sensitive to Spectinomycin and Cephalosporins. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: - Neisseria gonorrhoeae is main etiological agent in urethritis in sexually active men and culture though time consuming, costly and demands expertise is still better method for diagnosis as gives high isolation rate and observe changing patterns in antibiotic susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 177-180

  13. Pattern formation in arrays of chemical oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Kumar Kamal


    We describe a simple model mimicking diffusively coupled chemical micro-oscillators. We characterize the rich variety of dynamical states emerging from the model under variation of time delay in coupling, coupling strength and boundary conditions. The spatiotemporal patterns obtained include clustering, mixed dynamics, inhomogeneous steady states and amplitude death. Further, under delay in coupling, the model yields transitions from phase to antiphase oscillations, reminiscent of that observed in experiments [M Toiya et al, J. Chem. Lett. 1, 1241 (2010)].

  14. Embryogenesis, a process of pattern formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Xiang SUN


    @@ Plant embryogenesis is traditionally defined as a develop-mental process from zygote to mature embryo, which has the potential to form a complete plant (Bhojwani, 1974; Hu,2005).In dicotyledonous species, the fertilized egg or zygote usually divides according to a stereotyped pattern and gives rise to an embryo that consists of an embryonic shoot,cotyledons, hypocotyls, and an embryonic root.Thus, the basic body plan of the plant is established during the embryogenesis.Interestingly, the shoot-leaf-stem structure,not including the root, is repeatedly photocopied as a basic unit throughout plant vegetative growth (Wolpert et al.,2002).

  15. Lateral inhibition-induced pattern formation controlled by the size and geometry of the cell. (United States)

    Seirin Lee, Sungrim


    Pattern formation in development biology is one of the fundamental processes by which cells change their functions. It is based on the communication of cells via intra- and intercellular dynamics of biochemicals. Thus, the cell is directly involved in biochemical interactions. However, many theoretical approaches describing biochemical pattern formation have usually neglected the cell's role or have simplified the subcellular process without considering cellular aspects despite the cell being the environment where biochemicals interact. On the other hand, recent experimental observations suggest that a change in the physical conditions of cell-to-cell contact can result in a change in cell fate and tissue patterning in a lateral inhibition system. Here we develop a mathematical model by which biochemical dynamics can be directly observed with explicitly expressed cell structure and geometry in higher dimensions, and reconsider pattern formation by lateral inhibition of the Notch-Delta signaling pathway. We explore how the physical characteristic of cell, such as cell geometry or size, influences the biochemical pattern formation in a multi-cellular system. Our results suggest that a property based on cell geometry can be a novel mechanism for symmetry breaking inducing cell asymmetry. We show that cell volume can critically influence cell fate determination and pattern formation at the tissue level, and the surface area of the cell-to-cell contact can directly affect the spatial range of patterning.

  16. Formation of High Aspect Ratio Microcoil Using Dipping Method (United States)

    Noda, Daiji; Yamashita, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Setomoto, Masaru; Hattori, Tadashi

    Coils are used in many electronic devices as inductors in mobile units such as mobile phone, digital cameras, etc. Inductance and quality factor of coils are very important value of the performance. Therefore, the requests for coils are small size, high inductance, low power consumption, etc. However, coils are unsuitable for miniaturization because of its structure. Therefore, we have proposed and developed the microcoils of high aspect ratio with the dipping method and an X-ray lithography technique. In dipping method, centrifugal force and highly viscous photoresist solution were key points to evenly apply resist in the form of thick film on metal bar. The film thickness of resist on bar was achieved about 50 μm after single coating. Using these techniques, we succeeded in creating threaded groove structure with 10 μm lines and spaces on 1 mm brass bar. In this case, the aspect ratio was achieved five. It is very expected the high performance microcoil with high aspect ratio lines could be manufactured in spite of the miniature size.

  17. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)


    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  18. Labyrinthine Instability and Pattern Formation in Ferrofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Timothy J


    Ferrofluids suspended in liquids and constrained in quasi-two dimensional domains were exposed to transverse magnetic fields. The points of elliptical instability of nearly circular drops were measured and compared to the theoretical prediction using a fitting parameter. The data matched the predicted trend well for 3 different liquids used as suspensions; however, at extreme values of drop radius, there was a significant deviation from prediction. The angles at each node of the labyrinthine pattern, formed using high magnetic fields, were measured and compared with the prediction of 120 degrees. For the dense labyrinth the most common angles were between 135 degrees -144 degrees, suggesting interaction between arms were having a repelling effect causing angles to widen. For the less dense labyrinth the most frequent angle category decreased, supporting this hypothesis. In the experiments the area, which theoretically should be constant, was noticed to change and this encouraged an investigation into how the ...

  19. Pattern Formation and Quasicrystal Structure in Azobenzene Polymer Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ze-Da; CAI Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Ling-Zhi; LIU Yan-Fa; YANG Jie; SHE Wei-Long; ZHOU Jian-Ying


    Pattern formation in azobenzene polymer film by degenerate four-wave mixing is reported. Island arrays with specific patterns are analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy. It is demonstrated that the control of photo-induced nanostructure sized micropattern in the nonlinear organic film is possible by using properly polarized writing beams with the total incident power exceeding a certain threshold.

  20. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Margot E.; Weijers, Dolf


    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mec

  1. Pattern formation in mutation of "Game of Life"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-gao; PAN Zhi-geng


    This paper presents pattern formation in generalized cellular automata (GCA) by varying parameters of classic “game Experiments show the emergence of the self-organizing patterns that is analogous with life forms at the edge of chaos, which consist of certain nontrivial structure and go through periods of growth, maturity and death. We describe these experiments and discuss their potential as alternative way for creating artificial life and generative art, and as a new method for pattern genesis.

  2. On pattern formation in ferrocolloid convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhko, A [Department of Physics, Perm State University, Bukirev Str. 15, 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Putin, G [Department of Physics, Perm State University, Bukirev Str. 15, 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Tynjaelae, T [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Meshin, M Dabagh [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Jalali, P [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)


    Experimental studies and numerical simulations of stability of buoyancy-driven flows in a ferrocolloid for the cases of horizontal and inclined vertical orientation of a thin cylindrical cavity are performed. The influence of a homogeneous longitudinal magnetic field on convective instability and spatio-temporal patterns were also investigated. In the case of ferrocolloids the gradients of magnetic permeability may arise due to both temperature and particle concentration gradients. The particle mass flux in a classical form is summarized from the translation diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusion ratio. However, the explanation for the observed self-oscillation regimes in magnetic fluid for the cavities of sufficiently large thickness is conditioned by the competition of density variations originating from the fluid thermal expansion and barometric sedimentation. The results prove that a uniform longitudinal magnetic field allows to control the stability and the shape of secondary convection motions at inclined orientation of layer. In a ferrocolloid the repeated transients involving localized roll convection and pure shear flow took place. Under action of uniform longitudinal magnetic field orientated perpendicular to flux velocity of shear motion on such long-wave transients can lead to complicated types of chaotic localized states or solitary vortices.

  3. Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from Coauthorship Patterns


    Boschini, Anne; Sjögren, Anna


    We investigate if voluntary team formation is gender neutral. To this end, we model team formation as a random matching process influenced by the agents' preferences for team size and gender composition and derive how team formation depends on the gender ratio in the population of prospective team mates. We then test if the coauthorship pattern in articles published 1991-2002 in three top Economics journals is gender neutral, exploiting the variation in female presence across subfields of Eco...

  4. Argon ion beam induced surface pattern formation on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsäss, H.; Bobes, O.; Zhang, K. [2nd Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, University Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)


    The development of self-organized surface patterns on Si due to noble gas ion irradiation has been studied extensively in the past. In particular, Ar ions are commonly used and the pattern formation was analyzed as function of ion incidence angle, ion fluence, and ion energies between 250 eV and 140 keV. Very few results exist for the energy regime between 1.5 keV and 10 keV and it appears that pattern formation is completely absent for these ion energies. In this work, we present experimental data on pattern formation for Ar ion irradiation between 1 keV and 10 keV and ion incidence angles between 50° and 75°. We confirm the absence of patterns at least for ion fluences up to 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Using the crater function formalism and Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate curvature coefficients of linear continuum models of pattern formation, taking into account contribution due to ion erosion and recoil redistribution. The calculations consider the recently introduced curvature dependence of the erosion crater function as well as the dynamic behavior of the thickness of the ion irradiated layer. Only when taking into account these additional contributions to the linear theory, our simulations clearly show that that pattern formation is strongly suppressed between about 1.5 keV and 10 keV, most pronounced at 3 keV. Furthermore, our simulations are now able to predict whether or not parallel oriented ripple patterns are formed, and in case of ripple formation the corresponding critical angles for the whole experimentally studied energies range between 250 eV and 140 keV.

  5. Laser-induced pattern formation from homogeneous polyisoprene solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Dian-Yang; Li Ming; Wang Shu-Jie; Lü Zhi-Wei


    This paper reports that the pattern formation in homogeneous solutions of polyisoprene in toluene saturated with C60 induced by a continuous-wave visible laser is observed experimentally. The transmitted beam patterns change with the increase of the laser irradiation time. In the initial phase, the patterns with concentric ring-shaped structure are formed. In the end, the patterns become speckle-shaped. The incubation time of the transmitted beam widening is inversely proportional to the laser power density and solution concentration. The pattern formation results from the optical-field-induced refractive index changes in the solutions, but the mechanism of optical-field-induced refractive index changes in the polymer solutions needs to be further studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Golyandin


    Full Text Available The article based on historical analysis of Russian state development in detail researched the questions of formation and development of investigation of persons as a specialized type of law enforcement. Security concerns and the fight against crime, including tracing missing persons (as missing might become a victim of crime, worried the ancient states, certainly not alien and ancient Russia, and then Russian Empire. In different historical stages of development of our country, these matters are dealt with in different ways, respectively, and transformed concept of “wanted list”. Getting to characteristics of selected theme of the article questions of formation of investigative system in Russia, it should be noted that the search for persons, like hiding from punishment after the crime, as well as missing persons, has always represented one of the most difficult areas of activity regardless of the status of the subject, that is, was the service of state or the work of a person interested in the search for (victim of a crime or a relative of missing.

  7. Vegetation pattern formation of a water-biomass model (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Guohong


    In this paper, a mathematical model with diffusion and cross-diffusion is proposed to describe the interaction between the vegetation and the soil water. Based on the view of Turing pattern, we discuss the conditions of the diffusion-induced instability and the cross-diffusion-induced instability of a homogenous uniform steady state. We find that either a fast diffusion speed of water or a great hydraulic diffusivity due to the suction of roots may drive the instability of the homogenous steady state. Furthermore, we find that both the rain-fall rate and the infiltration feedback parameter can induce the transitions among the vegetation state, pattern formation and bare soil state. It is also found that the "terrain slope" may cause the instability of the homogenous steady state and drive the formation of periodic stripe pattern. Consequently, the diversity of dryland vegetation in reality can be explained as a result of pattern solutions of the model.

  8. On the mechanical theory for biological pattern formation (United States)

    Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.


    We investigate the pattern-forming potential of mechanical models in embryology proposed by Oster, Murray and their coworkers. We show that the presence of source terms in the tissue extracellular matrix and cell density equations give rise to spatio-temporal oscillations. An extension of one such model to include ‘biologically realistic long range effects induces the formation of stationary spatial patterns. Previous attempts to solve the full system were in one dimension only. We obtain solutions in one dimension and extend our simulations to two dimensions. We show that a single mechanical model alone is capable of generating complex but regular spatial patterns rather than the requirement of model interaction as suggested by Nagorcka et al. and Shaw and Murray. We discuss some biological applications of the models among which are would healing and formation of dermatoglyphic (fingerprint) patterns.

  9. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola


    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    While negative transfer of the native linguistic knowledge inSLA is closely studied, other aspects of the learner’s nativeknowledge have been ignored. The following is an investigationand study in this respect, revealing that negative transfer not on-ly happens in the aspect of the learner’s native linguistic knowl-edge such as that of the native grammatical rules and lexical con-ception, but also happens in aspects of cultural conventions andthinking patterns. It is also found that negative transfer of lin-guistic knowledge decreases with the learner’s progress in studywhile the other two aspects have no obvious decrease. With Level3 as a control group, this paper confirmed the effectiveness andnecessity in offering classes dealing with the other two aspects ofnegative transfer.

  11. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations (United States)

    López-Vaca, Oscar Rodrigo; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander


    We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. PMID:23193429

  12. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca


    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  13. Patterned growth of high aspect ratio silicon wire arrays at moderate temperature (United States)

    Morin, Christine; Kohen, David; Tileli, Vasiliki; Faucherand, Pascal; Levis, Michel; Brioude, Arnaud; Salem, Bassem; Baron, Thierry; Perraud, Simon


    High aspect ratio silicon wire arrays with excellent pattern fidelity over wafer-scale area were grown by chemical vapor deposition at moderate temperature, using a gas mixture of silane and hydrogen chloride. An innovative two-step process was developed for in situ doping of silicon wires by diborane. This process led to high p-type doping levels, up to 10 18-10 19 cm -3, without degradation of the silicon wire array pattern fidelity.

  14. Temperature Controlled Lateral Pattern Formation in Confined Polymer Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao-li; David G. Bucknall


    The thermal induced topography change in a model system consisting of a polymer film on a Si substrate capped by a thin metal layer has been studied by using AFM. Regular lateral patterns over large areas were observed on the surface when the system was heated to a sufficiently high temperature. 2D-FFT analysis to the AFM images indicates that the patterns are isotropic and have well defined periodicities. The periodicities of the characteristic patterns are found to depend strongly on the annealing temperature. The study of the kinetics of the formation reveals that such a topography forms almost instantaneously once the critical temperature is reached. It is suggested that this wave-like surface morphology is driven by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch of the different layers. This method for generating regular wave-like patterns could be used as a general method for patterning various organic materials into micro/nanostructures.

  15. Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar G


    Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.

  16. Self-organized surface ripple pattern formation by ion implantation (United States)

    Hofsäss, Hans; Zhang, Kun; Bobes, Omar


    Ion induced ripple pattern formation on solid surfaces has been extensively studied in the past and the theories describing curvature dependent ion erosion as well as redistribution of recoil atoms have been very successful in explaining many features of the pattern formation. Since most experimental studies use noble gas ion irradiation, the incorporation of the ions into the films is usually neglected. In this work we show that the incorporation or implantation of non-volatile ions also leads to a curvature dependent term in the equation of motion of a surface height profile. The implantation of ions can be interpreted as a negative sputter yield; and therefore, the effect of ion implantation is opposite to the one of ion erosion. For angles up to about 50°, implantation of ions stabilizes the surface, whereas above 50°, ion implantation contributes to the destabilization of the surface. We present simulations of the curvature coefficients using the crater function formalism and we compare the simulation results to the experimental data on the ion induced pattern formation using non-volatile ions. We present several model cases, where the incorporation of ions is a crucial requirement for the pattern formation.

  17. Micron-scale pattern formation in prestressed polygonal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annabattula, R. K.; Onck, P. R.


    In this paper we explore the spontaneous formation of micropatterns in thin prestressed polygonal films using finite element simulations. We study films with different size, thickness, and shape, including square, rectangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal films. Patterns form when the films release the

  18. Pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Qinzhi; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Lisheng; Hu, Gang; Mi, Yuanyuan


    Oscillatory dynamics of complex networks has recently attracted great attention. In this paper we study pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes. We find that there exist a few center nodes and small skeletons for most oscillations. Complicated and seemingly random oscillatory patterns can be viewed as well-organized target waves propagating from center nodes along the shortest paths, and the shortest loops passing through both the center nodes and their driver nodes play the role of oscillation sources. Analyzing simple skeletons we are able to understand and predict various essential properties of the oscillations and effectively modulate the oscillations. These methods and results will give insights into pattern formation in complex networks and provide suggestive ideas for studying and controlling oscillations in neural networks.

  19. Noise induced pattern formation of oscillation growth in traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin


    Noise is able to induce diverse patterns in physical and interdisciplinary extended systems. This Letter investigates the role of noise in pattern formation of traffic flow, which is a typical self-driven system far from equilibrium. We demonstrate that noise is necessary to correctly describe the observed spatiotemporal dynamics of growing traffic oscillation in the car following process. A heuristic analysis qualitatively explains the concave growth of the oscillation amplitude along the vehicles of a platoon. Based on this analysis, we propose a simple car-following model containing indifference regions and acceleration noise described by Brownian motion which reproduces well the experimental and empirical observations. Our study indicates that noise might also play an important role in pattern formation in other biological or socio-economic systems that are subject to stochasticity.

  20. Spontaneous pattern formation in broad-area lasers (United States)

    Krents, Anton; Anchikov, Dmitry; Molevich, Nonna; Pakhomov, Anton


    The paper studies the spontaneous formation of nonlinear optical patterns in broad area lasers. Spatiotemporal transverse dynamics of the laser is described by the Maxwell-Bloch equations (MBE). The instability of the steady-state solution leads to pattern formation. Two different types of instabilities were observed analytically (Hopf and wave). 2D numerical simulation of the MBE with the random initial conditions has been performed using a split-step Fourier method and periodic boundary conditions. Hopf instability leads to homogeneous oscillations, spatiotemporal chaos and spiral waves. In the case of wave instability, the direct numerical simulation showed that space-time (periodic, quasi-periodic, or chaotic) modulation of the uniform profile is observed. The characteristic sizes of excited patterns are in good agreement with analytical predictions. The nonlinear interaction of four travelling waves forms a square optical vortex lattice similar to the vortex lattices observed in superconductors and Bose Einstein condensate.

  1. Patterning of periodic high-aspect-ratio nanopores in anatase titanium dioxide from titanium fluoride hydrolysis. (United States)

    Tevis, Ian D; Stupp, Samuel I


    We report straight pores in titanium dioxide produced by a pattern transfer method with titanium fluoride hydrolysis. The resulting films on fluorine-doped tin oxide had pores with diameters of 30 nm and depths of 500 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios of 1:17.

  2. Pattern formation and self-organization in plasmas interacting with surfaces (United States)

    Trelles, Juan Pablo


    Pattern formation and self-organization are fascinating phenomena commonly observed in diverse types of biological, chemical and physical systems, including plasmas. These phenomena are often responsible for the occurrence of coherent structures found in nature, such as recirculation cells and spot arrangements; and their understanding and control can have important implications in technology, e.g. from determining the uniformity of plasma surface treatments to electrode erosion rates. This review comprises theoretical, computational and experimental investigations of the formation of spatiotemporal patterns that result from self-organization events due to the interaction of low-temperature plasmas in contact with confining or intervening surfaces, particularly electrodes. The basic definitions associated to pattern formation and self-organization are provided, as well as some of the characteristics of these phenomena within natural and technological contexts, especially those specific to plasmas. Phenomenological aspects of pattern formation include the competition between production/forcing and dissipation/transport processes, as well as nonequilibrium, stability, bifurcation and nonlinear interactions. The mathematical modeling of pattern formation in plasmas has encompassed from theoretical approaches and canonical models, such as reaction-diffusion systems, to drift-diffusion and nonequilibrium fluid flow models. The computational simulation of pattern formation phenomena imposes distinct challenges to numerical methods, such as high sensitivity to numerical approximations and the occurrence of multiple solutions. Representative experimental and numerical investigations of pattern formation and self-organization in diverse types of low-temperature electrical discharges (low and high pressure glow, dielectric barrier and arc discharges, etc) in contact with solid and liquid electrodes are reviewed. Notably, plasmas in contact with liquids, found in diverse

  3. A new mechanism for dendritic pattern formation in dense systems (United States)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei


    Patterns are often formed when particles cluster: Since patterns reflect the connectivity of different types of material, the emergence of patterns affects the physical and chemical properties of systems and shares a close relationship to their macroscopic functions. A radial dendritic pattern (RDP) is observed in many systems such as snow crystals, polymer crystals and biological systems. Although most of these systems are considered as dense particle suspensions, the mechanism of RDP formation in dense particle systems is not yet understood. It should be noted that the diffusion limited aggregation model is not applicable to RDP formation in dense systems, but in dilute particle systems. Here, we propose a simple model that exhibits RDP formation in a dense particle system. The model potential for the inter-particle interaction is composed of two parts, a repulsive and an attractive force. The repulsive force is applied to all the particles all the time and the attractive force is exerted only among particles inside a circular domain, which expands at a certain speed as a wave front propagating from a preselected centre. It is found that an RDP is formed if the velocity of the wave front that triggers the attractive interaction is of the same order of magnitude as the time scale defined by the aggregation speed.

  4. Liesegang patterns: Complex formation of precipitate in an electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    István Lagzi


    Formation of 1D Liesegang patterns was studied numerically in precipitation and reversible complex formation of precipitate scenarios in an electric field. The Ostwald’s supersaturation model reported by Büki, Kárpáti-Smidróczki and Zrínyi (BKZ model) was extended further. In the presence of an electric field the position of the first and the last bands () measured from the junction point of the outer and the inner electrolytes can be described by the function = 1 $_{}^{1/2}$ + 2 + 3 , where is the time elapsed until the nth band formation, 1, 2 and 3 are constants. The variation of the total number of bands with different electric field strengths () has a maximum. For higher one can observe a moving precipitation zone that becomes wider due to precipitation and reversible complex formation.

  5. Wavenumber Locking And Pattern Formation In Spatially Forced Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meron, Ehud [BEN-GURION UNIV; Manor, Rotem [BEN-GURION UNIV


    We study wavenumber locking and pattern formation resulting from weak spatially periodic one-dimensional forcing of two-dimensional systems. We consider systems that support stationary or traveling stripe patterns in the absence of the forcing, and assume that the one-dimensional forcing is aligned with the direction of the stripe patterns. When the forcing wavenumber is about twice as large as the wavenumber of the unforced system we find that the forcing can either select or stabilize a resonant stripe solution at half the forcing wavenumber, or create a new resonant solution. When the wavenumber mismatch is high we find that the wave-vector component of the pattern in the direction of the forcing can stilI lock at half the forcing wavenumber, but a wave-vector component in the orthogonal direction develops to compensate for the total wavenumber. As a result stationary two-dimensional rectangular and oblique patterns form. When the unforced system supports traveling waves resonant rectangular patterns remain stationary but the oblique patterns travel in a direction orthogonal to the traveling-waves.

  6. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics. (United States)

    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Hilgetag, Claus C


    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

  7. Boundary-layer model of pattern formation in solidification (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.


    A model of pattern formation in crystal growth is proposed, and its analytic properties are investigated. The principal dynamical variables in this model are the curvature of the solidification front and the thickness (or heat content) of a thermal boundary layer, both taken to be functions of position along the interface. This model is mathematically much more tractable than the realistic, fully nonlocal version of the free-boundary problem, and still recaptures many of the features that seem essential for studying dendritic behavior, for example. Preliminary numerical solutions produce snowflakelike patterns similar to those seen in nature.

  8. Arch-pattern based design and aspect-oriented implementation of Readers-Writers concurrent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Ciorbă


    Full Text Available The classical problems of concurrent programming start from the design problems of operating systems in the 80-s. But today there are still proposed new solutions for these problems with the help of various design and programming approaches. The present article describes a solution which was designed according to some new object-oriented principles, based on design patterns and proposes two program solutions: firstly - an object-oriented implementation in Java language, the secondly – an aspect-oriented one in AspectJ language.

  9. Pattern formation and coexistence domains for a nonlocal population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, J A R; Oliveira, F A


    In this communication we propose a most general equation to study pattern formation for one-species population and their limit domains in systems of length L. To accomplish this we include non-locality in the growth and competition terms where the integral kernels are now depend on characteristic length parameters alpha and beta. Therefore, we derived a parameter space (alpha,beta) where it is possible to analyze a coexistence curve alpha*=alpha*(\\beta) which delimits domains for the existence (or not) of pattern formation in population dynamics systems. We show that this curve has an analogy with coexistence curve in classical thermodynamics and critical phenomena physics. We have successfully compared this model with experimental data for diffusion of Escherichia coli populations.

  10. The role of hydrological transience in peatland pattern formation (United States)

    Morris, P. J.; Baird, A. J.; Belyea, L. R.


    The sloping flanks of peatlands are commonly patterned with non-random, contour-parallel stripes of distinct micro-habitats such as hummocks, lawns and hollows. Patterning seems to be governed by feedbacks among peatland hydrological processes, plant micro-succession, plant litter production and peat decomposition. An improved understanding of peatland patterning may provide important insights into broader aspects of the long-term development of peatlands and their likely response to future climate change. We recreated a cellular simulation model from the literature, as well as three subtle variants of the model, to explore the controls on peatland patterning. Our models each consist of three submodels, which simulate: peatland water tables in a gridded landscape, micro-habitat dynamics in response to water-table depths, and changes in peat hydraulic properties. We found that the strength and nature of simulated patterning was highly dependent on the degree to which water tables had reached a steady state in response to hydrological inputs. Contrary to previous studies, we found that under a true steady state the models predict largely unpatterned landscapes that cycle rapidly between contrasting dry and wet states, dominated by hummocks and hollows, respectively. Realistic patterning only developed when simulated water tables were still transient. Literal interpretation of the degree of hydrological transience required for patterning suggests that the model should be discarded; however, the transient water tables appear to have inadvertently replicated an ecological memory effect that may be important to peatland patterning. Recently buried peat layers may remain hydrologically active despite no longer reflecting current vegetation patterns, thereby highlighting the potential importance of three-dimensional structural complexity in peatlands to understanding the two-dimensional surface-patterning phenomenon. The models were highly sensitive to the assumed values

  11. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla;


    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...... and computer simulations of artificial societies. The theoretical basis of our research, together with current state of the art and future work, are briefly introduced....

  12. On pattern formation in the Gray-Scott model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming-xin WANG


    In the paper, we investigate an elliptic system well-known as the Gray-Scott model and present some further results for positive solutions of this model. More precisely, we give the refined a priori estimates of positive solutions, and improve some previous results for the non-existence and existence of positive non-constant solutions as the parameters are varied, which imply some certain conditions where the pattern formation occurs or not.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb (United States)

    Baird, Bill


    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  14. Capillary-mediated interface perturbations: Deterministic pattern formation (United States)

    Glicksman, Martin E.


    Leibniz-Reynolds analysis identifies a 4th-order capillary-mediated energy field that is responsible for shape changes observed during melting, and for interface speed perturbations during crystal growth. Field-theoretic principles also show that capillary-mediated energy distributions cancel over large length scales, but modulate the interface shape on smaller mesoscopic scales. Speed perturbations reverse direction at specific locations where they initiate inflection and branching on unstable interfaces, thereby enhancing pattern complexity. Simulations of pattern formation by several independent groups of investigators using a variety of numerical techniques confirm that shape changes during both melting and growth initiate at locations predicted from interface field theory. Finally, limit cycles occur as an interface and its capillary energy field co-evolve, leading to synchronized branching. Synchronous perturbations produce classical dendritic structures, whereas asynchronous perturbations observed in isotropic and weakly anisotropic systems lead to chaotic-looking patterns that remain nevertheless deterministic.

  15. How to build transcriptional network models of mammalian pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrissa Kioussi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic regulatory networks of sequence specific transcription factors underlie pattern formation in multicellular organisms. Deciphering and representing the mammalian networks is a central problem in development, neurobiology, and regenerative medicine. Transcriptional networks specify intermingled embryonic cell populations during pattern formation in the vertebrate neural tube. Each embryonic population gives rise to a distinct type of adult neuron. The homeodomain transcription factor Lbx1 is expressed in five such populations and loss of Lbx1 leads to distinct respecifications in each of the five populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have purified normal and respecified pools of these five populations from embryos bearing one or two copies of the null Lbx1(GFP allele, respectively. Microarrays were used to show that expression levels of 8% of all transcription factor genes were altered in the respecified pool. These transcription factor genes constitute 20-30% of the active nodes of the transcriptional network that governs neural tube patterning. Half of the 141 regulated nodes were located in the top 150 clusters of ultraconserved non-coding regions. Generally, Lbx1 repressed genes that have expression patterns outside of the Lbx1-expressing domain and activated genes that have expression patterns inside the Lbx1-expressing domain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Constraining epistasis analysis of Lbx1 to only those cells that normally express Lbx1 allowed unprecedented sensitivity in identifying Lbx1 network interactions and allowed the interactions to be assigned to a specific set of cell populations. We call this method ANCEA, or active node constrained epistasis analysis, and think that it will be generally useful in discovering and assigning network interactions to specific populations. We discuss how ANCEA, coupled with population partitioning analysis, can greatly facilitate the systematic dissection of

  16. On Pattern Formation Mechanisms for Lepidopteran Wing Patterns and Mammalian Coat Markings (United States)

    Murray, J. D.


    The patterns on wings of Lepidoptera can be generated with a few pattern elements, but no mechanism has been suggested for producing them. I consider two of the basic patterns, namely, central symmetry and dependent patterns. A biochemically plausible model mechanism is proposed for generating major aspects of these patterns, based on a diffusing morphogen that activates a gene or colour-specific enzyme in a threshold manner to generate a stable heterogeneous spatial pattern. The model is applied to the determination stream hypothesis of Kuhn & von Engelhardt (Wilhelm Roux Arch. Entw Mech. Org. 130, 660 (1933)), and results from the model compared with their microcautery experiments on the pupal wing of Ephestia kuhniella. In the case of dependent patterns, results are compared with patterns on specific Papilionidae. For the same mechanism and a fixed set of parameters I demonstrate the important roles of geometry and scale on the spatial patterns obtained. The results and evidence presented here suggest the existence of diffusion fields of the order of several millimetres, which are very much larger than most embryonic fields. The existence of zones of polarizing activity is also indicated. Colour patterns on animals are considered to be genetically determined, but the mechanism is not known. I have previously suggested that a single mechanism that can exhibit an infinite variety of patterns is a candidate for that mechanism, and proposed that a reaction-diffusion system that can be diffusively driven unstable could be responsible for the laying down of the spacing patterns that generates the prepattern for animal coat markings. For illustrative purposes I consider a practical reaction mechanism, which exhibits substrate inhibition, and show that the geometry and scale of the domain (part of the epidermis) play a crucial role in the structural patterns that result. Patterns are obtained for a selection of geometries, and general features are related to the coat

  17. Structural and quantitative aspects of radical formation after heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusemund, B.; Hoffmann, A.K.; Weiland, B.; Huettermann, J. [Klinikum Homburg (Germany). Fachrichtung Biophysik


    In this report the authors present a summary of their recent attempts aiming at clarifying some basic structural and quantitative aspects of free radical formation in DNA constituents and in DNA as well as of product analysis from nucleotide model compounds. (orig./MG)

  18. Pattern Formation by Electrostatic Self-Organization of Membrane Proteins (United States)

    Boedec, G.; Jaeger, M.; Homble, F.; Leonetti, M.


    The electric activity of biological cells and organs such as heart for example is at the origin of various phenomena of pattern formation. The electric membrane potential appears as the order parameter to characterize these spatiotemporal dynamics. A kind of patterns is characterized by a stationary spatial modulation of membrane potential along the cell, breaking a symmetry of the system. They are associated to transcellular currents. A mechanism proposed in literature is based on the coupling of the electric current produced by membrane proteins and their electrophoretic mobilities. Beyond its classical linear stability analysis, the numerical and theoretical analysis of this model offers a variety of spatiotemporal dynamics. Firstly, the background in the modelization of electric phenomena is recalled. Secondly, the analysis is focused on two nonlinear dynamics.

  19. Fractal pattern formation in metallic ink sessile droplets (United States)

    Hadj-Achour, Miloud; Brutin, David


    We report a fingering instability that occurs during the spreading and evaporation of a nanosuspension droplet. The patterns has a fractal structure similar to those reported by N. Shahidzadeh-Bonn et al. (2008) for salt crystallisation, during evaporation of saturated Na2SO4 on a hydrophilic surface. The fingering instability has been widely studied for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. However, we describe for the first time that a fingering instability is observed for the spreading of a nanosuspension sessile droplet. We demonstrate that in certain cases, the contact line evolves through different spreading regimes according to J. De Coninck et al. (2001) with an enhancement in the evaporation rate due the formation of the fractal patterns.

  20. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation. (United States)

    Smit, Margot E; Weijers, Dolf


    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mechanisms interact to generate local auxin accumulation in the early embryo. New auxin-dependent reporters help identifying these sites, while atomic structures of transcriptional response mediators help explain the diverse outputs of auxin signaling. Key auxin outputs are control of cell identity and cell division orientation, and progress has been made towards understanding the cellular basis of each. Importantly, a number of studies have combined computational modeling and experiments to analyze the developmental role, genetic circuitry and molecular mechanisms of auxin-dependent cell division control.

  1. The theory of pattern formation on directed networks. (United States)

    Asllani, Malbor; Challenger, Joseph D; Pavone, Francesco Saverio; Sacconi, Leonardo; Fanelli, Duccio


    Dynamical processes on networks have generated widespread interest in recent years. The theory of pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems defined on symmetric networks has often been investigated, due to its applications in a wide range of disciplines. Here we extend the theory to the case of directed networks, which are found in a number of different fields, such as neuroscience, computer networks and traffic systems. Owing to the structure of the network Laplacian, the dispersion relation has both real and imaginary parts, at variance with the case for a symmetric, undirected network. The homogeneous fixed point can become unstable due to the topology of the network, resulting in a new class of instabilities, which cannot be induced on undirected graphs. Results from a linear stability analysis allow the instability region to be analytically traced. Numerical simulations show travelling waves, or quasi-stationary patterns, depending on the characteristics of the underlying graph.

  2. Flow-Induced Control of Pattern Formation in Chemical Systems (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Beta, Carsten

    Since Alan Turing's seminal paper in 1952, the study of spatio-temporal patterns that arise in systems of reacting and diffusing components has grown into an immense and vibrant realm of scientific research. This field includes not only chemical systems but spans many areas of science as diverse as cell and developmental biology, ecology, geosciences, or semiconductor physics. For several decades research in this field has concentrated on the vast variety of patterns that can emerge in reaction-diffusion systems and on the underlying instabilities. In the 1990s, stimulated by the pioneering work of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke, control of pattern formation arose as a new topical focus and gradually developed into an entire new field of research. On the one hand, research interests concentrated on control and suppression of undesired dynamical states, in particular on control of chaos. On the other hand, the design and engineering of particular space-time patterns became a major focus in this field that motivates ongoing scientific effort until today...

  3. Building better oscillators using nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M C Cross; Eyal Kenig; John-Mark A Allen


    Frequency and time references play an essential role in modern technology and in living systems. The precision of self-sustained oscillations is limited by the effects of noise, which becomes evermore important as the sizes of the devices become smaller. In this paper, we review our recent theoretical results on using nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation to reduce the effects of noise and improve the frequency precision of oscillators, with particular reference to ongoing experiments on oscillators based on nanomechanical resonators. We discuss using resonator nonlinearity, novel oscillator architectures and the synchronization of arrays of oscillators, to improve the frequency precision.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gan; ZHANG Ping-yu; JIAO Bin


    Urban agglomeration is made up of cities with different sizes to be linked by traffic network in a given area, and it is an inevitable result when urbanization reaches a certain level. Taking urban agglomerationin central Jilin(UACJ) as an example, this article analyzes the formation mechanism and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in the less-developed area. First, the dynamics of UACJ has been analyzed from the aspects of geographical condition, economic foundation, policy background, and traffic condition. Then the development process is divided into three stages-single city, city group and city cluster. Secondly, the central cities are identified from the aspects of city centrality, and the development axes are classified based on economic communication capacity. Finally, the urban agglomeration is divided into five urban economic regions in order to establish the reasonable distribution of industries.

  5. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.


    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  6. Pattern formation mechanisms in motility mutants of Myxococcus xanthus

    CERN Document Server

    Starruss, Joern; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Sogaard-Andersen, Lotte; Deutsch, Andreas; Baer, Markus


    Formation of spatial patterns of cells is a recurring theme in biology and often depends on regulated cell motility. Motility of M. xanthus depends on two motility machineries: the S-engine and A-engine. Moving M. xanthus cells can organize into spreading colonies or spore-filled fruiting bodies depending on their nutritional status. To understand these two pattern formation processes and the contributions by the two motility machineries, as well as cell reversal, we analyze spatial self-organization in 3 strains: i) a mutant that moves unidirectionally without reversing by the A-motility system only, ii) a unidirectional mutant that is also equipped with the S-motility system, and iii) the wild-type that, in addition to the two motility systems, reverses its direction of movement. The mutant moving by the A-engine illustrates that collective motion in the form of large moving clusters can arise in gliding bacteria due to steric interactions of the rod-shaped cells, without the need of invoking any biochemica...

  7. Chemical Pattern Formation in Far-From Systems. (United States)

    Pearson, John Evan

    The diffusive instability was proposed as a mechanism for pattern formation in chemical systems, in the context of biological morphogenesis, by Alan Turing in 1952. The instability gives rise to a chemical pattern with an intrinsic "chemical wavelength" that is independent of the system size. Since 1952, the diffusive instability, or Turing bifurcation, has been invoked to explain pattern formation in a variety of fields. To date there has been no unambiguous observation of such an instability. Model studies of the instability are usually carried out on systems containing two variables. Such works do not address issues that are of fundamental importance in experimental studies. How does one go about finding Turing bifurcations in systems with many parameters and for which the chemical kinetics are only partially known? What is the chemical wavelength? Turing bifurcations cannot occur in systems with all diffusion coefficients exactly equal. How unequal must the diffusion coefficients be for a system to undergo a Turing bifurcation?. Reacting and diffusing systems obey a partial -differential equation which is a sum of a diffusion term and a reaction term. Dropping the diffusion term results in an ordinary differential equation describing the reaction kinetics in a well-mixed system. In this dissertation it is shown that, for systems with an arbitrary number of variables, Turing bifurcations can occur with diffusion coefficients arbitrarily close to equal, provided the corresponding well-mixed system is sufficiently close to a point of coalescence of Hopf and saddle-node bifurcations. Since the bifurcation set can be obtained directly from experiments, one does not need a detailed microscopic theory of the reaction kinetics. Similarly, the chemical wavelength can be estimated from experimental measurements without knowledge of the reaction kinetics.

  8. Pattern formation and mass transfer under stationary solutal Marangoni instability. (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Karin; Köllner, Thomas; Linde, Hartmut; Boeck, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Eckert, Kerstin


    According to the seminal theory by Sternling and Scriven, solutal Marangoni convection during mass transfer of surface-active solutes may occur as either oscillatory or stationary instability. With strong support of Manuel G. Velarde, a combined initiative of experimental works, in particular to mention those of Linde, Wierschem and coworkers, and theory has enabled a classification of dominant wave types of the oscillatory mode and their interactions. In this way a rather comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear evolution of the oscillatory instability could be achieved. A comparably advanced state-of-the-art with respect to the stationary counterpart seemed to be out of reach a short time ago. Recent developments on both the numerical and experimental side, in combination with assessing an extensive number of older experiments, now allow one to draw a more unified picture. By reviewing these works, we show that three main building blocks exist during the nonlinear evolution: roll cells, relaxation oscillations and relaxation oscillations waves. What is frequently called interfacial turbulence results from the interaction between these partly coexisting basic patterns which may additionally occur in different hierarchy levels. The second focus of this review lies on the practical importance of such convection patterns concerning their influence on mass transfer characteristics. Particular attention is paid here to the interaction between Marangoni and buoyancy effects which frequently complicates the pattern formation even more. To shed more light on these dependencies, new simulations regarding the limiting case of stabilizing density stratification and vanishing buoyancy are incorporated.

  9. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture. (United States)

    Salmon, Phil


    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  10. Hydrodynamic approach to surface pattern formation by ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Mario, E-mail: [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC) and Grupo de Dinamica No Lineal (DNL), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieri a - ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, E-28015 Madrid (Spain); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and GISC, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes (Spain)


    On the proper timescale, amorphous solids can flow. Solid flow can be observed macroscopically in glaciers or lead pipes, but it can also be artificially enhanced by creating defects. Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) is a technique in which ions with energies in the 0.110 keV range impact against a solid target inducing defect creation and dynamics, and eroding its surface leading to formation of ordered nanostructures. Despite its technological interest, a basic understanding of nanopattern formation processes occurring under IBS of amorphizable targets has not been clearly established, recent experiments on Si having largely questioned knowledge accumulated during the last two decades. A number of interfacial equations have been proposed in the past to describe these phenomena, typically by adding together different contributions coming from surface diffusion, ion sputtering or mass redistribution, etc. in a non-systematic way. Here, we exploit the general idea of solids flowing due to ion impacts in order to establish a general framework into which different mechanisms (such as viscous flow, stress, diffusion, or sputtering) can be incorporated, under generic physical conservation laws. As opposed to formulating phenomenological interfacial equations, this approach allows to assess systematically the relevance and interplay of different physical mechanisms influencing surface pattern formation by IBS.

  11. Spontaneous pattern formation and pinning in the visual cortex (United States)

    Baker, Tanya I.

    Bifurcation theory and perturbation theory can be combined with a knowledge of the underlying circuitry of the visual cortex to produce an elegant story explaining the phenomenon of visual hallucinations. A key insight is the application of an important set of ideas concerning spontaneous pattern formation introduced by Turing in 1952. The basic mechanism is a diffusion driven linear instability favoring a particular wavelength that determines the size of the ensuing stripe or spot periodicity of the emerging spatial pattern. Competition between short range excitation and longer range inhibition in the connectivity profile of cortical neurons provides the difference in diffusion length scales necessary for the Turing mechanism to occur and has been proven by Ermentrout and Cowan to be sufficient to explain the generation of a subset of reported geometric hallucinations. Incorporating further details of the cortical circuitry, namely that neurons are also weakly connected to other neurons sharing a particular stimulus orientation or spatial frequency preference at even longer ranges and the resulting shift-twist symmetry of the neuronal connectivity, improves the story. We expand this approach in order to be able to include the tuned responses of cortical neurons to additional visual stimulus features such as motion, color and disparity. We apply a study of nonlinear dynamics similar to the analysis of wave propagation in a crystalline lattice to demonstrate how a spatial pattern formed through the Turing instability can be pinned to the geometric layout of various feature preferences. The perturbation analysis is analogous to solving the Schrodinger equation in a weak periodic potential. Competition between the local isotropic connections which produce patterns of activity via the Turing mechanism and the weaker patchy lateral connections that depend on a neuron's particular set of feature preferences create long wavelength affects analogous to commensurate

  12. Quantifying Contributions of Climate Feedbacks to Global Warming Pattern Formation (United States)

    Song, X.; Zhang, G. J.; Cai, M.


    The ';';climate feedback-response analysis method'' (CFRAM) was applied to the NCAR CCSM3.0 simulation to analyze the strength and spatial distribution of climate feedbacks and to quantify their contributions to global and regional surface temperature changes in response to a doubling of CO2. Instead of analyzing the climate sensitivity, the CFRAM directly attributes the temperature change to individual radiative and non-radiative feedbacks. The radiative feedback decomposition is based on hourly model output rather than monthly mean data that are commonly used in climate feedback analysis. This gives a more accurate quantification of the cloud and albedo feedbacks. The process-based decomposition of non-radiative feedback enables us to understand the roles of GCM physical and dynamic processes in climate change. The pattern correlation, the centered root-mean-square (RMS) difference and the ratio of variations (represented by standard deviations) between the partial surface temperature change due to each feedback process and the total surface temperature change in CCSM3.0 simulation are examined to quantify the roles of each feedback process in the global warming pattern formation. The contributions of climate feedbacks to the regional warming are also discussed.

  13. Tree island pattern formation in the Florida Everglades (United States)

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, P.; Engel, Victor C.; Redwine, Jed


    The Florida Everglades freshwater landscape exhibits a distribution of islands covered by woody vegetation and bordered by marshes and wet prairies. Known as “tree islands”, these ecogeomorphic features can be found in few other low gradient, nutrient limited freshwater wetlands. In the last few decades, however, a large percentage of tree islands have either shrank or disappeared in apparent response to altered water depths and other stressors associated with human impacts on the Everglades. Because the processes determining the formation and spatial organization of tree islands remain poorly understood, it is still unclear what controls the sensitivity of these landscapes to altered conditions. We hypothesize that positive feedbacks between woody plants and soil accretion are crucial to emergence and decline of tree islands. Likewise, positive feedbacks between phosphorus (P) accumulation and trees explain the P enrichment commonly observed in tree island soils. Here, we develop a spatially-explicit model of tree island formation and evolution, which accounts for these positive feedbacks (facilitation) as well as for long range competition and fire dynamics. It is found that tree island patterns form within a range of parameter values consistent with field data. Simulated impacts of reduced water levels, increased intensity of drought, and increased frequency of dry season/soil consuming fires on these feedback mechanisms result in the decline and disappearance of tree islands on the landscape.

  14. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mohri, Tetsuo [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Gránásy, László, E-mail: [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)


    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  15. Gender aspects of formation of value potential of students’ physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko O. Iu.


    Full Text Available Purpose: study of gender peculiarities of formation of valuable orientations of students in physical education and sport. Material: in research students of 3 - 11 classes of secondary schools (419, with which the survey was conducted, were involved. Results : the absence of students' understanding of the necessity of motor activity to human health. Also development of adolescents values of physical culture and sports. Showing psychosocial characteristics to form a stable interest in the physical self. It was found that 15% of girls wish to play hockey on grass, athletic gymnastics, football and boxing. Conclusions: for the formation of valuable orientations of physical culture among students it is necessary to consider not only the physiological, morphological and psychological aspects, but also gender peculiarities of personality.

  16. Pattern Formation in Dewetting Nanoparticle/Polymer Bilayers (United States)

    Esker, Alan; Paul, Rituparna; Karabiyik, Ufuk; Swift, Michael; Hottle, John


    Comprised of inorganic cores and flexible organic coronae with 1 -- 2 nm diameter monodisperse sizes, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are ideal model nanofillers. Our discovery that one POSS derivative, trisilanolphenyl-POSS (TPP), can form Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on hydrophobic substrates, allows us to create thin film bilayers of precisely controlled thickness and architecture. Work with poly(t-butylacrylate) (PtBA)/TPP bilayers reveals a two-step dewetting mechanism in which the upper TPP layer dewets first, followed by the formation of isolated holes with intricate, fractal, nanofiller aggregates. Like the PtBA/TPP bilayers, polystyrene (PS)/TPP bilayers also undergo a two-step dewetting mechanism. However, the upper TPP layer initially forms cracks that may arise from mismatches in thermal expansion coefficients. These cracks then serve as nucleation sites for complete dewetting of the entire bilayer. Understanding the rich diversity of surface patterns that can be formed from relatively simple processes is a key feature of this work.

  17. Gradient-driven diffusion and pattern formation in crowded mixtures (United States)

    Nandigrami, Prithviraj; Grove, Brandy; Konya, Andrew; Selinger, Robin L. B.


    Gradient-driven diffusion in crowded, multicomponent mixtures is a topic of high interest because of its role in biological processes such as transport in cell membranes. In partially phase-separated solutions, gradient-driven diffusion affects microstructure, which in turn affects diffusivity; a key question is how this complex coupling controls both transport and pattern formation. To examine these mechanisms, we study a two-dimensional multicomponent lattice gas model, where "tracer" molecules diffuse between a source and a sink separated by a solution of sticky "crowder" molecules that cluster to form dynamically evolving obstacles. In the high-temperature limit, crowders and tracers are miscible, and transport may be predicted analytically. At intermediate temperatures, crowders phase separate into clusters that drift toward the tracer sink. As a result, steady-state tracer diffusivity depends nonmonotonically on both temperature and crowder density, and we observe a variety of complex microstructures. In the low-temperature limit, crowders rapidly aggregate to form obstacles that are kinetically arrested; if crowder density is near the percolation threshold, resulting tracer diffusivity shows scaling behavior with the same scaling exponent as the random resistor network model. Though highly idealized, this simple model reveals fundamental mechanisms governing coupled gradient-driven diffusion, phase separation, and microstructural evolution in crowded mixtures.

  18. Mechanistic Aspects in the Formation, Growth and Surface Functionalization of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents. (United States)

    Niederberger, Markus; Deshmukh, Rupali


    The synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents, so-called nonaqueous (or nonhydrolytic) processes represent powerful alternatives to aqueous approaches and have become an independent research field. 10 years ago, when we published our first review on organic reaction pathways in nonaqueous sol-gel approaches,[1] the number of examples was relatively limited. Nowadays, it is almost impossible to provide an exhaustive overview. Here we review the development of the last few years, without neglecting pioneering examples, which help to follow the historical development. The importance of a profound understanding of mechanistic aspects of nanoparticle crystallization and formation mechanisms can't be overestimated, when it comes to the design of rational synthesis concepts under minimization of trial-and-error experiments. The main reason for the progress in mechanistic understanding lies in the availability of characterization tools that make it possible to monitor chemical reactions from the dissolution of the precursor to the nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles, by ex-situ methods involving sampling after different reaction times, but more and more also by in-situ studies. After a short introduction to experimental aspects of nonaqueous sol-gel routes to metal oxide nanoparticles, we provide an overview of the main and basic organic reaction pathways in these approaches. Afterwards, we summarize the main characterization methods to study formation mechanisms, and then we discuss in great depth the chemical formation mechanisms of many different types of metal oxide nanoparticles. The review concludes with a paragraph on selected crystallization mechanisms reported for nonaqueous systems and a few illustrative examples of nonaqueous sol-gel concepts applied to surface chemistry.

  19. Investigation of Vortical Flow Patterns in the Near Field of a Dynamic Low-Aspect-Ratio Cylinder (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Samantha; Amitay, Michael


    The flowfield and associated flow structures of a low-aspect-ratio cylindrical pin were investigated experimentally in the near-field as the pin underwent wall-normal periodic oscillations. Under dynamic conditions, the pin is driven at the natural wake shedding frequency with an amplitude of 33% of its mean height. Additionally, a static pin was also tested at various mean heights of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the local boundary layer thickness to explore the effect of the mean height on the flowfield. Three-dimensional flowfields were reconstructed and analyzed from SPIV measurements where data were collected along streamwise planes for several spanwise locations under static and dynamic conditions. The study focuses on the incoming boundary layer as it interacts with the pin, as well as two main vortical formations: the arch-type vortex and the horseshoe vortex. Under dynamic conditions, the upstream boundary layer is thinner, relative to the baseline, and the downwash in the wake increases, resulting in a reduced wake deficit. These results indicate enhanced strength of the aforementioned vortical flow patterns under dynamic conditions. The flow structures in the near-field of the static/dynamic cylinder will be discussed in further detail. Supported by The Boeing Company.

  20. The mechanism of pattern formation in the developing drosophila retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN QiCheng


    The biological patterning of the drosophila retina in vivo has striking resemblance to liquid bubbles, in which the surface mechanics due to N-cadherin within a sub-group of retina cells can be mimicked by surface tension. In this work, the aggregating patterns were reasonably simplified into 2D clusters consisting of 2-6 identical bubbles confined within a shrinking boundary. By using a hybrid fluid dynamics model proposed for liquid foams, the aggregating process of 2-6 retina cells was studied. Assuming the minimal perimeter for patterning cells to be the condition of stability patterns, the stable converged patterns we simulated in this work are the same as the experimental observations. More importantly, a new pattern of 6 cells was obtained which was found physically more stable than the other two reported by Hayashi and Carthew[1]. Aggregating perimeters of cells, i.e. the surface energy, showed a good linear fit with the cell numbers.

  1. The mechanism of pattern formation in the developing drosophila retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The biological patterning of the drosophila retina in vivo has striking resemblance to liquid bubbles, in which the surface mechanics due to N-cadherin within a sub-group of retina cells can be mimicked by surface tension. In this work, the aggregating patterns were reasonably simplified into 2D clusters consisting of 2—6 identical bubbles confined within a shrinking boundary. By using a hybrid fluid dy-namics model proposed for liquid foams, the aggregating process of 2―6 retina cells was studied. Assuming the minimal perimeter for patterning cells to be the condition of stability patterns, the stable converged patterns we simulated in this work are the same as the experimental observations. More importantly, a new pattern of 6 cells was obtained which was found physically more stable than the other two reported by Hayashi and Carthew[1]. Aggregating perimeters of cells, i.e. the surface energy, showed a good linear fit with the cell numbers.

  2. Substrate selective patterning on lithography defined gold on silica: Effect of end-group functionality on intermolecular layer formation (United States)

    Bergkvist, Magnus; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Strickland, Aaron D.; Batt, Carl A.


    An increasing number of applications in nanobiotechnology and other areas call for defined regions of different chemical functionality to achieve site-specific attachment while minimizing any unwanted surface interactions. In order to generate spatially defined chemical patterns on planar surfaces, standard nanofabrication methods are typically employed. However, when incorporating biological and chemical molecules into complex nanofabricated structures the micro/nanofabrication methods needed are often incompatible with the standard approaches used to achieve chemical patterning. An alternative strategy is to use substrate selective patterning (SSP) where two different organic molecules each have a specific affinity to a particular substrate material via a surface anchoring group. Here we use imaging ellipsometry, an ideally suited technique for measuring monolayer films on patterned substrates, and infrared spectroscopy to investigate SSP of alkanethiols with hydrophilic/hydrophobic moieties in combination with a methoxypolyethylenoxypropyltrichlorosilane reagent (mPEGTCS) on patterned gold on native silicon oxide substrates. One central aspect of SSP that was investigated was the cross-reactivity between the various substrate specific molecules, which can cause multilayer formation. Results showed that when the mPEGTCS reagent was used subsequently after formation of hydrophilic self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers (SAMs), there was an additional layer build-up of silane. No multilayer formation was observed for a hydrophobic alkanethiol SAM. SSP can be a practical method to effectively create localized functional chemistry on spatially defined nanofabricated devices.

  3. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi


    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  4. Stabilization and destabilization effects of the electric field on stochastic precipitate pattern formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagzi, István; Izsák, Ferenc


    Stabilization and destabilization effects of an applied electric field on the Liesegang pattern formation in low concentration gradient were studied with numerical model simulations. In the absence of an electric field pattern formation exhibits increasingly stochastic behaviour as the initial conce

  5. Optical Pattern Formation in Cold Atoms: Explaining the Red-Blue Asymmetry (United States)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie; Gauthier, Daniel


    The study of pattern formation in atomic systems has provided new insight into fundamental many-body physics and low-light-level nonlinear optics. Pattern formation in cold atoms in particular is of great interest in condensed matter physics and quantum information science because atoms undergo self-organization at ultralow input powers. We recently reported the first observation of pattern formation in cold atoms but found that our results were not accurately described by any existing theoretical model of pattern formation. Previous models describing pattern formation in cold atoms predict that pattern formation should occur using both red and blue-detuned pump beams, favoring a lower threshold for blue detunings. This disagrees with our recent work, in which we only observed pattern formation with red-detuned pump beams. Previous models also assume a two-level atom, which cannot account for the cooling processes that arise when beams counterpropagate through a cold atomic vapor. We describe a new model for pattern formation that accounts for Sisyphus cooling in multi-level atoms, which gives rise to a new nonlinearity via spatial organization of the atoms. This spatial organization causes a sharp red-blue detuning asymmetry, which agrees well with our experimental observations. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant #PHY-1206040.

  6. Convection-driven pattern formation in lawn grasses (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; Daniels, Karen


    Spatial patterns of 'dead' lawn grass have often been ascribed to Turing-type reaction-diffusion processes related to water scarcity. We present an alternative hypothesis: that the air within the grass canopy is unstable to a convective instability, such that chill damage caused by falling cold air is responsible for the creation of brown and green bands of grass. This hypothesis is consistent with several features of small-scale vegetation patterns, including their length scale, rapid onset and transient nature. We find that the predictions of a porous medium convection model based are consistent with measurements made for a particular instance of lawn-patterning in North Carolina.

  7. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis. (United States)

    Czirok, Andras


    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern.

  8. Modular genetic regulatory networks increase organization during pattern formation. (United States)

    Mohamadlou, Hamid; Podgorski, Gregory J; Flann, Nicholas S


    Studies have shown that genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) consist of modules that are densely connected subnetworks that function quasi-autonomously. Modules may be recognized motifs that comprise of two or three genes with particular regulatory functions and connectivity or be purely structural and identified through connection density. It is unclear what evolutionary and developmental advantages modular structure and in particular motifs provide that have led to this enrichment. This study seeks to understand how modules within developmental GRNs influence the complexity of multicellular patterns that emerge from the dynamics of the regulatory networks. We apply an algorithmic complexity to measure the organization of the patterns. A computational study was performed by creating Boolean intracellular networks within a simulated epithelial field of embryonic cells, where each cell contains the same network and communicates with adjacent cells using contact-mediated signaling. Intracellular networks with random connectivity were compared to those with modular connectivity and with motifs. Results show that modularity effects network dynamics and pattern organization significantly. In particular: (1) modular connectivity alone increases complexity in network dynamics and patterns; (2) bistable switch motifs simplify both the pattern and network dynamics; (3) all other motifs with feedback loops increase multicellular pattern complexity while simplifying the network dynamics; (4) negative feedback loops affect the dynamics complexity more significantly than positive feedback loops.

  9. Effects of growth and mutation on pattern formation in tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Mengel Pers

    Full Text Available In many developing tissues, neighboring cells enter different developmental pathways, resulting in a fine-grained pattern of different cell states. The most common mechanism that generates such patterns is lateral inhibition, for example through Delta-Notch coupling. In this work, we simulate growth of tissues consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of cells laterally inhibiting their neighbors. We find that tissue growth by cell division and cell migration tends to produce ordered patterns, whereas lateral growth leads to disordered, patchy patterns. Ordered patterns are very robust to mutations (gene silencing or activation in single cells. In contrast, mutation in a cell of a disordered tissue can produce a larger and more widespread perturbation of the pattern. In tissues where ordered and disordered patches coexist, the perturbations spread mostly at boundaries between patches. If cell division occurs on time scales faster than the degradation time, disordered patches will appear. Our work suggests that careful experimental characterization of the disorder in tissues could pinpoint where and how the tissue is susceptible to large-scale damage even from single cell mutations.

  10. CDS Simulation and Pattern Formation of Phase Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangjiLIU; MenCHENG; 等


    Several properties of the generation and evolution of phase separating patterns for binary material studied by CDS model are proposed.The main conclusions are(1) for alloys spinodal decomposition,the conceptions of “macro-pattern” and “micropattern” are posed by “black-and-white graph”and “gray-scale graph” respectively.We find that though the four forms of map f that represent the self-evolution of order parameter in a cell (lattice)are similar to each other in “macro-pattern”,there are evident differences in their micro-pattern,e.g.,some different fine netted sturctures in the black domain and the white domain are found by the that distinct mechanical and physical behaviors shall be obtained.(2) If the two constituteons of block copolymers are not symmetric (i.e.r≠0.5),a pattern called “grain-strip cross pattern is discovered,is the 0.43

  11. A Broad Dynamical Model for Pattern Formation by Lateral Inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Arcak, Murat


    Many patterning events in multi-cellular organisms rely on cell-to-cell contact signaling, such as the Notch pathway in metazoans. A particularly interesting phenomenon in this form of communication is lateral inhibition where a cell that adopts a particular fate inhibits its immediate neighbors from doing the same. Dynamical models are of great interest for understanding the circuit topologies involved in lateral inhibition and for predicting the associated patterns. Several simplified models have been employed for Notch signalling pathways in the literature. The objective of this paper is to present an abstract dynamical model that captures the essential features of lateral inhibition and to demonstrate with dynamical systems techniques that these features indeed lead to patterning.

  12. Chemistry aspects of the source term formation for a severe accident in a CANDU type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, A.; Constantin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)


    The progression of a severe accident in a CANDU type reactor is slow because the core is surrounded by a large quantity of heavy and light water which acts as a heat sink to remove the decay heat. Therefore, the source term formation is a complex and long process involving fission products transport and releasing in the fuel matrix, thermal hydraulics of the transport fluid in the primary heat system and containment, deposition and transport of fission products, chemistry including the interaction with the dousing system, structural materials and paints, etc. The source term is strongly dependent on initial conditions and accident type. The paper presents chemistry aspects for a severe accident in a CANDU type reactor, in terms of the retention in the primary heat system. After releasing from the fuel elements, the fission products suffer a multitude of phenomena before they are partly transferred into the containment region. The most important species involved in the deposition were identified. At the same time, the influence of the break position in the transfer fractions from the primary heat system to the containment was investigated. (orig.)

  13. The Mechanical Aspects of Formation and Application of PDMS Bilayers Rolled into a Cylindrical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Kang


    Full Text Available A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film with its surface being oxidized by a plasma treatment or a UV-ozone (UVO treatment, that is, a bilayer made of PDMS and its oxidized surface layer, is known to roll into a cylindrical structure upon exposure to the chloroform vapor due to the mismatch in the swelling ratio between PDMS and the oxidized layer by the chloroform vapor. Here we analyzed the formation of the rolled bilayer with the mechanical aspects: how the mismatch in the swelling ratio of the bilayer induces rolling of the bilayer, why any form of trigger that breaks the symmetry in the in-plane stress level is needed to roll the bilayer uniaxially, why the rolled bilayer does not unroll in the dry state when there is no more mismatch in the swelling ratio, and how the measured curvature of rolled bilayer matches well with the prediction by the theory. Moreover, for the use of the rolled bilayer as the channel of the microfluidic device, we examined whether the rolled bilayer deforms or unrolls by the flow of the aqueous solution that exerts the circumferential stress on the rolled bilayer.

  14. Size segregated ring pattern formation in particle impactors (United States)

    Saylor, J. R.; Fredericks, S. A.


    Typical particle impactors consist of a nozzle that directs a particle laden flow onto a plate, and is designed to capture particles greater than a cutoff diameter. Connected in series as a cascade, with each impactor designed to have a progressively smaller cutoff diameter, the particle size distribution can be measured. Typical impactors utilize a nozzle-to-plate distance S that is on the order of one nozzle diameter W, S / W 1 , and give a nominally Gaussian particle deposition pattern on the plate. We explored conditions where S / W < < 1 and observed deposition patterns consisting of very fine rings. Moreover, we found that the ring diameter increased with decreasing particle diameter and the ring thickness increased with particle diameter. These results suggest a potential method for sizing particles by using the mature technology of impactors in a different way. Potential mechanisms for how these ring patterns are formed will be discussed. We note that prior studies have observed conditions where particle deposition patterns exhibited "halos". These halos appear less distinct than the rings we have observed, and it is unclear whether they are related.

  15. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts (United States)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd


    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation.

  16. Spontaneous tunable Turing pattern formation for coherent high-power THz radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei


    The spontaneous breaking of symmetry and homogeneity through dissipative pattern formation is a fundamental question in developmental biology, molecular biochemistry, mathematics and nonlinear physics. Self-organized patterns arise in nature, such as pigmentation in animals, tree branching fractals, Prigogine non-equilibrium chemical bifurcations, and are postulated by Turing to occur from diffusion-reaction driven instabilities. In spite of the spontaneous nature, these threshold-dependent patterns - when formed - can potentially be remarkably robust in the presence of noise. Here we report the spontaneous Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators, developing a precision frequency comb in the solid-state. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a sideband non-uniformity measured down to 1 part in 1.5x10^15. Local mode hybridizations in the nonlinear ring oscillator seeds the coherent pattern formation and phase matching, to obtain a record ...

  17. Quantum properties of transverse pattern formation in second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Scotto, P.; Zambrini, R.;


    We investigate the spatial quantum noise properties of the one-dimensional transverse pattern formation instability in intracavity second-harmonic generation. The Q representation of a quasi-probability distribution is implemented in terms of nonlinear stochastic Langevin equations. We study...... these equations through extensive numerical simulations and analytically in the linearized limit. Our study, made below and above the threshold of pattern formation, is guided by a microscopic scheme of photon interaction underlying pattern formation in second-harmonic generation. Close to the threshold...

  18. Direct numerical simulation of pattern formation in subaqueous sediment

    CERN Document Server

    Kidanemariam, Aman G


    We present results of direct numerical simulation of incompressible fluid flow over a thick bed of mobile, spherically-shaped particles. The algorithm is based upon the immersed boundary technique for fluid-solid coupling and uses a soft-sphere model for the solid-solid contact. Two parameter points in the laminar flow regime are chosen, leading to the emergence of sediment patterns classified as `small dunes', while one case under turbulent flow conditions leads to `vortex dunes' with significant flow separation on the lee side. Wavelength, amplitude and propagation speed of the patterns extracted from the spanwise-averaged fluid-bed interface are found to be consistent with available experimental data. The particle transport rates are well represented by available empirical models for flow over a plane sediment bed in both the laminar and the turbulent regimes.

  19. Dynamic array generation and pattern formation for optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P.C.; Glückstad, J.


    The generalised phase contrast approach is used for the generation of optical arrays of arbitrary beam shape, suitable for applications in optical tweezers for the manipulation of biological specimens. This approach offers numerous advantages over current techniques involving the use of computer......-generated holograms or diffractive optical elements. We demonstrate a low-loss system for generating intensity patterns suitable for the trapping and manipulation of small particles or specimens....

  20. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly. (United States)

    Moore, Tyler G; Garzon, Max H; Deaton, Russell J


    Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic self-assembly systems

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler G Moore

    Full Text Available Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic

  2. Perspective: network-guided pattern formation of neural dynamics


    Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; Kaiser, Marcus; Claus C Hilgetag


    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to...

  3. Dewetting-mediated pattern formation in nanoparticle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, Andrew, E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)


    The deposition of nanoparticles from solution onto solid substrates is a diverse subfield of current nanoscience research. Complex physical and chemical processes underpin the self-assembly and self-organization of colloidal nanoparticles at two-phase (solid-liquid, liquid-air) interfaces and three-phase (solid-liquid-air) contact lines. This review discusses key recent advances made in the understanding of nonequilibrium dewetting processes of nanoparticle-containing solutions, detailing how such an apparently simple experimental system can give rise to such a strikingly varied palette of two-dimensional self-organized nanoparticle array morphologies. Patterns discussed include worm-like domains, cellular networks, microscale rings, and fractal-like fingering structures. There remain many unresolved issues regarding the role of the solvent dewetting dynamics in assembly processes of this type, with a significant focus on how dewetting can be coerced to produce nanoparticle arrays with desirable characteristics such as long-range order. In addition to these topics, methods developed to control nanofluid dewetting through routes such as confining the geometries of drying solutions, depositing onto pre-patterned heterogeneous substrates, and post-dewetting pattern evolution via local or global manipulation are covered. (topical review)

  4. Pattern Formation in Predator-Prey Model with Delay and Cross Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian


    Full Text Available We consider the effect of time delay and cross diffusion on the dynamics of a modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge. Based on the stability analysis, we demonstrate that delayed feedback may generate Hopf and Turing instability under some conditions, resulting in spatial patterns. One of the most interesting findings is that the model exhibits complex pattern replication: the model dynamics exhibits a delay and diffusion controlled formation growth not only to spots, stripes, and holes, but also to spiral pattern self-replication. The results indicate that time delay and cross diffusion play important roles in pattern formation.

  5. Nanoparticles dynamics on a surface: fractal pattern formation and fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.


    In this paper we review our recent results on the formation and the post-growth relaxation processes of nanofractals on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate...... that these kinetic processes determine the final shape of the islands on surface after post-growth relaxation. We consider different scenarios of fractal relaxation and analyze the time evolution of the island's morphology....

  6. Influence of phase separation for surfactant driven pattern formation during ion beam erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsaess, Hans; Zhang, Kun; Vetter, Ulrich; Bobes, Omar; Pape, Andre; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Broetzmann, Marc [II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)


    We will present results on metal surfactant driven self-organized pattern formation on surfaces by ion beam erosion, with a focus on the role of phase separation for the initial steps of pattern formation. Si substrates were irradiated with 5 keV Xe ions at normal incidence and ion fluences up to 5.10{sup 17} Xe/cm{sup 2} under continuous deposition of surfactant atoms. In the absence of such surfactants uniform flat surfaces are obtained, while in the presence of Fe and Mo surfactants pronounced patterns like dots, combinations of dots and ripples with wavelengths around 100 nm are generated. The surfactant coverage and deposition direction determine the pattern type and the pattern orientation, respectively. A critical steady-state coverage for onset of dot formation and onset of ripple formation is in the range of 10{sup 15} and 5.10{sup 15} Xe/cm{sup 2}. The steady-state surface region consists of a thin amorphous metal silicide layer with high metal concentration in the ripple and dot regions. Pattern formation is explained by ion induced diffusion and phase separation of the initially flat amorphous silicide layer and subsequent ion beam erosion with composition dependent sputter yield. To investigate the role of initial phase separation we additionally compare the pattern formation for different other metal surfactants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Ya. Zhurkina


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article reveals the theoretical aspects in formation of socio-professional self-determination of learners in education institutions. The emphasis is on interdisciplinary links, integration approaches in the study of problems of self-determination. Materials and Methods: the article was written using a number of methods of theoretical pedagogical study, allowing mental penetration into the essence of the phenomenon under study teacher: analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization method of investigating causal relationships. Results: the authors reveal the essence of the socio-professional self-determination and present grounds for separation of this concept out from the pyramid of the terms that characterise the description of the career choice process. The article substantiates the social orientation of the act of choosing a profession. It argues that career choice affects the future social position. Knowledge of theoretical bases of process of socioprofessional self-determination is very important for preparation of children for conscious career choices. Special attention is paid to the regularities, principles and f actors of this process. Discussion and Conclusions: giving a thorough account of internal and external factors of socio-professional self-determination, the authors propose to consider them solely in the system, with its inherent dynamics and the inextricable connection with the environment, suggest that changes in the social environment always entail changes in the system of factors. The article is concerned with the problem of contradictions of the process of formation of socio-professional self-determination. The authors highlight the leading role of pedagogical support in the process of socio-professional self-determination of a student’s personality, analyse modern approaches to the concept of pedagogical support. The authors characterize the educational support system as a professional educator focused


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on a batch formed by 10 laying hens, ISA Brown hybrid, at the first laying cycles, 50 weeks old, hold single in cages and fed with granulated forage. The hens were watched for 3 weeks in order to establish the moment of the oviposition and depending on that their slaughtering was set out so that the different stages of the egg formation could be observed. The hens were divided into 4 groups – I, II, III, IV- depending on the time elapsed from the last oviposition. Femur fragments have been drawn from the central zone of the diaphises and transformed in hematoxiline-eozine and alcian-blue stained preparations, the trichromic Mallory method and the Dorfmann-Epstein method for the emphasising of the alkaline phosphatasis. At the hens of the first group the presence of the medullary bone is shown and is characterised by an intense ossification process with compact bone structure, with well formed osseus trabeculae that occupy the medullar cavity. There is also present a rich content of acid mucopolyssacharide. The hens from the second group (II have a well formed medullary bone, with visible osseus trabeculae. From the histological point of view, the medullary bone of the hens from the third group (III is rarefied with large areolae, with collagen fibres that lack osein, having thus a characteristic aspect of massive decalcification. At the hens from the fourth group (IV the medullary bone shows synthesis processes and bone matrix forming, positive, intensive FAL activity, that proves the presence of active osteoblasts, i.e. bone remodelling processes.

  9. Pattern Formation and Continuation in a Trineuron Ring with Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Jiang GUO; Li Hong HUANG


    In this paper, we consider a single-directional ring of three neurons with delays. First, linear stability of the model is investigated by analyzing the associated characteristic transcendental equation. Next, we studied the local Hopf bifurcations and the spatio-temporal patterns of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits. Basing on the normal form approach and the center manifold theory, we derive the formula for determining the properties of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbit, such as the direction of Hopf bifurcation. Finally, global existence conditions for Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits are derived by using degree theory methods.

  10. Jamming and pattern formation in models of segregation (United States)

    Rogers, Tim; McKane, Alan J.


    We investigate the Schelling model of social segregation, formulated as an intrinsically nonequilibrium system, in which the agents occupy districts (or patches) rather than sites on a grid. We show that this allows the equations governing the dynamical behavior of the model to be derived. Analysis of these equations reveals a jamming transition in the regime of low-vacancy density, and inclusion of a spatial dimension in the model leads to a pattern forming instability. Both of these phenomena exhibit unusual characteristics which may be studied through our approach.

  11. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  12. Pattern formation by temperature-gradient driven film instabilities in laterally confined geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedelcu, M; Morariu, MD; Harkema, S; Voicu, NE; Steiner, U


    Film break-up driven by an electric field or temperature gradient typically exhibit a characteristic length scale. The presence of a lateral confinement significantly alters this pattern formation process.

  13. A survey on pattern formation of autonomous mobile robots: asynchrony, obliviousness and visibility (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yukiko


    A robot system consists of autonomous mobile robots each of which repeats Look-Compute-Move cycles, where the robot observes the positions of other robots (Look phase), computes the track to the next location (Compute phase), and moves along the track (Move phase). In this survey, we focus on self-organization of mobile robots, especially their power of forming patterns. The formation power of a robot system is the class of patterns that the robots can form, and existing results show that the robot system's formation power is determined by their asynchrony, obliviousness, and visibility. We briefly survey existing results, with impossibilities and pattern formation algorithms. Finally, we present several open problems related to the pattern formation problem of mobile robots.

  14. [Family formation in Flanders: new patterns, different timing]. (United States)

    Lee, H Y; Rajulton, F; Wijewickrema, S; Lesthaeghe, R


    "The article presents a statistical study of the starting age and the speed of transitions in the process of family formation in Flanders. It contrasts two sets of generations, three groups according to educational achievement and three groups with differing religious practice. The methodology of shifted proportional hazard models is used and transition probabilities are fed into a semi-Markovian chain. Higher educational achievement results in later starting points, but not in a differing pace once started. By contrast, lower religious involvement speeds up the transitions to first sexual contact and premarital cohabitation, while it considerably retards the transition to parenthood among the generations born after 1950." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  15. Pattern formation and firing synchronization in networks of map neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qingyun [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Duan Zhisheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Lin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen Guanrong [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lu Qishao [School of Science, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Patterns and collective phenomena such as firing synchronization are studied in networks of nonhomogeneous oscillatory neurons and mixtures of oscillatory and excitable neurons, with dynamics of each neuron described by a two-dimensional (2D) Rulkov map neuron. It is shown that as the coupling strength is increased, typical patterns emerge spatially, which propagate through the networks in the form of beautiful target waves or parallel ones depending on the size of networks. Furthermore, we investigate the transitions of firing synchronization characterized by the rate of firing when the coupling strength is increased. It is found that there exists an intermediate coupling strength; firing synchronization is minimal simultaneously irrespective of the size of networks. For further increasing the coupling strength, synchronization is enhanced. Since noise is inevitable in real neurons, we also investigate the effects of white noise on firing synchronization for different networks. For the networks of oscillatory neurons, it is shown that firing synchronization decreases when the noise level increases. For the missed networks, firing synchronization is robust under the noise conditions considered in this paper. Results presented in this paper should prove to be valuable for understanding the properties of collective dynamics in real neuronal networks.

  16. Radial-pattern formation in the polycarbonate substratum of recordable compact disks (United States)

    Tanimura, M.; Ishikawa, I.; Tachibana, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Kojima, K.


    A radial pattern is found to form in the polycarbonate (PC) substratum of a recordable compact disk. Characteristic features of the pattern are that it is composed of about 80 needle-like regions, the shape of which closely resembles a thin film. In addition, white light is found to scatter at the needle-like region/matrix boundaries. This suggests that the PC substratum may have inferior transparency due to the formation of this pattern. Thus, it is important to understand the bifurcation of the radial-pattern formation from the viewpoint of materials science and engineering. Based on the mechanics of the PC viscous fluid, it has been found that the bifurcation of the pattern formation has a Reynolds number of about 10-3.

  17. Pattern formation in particle systems driven by color field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The structural evolution of systems with two kinds of particles driven in opposite directions, i.e., driven by a color field, is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Gaussian thermostat,a common treatment to restrict the thermal velocity of the particles in the systems, has been used so as to account for the dissipation of heat and allow the system to reach a steady state. It has been found that with the increase of the strngth of driving force (F), the system undergoes an obvious structural transition from an initially random mixing state to a state characterized by separate lanes and in each lane only one kind of particles exists. The analysis shows that the reason for the formation of lane structure is not only the increase of F but also the variation of particle friction coefficient. While using Ganssian thermostat the particle friction coefficient becomes a function of F. Increasing F leads to high particle friction coefficient and inevitably results in lane formation for strong enough driving force. When lifting the effect of F on friction coefficient and choosing a constant friction coefficient,our results show that for a given F there always exists a critical value of friction coefficient higher than which the system will develop into lane structure.

  18. Longitudinal Relations between Personality Traits and Aspects of Identity Formation during Adolescence (United States)

    Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Grob, Sabine Zehnder; Peng, Aristide; Morgenthaler, Christoph; Kappler, Christoph


    The current study focused on three aspects of identity development relevant to the adolescent years: being an authentic person, perceiving control over and consistency in one's environment, and having consistent expectations from close others. In a two-wave study of adolescents (n = 750), we examined how these aspects change over the course of a…

  19. Time rescaling and pattern formation in biological evolution. (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Abir U


    Biological evolution is analyzed as a process of continuous measurement in which biosystems interpret themselves in the environment resulting in changes of both. This leads to rescaling of internal time (heterochrony) followed by spatial reconstructions of morphology (heterotopy). The logical precondition of evolution is the incompleteness of biosystem's internal description, while the physical precondition is the uncertainty of quantum measurement. The process of evolution is based on perpetual changes in interpretation of information in the changing world. In this interpretation the external biospheric gradients are used for establishment of new features of organization. It is concluded that biological evolution involves the anticipatory epigenetic changes in the interpretation of genetic symbolism which cannot generally be forecasted but can provide canalization of structural transformations defined by the existing organization and leading to predictable patterns of form generation.

  20. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  1. Genetic oscillations. A Doppler effect in embryonic pattern formation. (United States)

    Soroldoni, Daniele; Jörg, David J; Morelli, Luis G; Richmond, David L; Schindelin, Johannes; Jülicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C


    During embryonic development, temporal and spatial cues are coordinated to generate a segmented body axis. In sequentially segmenting animals, the rhythm of segmentation is reported to be controlled by the time scale of genetic oscillations that periodically trigger new segment formation. However, we present real-time measurements of genetic oscillations in zebrafish embryos showing that their time scale is not sufficient to explain the temporal period of segmentation. A second time scale, the rate of tissue shortening, contributes to the period of segmentation through a Doppler effect. This contribution is modulated by a gradual change in the oscillation profile across the tissue. We conclude that the rhythm of segmentation is an emergent property controlled by the time scale of genetic oscillations, the change of oscillation profile, and tissue shortening.

  2. Pattern formation during electrodeposition of copper-antimony alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Kostov


    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to establish the conditions of the electrolysis for the preparation of structured and unstressed purple-pink coatings of copper-antimony alloys, including their phase characterization. Also the task of the present investigation is, by changing drastically the metal content in the methanesulfonic electrolyte to find out the conditions of electrolysis where the self-organization of the different phases is expressed by higher-order structures - not only waves but also spirals and targets. The possibility to obtain copper-antimony alloy with up to 80 wt. % Sb from methanesulfonic acid is shown. The deposition rate, morphology and the phase composition of the obtained coatings are established. The phenomena of formation of spatio-temporal structures in this alloy are described.It is determined that the observed structures consist of Cu2Sb and Cu11Sb3 intermetallic phases.

  3. Structural aspects of molecular recognition in the immune system. Part II: Pattern recognition receptors



    The vertebrate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect a large variety of molecular signatures (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) from a broad range of different invading pathogens. The PAMPs range in size from relatively small molecules, to others of intermediate size such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, lipopeptides, and oligosaccharides, to macromolecules such as viral DNA, RNA, and pathogen-derived proteins such as flagellin. Underlying this functio...

  4. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Braun


    Full Text Available The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO, molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness < 10 nm result from an interplay between dewetting patterns and diffusion limited growth pattern of ordered lamella growing within the dewetting areas. Besides structure formation of hydrophilic PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups.

  5. Exploring Formative E-Assessment: Using Case Stories and Design Patterns (United States)

    Daly, Caroline; Pachler, Norbert; Mor, Yishay; Mellar, Harvey


    This article presents key findings from a Joint Information Systems Committee-funded project, which aimed to identify existing practices where technologies contribute to formative assessment and identify processes that take place around formative assessment where technologies play a significant role. Using a design pattern methodology, the project…

  6. Pattern formation induced by cross-diffusion in a predator-prey system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Gui-Quan; Jin Zhen; Liu Quan-Xing; Li Li


    This paper considers the Holling-Tanner model for predator-prey with self and cross-diffusion.From the Turing theory,it is believed that there is no Turing pattern formation for the equal self-diffusion coefficients.However,combined with cross-diffusion,it shows that the system will exhibit spotted pattern by both mathematical analysis and numerical simulations.Furthermore,nsynchrony of the predator and the prey in the space.The obtained results show that cross-diffusion plays an important role on the pattern formation of the predator-prey system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina BABEŞ


    Full Text Available This paper comprises parts of the theoretical and empirical research that I have conducted for my PhD studies. The theoretical structure focuses on the evaluative framework of capabilities, as it has been developed by Martha Nussbaum and the social and political aspects of Thomas Janoski’s operationalization of citizenship. The analytical framework that I came up with was further applied on the interviews that I have conducted with Romanian olim in Israel. This allowed me to come up with significant results concerning their integration within the Israeli society. These results cover aspects that belong to areas of one’s social, political, cultural life. The empirical research itself was a qualitative one with semi-structured interviews, while the results were further analyzed using the discourse analysis method.

  8. Injection molding micro patterns with high aspect ratio using a polymeric flexible stamper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Poor filling occurs during the injection molding process of micro- or nano- scale patterns mainly because the hot polymer melt rapidly cools and its skin quickly solidifies upon contact with the mold surface. In this study, it is proposed to use Polyethylene terephthalate (PET film coated with patterned polyurethane acrylate (PUA as an effective thermal barrier. It can significantly hinder heat transfer into the mold during the molding process and thus may keep the melt viscosity low for longer duration. As a result, the replication would be improved not only during the filling phase but also during the packing phase. In order to verify the validity of the use of polymeric stamper, the melt-film interface temperature was evaluated by numerical simulation. Experimental results indicated that patterns possessing widths within the range of one to tens of micrometers and a height of approximately 10 µm were successfully filled and demolded.

  9. Ion-induced pattern formation on indium tin oxide for alignment of liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Škereň, T., E-mail: [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven Belgium (Belgium); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Doornaert, D. [Laboratory for Acoustics and Thermal Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Wave Propagation and Signal Processing Research Group, KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk, E. Sabbelaan 53, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Glorieux, C. [Laboratory for Acoustics and Thermal Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Modarresi, H. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven Belgium (Belgium); Guan, T. [Departement Elektrotechniek ESAT-MICAS, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Temst, K. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven Belgium (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven Belgium (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven Belgium (Belgium)


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is broadly used as a transparent conducting material for electrodes in optoelectronic devices. Irradiation of ITO with low energy ions can result in the formation of periodic surface nanopatterns which can serve as an alternative for the polymer alignment layer in liquid crystal devices. We investigated the formation of the ion-induced surface nanopatterns on ITO with focus on the influence of the crystalline structure of the material. We find that the crystallinity plays a crucial role in the pattern formation, with no pattern developing on an amorphous ITO surface. We discuss these findings in the context of the state-of-the-art theory for ion-induced patterning. We show that the ion-induced pattern plays a critical role in the liquid crystal alignment on ITO surfaces.

  10. Formation of Self-Organized Anode Patterns in Arc Discharge Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, Juan Pablo


    Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic nonequilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant DC current between an axi-symmetric electrodes configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size, and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity, and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational require...

  11. Pattern formation in vibrated beds of dry and wet granular materials (United States)

    Chuan Lim, Eldin Wee


    The Discrete Element Method was coupled with a capillary liquid bridge force model for computational studies of pattern formation in vibrated granular beds containing dry or wet granular materials. Depending on the vibration conditions applied, hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was observed in the dry vibrated granular bed. In each of these cases, the same hexagonal, stripes, or cellular pattern was also observed in the spatial distribution of the magnitudes of particle-particle collision forces prior to the formation of the corresponding actual pattern in physical distributions of the particles. This seemed to suggest that the pattern formation phenomenon of vibrated granular bed systems might be the result of a two-dimensional Newton's cradle effect. In the presence of a small amount of wetness, these patterns were no longer formed in the vibrated granular beds under the same corresponding set of vibration conditions. Despite the relatively much weaker capillary forces arising from the simulated liquid bridges between particles compared with particle-particle collision forces, the spatial distributions of these collision forces, physical distributions of particles, as well as time profiles of average collision forces were altered significantly in comparison with the corresponding distributions and profiles observed for the dry vibrated granular beds. This seemed to suggest the presence of a two-dimensional Stokes' cradle effect in these wet vibrated granular bed systems which disrupted the formation of patterns in the wet granular materials that would have been observed in their dry counterparts.

  12. How Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Presenting Visualizations Affect Learning about Locomotion Patterns (United States)

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter


    Two studies investigated the effectiveness of dynamic and static visualizations for a perceptual learning task (locomotion pattern classification). In Study 1, seventy-five students viewed either dynamic, static-sequential, or static-simultaneous visualizations. For tasks of intermediate difficulty, dynamic visualizations led to better…

  13. Cortical instability drives periodic supracellular actin pattern formation in epithelial tubes. (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Dong, Bo; Recho, Pierre; Joanny, Jean-François; Hayashi, Shigeo


    An essential question of morphogenesis is how patterns arise without preexisting positional information, as inspired by Turing. In the past few years, cytoskeletal flows in the cell cortex have been identified as a key mechanism of molecular patterning at the subcellular level. Theoretical and in vitro studies have suggested that biological polymers such as actomyosin gels have the property to self-organize, but the applicability of this concept in an in vivo setting remains unclear. Here, we report that the regular spacing pattern of supracellular actin rings in the Drosophila tracheal tubule is governed by a self-organizing principle. We propose a simple biophysical model where pattern formation arises from the interplay of myosin contractility and actin turnover. We validate the hypotheses of the model using photobleaching experiments and report that the formation of actin rings is contractility dependent. Moreover, genetic and pharmacological perturbations of the physical properties of the actomyosin gel modify the spacing of the pattern, as the model predicted. In addition, our model posited a role of cortical friction in stabilizing the spacing pattern of actin rings. Consistently, genetic depletion of apical extracellular matrix caused strikingly dynamic movements of actin rings, mirroring our model prediction of a transition from steady to chaotic actin patterns at low cortical friction. Our results therefore demonstrate quantitatively that a hydrodynamical instability of the actin cortex can trigger regular pattern formation and drive morphogenesis in an in vivo setting.

  14. Effect of substrate temperature on pattern formation of nanoparticles from volatile drops. (United States)

    Parsa, Maryam; Harmand, Souad; Sefiane, Khellil; Bigerelle, Maxence; Deltombe, Raphaël


    This study investigates pattern formation during evaporation of water-based nanofluid sessile droplets placed on a smooth silicon surface at various temperatures. An infrared thermography technique was employed to observe the temperature distribution along the air-liquid interface of evaporating droplets. In addition, an optical interferometry technique is used to quantify and characterize the deposited patterns. Depending on the substrate temperature, three distinctive deposition patterns are observed: a nearly uniform coverage pattern, a "dual-ring" pattern, and multiple rings corresponding to "stick-slip" pattern. At all substrate temperatures, the internal flow within the drop builds a ringlike cluster of the solute on the top region of drying droplets, which is found essential for the formation of the secondary ring deposition onto the substrate for the deposits with the "dual-ring" pattern. The size of the secondary ring is found to be dependent on the substrate temperature. For the deposits with the rather uniform coverage pattern, the ringlike cluster of the solute does not deposit as a distinct secondary ring; instead, it is deformed by the contact line depinning. In the case of the "stick-slip" pattern, the internal flow behavior is complex and found to be vigorous with rapid circulating flow which appears near the edge of the drop.

  15. Chirality as a physical aspect of structure formation in biological macromolecular systems (United States)

    Malyshko, E. V.; Tverdislov, V. A.


    A novel regularity of hierarchical structures is found in the formation of chiral biological macromolecular systems. The formation of structures with alternating chirality (helical structures) serves as an instrument of stratification. The ability of a carbon atom to form chiral compounds is an important factor that determined the carbon basis of living systems on the Earth as well as their development through a series of chiral bifurcations. In the course of biological evolution, the helical structures became basic elements of the molecular machines in the cell. The discreteness of structural levels allowed the mechanical degrees of freedom formation in the molecular machines in the cell.

  16. Wavelength Analysis of Interface between Two Miscible Solutions Observed in Formation of Fractal Pattern (United States)

    Shimokawa, Michiko; Takami, Toshiya


    When a droplet of a higher-density solution (HDS) is placed on top of a lower-density solution (LDS), the HDS draws a fractal pattern on the surface of the LDS. Before the fractal pattern is formed, a stick-like pattern with a periodic structure emerges in a region surrounding the surface pattern due to interfacial instability. We experimentally measure the wavelength of this stick-like pattern. The wavelength increases with the volume of the HDS and is independent of the viscosities of the two solutions. To understand the stick generation, we propose a model of miscible viscous fingering whose boundary conditions are similar to those of the experiments. The wavelength obtained from the model agrees with the experimentally obtained wavelength. The formation of the fractal pattern is discussed by comparing it with the viscous fingering.

  17. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I. Linear stability analysis and basic patterns. (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K


    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.

  18. Discovering local patterns of co - evolution: computational aspects and biological examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuller Tamir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-evolution is the process in which two (or more sets of orthologs exhibit a similar or correlative pattern of evolution. Co-evolution is a powerful way to learn about the functional interdependencies between sets of genes and cellular functions and to predict physical interactions. More generally, it can be used for answering fundamental questions about the evolution of biological systems. Orthologs that exhibit a strong signal of co-evolution in a certain part of the evolutionary tree may show a mild signal of co-evolution in other branches of the tree. The major reasons for this phenomenon are noise in the biological input, genes that gain or lose functions, and the fact that some measures of co-evolution relate to rare events such as positive selection. Previous publications in the field dealt with the problem of finding sets of genes that co-evolved along an entire underlying phylogenetic tree, without considering the fact that often co-evolution is local. Results In this work, we describe a new set of biological problems that are related to finding patterns of local co-evolution. We discuss their computational complexity and design algorithms for solving them. These algorithms outperform other bi-clustering methods as they are designed specifically for solving the set of problems mentioned above. We use our approach to trace the co-evolution of fungal, eukaryotic, and mammalian genes at high resolution across the different parts of the corresponding phylogenetic trees. Specifically, we discover regions in the fungi tree that are enriched with positive evolution. We show that metabolic genes exhibit a remarkable level of co-evolution and different patterns of co-evolution in various biological datasets. In addition, we find that protein complexes that are related to gene expression exhibit non-homogenous levels of co-evolution across different parts of the fungi evolutionary line. In the case of mammalian evolution

  19. A Theoretical Model of Jigsaw-Puzzle Pattern Formation by Plant Leaf Epidermal Cells. (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Akita, Kae; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Yoshimura, Kenji; Miura, Takashi


    Plant leaf epidermal cells exhibit a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern that is generated by interdigitation of the cell wall during leaf development. The contribution of two ROP GTPases, ROP2 and ROP6, to the cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate epidermal cell wall interdigitation has already been examined; however, how interactions between these molecules result in pattern formation remains to be elucidated. Here, we propose a simple interface equation model that incorporates both the cell wall remodeling activity of ROP GTPases and the diffusible signaling molecules by which they are regulated. This model successfully reproduces pattern formation observed in vivo, and explains the counterintuitive experimental results of decreased cellulose production and increased thickness. Our model also reproduces the dynamics of three-way cell wall junctions. Therefore, this model provides a possible mechanism for cell wall interdigitation formation in vivo.

  20. On the dynamics of Liesegang-type pattern formation in a gaseous system (United States)

    Ramírez-Álvarez, Elizeth; Montoya, Fernando; Buhse, Thomas; Rios-Herrera, Wady; Torres-Guzmán, José; Rivera, Marco; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.


    Liesegang pattern formations are widely spread in nature. In spite of a comparably simple experimental setup under laboratory conditions, a variety of spatio-temporal structures may arise. Presumably because of easier control of the experimental conditions, Liesegang pattern formation was mainly studied in gel systems during more than a century. Here we consider pattern formation in a gas phase, where beautiful but highly complex reaction-diffusion-convection dynamics are uncovered by means of a specific laser technique. A quantitative analysis reveals that two different, apparently independent processes, both highly correlated and synchronized across the extension of the reaction cloud, act on different time scales. Each of them imprints a different structure of salt precipitation at the tube walls. PMID:27025405

  1. [Topographic aspects of visual evoked potentials recorded after flash-pattern stimulation in normal subjects]. (United States)

    Samson-Dollfus, D; Parain, D; Menard, J F; Layet, A; Nehili, F; Dreano, E


    Visual evoked responses have been recorded on 14 leads placed on the scalp. They were localised on the central, parietal, temporal and occipital regions. The common reference was linked-ears. The stimulus consisted of a flash pattern. The size of the pattern and of each square was respectively of 20 degrees and 30 min. The stimulation of the total visual field had evoked two families of curves. One of these types of curves was posterior (occipital, temporal and parietal) and consisted in a positive, negative, positive wave (100, 136, 200 msec on average) and the second type was localised on the central leads and much more rhythmic than the posterior response. The initial complex (negative, positive, negative, positive: 70, 92, 120, 178 msec) was followed by a slow after-discharge. The half-field stimulation evoked a P100 component on the contralateral posterior leads, but this P100 was less prominent on the ipsilateral posterior leads. The modifications were particularly evident at the level of the temporal posterior electrodes. This P100 component was the only wave to be modified by half-field visual stimulation. The posterior N136 and P200 wave and all the rhythmic central response were exactly the same with half or total visual field stimulation. The results have obviously shown that the different waves of the visual evoked responses are not coming from the same sources. The interpretation of multichannel evoked recordings was therefore very difficult.

  2. Performance analysis and optimal design for well patterns in anisotropic formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuetian


    The mechanism of the effects of anisotropic permeability on well patterns and reservoir development are investigated by coordinate transformation,fluid flow analysis,and reservoir development concepts.Anisotropy of permeability has reconstructive effects on well patterns.The originally designed flooding units are broken up,and new pattern units are made up of the wells that belong to different original units.The behavior possesses strong randomness,and leads to a complicated relationship among the injection and production wells,and unpredictable productivity of the formations.To prevent the break-up of well patterns,well lines should be either parallel or perpendicular to the maximum principal direction of the anisotropic permeability(i.e.the fracture direction).To optimize the development effects of anisotropic formations,the latitudinal and longitudinal well spacing of the well network are calculated from the principal values of the anisotropic permeability.

  3. Topological analysis of the formation of Jet-Wake flow pattern in centrifugal impeller channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qun; LIU Shun-long


    Topological analyses are carried out for the numerical results of internal flow field in centrifugal impeller. Topological rules of the singular point characteristics of the limiting streamline are derived and used to determine three dimensional separation patterns in centrifugal impeller and to verify the numerical results. The results reveal that the wake is saddle to nodal closed separation and the formation, its onset point and its developing process of Jet-Wake Flow pattern in centrifugal impeller are presented in this paper.

  4. Pattern Formation in a Vibrated Granular Layer on an Inclined Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Dong; MIAO Guo-Qing


    We carry out the simulations of pattern formation in a two-dimensional vibrated granular layer on an inclined base by molecular dynamics.It is found that the maximum amplitude of the pattern is greater at the lower part than at the higher part of the base,and is proportional to the thickness of the layer.Meanwhile,the wavelength varies non-monotonically as the inclined angle of the base is increased.

  5. Hardware format pattern banks for the Associative memory boards in the ATLAS Fast Tracker Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Grewcoe, Clay James


    The aim of this project is to streamline and update the process of encoding the pattern bank to hardware format in the Associative memory board (AM) of the Fast Tracker (FTK) for the ATLAS detector. The encoding is also adapted to Gray code to eliminate possible misreadings in high frequency devices such as this one, ROOT files are used to store the pattern banks because of the compression utilized in ROOT.

  6. Some Aspects of the Formation of Gender-based Literary Criticism in China


    Isaieva, Natalia


    The purpose of this article is to study some aspects of Gender Studies in Modern Chinese Literary criticism, which were not the subject of study in Ukraine. It will give an opportunity to the orientalists (as well as anyone who is interested in the problems of gender) to expand the understanding of the possibilities of the existing interpretive theories of feminist criticism. The author of the study applies the method of structural description. Particular attention is paid to Chinese methods ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Koon-kwai; Manfred DOMROES


    Hong Kong is a hyper-dense city with 7×106 people living in an area of 1100km2.One way to improve the livability of compacted and congested cities like Hong Kong is through the provision of urban parks,an aspect that has largely been under-researched.This study focuses on how users perceive and utilize various facilities in the Kowloon Park.The findings revealed that the Kowloon Park is one of the most preferred parks in Hong Kong for both local residents and tourists.Users were quite satisfied with the park's facilities.Notably,the most important component of an urban park is its greenery.This is followed by water elements,seating places,and facilities for various recreational activities.The improvements users would like to see in urban parks include good design and management,meeting users' needs,overcoming barriers to use,and providing a high quality and varied experience for different groups in the community.The findings of this study provide a good basis to address park management issues from the users' perspective.In particular,parks should provide easy access,encourage optimum usage and enable complimentary improvements to the environment.

  8. Drinking pattern and socio-cultural aspects on immune response: an overview. (United States)

    Romeo, Javier; Wärnberg, Julia; Marcos, Ascensión


    Social acceptance of drinking involves social and cultural roles and has important implications for public health. Since extensive evidence indicates that alcohol possesses immunomodulatory properties, scientists have recently debated the influence of alcohol consumption on the immune response, particularly in countries where drinking in a social setting is a part of cultural identity. Experimental and clinical data support the conclusion that alcohol is a potent immunomodulator. While high alcohol consumption suppresses a wide range of immune responses, leading to an increased incidence of a number of infectious diseases, moderate alcohol consumption may have a beneficial impact on the immune system, compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence, most likely due to the multiple components of polyphenol-rich alcoholic contributing to the protective effect seen for moderate alcohol consumption on CVD and the immune system. Despite this, the scientific literature appears to be concerned about the diseases associated with excessive drinking in some societies and cultures. Thus, the present review recognizes the importance to consider social and cultural aspects of drinking when examining the whole dimension of alcohol consumption (amount, beverage type, frequency and variability), in order to estimate global risk of consequences on host defence to better understand alcohol-related harm or benefit.

  9. Pattern Formation inside a Rotating Cylinder Partially Filled with Liquid and Granular Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Dyakova


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the experimental study of the dynamics of liquid and granular medium in a rapidly rotating horizontal cylinder. In the cavity frame gravity field performs rotation and produces oscillatory liquid flow, which is responsible for the series of novel effects; the problem corresponds to “vibrational mechanics”—generation of steady flows and patterns by oscillating force field. The paper presents the initial results of experimental study of a novel pattern formation effect which is observed at the interface between fluid and sand and which takes the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation. The initial results of experimental research of a novel effect of pattern formation at the interface between fluid and sand in the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation are presented. The spatial period of the patterns is studied in dependence on liquid volume, viscosity, and rotation rate. The experimental study of long time dynamics of pattern formation manifests that regular ripples transform into a series of dunes within a few minutes or dozens of minutes. The variety of patterns is determined by the interaction of two types of liquid flows induced by gravity: oscillatory and steady azimuthal flows near the sand surface.

  10. Some practical aspects of log interpretation of gas-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banthia, B.S.


    Computerized log interpretation is a standard technique of formation evaluation. Gas can be detected in shaly sandstone formation by combined neutron-density porosity logs, but if the hydrocarbon density is less than 0.8 g/cc, a correction must be made for the hydrocarbon effect on the neutron and density logs. A correction has also to be made for shaliness. A method for obtaining a crossplot porosity value is given. Log interpretation of geopressured gas condensate reservoirs is also discussed. (DLC)

  11. Pattern Formation in a Predator-Prey Model with Both Cross Diffusion and Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boli Xie


    Full Text Available A predator-prey model with both cross diffusion and time delay is considered. We give the conditions for emerging Turing instability in detail. Furthermore, we illustrate the spatial patterns via numerical simulations, which show that the model dynamics exhibits a delay and diffusion controlled formation growth not only of spots and stripe-like patterns, but also of the two coexist. The obtained results show that this system has rich dynamics; these patterns show that it is useful for the diffusive predation model with a delay effect to reveal the spatial dynamics in the real model.

  12. Design of a diffractive optical element for pattern formation in a bilingual virtual keyboard (United States)

    Manouchehri, Sohrab; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Oboudiat, Mohammad


    Pattern formation is one of the many applications of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for display. Since DOEs have lightweight and slim nature compared to other optical devices, using them as image projection device in virtual keyboards is suggested. In this paper, we present an approach to designing elements that produce distinct intensity patterns, in the far field, for two wavelengths. These two patterns are images of bilingual virtual keyboard. To achieve this with DOEs is not simple, as they are inherently wavelength specific. Our technique is based on phase periodic characteristic of wavefront using iterative algorithm to design the phase profiles.

  13. Temporal patterns of ant diversity across a mountain with climatically contrasting aspects in the tropics of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha Caswell Munyai

    Full Text Available Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons, standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns.

  14. Patterned electrospun nanofiber matrices via localized dissolution: potential for guided tissue formation. (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Yu, Dou; Lamarre, Marven; Leopold, Philip L; Teng, Yang D; Wang, Hongjun


    With the assistance of an ink-jet printer, solvent (the "ink") can be controllably and reproducibly printed onto electrospun nanofiber meshes (the "paper") to generate various micropatterns and subsequently guide distinct cellular organization and phenotype expression. In combination with the nanofiber-assisted layer-by-layer cell assembly, the patterned electrospun meshes will define an instructive microenvironment for guided tissue formation.

  15. Global bifurcation analysis and pattern formation in homogeneous diffusive predator-prey systems (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Wei, Junjie; Shi, Junping


    The dynamics of a general diffusive predator-prey system is considered. Existence and nonexistence of non-constant positive steady state solutions are shown to identify the ranges of parameters of spatial pattern formation. Bifurcations of spatially homogeneous and nonhomogeneous periodic solutions as well as non-constant steady state solutions are studied.

  16. Asymptotic Analysis in a Gas-Solid Combustion Model with Pattern Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude-Michel BRAUNER; Lina HU; Luca LORENZI


    The authors consider a free interface problem which stems from a gas-solid model in combustion with pattern formation.A third-order,fully nonlinear,self-consistent equation for the flame front is derived.Asymptotic methods reveal that the interface approaches a solution to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation.Numerical results which illustrate the dynamics are presented.

  17. Variation in brachial plexus formation, branching pattern and relation with major vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anwer Khan


    Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers revealed some rare variations in the formation, branching pattern and relations of the brachial plexus. These variations are of clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anesthesiologists. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1591-1594

  18. Collective motion of cells mediates segregation and pattern formation in co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elod Méhes

    Full Text Available Pattern formation by segregation of cell types is an important process during embryonic development. We show that an experimentally yet unexplored mechanism based on collective motility of segregating cells enhances the effects of known pattern formation mechanisms such as differential adhesion, mechanochemical interactions or cell migration directed by morphogens. To study in vitro cell segregation we use time-lapse videomicroscopy and quantitative analysis of the main features of the motion of individual cells or groups. Our observations have been extensive, typically involving the investigation of the development of patterns containing up to 200,000 cells. By either comparing keratocyte types with different collective motility characteristics or increasing cells' directional persistence by the inhibition of Rac1 GTP-ase we demonstrate that enhanced collective cell motility results in faster cell segregation leading to the formation of more extensive patterns. The growth of the characteristic scale of patterns generally follows an algebraic scaling law with exponent values up to 0.74 in the presence of collective motion, compared to significantly smaller exponents in case of diffusive motion.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of nanostructured Ti5Si3 formation during mechanical alloying and its characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sabooni; F Karimzadeh; M H Abbasi


    Mechanical alloying (MA) was used to produce Ti5Si3 intermetallic compound with nanocrystalline structure from elemental powders. The structural changes and characterization of powder particles during milling were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analyser (PSA) and microhardness measurements. MA resulted in gradual formation of disordered Ti5Si3 intermetallic compound with crystallite size of about 15 nm after 45 h of milling. Also a thermodynamic analysis of the process was carried out using Miedema model. The results showed that in the nominal composition of Ti5Si3 intermetallic phase (Si = 0.375), formation of an intermetallic compound has the lowest Gibbs free energy rather than solid solution or amorphous phases. So the MA product is the most stable phase in nominal composition of Ti5Si3. This intermetallic compound exhibits high microhardness value of about 1235 HV.

  20. Design and process aspects of laboratory scale SCF particle formation systems. (United States)

    Vemavarapu, Chandra; Mollan, Matthew J; Lodaya, Mayur; Needham, Thomas E


    Consistent production of solid drug materials of desired particle and crystallographic morphologies under cGMP conditions is a frequent challenge to pharmaceutical researchers. Supercritical fluid (SCF) technology gained significant attention in pharmaceutical research by not only showing a promise in this regard but also accommodating the principles of green chemistry. Given that this technology attained commercialization in coffee decaffeination and in the extraction of hops and other essential oils, a majority of the off-the-shelf SCF instrumentation is designed for extraction purposes. Only a selective few vendors appear to be in the early stages of manufacturing equipment designed for particle formation. The scarcity of information on the design and process engineering of laboratory scale equipment is recognized as a significant shortcoming to the technological progress. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide the information and resources necessary for startup research involving particle formation using supercritical fluids. The various stages of particle formation by supercritical fluid processing can be broadly classified into delivery, reaction, pre-expansion, expansion and collection. The importance of each of these processes in tailoring the particle morphology is discussed in this article along with presenting various alternatives to perform these operations.

  1. The effect of the signalling scheme on the robustness of pattern formation in development

    KAUST Repository

    Kang, H.-W.


    Pattern formation in development is a complex process which involves spatially distributed signals called morphogens that influence gene expression and thus the phenotypic identity of cells. Usually different cell types are spatially segregated, and the boundary between them may be determined by a threshold value of some state variable. The question arises as to how sensitive the location of such a boundary is to variations in properties, such as parameter values, that characterize the system. Here, we analyse both deterministic and stochastic reaction-diffusion models of pattern formation with a view towards understanding how the signalling scheme used for patterning affects the variability of boundary determination between cell types in a developing tissue.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu Ye; Yi-ning Jin; Xiao-jun Huang; Lei Luo; Zhi-kang Xu


    In our previous work,it was found that large Bird's Nest patterned nanofibrous membranes can be simply electrospun from chlorinated polypropylene solution doped with an ionic liquid,and a plausible formation mechanism of Bird's Nest patterned architectures was proposed.Here,we use Ansoft Maxwell version 12 software (3D,electrostatic solver) to simulate the electrical field distribution of the electrospirming setup,and to clarify the rationality of proposed formation mechanism.Calculation results clearly show that the introduction of charged nanofibrous bundles would produce a similar patterned electrical field distribution,which definitely confirms the important role of surface residual charges.The proposed mechanism can be well extended to other polymer systems including polystyrene,poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) and chitosan/poly(ethvlene oxide).

  3. Block Co-Polymers for Nanolithography: Rapid Microwave Annealing for Pattern Formation on Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipu Borah


    Full Text Available The integration of block copolymer (BCP self-assembled nanopattern formation as an alternative lithographic tool for nanoelectronic device fabrication faces a number of challenges such as defect densities, feature size, pattern transfer, etc. Key barriers are the nanopattern process times and pattern formation on current substrate stack layers such as hard masks (e.g., silicon nitride, Si3N4. We report a rapid microwave assisted solvothermal (in toluene environments self-assembly and directed self-assembly of a polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS BCP thin films on planar and topographically patterned Si3N4 substrates. Hexagonally arranged, cylindrical structures were obtained and good pattern ordering was achieved. Factors affecting BCP self-assembly, notably anneal time and temperature, were studied and seen to have significant effects. Graphoepitaxy within the topographical structures provided long range, translational alignment of the patterns. The effect of surface topography feature size and spacing was investigated. The solvothermal microwave based technique used to provide periodic order in the BCP patterns showed significant promise and ordering was achieved in much shorter periods than more conventional thermal and solvent annealing methods. The implications of the work in terms of manufacturing technologies are discussed.

  4. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization. (United States)

    Braun, Hans-Georg; Meyer, Evelyn


    The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO), molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic) PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups.

  5. The Developmental Genetics of Vertebrate Color Pattern Formation: Lessons from Zebrafish. (United States)

    Irion, Uwe; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane


    Color patterns are prominent features of many animals; they are highly variable and evolve rapidly leading to large diversities even within a single genus. As targets for natural as well as sexual selection, they are of high evolutionary significance. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an important model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research in general, and it is the model organism to study color pattern formation in vertebrates. The fish display a conspicuous pattern of alternating blue and golden stripes on the body and on the anal and tail fins. This pattern is produced by three different types of pigment cells (chromatophores) arranged in precise layers in the hypodermis of the fish. In this essay, we will summarize the recent advances in understanding the developmental and genetic basis for stripe formation in the zebrafish. We will describe the cellular events leading to the formation of stripes during metamorphosis based on long-term lineage imaging. Mutant analysis has revealed that a number of signaling pathways are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the individual pigment cells. However, the striped pattern itself is generated by self-organizing mechanisms requiring interactions between all three pigment cell types. The involvement of integral membrane proteins, including connexins and potassium channels, suggests that direct physical contacts between chromatophores are involved, and that the directed transport of small molecules or bioelectrical coupling is important for these interactions. This mode of patterning by transmitting spatial information between adjacent tissues within three superimposed cell layers is unprecedented in other developmental systems. We propose that variations in the patterns among Danio species are caused by allelic differences in the genes responsible for these interactions.

  6. Some Aspects of Formation of Cracks in FRC with Main Reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Simonsen, J.; Hansen, W.


    In this paper the response of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) with main reinforcement in pure tension is considered. Test results are presented showing three distinct regimes: a regime og linear elasticity, a regime of yielding at approximately constant stress, and finally, a regime of strain......, and a more ductile contribution from the fiber bridging, a plastic regime will be present in the tensile response. The case of a parabolic crack opening relation defines a brittleness number that describes the transition from formation of unstable discrete cracks to smaller cracks controlled by the softening...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Anatolyevna Galaktionova


    Full Text Available Article purpose – studying of educational strategy of the Russian Federation in the conditions of the amplifying migratory streams. In article are considered distinction in treatment of the concept «national school» during the modern and Soviet period. It is claimed that during the Soviet period the concept «national school» meant school for non-russian pupils, now the concept «national school» is applied as concept of the public Russian school. The author in a new way considers the value of introduction of the unified state examination. The positive role of the unified state examination for formation of the general educational space of Russia out of an ethnic framework is no-ted. The author speaks about need of the appeal to the international experience of education and adaptation of migrants, change of a state policy concerning education of migrants that is reflected in a number of documents, in the Concept of a development of education is noted. In article the assessment of the leading role of comprehensive school in formation of ethnic and national and state identity in modern conditions is given.

  8. Kinetic aspects of the formation of aluminium oxide by use of a microwave-induced plasma. (United States)

    Quade, A; Steffen, H; Hippler, R; Wulff, H


    The oxidation of thin aluminium layers in a microwave plasma has been investigated to determine the kinetics of oxide growth. Thin Al-coatings were oxidized by means of a variety of gas mixtures, characterized by different partial pressures of oxygen, in microwave-induced plasmas of different power. To study the whole kinetic process the Al-metal and the oxide formed were investigated by means of a combination of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry (GIXR) and grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD). XPS and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of stoichiometric Al(2)O(3). The alumina formed is X-ray amorphous. Quantitative description of oxide formation was achieved indirectly by determination of the decrease in the integrated intensity of the Al(111)-peak and the total thickness of the whole coating. These values enabled calculation of kinetic data. It was found that oxide growth was a combination of two simultaneous processes - diffusion and sputter processes. The diffusion coefficient D (cm(2) s(-1)) and the sputter rate S (nm s(-1)) were determined. The effect of the composition of the gas mixture, microwave power, and concentration of activated oxygen species on the oxidation process will be discussed. For calculation of the activation energy, E(A), of this plasma-enhanced diffusion process the temperature-dependence of D was investigated.

  9. Part I. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Hot Dip (Zn - Coating Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.


    Full Text Available A hot dip (Zn – coating formation is carried out in the industry conditions. Two types of the steel substrate are applied to the experiment. Two morphologically different coatings are obtained, accordingly. A hot dip (Zn – coating formation is also carried out in the laboratory conditions for making some additional explanations of the revealed phenomena. The thickening of the - phase sub-layer is observed in details to determine time of the transition from stable into meta-stable solidification. The Fe-Zn phase diagrams for stable and meta-stable equilibrium are calculated, respectively. The phase diagram for dissolution is also determined. The criterion of the higher temperature of the solid/liquid (s/l interface is successfully applied to the Fe-Zn system to justify the competition between stable and meta-stable solidification. The mass balance verification is performed for the (Zn - coating in order to define the nominal Zn–solute concentration required by dissolution and next by solidification. The Zn – solute concentration in the dissolution, super-saturation and saturation zones are determined thermodynamically. The growth kinetics is described for all the sub-layers in the (Zn – coating.

  10. The role of localized recoil in the formation of Kikuchi patterns. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Aimo; Vos, Maarten


    In electron scattering from crystals, diffraction spots are replaced by Kikuchi patterns at high momentum transfer. Kikuchi pattern formation is based on the concept of effective incoherent electron sources (or detectors) inside a crystal. The resulting incoherence is a consequence of energy transfer connected with the momentum transfer in large-angle scattering events. We identify atomic recoil as a key incoherent process giving rise to electron Kikuchi patterns in the scope of the "channeling-in and channeling-out" model of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling patterns (ECP) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using model calculations, we explore the characteristic role of the localization of the incoherent scattering event at specific places within the unit cell. In this way, we explain why sometimes inelastic losses do cause Kikuchi-type contrast, and sometimes inelastic losses result in the disappearance of this contrast in the SEM.

  11. Formation mechanism of ordered stress-relief patterns in a free sustained Cu film system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Miao-Gen; Xie Jian-Ping; Jin Jin-Sheng; Xia A-Gen; Ye Gao-Xiang


    A nearly free sustained copper (Cu) film system has been successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation deposition of Cu atoms on silicone oil surfaces,and a characteristic ordered pattern has been systematically studied.The ordered pattern,namely,band,is composed of a large number of parallel key-formed domains with different width w but nearly uniform length L;its characteristic values of ω and L are very susceptible to the growth period,deposition rate and nominal film thickness.The formation mechanism of the ordered patterns is well explained in terms of the relaxation of the internal stress in the films,which is related to the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid interface.By using a two-time deposition method,it is confirmed that the ordered patterns really form in the vacuum chamber.

  12. Simultaneous formation of fine and large-area electrode patterns using screen-offset printing and its application to the patterning on adhesive materials (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Sato, Junya; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Arai, Masahiro; Kurata, Yuji; Iwata, Shiro


    Additive-type printing techniques such as gravure-offset printing and screen printing are effective for low-cost and ecofriendly electrode pattern formation. Gravure-offset printing is effective for fine pattern formation with widths on the order of 10-20 µm, whereas screen printing is effective for the formation of large-area patterns. However, it is difficult to simultaneously form fine and large-area patterns using these printing techniques. In this study, we demonstrate that fine (minimum width of 15 µm) and medium- as well as large-area patterns can be formed simultaneously using our developed screen-offset printing technique, which is a combination of screen printing on a silicone blanket and transfer printing from the blanket to a substrate. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of our method to printing on adhesive materials, which allows electrode formation without applying heat to the film substrate.

  13. Nanoscale tomographic reconstruction of the subsurface mechanical properties of low-k high-aspect ratio patterns (United States)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Mays, Ebony; Yoo, Hui Jae; King, Sean W.


    In this work, intermittent contact resonance atomic force microscopy (ICR-AFM) was performed on high-aspect ratio a-SiOC:H patterned fins (100 nm in height and width from 20 to 90 nm) to map the depth and width dependencies of the material stiffness. The spatial resolution and depth sensitivity of the measurements were assessed from tomographic cross-sections over various regions of interest within the 3D space of the measurements. Furthermore, the depth-dependence of the measured contact stiffness over the scanned area was used to determine the sub-surface variation of the elastic modulus at each point in the scan. This was achieved by iteratively adjusting the local elastic profile until the depth dependence of the resulted contact stiffness matched the depth dependence of the contact stiffness measured by ICR-AFM at that location. The results of this analysis were assembled into nanoscale sub-surface tomographic images of the elastic modulus of the investigated SiOC:H patterns. A new 3D structure-property representation emerged from these tomographic images with direct evidence for the alterations sustained by the structures during processing.

  14. Theoretical aspects of the formation and management of a environmentally oriented businesses portfolio in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Shkarupa


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the theoretical and methodological principles for environmentally oriented businesses formulating and portfolio management in the region. The results of the analysis. This paper studies the prospects for the formation and management of the environmentally oriented business projects business portfolio. The purpose of this is to create new clusters types which are based on the production capacity of environmental products and services in the region. Considering strategic direction of the Ukraine’s Regional Development the authors concluded the necessity of common instrument forming. That would help to accumulate possibilities and priorities of the various innovative structures and business in general in the region. This study considered the theoretical and methodological bases of environmentally oriented projects business portfolio formation and management in the region. Today Ukrainian government system directs the efforts for regional policy funding, development priorities coordination and calls to focus on key projects that provide improvement of innovative infrastructure for economic growth stimulation, creating conditions for private sector development and public access to services. Preference is given to the issues of financial resources concentrating on the key tasks with long term impacts on regional development and national economy as a whole. Taking in account the provisions on strategic vision formation for regional development is evident for single instruments forming that would allow regional governments to manage this process. It would help to accumulate results of activity of various innovative structures and business in general. Environmentally oriented businesses portfolio is a «collection» of strategic business groups and individual businesses (projects, especially, innovative, which are formed within the same regional development strategy (strategy of sustainable

  15. Thermodynamic aspects of the coating formation through mechanochemical synthesis in vibration technology systems (United States)

    Shtyn, S. U.; Lebedev, V. A.; Gorlenko, A. O.


    On the basis of thermodynamic concepts of the process, we proposed an energy model that reflects the mechanochemical essence of coating forming in terms of vibration technology systems, which takes into account the contribution to the formation of the coating, the increase of unavailable energy due to the growth of entropy, the increase in the energy of elastic-plastic crystal lattice distortion as a result of the mechanical influence of working environment indenters, surface layer internal energy change which occurs as a result of chemical interaction of the contacting media. We proposed adhesion strength of the local volume modified through processing as a criterion of the energy condition of the formed coating. We established analytical dependence which helps to obtain the coating strength of the material required by operating conditions.

  16. Studies on a novel mask technique with high selectivity and aspect-ratio patterns for HgCdTe trenches ICP etching (United States)

    Ye, Z. H.; Hu, W. D.; Li, Y.; Huang, J.; Yin, W. T.; Lin, C.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.; He, L.


    A novel mask technique, combining high selectivity silicon dioxide patterns over high aspect-ratio photoresist (PR) patterns has been exploited to perform mesa etching for device delineation and electrical isolation of HgCdTe third-generation infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs). High-density silicon dioxide film covering high aspect-ratio PR patterns was deposited at the temperature of 80°C and silicon dioxide film patterns over high aspect-ratio PR patterns of HgCdTe etching samples was developed by standard photolithography and wet chemical etch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surfaces of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etched samples are quite clean and smooth. The etching selectivity between the novel mask and HgCdTe of the samples is increased to above 32: 1 while the side-wall impact of etching plasma is suppressed by the high aspect ratio patterns. These results show that the combined patterning of silicon dioxide film and thick PR film is a readily available and promising masking technique for HgCdTe mesa etching.

  17. Formation and characteristics of patterns in atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge plasma (United States)

    Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Mao, Zhiguo; Li, Sen; Chen, Qiang


    The patterns in radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (RF DBD) are studied at atmospheric pressure of argon (Ar) or helium (He) mixed with nitrogen (N2) gas. When a small amount of N2 is mixed with He or Ar gas, discharge patterns are formed. In a N2/He gas mixture, besides the filament discharge that forms patterns, a glow background discharge is also observed, whereas only the filament discharge forms patterns in a N2/Ar gas mixture. The resolution of the hexagonal pattern as a function of applied power and gas flow rate is then explored. On the basis of spatial-temporal images taken using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), we find that there is no interleaving of two transient hexagon sublattices in N2/Ar or N2/He plasma in RF DBD patterns, which are totally different from those in which surface charges dominated in the mid-frequency DBD plasma. This supports our hypothesis that the bulk charges dominate the pattern formation in RF DBD.

  18. The role of localized recoil in the formation of Kikuchi patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, Aimo, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Vos, Maarten [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia)


    In electron scattering from crystals, diffraction spots are replaced by Kikuchi patterns at high momentum transfer. Kikuchi pattern formation is based on the concept of effective incoherent electron sources (or detectors) inside a crystal. The resulting incoherence is a consequence of energy transfer connected with the momentum transfer in large-angle scattering events. We identify atomic recoil as a key incoherent process giving rise to electron Kikuchi patterns in the scope of the “channeling-in and channeling-out” model of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron channeling patterns (ECP) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using model calculations, we explore the characteristic role of the localization of the incoherent scattering event at specific places within the unit cell. In this way, we explain why sometimes inelastic losses do cause Kikuchi-type contrast, and sometimes inelastic losses result in the disappearance of this contrast in the SEM. - Highlights: ► We show the role of atomic recoil in Kikuchi pattern formation from crystals. ► The role of the localization of incoherent scattering in the unit cell is explained. ► We use dynamical diffraction simulations to reveal the mechanism of contrast loss. ► The function of recoil in the “channeling-in and channeling-out” model is clarified.

  19. Formation and all-optical control of optical patterns in semiconductor microcavities (United States)

    Binder, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Tse, Y. C.; Luk, M. H.; Kwong, N. H.; Chan, Chris K. P.; Leung, P. T.; Lewandowski, P.; Schumacher, Stefan; Lafont, O.; Baudin, E.; Tignon, J.


    Semiconductor microcavities offer a unique way to combine transient all-optical manipulation of GaAs quantum wells with the benefits of structural advantages of microcavities. In these systems, exciton-polaritons have dispersion relations with very small effective masses. This has enabled prominent effects, for example polaritonic Bose condensation, but it can also be exploited for the design of all-optical communication devices. The latter involves non-equilibrium phase transitions in the spatial arrangement of exciton-polaritons. We consider the case of optical pumping with normal incidence, yielding a spatially homogeneous distribution of exciton-polaritons in optical cavities containing the quantum wells. Exciton-exciton interactions can trigger instabilities if certain threshold behavior requirements are met. Such instabilities can lead, for example, to the spontaneous formation of hexagonal polariton lattices (corresponding to six-spot patterns in the far field), or to rolls (corresponding to two-spot far field patterns). The competition among these patterns can be controlled to a certain degree by applying control beams. In this paper, we summarize the theory of pattern formation and election in microcavities and illustrate the switching between patterns via simulation results.

  20. DNA damage and radical reactions: Mechanistic aspects, formation in cells and repair studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadet, J.; Ravanat, J.L. [CEA Grenoble, Inst Nanosci and Cryogenie, SCIB-UMR-E 3, Lab Les Acides Nucl, UJF, F-38054 Grenoble 9 (France); Carell, T. [Univ Munich, Dept Chem and Biochem, Ctr Integrat Prot Sci, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Cellai, L. [CNR, Ist Cristalog, Monterotondo Stn, I-00016 Rome (Italy); Chatgilialoglu, Ch. [CNR, ISOF, I-40129 Bologna, (Italy); Gimisis, Th. [Univ Athens, Dept Chem, Organ Chem Lab, Athens 15784, (Greece); Miranda, M. [Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Technol Quim, Dept Quim, Valencia 46022 (Spain); O' Neill, P. [Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Robert, M. [Univ Paris 07, CNRS, UMR 7591, Electrochim Mol Lab, F-75251 Paris 05 (France)


    Several examples of oxidative and reductive reactions of DNA components that lead to single and tandem modifications are discussed in this review. These include nucleophilic addition reactions of the one-electron oxidation-mediated guanine radical cation and the one-electron reduced intermediate of 8-bromo-purine 2'-de-oxy-ribo-nucleosides that give rise to either an oxidizing guanine radical or related 5',8-cyclo-purine nucleosides. In addition, mechanistic insights into the reductive pathways involved in the photolyase induced reversal of cyclo-buta-cli-pyrimidine and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts are provided. Evidence for the occurrence and validation in cellular DNA of (OH){sup {center_dot}} radical degradation pathways of guanine that have been established in model systems has been gained from the accurate measurement of degradation products. Relevant information on biochemical aspects of the repair of single and clustered oxidatively generated damage to DNA has been gained from detailed investigations that rely on the synthesis of suitable modified probes. Thus the preparation of stable carbocyclic derivatives of purine nucleoside containing defined sequence oligonucleotides has allowed detailed crystallographic studies of the recognition step of the base damage by enzymes implicated in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Detailed insights are provided on the BER processing of non-double strand break bi-stranded clustered damage that may consist of base lesions, a single strand break or abasic sites and represent one of the main deleterious classes of radiation-induced DNA damage. (authors)

  1. Mechanisms of pattern formation in grazing-incidence ion bombardment of Pt(111)


    Hansen, H; Redinger, A.; Messlinger, S.; Stoian, G.; Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Linke, U.; Michely, T.


    Ripple patterns forming on Pt(111) due to 5 keV Ar+ grazing-incidence ion bombardment were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy in a broad temperature range from 100 to 720 K and for ion fluences up to 3x10(20) ions/m(2). A detailed morphological analysis together with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts allow us to develop atomic scale models for the formation of these patterns. The large difference in step edge versus terrace damage is shown to be crucial for rippl...

  2. A new computational approach to simulate pattern formation in Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacterial colonies (United States)

    Tucker, Laura Jane

    Under the harsh conditions of limited nutrient and hard growth surface, Paenibacillus dendritiformis in agar plates form two classes of patterns (morphotypes). The first class, called the dendritic morphotype, has radially directed branches. The second class, called the chiral morphotype, exhibits uniform handedness. The dendritic morphotype has been modeled successfully using a continuum model on a regular lattice; however, a suitable computational approach was not known to solve a continuum chiral model. This work details a new computational approach to solving the chiral continuum model of pattern formation in P. dendritiformis. The approach utilizes a random computational lattice and new methods for calculating certain derivative terms found in the model.

  3. Rhythmic pattern formations in gels and Matalon–Packter law: A fresh perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacob George; Issac Paul; P A Varughese; George Varghese


    The periodic precipitation pattern formation in gelatinous media is interpreted as a moving boundary problem. The time law, spacing law and width law are revisited on the basis of the new scenario. The explicit dependence of the geometric structure on the initial concentrations of the reactants is derived. Matalon–Packter law, which relates the spacing coefficient with the initial concentrations is reformulated removing many ambiguities and impractical parameters. Experimental results are discussed to establish the significance of moving boundary concept in the diffusion controlled pattern forming systems.

  4. Physical-geographical aspects of formation of artificial firn-ice massives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sosnovsky


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of diurnal and potentially possible efficiency of water freezing aimed at construction of artificial infiltration (firn-ice masses on the Russia’s territory. A method of jet ice-formation (winter sprinkling developed in Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences is used for freezing of the artificial firn-ice masses. The method applies far-reaching (long-distance sprinkler installations for spraying of water and formation of thick (more than 7 m for a day masses of artificial firn. In winter the sprinkler allows freezing of both the monolithic ice and artificial firn. A practical implementation of this method is licensed and realized for construction of ice passages, bridges, and winter automobile roads. Testing of the method demonstrated that the artificial firn can be used for desalination and purification of polluted salt waters with high efficiency. That is stipulated by both, the high productivity of the method (about 1500 tons of artificial firn for a day at the air temperature of −20°С, and low mineralization of the firn relative to initial salt water. Winter sprinkling is carried out when mean daily air temperature drops below –5 ∞С. Estimating of productivity of the artificial firn and monolithic ice under present-day climatic conditions was made over the Russia’s territory. Analysis of the climate conditions for periods 2001–2010 and 1961–2000 have shown that reduction of the firn productivity changed from 5-10% in Siberia up to 20–40% in central and southern regions of the European Russia. At the present time, a potentially possible volume of the artificial firn freezing being produced in cold seasons changes from 500 thousand tons in northern areas of Yakutia down to 10 thousand in center of European Russia. Productivity of the monolithic ice freezing by a method of thin-layer water pouring is twice lower in central areas of Yakutia than on the Arctic seashores

  5. Buckling patterns of gold thin films on silicon substrates: Formation of superimposed blisters (United States)

    Colin, J.; Coupeau, C.; Durinck, J.; Grilhé, J.


    Buckling phenomena leading to the formation of superimposed blisters have been experimentally observed with the help of a confocal interferometric microscope onto the surface of gold thin films deposited on silicon substrates. Assuming that residual folding effects resulting from plastic deformation mechanisms take place in the film during its morphological evolution, different probable scenarios for the formation of the observed buckling patterns are elaborated in the framework of the Föppl-von Karman's theory of thin plates. Multi-step buckling with growing interface delamination is considered for the first scenario while a single or multi-step buckling at a given delamination width is assumed for the other ones.

  6. Depositional, diagenetic and stratigraphic aspects of microfacies from Riachuelo Formation, Albian, Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinícius Gabrig Turbay


    Full Text Available The rocks of the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Basin, Brazil, represent an example of carbonate sedimentation related to the drift phase during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The Carapeba and Brejo quarries exhibit the best onshore outcrops of the drift carbonate section along the Brazilian continental edge. Field studies and microfacies analysis of the outcropped sedimentary section showed six sedimentary deposits related to the physiography of a carbonate shelf. Proximal mixed deposits are represented by the rich-terrigenous dolostone. Levels with alternate layers of fine grained sandstones and siltstones are here related to distal facies of submarine fans deposits. Mudstones with miliolids and textularids represent a lagoonal environment in a semi-restricted middle shelf. Packstones, grainstones and occasionally wackestones with oncoids, intraclasts and peloids represent sedimentary deposits related to the back of shallow sandy bars and environments at the interface with the lagoon. Grainstones whit ooliths, oncoids, intraclasts and bioclasts, with trough cross-bedding, represent a shallower shoreface environment over the shallow carbonate back on outer shelf. Cements and other post- depositional features suggest four different diagenetic environments: a marine phreatic diagenetic environment with active water circulation; b marine phreatic diagenetic environment with stagnant water; c freshwater phreatic diagenetic environment; d burial diagenetic environment. The sedimentary succession is formed by shallowing upward cycles overlain by a possible transgressive surface, which may indicate the passage of a lowstand to a transgressive system tract.

  7. Psychomotor education, an aspect of general formation of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Shingjergji


    Full Text Available Current developments of scientific thinking in the field of education are increasingly demanding in various disciplines for young people as a matter of urgency. It is already known that child development is conditioned by ancestry, socio-cultural environment, including interaction with peers and adults. Albanian institutions (kindergarten compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries have to deal with issues such as: (1 The development of a run or optimal acceleration enrichment motor for kindergarten children, seen as an important element of the formation of the human personality and its preparation to cope with various situations of life ; (2 The role of infrastructure in the natural development of the personality of children and the educational process as a whole; (3 Parental community involvement as a fundamental prerequisite of real development of the child; (4The qualification level of the teaching staff in the elementary education system and the preparation of students teacher. I hope to add my contribution through this paper, not only by identifying the problems above, but also in presenting alternatives of a development model of kindergarten children motors skills progress, compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  8. Turing Bifurcation and Pattern Formation of Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianiqian Zheng


    Full Text Available Noise is ubiquitous in a system and can induce some spontaneous pattern formations on a spatially homogeneous domain. In comparison to the Reaction-Diffusion System (RDS, Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion System (SRDS is more complex and it is very difficult to deal with the noise function. In this paper, we have presented a method to solve it and obtained the conditions of how the Turing bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation arise through linear stability analysis of local equilibrium. In addition, we have developed the amplitude equation with a pair of wave vector by using Taylor series expansion, multiscaling, and further expansion in powers of small parameter. Our analysis facilitates finding regions of bifurcations and understanding the pattern formation mechanism of SRDS. Finally, the simulation shows that the analytical results agree with numerical simulation.

  9. Pattern formation in spatially extended nonlinear systems: Toward a foundation for meaning in symbolic forms (United States)

    DeMaris, David


    This paper brings together observations from a variety of fields to point toward what the author believes to be the most promising computational approach to the modeling of brain-like symbol formation, unifying perceptual and linguistic domains under a common computational physics. It brings Cassirer's Gestalt era evolutionary theory of language and symbolic thought to the attention of the situated cognition community, and describes how recent observations in experimental brain dynamics and computational approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. Research by the author and others in oscillatory network models of ambiguous perception with an attentional component is emphasised as a starting point for exploring increasingly complex pattern formation processes leading to simple forms of linguistic performance. These forms occupy a space between iconic representations and grammar. The dynamic pattern network framework suggests that to separate perception, representation or models and action in a realistic biophysics of situated organisms may be problematic.

  10. Consumer in the innovation economy: sociocultural aspects of formation and functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Nikolaevna Malakhova


    Full Text Available The functioning of the innovation economy presents the society with a number of social and cultural issues. One of them concerns the formation of an innovative personality, which is regarded by the majority of researchers as a personality open to experiments, innovation and change, a personality that has creative skills and is able not only to create but also to commercialize new scientific and technological developments, that is, a personality capable of producing innovation in the first place. Meanwhile, of equal importance for the functioning of the innovation economy is a personality that is ready to use innovative goods and services; that is why many countries carry out the research into the innovativeness of producers and consumers . The research findings help identify a group of innovator consumers, which is a key group for producers. Analyzing the innovator consumers’ behavior in the market provides an opportunity to define their inherent personal qualities and to formulate their standard of consumption, the main characteristics of which are the absolutization of the value of the new, positive attitude to risk, dominance of the emotional component in consumption to the detriment of the rational component. Modern manufacturers follow the path of modeling and further targeted promotion of consumption standards to ensure stable and predictable demand for their products; therefore, it is logical to assume that the innovators’ consumption standard that meets the interests of innovative products’ manufacturers will be actively promoted in society through the purposeful change of individual and collective psychology. The article forecasts the directions of such change and analyses its possible negative consequences both for society in general and for innovation economy in particular

  11. Mosaic-pattern vegetation formation and dynamics driven by the water-wind crisscross erosion (United States)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Hao, Hong-Min; Fang, Nu-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Hua


    Theoretical explanations for vegetation pattern dynamic emphasized on banded pattern-forming systems on the dynamics of the spot pattern. In this context, we explore the patch pattern forming and development in the desertification land. We hypothesized that spatial heterogeneity of microtopography and soil properties with different patch sizes would determine vegetation pattern dynamics theory. The spatial heterogeneity of microtopography and soil properties with different patch sizes were studied. Differences between the inside and outside of the canopy of soil carbon content and soil total nitrogen content were significantly increasing with patches sizes. Sampling location across vegetation patch was the main factor controlling soil properties. Soil nutrient content and saturated hydraulic conductivity were the largest, while bulk density and the coarse sand content were the lowest at the sampling location of half-way between taproot and downslope edge of the canopy. The height of the mound relative to the adjacent soil interspace between shrubs increased as patches diameter increased at the upslope of the taproot. Hydrological and aeolian processes resulted in spatial distributions of soil moisture, nutrition properties, which lead to patch migrated to downslope rather than upslope. A conceptual model was integrated hydrological and nutrient facilitation and competition effects among the plant-soil in mosaic-pattern patch formation and succession process.

  12. ARGONAUTE1 acts in Arabidopsis root radial pattern formation independently of the SHR/SCR pathway. (United States)

    Miyashima, Shunsuke; Hashimoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Keiji


    The formation of radially symmetric tissue patterns is one of the most basic processes in the development of vascular plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, plant-specific GRAS-type transcription factors, SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR), are required for asymmetric cell divisions that separate two ground tissue cell layers, the endodermis and cortex, as well as for endodermal cell fate specification. While loss of SHR or SCR results in a single-layered ground tissue, radially symmetric cellular patterns are still maintained, suggesting that unknown regulatory mechanisms act independently of the SHR/SCR-dependent pathway. In this study, we identified a novel root radial pattern mutant and found that it is a new argonaute1 (ago1) allele. Multiple ago1 mutant alleles contained supernumerary ground tissue cell layers lacking a concentric organization, while expression patterns of SHR and SCR were not affected, revealing a previously unreported role for AGO1 in root ground tissue patterning. Analyses of ago1 scr double mutants demonstrated that the simultaneous loss of the two pathways caused a dramatic reduction in cellular organization and ground tissue identity as compared with the single mutants. Based on these results, we propose that highly symmetric root ground tissue patterns are maintained by the actions of two independent pathways, one using post-transcriptional regulation mediated by AGO1 and the other using the SHR/SCR transcriptional regulator.

  13. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A


    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale – one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004. They give examples of self-organization phenomena on micro- and nano-scale as well as examples of the interplay between phenomena on nano- and macro-scales leading to complex behavior in various physical, chemical and biological systems. They discuss such fascinating nano-scale self-organization phenomena as self-assembly of quantum dots in thin solid films, pattern formation in liquid crystals caused by light, self-organi...

  14. Formation mechanism of dot-line square superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weibo; Dong, Lifang, E-mail:, E-mail:; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Xinpu [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Pan, Yuyang, E-mail:, E-mail: [College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)


    We investigate the formation mechanism of the dot-line square superlattice pattern (DLSSP) in dielectric barrier discharge. The spatio-temporal structure studied by using the intensified-charge coupled device camera shows that the DLSSP is an interleaving of three different subpatterns in one half voltage cycle. The dot square lattice discharges first and, then, the two kinds of line square lattices, which form square grid structures discharge twice. When the gas pressure is varied, DLSSP can transform from square superlattice pattern (SSP). The spectral line profile method is used to compare the electron densities, which represent the amounts of surface charges qualitatively. It is found that the amount of surface charges accumulated by the first discharge of DLSSP is less than that of SSP, leading to a bigger discharge area of the following discharge (lines of DLSSP instead of halos of SSP). The spatial distribution of the electric field of the surface charges is simulated to explain the formation of DLSSP. This paper may provide a deeper understanding for the formation mechanism of complex superlattice patterns in DBD.

  15. Formation of personnel corps of engineers in the Urals: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeevich Pavlov


    Full Text Available In terms of crisis economic development, one of priority goals for the technical institutes of higher education is to train engineers who are competitive on the regional labour markets. The main root of the problem of low prestige of the engineering profession in Russia, the slippage in the personnel training in technical universities lies in the depreciation of engineering work, and reduction of its social and economic attractiveness. The gap between science, education and industry leads to aging of engineering staff at the manufactures and to migration of the most talented engineers into other fields of activity. This paper analyzes current problems of engineers training organization in the Urals. The causes of sharp decline of the engineering profession social status in Russia, the fall of interest of secondary school graduates to continuation of their studies in technical institutes of higher education are reviewed. The authors show that the formation of engineering competence as a defining personal and vocational quality of a specialist involves actualization of the student's motivation, one's active and purposeful adaptation to the educational process, increasing one's responsibility for mastering the curriculum. Conclusions and suggestions of the authors are based on the results of a comprehensive sociological research conducted by them in 2011 in five high schools of the Urals (Yekaterinburg, Nizhnevartovsk and Chelyabinsk. The survey showed that during the stage of young specialists' preparation, cooperation in the «university - enterprise» system is actually shifted to the interaction, in fact, between institute of higher education and young professionals who act as the sellers of their labour. The authors believe that it makes sense to roll over (or rather - to stimulate the active engineering work of the most productive engineering professionals who have reached retirement age. Equally sharp and critical are the issues of

  16. Localization and Pattern Formation in Quantum Physics. II. Waveletons in Quantum Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.


    In this second part we present a set of methods, analytical and numerical, which can describe behaviour in (non) equilibrium ensembles, both classical and quantum, especially in the complex systems, where the standard approaches cannot be applied. The key points demonstrating advantages of this approach are: (i) effects of localization of possible quantum states; (ii) effects of non-perturbative multiscales which cannot be calculated by means of perturbation approaches; (iii) effects of formation of complex/collective quantum patterns from localized modes and classification and possible control of the full zoo of quantum states, including (meta) stable localized patterns (waveletons). We demonstrate the appearance of nontrivial localized (meta) stable states/patterns in a number of collective models covered by the (quantum)/(master) hierarchy of Wigner-von Neumann-Moyal-Lindblad equations, which are the result of ``wignerization'' procedure (Weyl-Wigner-Moyal quantization) of classical BBGKY kinetic hierarchy...

  17. Turing pattern formation in the chlorine dioxide-iodine- malonic acid reaction-diffusion system (United States)

    Setayeshgar, Sima

    The formation of localized structures in the chlorine dioxide-idodine-malonic acid (CDIMA) reaction-diffusion system is investigated numerically using a realistic model of this system. We analyze the one-dimensional patterns formed along the gradients imposed by boundary feeds, and study their linear stability to symmetry- breaking perturbations (the Turing instability) in the plane transverse to these gradients. We establish that an often-invoked simple local linear analysis which neglects longitudinal diffusion is inappropriate for predicting the linear stability of these patterns. Using a fully nonuniform analysis, we investigate the structure of the patterns formed along the gradients and their stability to transverse Turing pattern formation as a function of the values of two control parameters: the malonic acid feed concentration and the size of the reactor in the dimension along the gradients. The results from this investigation are compared with existing experimental results. We also verify that the two-variable reduction of the chemical model employed in the linear stability analysis is justified. Finally, we present numerical solution of the CDIMA system in two dimensions which is in qualitative agreement with experiments. This result also confirms our linear stability analysis, while demonstrating the feasibility of numerical exploration of realistic chemical models.

  18. Thermodynamic Aspects of the Formation of Sulfate Minerals from Hot Gaseous Phase (United States)

    Giere, R.; Majzlan, J.


    Minerals may form by solid-state reactions or by dissolution and precipitation from a fluid phase, be it magma, aqueous medium, or gas. The latter phase was traditionally not considered as important as the other ones, although it may be essential in some geological environments. Components of minerals (e.g., sulfur) are commonly transported by hot gases in volcanoes. Others may form in burning coal dumps or by burning fossil fuels for energy production. We have identified a number of minerals which precipitated from the hot gases escaping into the atmosphere from the smoke stack of a coal-fired power plant. This power plant uses coal or a mixture of coal and used tires to produce electricity. The phases identified by TEM are anglesite (PbSO4), gunningite (ZnSO4?H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and yavapaiite (KFe(SO4)2). In addition to these crystalline phases, amorphous sulfate materials and soot have been identified. All these materials were captured by filtering the escaping gases beyond the last filters intended to remove any particles from the gas stream. Therefore, they must have formed by precipitation from the hot gas and may present a significant pollution load in the vicinity of power plants. Verhulst et al. (1996) have shown that several metals are most likely transported as chloride complexes in the gas phase. Their assumption correlates well with the finding that the chloride-richer coal+tire mixture increases considerably amounts of emitted metals. Using thermodynamic data for these and other sulfate minerals, we are trying to understand and model the precipitation process of these minerals from hot gases at ambient pressures. In this contribution, we focus on the mineral mikasaite (trigonal Fe2(SO4)3). This mineral has been reported only from burning coal dumps (Miura et al. 1994). Using acid-solution calorimetry, we have determined the enthalpy of formation of mikasaite from elements at T = 298.15 K. We have further estimated the standard entropy of this

  19. On island landscape pattern of forests in Helan Mountain and its cause of formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Hongbing; WANG; Yingming; ZHANG; Qiaoxian


    Based on the spatial information techniques such as RS, GIS, and GPS, the forest landscape patterns in the Helan Mountain, western China, were studied. The Landsat 5 TM data were used to classify the forest landscapes through RS digital cartography, and then, the landscape characteristics and landscape pattern were analyzed quantificationally. Furthermore, through spatial data collection and spatial analysis of the main disturbances in this area, the cause of landscape formation was studied. The results showed that the total 1177 forest landscape patches could be classified into 21 landscape types, and the forest landscape in the Helan Mountain was island pattern, which was encircled by deserta as matrix. The values of landscape diversity index and landscape fragmentation index were 2.61 and 0.43, respectively. In this area, the landscape pattern was clearly formed and continuously changed in response to geological processes, climate, activities of organisms, forest fire, desertification, human activities and so on. This landscape pattern had an obviously negative effect on the stability and ecosystem services of forests. So, scientific landscape planning and protection should be adopted to improve the sustainability of forest management in this area.

  20. The expansion of neighborhood and pattern formation on spatial prisoner's dilemma (United States)

    Qian, Xiaolan; Xu, Fangqian; Yang, Junzhong; Kurths, Jürgen


    The prisoner's dilemma (PD), in which players can either cooperate or defect, is considered a paradigm for studying the evolution of cooperation in spatially structured populations. There the compact cooperator cluster is identified as a characteristic pattern and the probability of forming such pattern in turn depends on the features of the networks. In this paper, we investigate the influence of expansion of neighborhood on pattern formation by taking a weak PD game with one free parameter T, the temptation to defect. Two different expansion methods of neighborhood are considered. One is based on a square lattice and expanses along four directions generating networks with degree increasing with K = 4 m . The other is based on a lattice with Moore neighborhood and expanses along eight directions, generating networks with degree of K = 8 m . Individuals are placed on the nodes of the networks, interact with their neighbors and learn from the better one. We find that cooperator can survive for a broad degree 4 ≤ K ≤ 70 by taking a loose type of cooperator clusters. The former simple corresponding relationship between macroscopic patterns and the microscopic PD interactions is broken. Under a condition that is unfavorable for cooperators such as large T and K, systems prefer to evolve to a loose type of cooperator clusters to support cooperation. However, compared to the well-known compact pattern, it is a suboptimal strategy because it cannot help cooperators dominating the population and always corresponding to a low cooperation level.

  1. On the formation mechanisms, spatial resolution and intensity of backscatter Kikuchi patterns. (United States)

    Zaefferer, S


    The present paper is divided into two main sections. In the first, the formation mechanisms of backscatter Kikuchi patterns (BKP) are discussed on the basis of measurements on the sharpness of Kikuchi lines and on the spatial, that means the lateral and depth resolution of the technique. We propose that thermal diffuse scattering is the important incoherent scattering mechanism involved in pattern formation. This mechanism is not considered in the classical description of the origin of backscattered electrons in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) which is why there is in some important points no agreement between classical Monte-Carlo-type electron trajectory simulations and experimental results. We assume that the energy spectrum of the backscattered electrons shows, similar to the spectra in transmission electron microscopy, a sharp zero-loss peak. In the second section, we discuss the intensity of Kikuchi bands in BKP. It is shown that the kinematical theory gives-of course-not the correct intensities, but that these intensities are, on the other hand, not too far off the experimental ones. We subsequently introduce a simple intensity correction procedure that is based on the two-beam dynamical theory, originally proposed by Blackman for transmission electron diffraction patterns. It is shown by examples of diffraction patterns of niobium and silicon that this procedure leads to satisfying results, once two unknown variables (a universal constant and the exit depth of the electrons) have been empirically fit. It is assumed that in the future, this correction will improve the possibilities of phase identification by backscatter Kikuchi diffraction patterns.

  2. How the Propagation of Heat-Flux Modulations Triggers E × B Flow Pattern Formation (United States)

    Kosuga, Yusuke


    Recently, a new class of E × B flow pattern, called an `` E × B staircase,'' was observed in a simulation study using the full- f flux driven GYSELA code. Here, E × B staircases are quasi-regular steady patterns of localized shear layers and temperature profile corrugations. The shear layers are interspaced between regions of turbulent avalanching of the size of several correlation length (~ 10Δc). In this work, a theory to describe the formation of such E × B staircases from a bath of stochastic avalanches is presented, based on analogy of staircase formation to jam formation in traffic flow. Namely, staircase formation is viewed as a heat flux ``jam'' that causes profile corrugation, which is analogous to a traffic jam that causes corrugations in the local car density in a traffic flow. To model such an effect in plasmas, a finite response time τ is introduced, during which instantaneous heat flux relaxes to the mean heat flux, determined by symmetry constraints. The response time introduced here is an analogue of drivers' response time in traffic flow dynamics. It is shown that the extended model describes a heat flux ``jam'' and profile corrugation, which appears as an instability, in analogy to the way a clustering instability leads to a traffic jam. Such local amplification of heat and profile corrugations can lead to the formation of E × B staircases. The scale length that gives the maximum growth rate falls in the mesoscale range and is comparable to the staircase step spacing. Present address: IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Japan.

  3. Exploring the formation of focal adhesions on patterned surfaces using super-resolution imaging. (United States)

    Chien, Fan-Ching; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Yang, Zong-Han; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin


    The formation of focal adhesions on various sizes of fibronectin patterns, ranging from 200 μm to 250 nm, was systematically investigated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution imaging. It was found that cells adhered to and spread on these micro/nanopatterns, forming focal adhesions. On a micrometer scale the shape of the focal adhesions was elongated. However, on the nanometer scale, the shape of focal adhesions became dotlike. To further explore the distribution of focal adhesion proteins formed on surfaces, a localization-based super-resolution imaging technique was employed in order to determine the position and density of vinculin proteins. A characteristic distance of 50 nm was found between vinculin molecules in the focal adhesions, which did not depend on the size of the fibronectin nanopatterns. This distance was found to be crucial for the formation of focal adhesions. In addition, the density of vinculin at the focal adhesions formed on the nanopatterns increased as the pattern size decreased. The density of the protein was found to be 425 ± 247, 584 ± 302, and 703 ± 305 proteins μm(-2) on the 600, 400, and 250 nm fibronectin patterns respectively. Whereas 226 ± 77 proteins μm(-2) was measured for the matured focal adhesions on homogeneous fibronectin coated substrates. The increase in vinculin density implies that an increase in mechanical load was applied to the focal adhesions formed on the smaller nanopatterns.

  4. Dissipative parametric modulation instability and pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems (United States)

    Perego, A. M.; Tarasov, N.; Churkin, D. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Staliunas, K.


    We present the essential features of the dissipative parametric instability, in the universal complex Ginzburg- Landau equation. Dissipative parametric instability is excited through a parametric modulation of frequency dependent losses in a zig-zag fashion in the spectral domain. Such damping is introduced respectively for spectral components in the +ΔF and in the -ΔF region in alternating fashion, where F can represent wavenumber or temporal frequency depending on the applications. Such a spectral modulation can destabilize the homogeneous stationary solution of the system leading to growth of spectral sidebands and to the consequent pattern formation: both stable and unstable patterns in one- and in two-dimensional systems can be excited. The dissipative parametric instability provides an useful and interesting tool for the control of pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems with potentially interesting applications in technological applications, like the design of mode- locked lasers emitting pulse trains with tunable repetition rate; but it could also find realizations in nanophotonics circuits or in dissipative polaritonic Bose-Einstein condensates.

  5. How the propagation of heat-flux modulations triggers E × B flow pattern formation. (United States)

    Kosuga, Y; Diamond, P H; Gürcan, O D


    We propose a novel mechanism to describe E×B flow pattern formation based upon the dynamics of propagation of heat-flux modulations. The E × B flows of interest are staircases, which are quasiregular patterns of strong, localized shear layers and profile corrugations interspersed between regions of avalanching. An analogy of staircase formation to jam formation in traffic flow is used to develop an extended model of heat avalanche dynamics. The extension includes a flux response time, during which the instantaneous heat flux relaxes to the mean heat flux, determined by symmetry constraints. The response time introduced here is the counterpart of the drivers' response time in traffic, during which drivers adjust their speed to match the background traffic flow. The finite response time causes the growth of mesoscale temperature perturbations, which evolve to form profile corrugations. The length scale associated with the maximum growth rate scales as Δ(2) ~ (v(thi)/λT(i))ρ(i)sqrt[χ(neo)τ], where λT(i) is a typical heat pulse speed, χ(neo) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and τ is the response time of the heat flux. The connection between the scale length Δ(2) and the staircase interstep scale is discussed.

  6. Ordered nano-scale dimple pattern formation on a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang


    Full Text Available Due to the many applications of nanostructured surfaces – including in biomaterials – there is a strong interest in cost- and time-efficient methods for their fabrication. Previously, our group established a simple electrochemical method generating nanoscale patterns on large areas of a number of different metal surfaces. They consist of dimples that are around 6-10 nm deep and hexagonally closed packed with a tunable periodicity of around 50 nm. Ordering requires careful tuning of the surface chemistry, which makes the translation of these findings to multi-component alloys non-obvious. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that such a pattern can also be achieved on the surface of an alloy, namely Ti-6Al-4V. This alloy is of particular interest for biomedical implants. While dimple formation on the main component metals titanium and aluminum has previously been reported (albeit under conditions that differ from each other, we now also report dimple formation on pure vanadium surfaces to occur under very different conditions. Dimple formation occurs preferentially on the (dominant α-phase grains of the alloy. The size of dimples of the alloy material is subject to the electropolishing potential, electrolyte concentration and surface chemical composition, which gives us the opportunity to control the surface features. Since a main application of this alloy are biomedical implants, this level of control will be an important tool for accommodating cell growth.

  7. Molecular dynamics of single-particle impacts predicts phase diagrams for large scale pattern formation. (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Samela, Juha; Bukonte, Laura; Backman, Marie; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Madi, Charbel S; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J


    Energetic particle irradiation can cause surface ultra-smoothening, self-organized nanoscale pattern formation or degradation of the structural integrity of nuclear reactor components. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the selection among these outcomes has been elusive. Here we predict the mechanism governing the transition from pattern formation to flatness using only parameter-free molecular dynamics simulations of single-ion impacts as input into a multiscale analysis, obtaining good agreement with experiment. Our results overturn the paradigm attributing these phenomena to the removal of target atoms via sputter erosion: the mechanism dominating both stability and instability is the impact-induced redistribution of target atoms that are not sputtered away, with erosive effects being essentially irrelevant. We discuss the potential implications for the formation of a mysterious nanoscale topography, leading to surface degradation, of tungsten plasma-facing fusion reactor walls. Consideration of impact-induced redistribution processes may lead to a new design criterion for stability under irradiation.

  8. Influence of temporal aspects and age-correlations on the process of opinion formation based on Polish contact survey

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Andrzej


    On the basis of the experimental data concerning interactions between humans the process of Ising-based model of opinion formation in a social network was investigated. In the paper the data concerning human social activity, i.e. frequency and duration time of interpersonal interactions as well as age correlations - homophily are presented in comparison to base line homogeneous, static and uniform mixing. It is known from previous studies that number of contact and average age of nearest neighbors are highly correlated with age of an individual. Such real, assortative patterns usually speed up processes (like epidemic spread) on the networks, but here it only plays a role for small social temperature values (by reducing `freezing by heating' effect). A real structure of contacts affects processes in many various studies in different way, however here it causes stronger (dynamic) and smoother (durations) susceptibility on external field. Moreover, our research shows that the cross interactions between contact ...

  9. Cellular pattern formation by SCRAMBLED, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Schiefelbein, John


    The appropriate specification of distinct cell types is important for generating the proper tissues and bodies of multicellular organisms. In the root epidermis of Arabidopsis, cell fate determination is accomplished by a transcriptional regulatory circuit that is influenced by positional signaling. A leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), has been shown to be responsible for the position-dependent aspect of this epidermal pattern. In a recent report, we find that SCM affects the transcriptional regulatory network by down-regulating the WEREWOLF (WER) MYB gene expression in a set of epidermal cells located in a specific position. We also find that SCM and the SCM-related SRF1 and SRF3 are not required for embryonic epidermal patterning and that SRF1 and SRF3 do not act redundantly with SCM. This suggests that distinct positional signaling mechanisms exist for embryonic and post-embryonic epidermal patterning. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our recent findings and extend our working model for epidermal cell pattering.

  10. Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura


    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the \\'S\\' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called \\'N\\' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov\\'s work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.

  11. Disappearing scales in carps: re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Casas

    Full Text Available The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype, those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here. We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.

  12. Disappearing scales in carps: re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation. (United States)

    Casas, Laura; Szűcs, Réka; Vij, Shubha; Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Németh, Sándor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsényi, Miklós; Orbán, László


    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.

  13. Pattern formation during the evaporation of a colloidal nanoliter drop: a numerical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel


    An efficient way to precisely pattern particles on solid surfaces is to dispense and evaporate colloidal drops, as for bioassays. The dried deposits often exhibit complex structures exemplified by the coffee ring pattern, where most particles have accumulated at the periphery of the deposit. In this work, the formation of deposits during the drying of nanoliter colloidal drops on a flat substrate is investigated numerically and experimentally. A finite-element numerical model is developed that solves the Navier-Stokes, heat and mass transport equations in a Lagrangian framework. The diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. Laplace stresses and thermal Marangoni stresses are accounted for. The particle concentration is tracked by solving a continuum advection-diffusion equation. Wetting line motion and the interaction of the free surface of the drop with the growing deposit are modeled based on crite...

  14. Patterns formations in a diffusive ratio-dependent predator-prey model of interacting populations (United States)

    Camara, B. I.; Haque, M.; Mokrani, H.


    The present investigation deals with the analysis of the spatial pattern formation of a diffusive predator-prey system with ratio-dependent functional response involving the influence of intra-species competition among predators within two-dimensional space. The appropriate condition of Turing instability around the interior equilibrium point of the present model has been determined. The emergence of complex patterns in the diffusive predator-prey model is illustrated through numerical simulations. These results are based on the existence of bifurcations of higher codimension such as Turing-Hopf, Turing-Saddle-node, Turing-Transcritical bifurcation, and the codimension- 3 ​Turing-Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation. The paper concludes with discussions of our results in ecology.

  15. Formation of mixed and patterned self-assembled films of alkylphosphonates on commercially pure titanium surfaces (United States)

    Rudzka, Katarzyna; Sanchez Treviño, Alda Y.; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A.


    Titanium is extensively employed in biomedical devices, in particular as implant. The self-assembly of alkylphosphonates on titanium surfaces enable the specific adsorption of biomolecules to adapt the implant response against external stimuli. In this work, chemically-tailored cpTi surfaces were prepared by self-assembly of alkylphosphonate molecules. By bringing together attributes of two grafting molecules, aqueous mixtures of two alkylphosphonates were used to obtain mixed self-assembled films. Single self-assembled films were also altered by laser abrasion to produce chemically patterned cpTi surfaces. Both mixed and patterned self-assembled films were confirmed by AFM, ESEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Water contact angle measurements also revealed the composition of the self-assembly films. Chemical functionalization with two grafting phosphonate molecules and laser surface engineering may be combined to guide the bone-like formation on cpTi, and the future biological response in the host.

  16. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro


    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  17. Pattern Formation in a Cross-Diffusive Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of evolutionary process that involves organisms distribution and their interaction of spatial distribution of the species with self- and cross-diffusion in a Holling-III ratio-dependent predator-prey model. The diffusion instability of the positive equilibrium of the model with Neumann boundary conditions is discussed. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by self- and cross-diffusion in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibits a cross-diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, stripes, and spiral wave pattern replication, which show that reaction-diffusion model is useful to reveal the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  18. Polymer Wall Formation Using Liquid-Crystal/Polymer Phase Separation Induced on Patterned Polyimide Films (United States)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio


    We could form lattice-shaped polymer walls in a liquid crystal (LC) layer through the thermal phase separation of an LC/polystyrene solution between substrates with polyimide films etched by short-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation using a photomask. The LC wetting difference between the polyimide and substrate surfaces caused the coalescence of growing LC droplets on patterned polyimide films with the progress of phase separation. Consequently, polymer walls were formed on substrate surface areas without polyimide films. The shape of the polymer wall formed became sharp with the use of rubbed polyimide films because the nucleation of growing LC droplets concentrated on the patterned polyimide films. It is thought that the increase in the alignment order of LC molecules in the solution near the rubbed polyimide films promotes the formation of LC molecular aggregation, which becomes the growth nuclei of LC droplets.

  19. Three dimensional simulations of pattern formation during high-pressure, freely localized microwave breakdown in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourtzanidis, K., E-mail:; Boeuf, J. P. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Rogier, F. [ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, 2 Avenue édouard Belin, 31000 Toulouse (France)


    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a freely localized 100 GHz microwave discharge can propagate towards the microwave source with high speed, forming a complex pattern of self-organized filaments. We present three-dimensional simulations of the formation and propagation of such patterns that reveal more information on their nature and interaction with the electromagnetic waves. The developed three-dimensional Maxwell-plasma solver permits the study of different forms of incident field polarization. Results for linear and circular polarization of the wave are presented and comparisons with recent experiments show a good overall agreement. The three dimensional simulations provide a quantitative analysis of the parameters controlling the time and length scales of the strongly non-linear plasma dynamics and could be useful for potential microwave plasma applications such as aerodynamic flow and combustion control.

  20. Mechanisms for spatio-temporal pattern formation in highway traffic models. (United States)

    Wilson, R Eddie


    A key qualitative requirement for highway traffic models is the ability to replicate a type of traffic jam popularly referred to as a phantom jam, shock wave or stop-and-go wave. Despite over 50 years of modelling, the precise mechanisms for the generation and propagation of stop-and-go waves and the associated spatio-temporal patterns are in dispute. However, the increasing availability of empirical datasets, such as those collected from motorway incident detection and automatic signalling system (MIDAS) inductance loops in the UK or the next-generation simulation trajectory data (NGSIM) project in the USA, means that we can expect to resolve these questions definitively in the next few years. This paper will survey the essence of the competing explanations of highway traffic pattern formation and introduce and analyse a new mechanism, based on dynamical systems theory and bistability, which can help resolve the conflict.

  1. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuga, Y., E-mail: [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, G. [CEA, IRFM, Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gürcan, Ö. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)


    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  2. Pattern formation in polymerising actin flocks: spirals, spots and waves without nonlinear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goff, Thomas Le; Marenduzzo, Davide


    We propose a model solely based on actin treadmilling and polymerisation which describes many characteristic states of actin wave formation: spots, spirals and travelling waves. In our model, as in experiments on cell recovering motility following actin depolymerisation, we choose an isotropic low density initial condition; polymerisation of actin filaments then raises the density towards the Onsager threshold where they align. We show that this alignment, in turn, destabilizes the isotropic phase and generically induces transient actin spots or spirals as part of the dynamical pathway towards a polarized phase which can either be uniform or consist of a series of actin-wave trains (flocks). Our results uncover a universal route to actin wave formation in the absence of any system specific nonlinear biochemistry, and it may help understand the mechanism underlying the observation of actin spots and waves in vivo. They also suggest a minimal setup to design similar patterns in vitro.

  3. Pattern formation in a complex Swift-Hohenberg equation with phase bistability

    CERN Document Server

    de Valcárcel, Manuel Martínez-Quesada Germán J


    We study pattern formation in a complex Swift Hohenberg equation with phase-sensitive (parametric) gain. Such an equation serves as a universal order parameter equation describing the onset of spontaneous oscillations in extended systems submitted to a kind of forcing dubbed rocking when the instability is towards long wavelengths. Applications include two-level lasers and photorefractive oscillators. Under rocking, the original continuous phase symmetry of the system is replaced by a discrete one, so that phase bistability emerges. This leads to the spontaneous formation of phase-locked spatial structures like phase domains and dark-ring (phase-) cavity solitons. Stability of the homogeneous solutions is studied and numerical simulations are made covering all the dynamical regimes of the model, which turn out to be very rich. Formal derivations of the rocked complex Swift-Hohenberg equation, using multiple scale techniques, are given for the two-level laser and the photorefractive oscillator.

  4. Selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnichenko, A.V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan


    The selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning was studied. DLC films was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, filtered vacuum arc deposition, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering and ion-beam lithography methods. The DLC coatings were...... obtained by means of a single short and intensive carbon plasma deposition pulse. The deposited DLC coating was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The DLC coating process gave rise to wide potential possibilities in micro-devices manufacturing productions....

  5. Formation and removal of multi-layered fluorescence patterns in gold-ion doped glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jongho; Jang, Kyungsik [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Ki-Soo, E-mail: [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Shil; Lee, You-Lee; Choi, Jung-Hyun [BK21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Ik-Bu; Lee, Jongmin [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeongkyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report the formation of fluorescence patterns inside gold-doped glass medium by femtosecond-laser fabrication. Strong fluorescence images appeared from the irradiated multi-layered region after low temperature annealing. We removed the images by exposing the glass to an electric furnace or a CO{sub 2} laser beam for high temperature annealing. The method was also applied to recording, reading, and erasing of fluorescence data by a femtosecond laser, a 405-nm laser diode, and a CO{sub 2} laser respectively.

  6. DSA patterning options for FinFET formation at 7nm node (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Chun C.; Franke, Elliott; Lie, Fee Li; Sieg, Stuart; Tsai, Hsinyu; Lai, Kafai; Truong, Hoa; Farrell, Richard; Somervell, Mark; Sanders, Daniel; Felix, Nelson; Guillorn, Michael; Burns, Sean; Hetzer, David; Ko, Akiteru; Arnold, John; Colburn, Matthew


    Several 27nm-pitch directed self-assembly (DSA) processes targeting fin formation for FinFET device fabrication are studied in a 300mm pilot line environment, including chemoepitaxy for a conventional Fin arrays, graphoepitaxy for a customization approach and a hybrid approach for self-aligned Fin cut. The trade-off between each DSA flow is discussed in terms of placement error, Fin CD/profile uniformity, and restricted design. Challenges in pattern transfer are observed and process optimization are discussed. Finally, silicon Fins with 100nm depth and on-target CD using different DSA options with either lithographic or self-aligned customization approach are demonstrated.

  7. Theoretical approaches to holistic biological features: Pattern formation, neural networks and the brain-mind relation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alfred Gierer


    The topic of this article is the relation between bottom-up and top-down, reductionist and ``holistic” approaches to the solution of basic biological problems. While there is no doubt that the laws of physics apply to all events in space and time, including the domains of life, understanding biology depends not only on elucidating the role of the molecules involved, but, to an increasing extent, on systems theoretical approaches in diverse fields of the life sciences. Examples discussed in this article are the generation of spatial patterns in development by the interplay of autocatalysis and lateral inhibition; the evolution of integrating capabilities of the human brain, such as cognition-based empathy; and both neurobiological and epistemological aspects of scientific theories of consciousness and the mind.

  8. Formation and reverberation of sequential neural activity patterns evoked by sensory stimulation are enhanced during cortical desynchronization. (United States)

    Bermudez Contreras, Edgar J; Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Muhammad, Arif; Bartho, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L; Kolb, Bryan; Gruber, Aaron J; Luczak, Artur


    Memory formation is hypothesized to involve the generation of event-specific neural activity patterns during learning and the subsequent spontaneous reactivation of these patterns. Here, we present evidence that these processes can also be observed in urethane-anesthetized rats and are enhanced by desynchronized brain state evoked by tail pinch, subcortical carbachol infusion, or systemic amphetamine administration. During desynchronization, we found that repeated tactile or auditory stimulation evoked unique sequential patterns of neural firing in somatosensory and auditory cortex and that these patterns then reoccurred during subsequent spontaneous activity, similar to what we have observed in awake animals. Furthermore, the formation of these patterns was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, suggesting that the phenomenon depends on synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that anesthetized animals with a desynchronized brain state could serve as a convenient model for studying stimulus-induced plasticity to improve our understanding of memory formation and replay in the brain.

  9. Patterned biofilm formation reveals a mechanism for structural heterogeneity in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Gu, Huan; Hou, Shuyu; Yongyat, Chanokpon; De Tore, Suzanne; Ren, Dacheng


    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous and are the major cause of chronic infections in humans and persistent biofouling in industry. Despite the significance of bacterial biofilms, the mechanism of biofilm formation and associated drug tolerance is still not fully understood. A major challenge in biofilm research is the intrinsic heterogeneity in the biofilm structure, which leads to temporal and spatial variation in cell density and gene expression. To understand and control such structural heterogeneity, surfaces with patterned functional alkanthiols were used in this study to obtain Escherichia coli cell clusters with systematically varied cluster size and distance between clusters. The results from quantitative imaging analysis revealed an interesting phenomenon in which multicellular connections can be formed between cell clusters depending on the size of interacting clusters and the distance between them. In addition, significant differences in patterned biofilm formation were observed between wild-type E. coli RP437 and some of its isogenic mutants, indicating that certain cellular and genetic factors are involved in interactions among cell clusters. In particular, autoinducer-2-mediated quorum sensing was found to be important. Collectively, these results provide missing information that links cell-to-cell signaling and interaction among cell clusters to the structural organization of bacterial biofilms.

  10. Energy approach to rivalry dynamics, soliton stability, and pattern formation in neuronal networks (United States)

    Loxley, P. N.; Robinson, P. A.


    Hopfield’s Lyapunov function is used to view the stability and topology of equilibria in neuronal networks for visual rivalry and pattern formation. For two neural populations with reciprocal inhibition and slow adaptation, the dynamics of neural activity is found to include a pair of limit cycles: one for oscillations between states where one population has high activity and the other has low activity, as in rivalry, and one for oscillations between states where both populations have the same activity. Hopfield’s Lyapunov function is used to find the dynamical mechanism for oscillations and the basin of attraction of each limit cycle. For a spatially continuous population with lateral inhibition, stable equilibria are found for local regions of high activity (solitons) and for bound states of two or more solitons. Bound states become stable when moving two solitons together minimizes the Lyapunov function, a result of decreasing activity in regions between peaks of high activity when the firing rate is described by a sigmoid function. Lowering the barrier to soliton formation leads to a pattern-forming instability, and a nonlinear solution to the dynamical equations is found to be given by a soliton lattice, which is completely characterized by the soliton width and the spacing between neighboring solitons. Fluctuations due to noise create lattice vacancies analogous to point defects in crystals, leading to activity which is spatially inhomogeneous.

  11. Metamorphic pattern of the Cretaceous Celica Formation, SW Ecuador, and its geodynamic implications (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis


    The volcanic rocks of the Cretaceous Celica Formation of southern Ecuador are affected by a weak although widespread alteration. The chemical study of the secondary chemical phases present in andesitic and basaltic lava flows reveals that this alteration corresponds to very low-grade metamorphism comprising the zeolite and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. Main features of this metamorphism are: weak lithostatic pressure, moderate to steep thermal gradient, high ƒ O2, low value of the seawater/rock ratio and total absence of deformation. These characteristics are typically present in other volcanic suites of similar age and composition along the Andes and correspond to the pattern of metamorphism developed in extensional settings (diastathermal metamorphism) linked to various degrees of thinning of the continental crust. Based on this metamorphic pattern, a geodynamic model is proposed in which the Celica Formation is interpreted as an ensialic, aborted, marginal basin developed on strongly attenuated continental crust at the border of the South American plate. The relationship between the Ecuadorian and Colombian volcanic suites of Cretaceous age present along the Western Cordillera is discussed in the light of the model suggested.

  12. Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged colloids: Stability and pattern formation (United States)

    Christdoss Pushpam, Sam David; Basavaraj, Madivala G.; Mani, Ethayaraja


    A binary mixture of oppositely charged colloids can be used to stabilize water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. A Monte Carlo simulation study to address the effect of charge ratio of colloids on the stability of Pickering emulsions is presented. The colloidal particles at the interface are modeled as aligned dipolar hard spheres, with attractive interaction between unlike-charged and repulsive interaction between like-charged particles. The optimum composition (fraction of positively charged particles) required for the stabilization corresponds to a minimum in the interaction energy per particle. In addition, for each charge ratio, there is a range of compositions where emulsions can be stabilized. The structural arrangement of particles or the pattern formation at the emulsion interface is strongly influenced by the charge ratio. We find well-mixed isotropic, square, and hexagonal arrangements of particles on the emulsion surface for different compositions at a given charge ratio. The distribution of coordination numbers is calculated to characterize structural features. The simulation study is useful for the rational design of Pickering emulsifications wherein oppositely charged colloids are used, and for the control of pattern formation that can be useful for the synthesis of colloidosomes and porous shells derived thereof.

  13. 13C Tracking after 13CO2 Supply Revealed Diurnal Patterns of Wood Formation in Aspen. (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Linden, Pernilla; Hedenström, Mattias; Moritz, Thomas; Niittylä, Totte


    Wood of trees is formed from carbon assimilated in the photosynthetic tissues. Determining the temporal dynamics of carbon assimilation, subsequent transport into developing wood, and incorporation to cell walls would further our understanding of wood formation in particular and tree growth in general. To investigate these questions, we designed a (13)CO2 labeling system to study carbon transport and incorporation to developing wood of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Tracking of (13)C incorporation to wood over a time course using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed diurnal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis. The dark period had a differential effect on (13)C incorporation to lignin and cell wall carbohydrates. No (13)C was incorporated into aromatic amino acids of cell wall proteins in the dark, suggesting that cell wall protein biosynthesis ceased during the night. The results show previously unrecognized temporal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis, suggest diurnal cycle as a possible cue in the regulation of carbon incorporation to wood, and establish a unique (13)C labeling method for the analysis of wood formation and secondary growth in trees.

  14. The Influence of Gene Expression Time Delays on Gierer–Meinhardt Pattern Formation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.


    There are numerous examples of morphogen gradients controlling long range signalling in developmental and cellular systems. The prospect of two such interacting morphogens instigating long range self-organisation in biological systems via a Turing bifurcation has been explored, postulated, or implicated in the context of numerous developmental processes. However, modelling investigations of cellular systems typically neglect the influence of gene expression on such dynamics, even though transcription and translation are observed to be important in morphogenetic systems. In particular, the influence of gene expression on a large class of Turing bifurcation models, namely those with pure kinetics such as the Gierer-Meinhardt system, is unexplored. Our investigations demonstrate that the behaviour of the Gierer-Meinhardt model profoundly changes on the inclusion of gene expression dynamics and is sensitive to the sub-cellular details of gene expression. Features such as concentration blow up, morphogen oscillations and radical sensitivities to the duration of gene expression are observed and, at best, severely restrict the possible parameter spaces for feasible biological behaviour. These results also indicate that the behaviour of Turing pattern formation systems on the inclusion of gene expression time delays may provide a means of distinguishing between possible forms of interaction kinetics. Finally, this study also emphasises that sub-cellular and gene expression dynamics should not be simply neglected in models of long range biological pattern formation via morphogens. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  15. The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning. (United States)

    Shi, Jian Xin; Adato, Avital; Alkan, Noam; He, Yonghua; Lashbrooke, Justin; Matas, Antonio J; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Isaacson, Tal; Prusky, Dov; Leshkowitz, Dena; Schreiber, Lukas; Granell, Antonio R; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Rogachev, Ilana; Rothan, Christophe; Aharoni, Asaph


    Fleshy tomato fruit typically lacks stomata; therefore, a proper cuticle is particularly vital for fruit development and interaction with the surroundings. Here, we characterized the tomato SlSHINE3 (SlSHN3) transcription factor to extend our limited knowledge regarding the regulation of cuticle formation in fleshy fruits. We created SlSHN3 overexpressing and silenced plants, and used them for detailed analysis of cuticular lipid compositions, phenotypic characterization, and the study on the mode of SlSHN3 action. Heterologous expression of SlSHN3 in Arabidopsis phenocopied overexpression of the Arabidopsis SHNs. Silencing of SlSHN3 results in profound morphological alterations of the fruit epidermis and significant reduction in cuticular lipids. We demonstrated that SlSHN3 activity is mediated by control of genes associated with cutin metabolism and epidermal cell patterning. As with SlSHN3 RNAi lines, mutation in the SlSHN3 target gene, SlCYP86A69, resulted in severe cutin deficiency and altered fruit surface architecture. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that SlCYP86A69 possesses NADPH-dependent ω-hydroxylation activity, particularly of C18:1 fatty acid to the 18-hydroxyoleic acid cutin monomer. This study provided insights into transcriptional mechanisms mediating fleshy fruit cuticle formation and highlighted the link between cutin metabolism and the process of fruit epidermal cell patterning.

  16. Dynamic Pattern Formation for Wings of Pterygota in an Eclosion ---Pattern Analysis for Wings with the Imago--- (United States)

    Seino, M.; Kakazu, Y.

    The vein and cell patterns for the fore and hind wing of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Odonata are analyzed and discussed. For vein patterns of them, the fractal properties are shown and the inequality between four orders is obtained. The nature of wings observed by mass distributions for fractal dimensions of the vein pattern is presented.

  17. Dynamic coupling of pattern formation and morphogenesis in the developing vertebrate retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Picker


    Full Text Available During embryonic development, pattern formation must be tightly synchronized with tissue morphogenesis to coordinate the establishment of the spatial identities of cells with their movements. In the vertebrate retina, patterning along the dorsal-ventral and nasal-temporal (anterior-posterior axes is required for correct spatial representation in the retinotectal map. However, it is unknown how specification of axial cell positions in the retina occurs during the complex process of early eye morphogenesis. Studying zebrafish embryos, we show that morphogenetic tissue rearrangements during eye evagination result in progenitor cells in the nasal half of the retina primordium being brought into proximity to the sources of three fibroblast growth factors, Fgf8/3/24, outside the eye. Triple-mutant analysis shows that this combined Fgf signal fully controls nasal retina identity by regulating the nasal transcription factor Foxg1. Surprisingly, nasal-temporal axis specification occurs very early along the dorsal-ventral axis of the evaginating eye. By in vivo imaging GFP-tagged retinal progenitor cells, we find that subsequent eye morphogenesis requires gradual tissue compaction in the nasal half and directed cell movements into the temporal half of the retina. Balancing these processes drives the progressive alignment of the nasal-temporal retina axis with the anterior-posterior body axis and is controlled by a feed-forward effect of Fgf signaling on Foxg1-mediated cell cohesion. Thus, the mechanistic coupling and dynamic synchronization of tissue patterning with morphogenetic cell behavior through Fgf signaling leads to the graded allocation of cell positional identity in the eye, underlying retinotectal map formation.

  18. A possible formation mechanism of rampart-like ejecta pattern in a laboratory (United States)

    Suzuki, A.; Kadono, T.; Nakamura, A. M.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Yamamoto, S.


    The ejecta morphologies around impact craters represent highly diverse appearance on the surface of solid bodies in our Solar System. It is considered that the varied ejecta morphologies result from the environments such as the atmospheric pressure, the volatile content in the subsurface, because they affect the emplacement process of the ejecta. Clarifying the relationships between the ejecta morphologies and the formation processes and environments could constrain the ancient surface environment and the evolution of the planets. We have investigated the ejecta patterns around the impact craters which formed on a glass beads layer in a laboratory, and found that the patterns depend on impact velocity, atmospheric pressure, and initial state of packing of the target [Suzuki et al., 2010, JpGU abstract]. Now, we focus on one of the ejecta patterns which has a petal-like (or sometimes concentric) ridges on the distal edge of the continuous ejecta. This ejecta pattern looks very similar to the rampart ejecta morphology observed around Martian impact craters [e.g. Barlow et al., 2000]. The experiments are conducted with the small light gas gun placed in Kobe University, Japan. The projectile is a cylinder with a diameter of 10 mm and a height of 10 mm, and is made of aluminum, nylon, or stainless. The target is a layer of glass beads (nearly uniform diameter) in a tub with ~28 cm in diameter. The bulk density is about 1.7 g/cm^3. The following three parameters are varied: 1) the diameter of the target glass beads (50, 100, 420 microns), 2) the ambient atmospheric pressure in the chamber (from ~500 Pa to atmospheric pressure), 3) the impact velocity of the projectile (from a few to ~120 m/s). In our experiments, the rampart-like ridged patterns are observed within the following conditions: 1) the diameter of the target glass beads is 50 and 100 microns, 2) the ambient pressure in the chamber is higher than ~10^4 Pa, and 3) the impact velocity is higher than 16 m

  19. Spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for pigment pattern formation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Georg Frohnhöfer


    Full Text Available Polyamines are small poly-cations essential for all cellular life. The main polyamines present in metazoans are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Their exact functions are still largely unclear; however, they are involved in a wide variety of processes affecting cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and aging. Here we identify idefix, a mutation in the zebrafish gene encoding the enzyme spermidine synthase, leading to a severe reduction in spermidine levels as shown by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We show that spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for early development, organogenesis and colour pattern formation. Whereas in other vertebrates spermidine deficiency leads to very early embryonic lethality, maternally provided spermidine synthase in zebrafish is sufficient to rescue the early developmental defects. This allows us to uncouple them from events occurring later during colour patterning. Factors involved in the cellular interactions essential for colour patterning, likely targets for spermidine, are the gap junction components Cx41.8, Cx39.4, and Kir7.1, an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, all known to be regulated by polyamines. Thus, zebrafish provide a vertebrate model to study the in vivo effects of polyamines.

  20. Spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for pigment pattern formation in zebrafish. (United States)

    Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Pattky, Martin; Meixner, Martin; Huhn, Carolin; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geisler, Robert; Gehring, Ines; Maderspacher, Florian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Irion, Uwe


    Polyamines are small poly-cations essential for all cellular life. The main polyamines present in metazoans are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Their exact functions are still largely unclear; however, they are involved in a wide variety of processes affecting cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and aging. Here we identify idefix, a mutation in the zebrafish gene encoding the enzyme spermidine synthase, leading to a severe reduction in spermidine levels as shown by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We show that spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for early development, organogenesis and colour pattern formation. Whereas in other vertebrates spermidine deficiency leads to very early embryonic lethality, maternally provided spermidine synthase in zebrafish is sufficient to rescue the early developmental defects. This allows us to uncouple them from events occurring later during colour patterning. Factors involved in the cellular interactions essential for colour patterning, likely targets for spermidine, are the gap junction components Cx41.8, Cx39.4, and Kir7.1, an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, all known to be regulated by polyamines. Thus, zebrafish provide a vertebrate model to study the in vivo effects of polyamines.

  1. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  2. Stability and pattern formation for competing populations with asymmetric nonlocal coupling. (United States)

    Tanzy, M C; Volpert, V A; Bayliss, A; Nehrkorn, M E


    We consider a model of two competing species with asymmetric nonlocal coupling in a competition for resources. The nonlocal coupling is via convolution integrals and the asymmetry is via convolution kernel functions which are not even functions of their arguments. The nonlocality is due to species mobility, so that at any fixed point in space the competition for resources depends not just on the populations at that point but on a suitably weighted average of the populations. We introduce two parameters, δ, describing the extent of the coupling, with δ=0 corresponding to local coupling, and α, describing the extent of the asymmetry, with α=0 corresponding to symmetric nonlocal interactions. We consider the case where the model admits a stable coexistence equilibrium solution. We perform a linear stability analysis and show that this solution can be destabilized by sufficient nonlocality, i.e., when δ increases beyond a critical value. We consider two specific kernel functions, (i) an asymmetric Gaussian and (ii) an asymmetric stepfunction. We compute the stability boundary as a function of α, and for δ beyond the stability boundary we determine unstable wavenumber bands. We compute nonlinear patterns for δ significantly beyond the stability boundary. Patterns consist of arrays of islands, regions of nonzero population, separated by either near-deadzones where the populations are small, but nonzero, or by deadzones where populations are exponentially small and essentially extinct. We find solutions consisting of propagating traveling waves of islands, solutions exhibiting colony formation, where a colony is formed just ahead of an island and eventually grows as the parent island decays, and modulated traveling waves, where competition between the two species allows propagation and inhibits colony formation. We explain colony formation and the modulated traveling waves as due to a positive feedback mechanism associated with small variations in the amplitude of

  3. In vitro biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coliand their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poovendran Ponnusamy; Vidhya Natarajan; Murugan Sevanan


    Objective:To detect in vitro biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli(E. coli)(UPEC) strains isolated from urine specimens and also to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using 13 commonly used antibiotics.Methods: The present study comprised of166 urine specimens collected from tertiary care hospitals in and around Coimbatore, South India. All the specimens were subjected to gram staining, bacterial culture and theE. coli strains were screened for biofilm formation using Tube Method(TM), Congo Red Agar(CRA) and Tissue Culture Plate method(TCP) respectively. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion method for the biofilm and non-biofilm producingE. colistrains.Results: Of the100 (60.2 %)E. coli strains,72 strains displayed a biofilm positive phenotype under the optimized conditions in the Tube Method and the strains were classified as highly positive(17, 23.6%), moderate positive(19, 26.3 %) and weakly positive(36, 50.0 %), similarly under the optimized conditions on Congo Red agar medium, biofilm positive phenotype strains were classified as highly positive(23, 23 %), moderate positive(37, 37 %)and weakly positive (40, 40%). While inTCP method, the biofilm positive phenotype strains were also classified as highly positive(6, 6 %), moderate positive (80, 80 %)and weakly positive(14, 14 %), it didn’t not correlate well with the tube method for detecting biofilm formation in E. coli. The rates of antibiotic resistance of biofilm producingE. coliwere found to be 100 % for chloramphenicol and amoxyclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid),86% for gentamicin and cefotaxime,84% for ceftazidime,83% for cotrimoxazole and piperacillin/tazobactam,75% for tetracycline and70% for amikacin.Conclusions: This study reveals the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of biofilm and non-biofilm producing uropathogenic E. coli strains.

  4. Determining Star Formation Timescale and Pattern Speed in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Komugi, Shinya


    We present a revised method for simultaneous determination of the pattern speed and star formation timescale of spiral galaxies, its application, and results for CO and Ha images of nearby spiral galaxies. Out of 13 galaxies, we were able to derive the 2 parameters for 5 galaxies. We categorize them as "C" galaxies, and find (1) The corotation radius is close to the edge of the CO data, and is about half of the optical radius for 3 galaxies. (2) The star formation timescale is roughly consistent with the free-fall time of typical molecular clouds, which indicates that the gravitational instability is the dominant mechanism triggering star formation in spiral arms. (3) The timescale is found to be almost independent of surface density of molecular gas, metallicity, or spiral arm strengths. The number of "C" galaxies and the quality of CO data, however, are not enough to confirm these relationships. We also find that 2 other galaxies show no offsets between CO and Ha, although their arms are clearly traced, and...

  5. Spontaneous formation of 10-μm-scale periodic patterns in transverse-scanning femtosecond laser processing. (United States)

    Matsuo, Shigeki; Hashimoto, Shuichi


    We report spontaneous formation of 10-μm-scale periodic patterns in transverse-scanning femtosecond (fs) laser processing inside a glass substrate. The formation of the periodic patterns was critically dependent on the distance of the focus from the back surface; they formed only when fs pulses were focused slightly inside (∼ a few micrometers) from the back surface. The periods ranged from 7 to 16 μm, which is much longer than the distance between neighboring irradiation spots (0.1-1 μm in the present experiments), the diameter of the individual modified spots (about 2 μm), and the wavelength (0.8 μm). The patterns formed without any intentional modulation; just by scanning the sample at a constant speed during irradiation of fs laser pulses. The dependence on scanning speed and repetition rate of the laser were also investigated, and a possible formation scenario for this "long" periodic pattern was described.

  6. From pattern formation to material computation multi-agent modelling of physarum polycephalum

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff


    This book addresses topics of mobile multi-agent systems, pattern formation, biological modelling, artificial life, unconventional computation, and robotics. The behaviour of a simple organism which is capable of remarkable biological and computational feats that seem to transcend its simple component parts is examined and modelled. In this book the following question is asked: How can something as simple as Physarum polycephalum - a giant amoeboid single-celled organism which does not possess any neural tissue, fixed skeleton or organised musculature - can approximate complex computational behaviour during its foraging, growth and adaptation of its amorphous body plan, and with such limited resources? To answer this question the same apparent limitations as faced by the organism are applied: using only simple components with local interactions. A synthesis approach is adopted and a mobile multi-agent system with very simple individual behaviours is employed. It is shown their interactions yield emergent beha...

  7. Chemo-Marangoni convection driven by an interfacial reaction: pattern formation and kinetics. (United States)

    Eckert, K; Acker, M; Tadmouri, R; Pimienta, V


    A combined study devoted to chemo-Marangoni convection and the underlying kinetics is presented for a biphasic system in which surfactants are produced in situ by an interfacial reaction. The pattern formation studied in a Hele-Shaw cell in both microgravity and terrestrial environments initially shows an ensemble of chemo-Marangoni cells along a nearly planar interface. Soon, a crossover occurs to periodic large-scale interfacial deformations which coexist with the Marangoni cells. This crossover can be correlated with the autocatalytic nature of the interfacial reaction identified in the kinetic studies. The drastic increase in the product concentration is associated with an enhanced aggregate-assisted transfer after the critical micellar concentration is approached. In this context, it was possible to conclusively explain the changes in the periodicity of the interfacial deformations depending on the reactant concentration ratio.

  8. A reaction diffusion model of pattern formation in clustering of adatoms on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilochan Bagarti


    Full Text Available We study a reaction diffusion model which describes the formation of patterns on surfaces having defects. Through this model, the primary goal is to study the growth process of Ge on Si surface. We consider a two species reaction diffusion process where the reacting species are assumed to diffuse on the two dimensional surface with first order interconversion reaction occuring at various defect sites which we call reaction centers. Two models of defects, namely a ring defect and a point defect are considered separately. As reaction centers are assumed to be strongly localized in space, the proposed reaction-diffusion model is found to be exactly solvable. We use Green's function method to study the dynamics of reaction diffusion processes. Further we explore this model through Monte Carlo (MC simulations to study the growth processes in the presence of a large number of defects. The first passage time statistics has been studied numerically.

  9. Dichotomous-noise-induced pattern formation in a reaction-diffusion system (United States)

    Das, Debojyoti; Ray, Deb Shankar


    We consider a generic reaction-diffusion system in which one of the parameters is subjected to dichotomous noise by controlling the flow of one of the reacting species in a continuous-flow-stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) -membrane reactor. The linear stability analysis in an extended phase space is carried out by invoking Furutzu-Novikov procedure for exponentially correlated multiplicative noise to derive the instability condition in the plane of the noise parameters (correlation time and strength of the noise). We demonstrate that depending on the correlation time an optimal strength of noise governs the self-organization. Our theoretical analysis is corroborated by numerical simulations on pattern formation in a chlorine-dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system.

  10. Mathematics and biology: a Kantian view on the history of pattern formation theory. (United States)

    Roth, Siegfried


    Driesch's statement, made around 1900, that the physics and chemistry of his day were unable to explain self-regulation during embryogenesis was correct and could be extended until the year 1972. The emergence of theories of self-organisation required progress in several areas including chemistry, physics, computing and cybernetics. Two parallel lines of development can be distinguished which both culminated in the early 1970s. Firstly, physicochemical theories of self-organisation arose from theoretical (Lotka 1910-1920) and experimental work (Bray 1920; Belousov 1951) on chemical oscillations. However, this research area gained broader acceptance only after thermodynamics was extended to systems far from equilibrium (1922-1967) and the mechanism of the prime example for a chemical oscillator, the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction, was deciphered in the early 1970s. Secondly, biological theories of self-organisation were rooted in the intellectual environment of artificial intelligence and cybernetics. Turing wrote his The chemical basis of morphogenesis (1952) after working on the construction of one of the first electronic computers. Likewise, Gierer and Meinhardt's theory of local activation and lateral inhibition (1972) was influenced by ideas from cybernetics. The Gierer-Meinhardt theory provided an explanation for the first time of both spontaneous formation of spatial order and of self-regulation that proved to be extremely successful in elucidating a wide range of patterning processes. With the advent of developmental genetics in the 1980s, detailed molecular and functional data became available for complex developmental processes, allowing a new generation of data-driven theoretical approaches. Three examples of such approaches will be discussed. The successes and limitations of mathematical pattern formation theory throughout its history suggest a picture of the organism, which has structural similarity to views of the organic world held by the philosopher

  11. Northern-Hemisphere snow cover patterns and formation conditions in winter 2007 and 2012 (United States)

    Cui, Hongyan; Qiao, Fangli; Shu, Qi; Yu, Long


    The Arctic sea ice minimum records appeared in the Septembers of 2007 and 2012, followed by high snow cover areas in the Northern Hemisphere winters. The snow cover distributions show different spatial patterns in these two years: increased snow cover in Central Asia and Central North America in 2007, while increased snow cover in East Asia and northwestern Europe in 2012. The high snow cover anomaly shifted to higher latitudes in winter of 2012 compared to 2007. It is noticed that the snow cover had positive anomaly in 2007 and 2012 with the following conditions: the negative geopotential height and the related cyclonic wind anomaly were favorable for upwelling, and, with the above conditions, the low troposphere and surface air temperature anomaly and water vapor anomaly were favorable for the formation and maintenance of snowfalls. The negative geopotential height, cyclonic wind and low air temperature conditions were satisfied in different locations in 2007 and 2012, resulting in different spatial snow cover patterns. The cross section of lower air temperature move to higher latitudes in winter of 2012 compared to 2007.

  12. Nanoscale pattern formation at surfaces under ion-beam sputtering: A perspective from continuum models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerno, Rodolfo, E-mail: cuerno@math.uc3m.e [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Castro, Mario [GISC and Grupo de Dinamica No Lineal (DNL), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria (ICAI), Universidad Pontificia Comillas, E-28015 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Garcia, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland and GISC, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gago, Raul; Vazquez, Luis [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Although reports on surface nanostructuring of solid targets by low to medium energy ion irradiation date back to the 1960s, only with the advent of high resolution tools for surface/interface characterization has the high potential of this procedure been recognized as a method for efficient production of surface patterns. Such morphologies are made up of periodic arrangements of nanometric sized features, like ripples and dots, with interest for technological applications due to their electronic, magnetic, and optical properties. Thus, roughly for the last ten years large efforts have been directed towards harnessing this nanofabrication technique. However, and particularly in view of recent experimental developments, we can say that the basic mechanisms controlling these pattern formation processes remain poorly understood. The lack of nanostructuring at low angles of incidence on some pure monoelemental targets, the role of impurities in the surface dynamics and other recent observations are challenging the classic view on the phenomenon as the mere interplay between the curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and surface diffusion. We review the main attempts at a theoretical (continuum) description of these systems, with emphasis on recent developments. Strong hints already exist that the nature of the morphological instability has to be rethought as originating in the material flow that is induced by the ion beam.

  13. Pattern Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis via Droplet Evaporation on Micropillars Arrays at a Surface. (United States)

    Susarrey-Arce, A; Marin, A; Massey, A; Oknianska, A; Díaz-Fernandez, Y; Hernández-Sánchez, J F; Griffiths, E; Gardeniers, J G E; Snoeijer, J H; Lohse, Detlef; Raval, R


    We evaluate the effect of epoxy surface structuring on the evaporation of water droplets containing Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). During evaporation, droplets with S. epidermidis cells yield to complex wetting patterns such as the zipping-wetting1-3 and the coffee-stain effects. Depending on the height of the microstructure, the wetting fronts propagate circularly or in a stepwise manner, leading to the formation of octagonal or square-shaped deposition patterns.4,5 We observed that the shape of the dried droplets has considerable influence on the local spatial distribution of S. epidermidis deposited between micropillars. These changes are attributed to an unexplored interplay between the zipping-wetting1 and the coffee-stain6 effects in polygonally shaped droplets containing S. epidermidis. Induced capillary flows during evaporation of S. epidermidis are modeled with polystyrene particles. Bacterial viability measurements for S. epidermidis show high viability of planktonic cells, but low biomass deposition on the microstructured surfaces. Our findings provide insights into design criteria for the development of microstructured surfaces on which bacterial propagation could be controlled, limiting the use of biocides.

  14. Pattern formation, synchronization, and outbreak of biodiversity in cyclically competing games. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Ni, Xuan; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso


    Species in nature are typically mobile over diverse distance scales, examples of which range from bacteria run to long-distance animal migrations. These behaviors can have a significant impact on biodiversity. Addressing the role of migration in biodiversity microscopically is fundamental but remains a challenging problem in interdisciplinary science. We incorporate both intra- and inter-patch migrations in stochastic games of cyclic competitions and find that the interplay between the migrations at the local and global scales can lead to robust species coexistence characterized dynamically by the occurrence of remarkable target-wave patterns in the absence of any external control. The waves can emerge from either mixed populations or isolated species in different patches, regardless of the size and the location of the migration target. We also find that, even in a single-species system, target waves can arise from rare mutations, leading to an outbreak of biodiversity. A surprising phenomenon is that target waves in different patches can exhibit synchronization and time-delayed synchronization, where the latter potentially enables the prediction of future evolutionary dynamics. We provide a physical theory based on the spatiotemporal organization of the target waves to explain the synchronization phenomena. We also investigate the basins of coexistence and extinction to establish the robustness of biodiversity through migrations. Our results are relevant to issues of general and broader interest such as pattern formation, control in excitable systems, and the origin of order arising from self-organization in social and natural systems.

  15. Determination of density pattern of fracture in Asmari Formation in Marun oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheyrollah Noraeinezhad


    Full Text Available Marun oilfield is located in the middle part of Dezful Embayment and is situated along the Aghajari, Ahvaz and Ramin anticline. Given the important role of fracture characteristics for improving production, so the aim of this research is to investigate the density pattern of fracture in Asmari formation in Marun oilfield. For this purpose, results of image log, core data, graphic well log, methods of inscribed circle analysis and curvature changes geometry of anticline were analyzed. Asmari formation is the main reservoir rock in Marun oilfield that divided into five zones. Limestone and dolomite are the main lithology of zones 1, 2 and 3 which has a high density of fractures (especially in zones with 90% dolomite. Also there is less fracture density (micro fracture in the 4 and 5 Asmari zone due to an increase of shale and marl layers and due to less break ablity has a less distribution of fractures. The result show that there are a good conformity existed between the results of inscribed circle analysis, image log, core data, curvature and the presence of fractures in Marun anticline. The data indicate that highest density of fracture density concentrates in the southern limb in the central region of anticline and also in the north limb in the northeast region of the anticline. So, finally using these parameters, it is recommended that further development and production wells be drilled in the north eastern part of the oil filed as well as center part of southern flank of the anticline.

  16. In Vitro Biofilm Formation by Uropathogenic Bacteria and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Verma


    Full Text Available Background: Uropathogens have an ability to form biofilm in urinary tract. Microorganisms growing in biofilm are associated with chronic and recurrent UTI. They are highly resistant to a variety of antimicrobial agents. There are different phenotypic methods to detect biofilm production like Tube Adherence Method (TAM, Congo Red Agar Method (CRAM, Tissue Culture Plate Method (TCPM, etc. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to observe biofilm formation by uropathogens, their antibiotic resistance pattern and to correlate biofilm formation with drug resistance. Material and Methods: Total 168 isolates were collected from urine over six months. They were subjected to AST by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Detection of biofilm production was done by TAM, CRAM, and TCPM. Results: Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate. Of the 68 clinical isolates, 54% were positive for biofilm production by TAM, 58% by CRAM, and 66% by TCPM. Compared to non-biofilm producers higher antibiotic resistance was observed among biofilm producers. TCPM was found to be more accurate. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent isolate. Biofilm producers were found to be resistant for multiple drugs. TCPM was found to be more quantitative and reliable

  17. Modeling the PbI2 formation in perovskite solar cells using XRD/XPS patterns (United States)

    Sohrabpoor, Hamed; Elyasi, Majid; Aldosari, Marouf; Gorji, Nima E.


    The impact of prolonged irradiation and air humidity on the stability of perovskite solar cells is modeled using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy patterns reported in the literature. Light or air-moisture causes the formation of a thin PbI2 or oxide defective layers (in nanoscale) at the interface of perovskite/hole-transport-layer or at the junction with metallic back contact. This thin layer blocks the carrier transport/passivation at the interfaces and cause degradation of device parameters. Variation in thickness of defective layers, changes the XRD and XPS peaks. This allows detection and estimation of the type, crystallinity and thickness of the defective layer. A simple model is developed here to extract the thickness of such thin defective layers formed in nanometer scale at the back region of several perovskite devices. Based on this information, corrected energy band diagram of every device before and after degradation/aging is drawn and discussed in order to obtain insight into the carrier transport and charge collection at the barrier region. In addition, graphene contacted perovskite devices are investigated showing that honey-comb network of graphene contact reduces the effect of aging leading to formation of a thinner defective layer at the perovskite surface compared to perovskite devices with conventional inorganic contacts i.e. Au, Al.

  18. Formation of ordered microphase-separated pattern during spin coating of ABC triblock copolymer. (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Luo, Chunxia; Zhang, Jilin; Han, Yanchun


    In this paper, the authors have systematically studied the microphase separation and crystallization during spin coating of an ABC triblock copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO). The microphase separation of PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO and the crystallization of PEO blocks can be modulated by the types of the solvent and the substrate, the spinning speed, and the copolymer concentration. Ordered microphase-separated pattern, where PEO and P2VP blocks adsorbed to the substrate and PS blocks protrusions formed hexagonal dots above the P2VP domains, can only be obtained when PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO is dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide and the films are spin coated onto the polar substrate, silicon wafers or mica. The mechanism of the formation of regular pattern by microphase separation is found to be mainly related to the inducement of the substrate (middle block P2VP wetting the polar substrate), the quick vanishment of the solvent during the early stage of the spin coating, and the slow evaporation of the remaining solvent during the subsequent stage. On the other hand, the probability of the crystallization of PEO blocks during spin coating decreases with the reduced film thickness. When the film thickness reaches a certain value (3.0 nm), the extensive crystallization of PEO is effectively prohibited and ordered microphase-separated pattern over large areas can be routinely prepared. When the film thickness exceeds another definite value (12.0 nm), the crystallization of PEO dominates the surface morphology. For films with thickness between these two values, microphase separation and crystallization can simultaneously occur.

  19. Seasonal and temporal patterns of NDMA formation potentials in surface waters. (United States)

    Uzun, Habibullah; Kim, Daekyun; Karanfil, Tanju


    The seasonal and temporal patterns of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potentials (FPs) were examined with water samples collected monthly for 21 month period in 12 surface waters. This long term study allowed monitoring the patterns of NDMA FPs under dynamic weather conditions (e.g., rainy and dry periods) covering several seasons. Anthropogenically impacted waters which were determined by high sucralose levels (>100 ng/L) had higher NDMA FPs than limited impacted sources (spring months, while seasonal mean values remained relatively consistent. The study also showed that watershed characteristics played an important role in the seasonal and temporal patterns. In the two dam-controlled river systems (SW A and G), the NDMA FP levels at the downstream sampling locations were controlled by the NDMA levels in the dams independent of either the increases in discharge rates due to water releases from the dams prior to or during the heavy rain events or intermittent high NDMA FP levels observed at the upstream of dams. The large reservoirs and impoundments on rivers examined in this study appeared serving as an equalization basin for NDMA precursors. On the other hand, in a river without an upstream reservoir (SW E), the NDMA levels were influenced by the ratio of an upstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharge to the river discharge rate. The impact of WWTP effluent decreased during the high river flow periods due to rain events. Linear regression with independent variables DOC, DON, and sucralose yielded poor correlations with NDMA FP (R(2) < 0.27). Multiple linear regression analysis using DOC and log [sucralose] yielded a better correlation with NDMA FP (R(2) = 0.53).

  20. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (United States)] [and others


    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  1. A generic model of pattern formation in Mississippi Valley-Type deposits based on analytical findings (United States)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Veveakis, Manolis; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Poulet, Thomas; Koehn, Daniel; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Chung, Peter; Berndt, Jasper


    Rhythmically banded dolomites (zebra dolomite) are found worldwide, and are frequently associated with mineralization of the Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT). These rocks consist of dark fine grained and impurity-rich layers alternating with light coarse grained and virtually impurity-free layers. The texture of the light layers is similar to the one of tectonic syntaxial veins where crystals grow towards a median line. We present petrographic and chemical analysis of zebra dolomite samples from the San Vicente mine, Central Peru. The applied methods are petrographic microscopy, SEM, EBSD, EMP and LA-ICP-MS. The findings influence the development of a generic model of pattern formation. We found the density and the distribution of second-phase material to be one striking feature. The impurities are accumulated in the dark layers, which show an even higher density of second-phase material than the surrounding impurity-rich dolomite. With CL, it was possible to detect a luminescent structure in the center of the light bands which seems to be present independent of the thickness and spacing of the respective layers. This structure was analysed in more detail with EMP. We further found that the dolomite crystals in the dark and light layers are chemically similar but show a variation in some trace elements. Based on the analytical findings, we put forward a mathematical model of zebra dolomite formation based on Cnoidal waves. We believe that the light coarse grained layers represent hydromechanical instabilities arising during the diagenetic compaction of a fluid saturated, impurity-rich dolomite. Our approach is based on the extension of the classical compaction bands theory to a viscose, non-linear rheology. In the model, the spacing between two light coarse grained layers is linked to the compaction length during the pattern formation. With the formulation of a 1D steady-state solution we can relate the genesis of the structure to physical parameter, such as

  2. From dynamic expression patterns to boundary formation in the presomitic mesoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik B Tiedemann

    Full Text Available The segmentation of the vertebrate body is laid down during early embryogenesis. The formation of signaling gradients, the periodic expression of genes of the Notch-, Fgf- and Wnt-pathways and their interplay in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM precedes the rhythmic budding of nascent somites at its anterior end, which later develops into epithelialized structures, the somites. Although many in silico models describing partial aspects of somitogenesis already exist, simulations of a complete causal chain from gene expression in the growth zone via the interaction of multiple cells to segmentation are rare. Here, we present an enhanced gene regulatory network (GRN for mice in a simulation program that models the growing PSM by many virtual cells and integrates WNT3A and FGF8 gradient formation, periodic gene expression and Delta/Notch signaling. Assuming Hes7 as core of the somitogenesis clock and LFNG as modulator, we postulate a negative feedback of HES7 on Dll1 leading to an oscillating Dll1 expression as seen in vivo. Furthermore, we are able to simulate the experimentally observed wave of activated NOTCH (NICD as a result of the interactions in the GRN. We esteem our model as robust for a wide range of parameter values with the Hes7 mRNA and protein decays exerting a strong influence on the core oscillator. Moreover, our model predicts interference between Hes1 and HES7 oscillators when their intrinsic frequencies differ. In conclusion, we have built a comprehensive model of somitogenesis with HES7 as core oscillator that is able to reproduce many experimentally observed data in mice.

  3. Formation of white-eye pattern with microdischarge in an air dielectric barrier discharge system

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yafeng; Liu, Weili; Wang, Hongfang; Zhao, Zengchao; Fan, Weili


    We report on the first observation of white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as following: random spots - quasihexagonal pattern - hexagonal pattern (type I) - hexagonal pattern (type II) - white-eye pattern - chaos as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of patterned discharges are investigated by using an optical method. Results show that the two discharge modes, uniform mode and filamentary mode, are actually two different spatial presentations of the same origin: the microdischarge. From the viewpoint of pattern dynamics, the white-eye pattern results from a 3-wave resonance interaction.

  4. Effect of pattern formation on C and N turnover heterogeneity in initial soils (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Claudia


    The formation of vegetation patterns and hydrological processes, among others, result in soil heterogeneity in newly exposed land surfaces. We studied the effect of these developling structures on carbon and nitrogen trunover in soils of the artificial catchment Chicken Creek (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2012). Substrates with different physical and geochemical properties in combination with different labelled plant litter materials were studied in a microcosm experiment over a period of 80 weeks. Main objectives of the microcosm experiment were to determine the transformation processes of C and N from litter decomposition within the gaseous, liquid and solid phase, the interaction with mineral surfaces and its role for the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. The microcosm experiments were established in a climate chamber at constant 10 °C. In total, 48 soil columns (diameter: 14.4 cm; height: 30 cm) were filled with two different quaternary substrates (sand and loamy sand) representing the textural variation within the catchment at a bulk density of 1.4-1.5 g cm-3. The columns were automatically irrigated with artificial rainwater four times a day with 6.6 ml each (corresponding to 600 mm yr-1). The gaseous phase in the headspace of the microcosms was analyzed continuously for CO2 and N2O concentrations. C and N transformation processes were studied using 13C and 15N labelled litter of two different plant species occurring at the catchment (Lotus corniculatus, Calamagrostis epigejos) that was incorporated into the microcosm surface. By including litter from species with wide distribution within the catchment and soil substrates representing the main variation types of the sediments used for catchment construction we were able to characterize the general function of these sub-patches within the catchment with respect to litter decomposition, soil solution composition, DOC and nutrient leaching, and impact on the mineral soil phase. The results suggest that initial


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragulin I. Y.


    Full Text Available This article is important today because there is not enough attention in the contemporary law publications paid to the typical patterns of crime mechanism especially in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover. Taking into account the opinions of such well-known forensic scientists as R.S. Belkin, V.D. Zelensky, G.M. Meretukov, M.V. Golovin, V.A. Obraztsov, J.G. Korukhov, V.Y. Koldin, O.V. Chelysheva, L.Y. Drapkin, V.N. Karagodin and others, the author comes to the conclusion that it’s necessary to develop typical patterns of crime mechanism for certain types of crime. The author has worked out some typical patterns of crime mechanism in the sphere of illegal weapon and ammunition turnover based upon major informative criminalistic elements, this particular article describes seven typical patterns of crime mechanism for the illegal storage, transportation, transfer, carry, purchase and sale, manufacture, repair or alteration, theft or extortion, careless storage or improper performance of duties on protection of weapon, its basic parts and ammunition. Each pattern is accompanied with the examples of judicial and investigative practice, followed by the necessary explanations and analysis of the activities of the subject of the investigation on the preparation, followup and final stages, which leads to the conclusion about the legitimacy of the proposed patterns

  6. Methodological aspects of the study of dietary patterns during pregnancy and maternal and infant health outcomes. A systematic review. (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Brito, Noe; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Nissensohn, Mariela; Henriquez, Patricia; Hermoso, Maria; Berti, Cristiana; Serra Majem, Lluis


    The objective of the present study was to systematically review the literature exploring the associations between different dietary patterns obtained from Food Frequency Questionnaires during pregnancy and the development of health-related maternal and infant outcomes in the Framework of the EURRECA Network of Excellence. A systematic search was conducted on Pubmed for literature published up to September 2009. The search strategy resulted in an initial amount of 2048 articles. After applying the selection criteria, seven studies were finally identified. Five articles were based on prospective cohort studies and the other two were case-control studies. The methods used to elaborate the dietary pattern could be classified as hypothesis-oriented (three studies) or empirically-derived (four studies). The different food frequency questionnaires used for diet assessment were self-administered, semi-quantitative and had been previously validated, but just four studies employed questionnaires validated specifically for their use in a pregnant population. The divergent methods used to assess the dietary patterns make it difficult to compare results. However, some resulting recommendations can be applied when dietary patterns during pregnancy are analyzed: to employ a validated food frequency questionnaire designed for use in pregnancy, to consider the special role exerted by mineral and vitamin supplements in this particular population group, to adequately select the time in which dietary data is collected, to adjust the results for life-style and educational characteristics, and in the case of hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns, to correctly choose the components comprising the score.

  7. Pattern formation and coarse-graining in two-dimensional colloids driven by multiaxial magnetic fields. (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash


    We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.

  8. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids (United States)

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Poulikakos, Dimos


    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and

  9. Formation and 2D-patterning of silver nanoisland film using thermal poling and out-diffusion from glass (United States)

    Chervinskii, S.; Sevriuk, V.; Reduto, I.; Lipovskii, A.


    We fabricated silver nanoisland films and patterned silver nanoisland films using out-diffusion of silver from glass in the course of the ion-exchanged glass substrate annealing in reducing hydrogen atmosphere. The choice of the annealing conditions allows to provide prevailing of silver nanoisland formation over the formation of silver nanoparticles in the bulk of the glass. The procedure of the patterned film formation includes (i) silver-sodium ion exchange in the glass, (ii) thermal poling of the ion-exchanged glass with a profiled anodic electrode, and (iii) annealing the glass in hydrogen. The formation of silver nanoislands in unpoled regions on the glass surface allowed us to avoid any post-processing of very fragile silver island film in formation of 2D-patterned nanoisland structures. Poling of the glass with properly profiled electrode was used for the formation of random chains and ordered arrays of separate silver nanoislands. Depending on processing parameters, a typical island size in the films and chains varied from several to tens of nanometers, and was down to 200 nm in the arrays.

  10. Formation of Ga droplets on patterned GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Hirono, Yusuke; Koukourinkova, Sabina D; Sui, Mao; Song, Sangmin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon; Salamo, Gregory J


    In this paper, the formation of Ga droplets on photo-lithographically patterned GaAs (100) and the control of the size and density of Ga droplets by droplet epitaxy using molecular beam epitaxy are demonstrated. In extension of our previous result from the journal Physical Status Solidi A, volume 209 in 2012, the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets is clearly observed by high-resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Also, additional monolayer (ML) coverage is added to strength the result. The density of droplets is an order of magnitude higher on the trench area (etched area), while the size of droplets is much larger on the strip top area (un-etched area). A systematic variation of ML coverage results in an establishment of the control of size and density of Ga droplets. The cross-sectional line profile analysis and root mean square roughness analysis show that the trench area (etched area) is approximately six times rougher. The atomic surface roughness is suggested to be the main cause of the sharp contrast of the size and density of Ga droplets and is discussed in terms of surface diffusion.

  11. The shock-induced star formation sequence resulting from a constant spiral pattern speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)


    We utilize a suite of multiwavelength data of nine nearby spirals to analyze the shock-induced star formation sequence that may result from a constant spiral pattern speed. The sequence involves tracers as the H I, CO 24 μm, and FUV, where the spiral arms were analyzed with Fourier techniques in order to obtain their azimuthal phases as a function of radius. It was found that only two of the objects, NGC 628 and NGC 5194, present coherent phases resembling the theoretical expectations, as indicated by the phase shifts of CO- 24 μm. The evidence is more clear for NGC 5194 and moderate for NGC 628. It was also found that the phase shifts are different for the two spiral arms. With the exception on NGC 3627, a two-dimensional Fourier analysis showed that the rest of the objects do not exhibit bi-symmetric spiral structures of stellar mass, i.e., grand-design spirals. A phase order inversion indicates a corotation radius of ∼89'' for NGC 628 and ∼202'' for NGC 5194. For these two objects, the CO-Hα phase shifts corroborate the CO-24 μm azimuthal offsets. Also for NGC 5194, the CO-70 μm, CO-140 μm, and CO-250 μm phase shifts indicate a corotation region.

  12. Continuum modelling of piston driven shock waves through granular gases and ensuing pattern formations (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei


    Two-dimensional event-driven Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were previously completed to investigate the stability of piston driven shock waves through dilute granular gases. By considering viscoelastic collisions, allowing for finite dissipation within the shock wave, instabilities were found in the form of distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. This work is now extended to the continuum level. Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for granular gases are modelled with a modified cooling rate to include an impact threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. The shock structure predicted by the continuum formulation is found in good agreement with the structure obtained by MD. Non-linear stability analyses of the travelling wave solution are performed, showing a neutrally stable structure and responding only to fluctuations in the upstream state. Introducing strong perturbations to the incoming density field, in accordance with the spacial fluctuations in upstream state seen in MD, yields similar instabilities as those previously observed. While the inviscid model predicts a highly turbulent structure from these perturbations, the inclusion of viscosity yields comparable wavelengths of pattern formations to those seen in MD.

  13. Looking at the origin of phenotypic variation from pattern formation gene networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isaac Salazar-Ciudad


    This article critically reviews some widespread views about the overall functioning of development. Special attention is devoted to views in developmental genetics about the superstructure of developmental gene networks. According to these views gene networks are hierarchic and multilayered. The highest layers partition the embryo in large coarse areas and control downstream genes that subsequently subdivide the embryo into smaller and smaller areas. These views are criticized on the bases of developmental and evolutionary arguments. First, these views, although detailed at the level of gene identities, do not incorporate morphogenetic mechanisms nor do they try to explain how morphology changes during development. Often, they assume that morphogenetic mechanisms are subordinate to cell signaling events. This is in contradiction to the evidence reviewed herein. Experimental evidence on pattern formation also contradicts the view that developmental gene networks are hierarchically multilayered and that their functioning is decodable from promoter analysis. Simple evolutionary arguments suggest that, indeed, developmental gene networks tend to be non-hierarchic. Re-use leads to extensive modularity in gene networks while developmental drift blurs this modularity. Evolutionary opportunism makes developmental gene networks very dependent on epigenetic factors.

  14. Biofilm formation over surface patterned with pico-liter oil micro-drop array (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian


    It has been suggested that biodegradation by microbes is an effective process in the cleansing of oil polluted marine environments. It has also been speculated that dispersants could further enhance processes amid no direct evidence. The studies in the relevant scales are severely hampered by lack of techniques to generate uniform micro-scale drops allowing in-situ monitoring of these processes. In this paper, we present a microfabrication technique allowing patterning microfluidic surfaces with arrays of micro oil drops. The array of oil drops was printed by micro transfer molding/printing with negative PDMS stamps. The printed micro-drops have dimensions ranging from 5 μm to 50 μm. Non-circular shapes, such as square and triangle, can also be printed and maintained for weeks. Atomic force microscopy is used to characterize the topology and interfacial structures of droplets. The results reveal that although the drop with different base shapes assumes dome like profile asymptotically, donut and top-hat shapes are also observed. Time evolution measurement elucidates that in the absences of inviscid mechanisms in comparison to a micro-liter drop, subtle interplays between interfacial forces and viscosity play crucial role in the shape of pico-liter drop. With the developed surfaces, the effects of oil drop sizes and interfacial structures on biofilm formation are studied and reported.

  15. Pattern Formation in Swarming Spacecrafts using Tersoff-Brenner Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zeng


    Full Text Available We present a distributed control strategy that lets a swarm of spacecrafts autonomously form a lattice in orbit around a planet. The system, based on the artificial potential field approach, proposes a novel way to divide the artificial field into two main terms: a global artificial potential field mainly based on the famous C-W equations that gathers the spacecrafts around a predefined meeting point, and a local term exploited the well-known Tersoff-Brenner potential that allows a spacecraft to place itself in the correct position relative to its closest neighbors. Moreover, in order to obtain convergence from all initial distributions of the spacecrafts, a dissipation term depended on the velocity of agent is introduced. The new methodology is demonstrated in the problem of forming a hexagon lattice, the structure unit of graphite. It is shown that a pattern formation can operate around a planet. By slightly changing the scenario our method can be easily applied to shape other configurations, such as a regular tetrahedron (with central point, the structure unit, etc.

  16. Formation of regular spatial patterns in ratio-dependent predator-prey model driven by spatial colored-noise


    Liu, Quan-Xing; Jin, Zhen


    Results are reported concerning the formation of spatial patterns in the two-species ratio-dependent predator-prey model driven by spatial colored-noise. The results show that there is a critical value with respect to the intensity of spatial noise for this system when the parameters are in the Turing space, above which the regular spatial patterns appear in two dimensions, but under which there are not regular spatial patterns produced. In particular, we investigate in two-dimensional space ...

  17. Shrink film patterning by craft cutter: complete plastic chips with high resolution/high-aspect ratio channel. (United States)

    Taylor, Douglas; Dyer, David; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle


    This paper presents a rapid, ultra-low-cost approach to fabricate microfluidic devices using a polyolefin shrink film and a digital craft cutter. The shrinking process (with a 95% reduction in area) results in relatively uniform and consistent microfluidic channels with smooth surfaces, vertical sidewalls, and high aspect ratio channels with lateral resolutions well beyond the tool used to cut them. The thermal bonding of the layers results in strongly bonded devices. Complex microfluidic designs are easily designed on the fly and protein assays are also readily integrated into the device. Full device characterization including channel consistency, optical properties, and bonding strength are assessed in this technical note.

  18. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Caputo, Jean Guy


    A follow-the-leader model of traffic flow on a closed loop is considered in the framework of the extended optimal velocity (OV) model where the driver reacts to both the following and the preceding car. Periodic wave train solutions that describe the formation of traffic congestion patterns...

  19. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons. (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion: formation mechanism fingerprints. (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-Yong; Choi, Kum-Chan; Mulholland, James A


    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) byproducts can be formed in combustion systems by a variety of mechanisms. While total PCDD/F emissions and, to a lesser extent, homologue distributions from incinerators have been found to vary widely depending on combustion conditions, PCDD/F isomer distributions do not. Formation mechanisms can be grouped into two general categories: condensation of precursors, such as chlorinated phenols, and formation from particulate carbon, termed de novo synthesis. In addition to these mechanisms, chlorination and dechlorination reactions may affect isomer patterns. In this work, isomer patterns from field and laboratory municipal waste combustion samples are compared with computed thermodynamic distributions and those from the following experimental investigations: both gas-phase and metal-catalyzed condensation of chlorinated phenols, chlorination of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, and dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran. PCDD/F isomer patterns produced by different formation mechanisms in controlled experiments are distinct and robust, largely unaffected by combustion conditions. PCDD isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion are most similar to those produced by CuCl(2)-catalyzed phenol condensation from 10 chlorinated phenols. PCDF isomer patterns are most similar to those produced by chlorination and dechlorination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Razuvanova


    Full Text Available Materials and methods. Regularities of movement patterns in the body control the flight phase of the athletes on the example of the long jump were studied by methods of Motion Tracking and electromyography. The findings suggest that a significant difference of motor stereotypes underlying the performance of motor actions – the long jump – in different skill athletes.Results. In the initial phase (phase jumping differences between the groups are small - repulsion athletes perform in a similar manner, a core group of athletes with a more efficient use of the reserve of the work of the knee. The nature of the work the leg muscles in athletes of both groups in this phase is also not different. However, the further execution of motor actions in athletes of both groups occurs in different ways. Athletes of the control group did not perform virtually control the body in flight phase. This is evidenced primarily high tone muscles in the arms, back and neck throughout the flight phase. Movements are performed only in the knee and hip joints, and already in the phase of “hang-up” – the highest point of the flight path - these movements have focused on the preparation for landing.Conclusions. Athletes of the main group in the flight phase involve the full range of movements - flexion and extension are performed as in the shoulder and elbow joints, as well as in the neck and spine joints. All these movements are designed to increase the range of jumps - this contributes to the removal of the legs forward, and giving the body angular acceleration by the movement of legs and head. Preparation for landing is made directly before contact with the surface, but the very nature of the phase of flight allows the athlete to use the inertia of motion of the body as much as possible to lengthen the jump and thus facilitate shock absorption and retention of balance upon landing.Formation movement patterns in the body control the flight phase of the athletes

  2. Pattern formation of reaction-diffusion system having self-determined flow in the amoeboid organism of Physarum plasmodium

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H; Ito, M


    The amoeboid organism, the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, behaves on the basis of spatio-temporal pattern formation by local contraction-oscillators. This biological system can be regarded as a reaction-diffusion system which has spatial interaction by active flow of protoplasmic sol in the cell. Paying attention to the physiological evidence that the flow is determined by contraction pattern in the plasmodium, a reaction-diffusion system having self-determined flow arises. Such a coupling of reaction-diffusion-advection is a characteristic of the biological system, and is expected to relate with control mechanism of amoeboid behaviours. Hence, we have studied effects of the self-determined flow on pattern formation of simple reaction-diffusion systems. By weakly nonlinear analysis near a trivial solution, the envelope dynamics follows the complex Ginzburg-Landau type equation just after bifurcation occurs at finite wave number. The flow term affects the nonlinear term of the equation through the critic...

  3. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Eshel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular mechanisms that underpin the complex multicellular organization of such a simple organism are not well understood. Results Swarming by P. vortex was studied by real-time light microscopy, by in situ scanning electron microscopy and by tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant cells within antibiotic-sensitive colonies. When swarming, P. vortex was found to be peritrichously flagellated. Swarming by the curved cells of P. vortex occurred on an extremely wide range of media and agar concentrations (0.3 to 2.2% w/v. At high agar concentrations (> 1% w/v rotating colonies formed that could be detached from the main mass of cells by withdrawal of cells into the latter. On lower percentage agars, cells moved in an extended network composed of interconnected "snakes" with short-term collision avoidance and sensitivity to extracts from swarming cells. P. vortex formed single Petri dish-wide "supercolonies" with a colony-wide exchange of motile cells. Swarming cells were coupled by rapidly forming, reversible and non-rigid connections to form a loose raft, apparently connected via flagella. Inhibitors of swarming (p-Nitrophenylglycerol and Congo Red were identified. Mitomycin C was used to trigger filamentation without inhibiting growth or swarming; this facilitated dissection of the detail of swarming. Mitomycin C treatment resulted in malcoordinated swarming and abortive side branch formation and a strong tendency by a subpopulation of the cells to form minimal rotating aggregates of only a few cells. Conclusion P. vortex creates complex macroscopic colonies within which there is considerable reflux and movement and interaction of cells. Cell

  4. Developer molecular size dependence of pattern formation of polymer type electron beam resists with various molecular weights (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Asada, Hironori; Kishimura, Yukiko; Ochiai, Shunsuke; Hoshino, Ryoichi; Kawata, Atsushi


    The sensitivity and the resolution are affected by not only the nature of the resist such as a chemical structure and a molecular weight but also the developing process such as a developer molecular size. Exposure characteristics of positive-tone polymer resists having various molecular weights (Mw's) ranging from 60 k to 500 k are investigated using different ester solvents as a developer. The line-and-space (L/S) patterns are exposed by the electron beam writing system with an acceleration voltage of 50 kV and the samples are developed by amyl acetate, hexyl acetate and heptyl acetate. The pattern shape becomes better and the surface of the resist also becomes smoother with increasing developer molecular size, though the exposure dose required for the formation of the L/S pattern increases. The dose margin of pattern formation is also wider in all the resists having the different molecular weights. The dissolution in the unexposed portions of the 60k-Mw resist for heptyl acetate is reduced significantly compared with those for amyl acetate and hexyl acetate. The improvement of the pattern shape and the increasing of dose margin are remarkable in the low molecular weight resist. The 3σ of line width roughness tends to be smaller in the higher molecular weight resist and with the larger molecular size developer. Exposure experiment of the 35 nm pitch pattern using the 500k-Mw resist developed at the room temperature is presented.

  5. Pigment pattern formation in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, involves the Kita and Csf1ra receptor tyrosine kinases. (United States)

    Kottler, Verena A; Fadeev, Andrey; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine


    Males of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) vary tremendously in their ornamental patterns, which are thought to have evolved in response to a complex interplay between natural and sexual selection. Although the selection pressures acting on the color patterns of the guppy have been extensively studied, little is known about the genes that control their ontogeny. Over 50 years ago, two autosomal color loci, blue and golden, were described, both of which play a decisive role in the formation of the guppy color pattern. Orange pigmentation is absent in the skin of guppies with a lesion in blue, suggesting a defect in xanthophore development. In golden mutants, the development of the melanophore pattern during embryogenesis and after birth is affected. Here, we show that blue and golden correspond to guppy orthologs of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra; previously called fms) and kita. Most excitingly, we found that both genes are required for the development of the black ornaments of guppy males, which in the case of csf1ra might be mediated by xanthophore-melanophore interactions. Furthermore, we provide evidence that two temporally and genetically distinct melanophore populations contribute to the adult camouflage pattern expressed in both sexes: one early appearing and kita-dependent and the other late-developing and kita-independent. The identification of csf1ra and kita mutants provides the first molecular insights into pigment pattern formation in this important model species for ecological and evolutionary genetics.

  6. Cross-correlation patterns in social opinion formation with sequential data (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.


    Recent research on large-scale internet data suggests existence of patterns in the collective behavior of billions of people even though each of them may pursue own activities. In this paper, we interpret online rating activity as a process of forming social opinion about individual items, where people sequentially choose a rating based on the current information set comprising all previous ratings and own preferences. We construct an opinion index from the sequence of ratings and we show that (1) movie-specific opinion converges much slower than an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sequence of ratings, (2) rating sequence for individual movies shows lesser variation compared to an i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (3) the probability density function of the asymptotic opinions has more spread than that defined over opinion arising from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (4) opinion sequences across movies are correlated with significantly higher and lower correlation compared to opinion constructed from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, creating a bimodal cross-correlation structure. By decomposing the temporal correlation structures from panel data of movie ratings, we show that the social effects are very prominent whereas group effects cannot be differentiated from those of surrogate data and individual effects are quite small. The former explains a large part of extreme positive or negative correlations between sequences of opinions. In general, this method can be applied to any rating data to extract social or group-specific effects in correlation structures. We conclude that in this particular case, social effects are important in opinion formation process.

  7. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan


    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004

  8. Statistical-mechanical analysis of self-organization and pattern formation during the development of visual maps (United States)

    Obermayer, K.; Blasdel, G. G.; Schulten, K.


    We report a detailed analytical and numerical model study of pattern formation during the development of visual maps, namely, the formation of topographic maps and orientation and ocular dominance columns in the striate cortex. Pattern formation is described by a stimulus-driven Markovian process, the self-organizing feature map. This algorithm generates topologically correct maps between a space of (visual) input signals and an array of formal ``neurons,'' which in our model represents the cortex. We define order parameters that are a function of the set of visual stimuli an animal perceives, and we demonstrate that the formation of orientation and ocular dominance columns is the result of a global instability of the retinoptic projection above a critical value of these order parameters. We characterize the spatial structure of the emerging patterns by power spectra, correlation functions, and Gabor transforms, and we compare model predictions with experimental data obtained from the striate cortex of the macaque monkey with optical imaging. Above the critical value of the order parameters the model predicts a lateral segregation of the striate cortex into (i) binocular regions with linear changes in orientation preference, where iso-orientation slabs run perpendicular to the ocular dominance bands, and (ii) monocular regions with low orientation specificity, which contain the singularities of the orientation map. Some of these predictions have already been verified by experiments.

  9. Psychological Aspects of the Formation of an Individual's Secondary Linguistic Identity in the Professional Training of Linguists (United States)

    Nechaev, Nikolai Nikolaevich


    The article is devoted to one of the major problems of educational psychology: the professional training of specialists in intercultural communication. The proposed approach allows us to uncover the significance of the concept of "linguistic consciousness" and methods governing its application to the process of the formation of the…

  10. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes


    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  11. Formation of PCDF, PCDD, PCB, and PCN in de novo synthesis from PAH: mechanistic aspects and correlation to fluidized bed incinerators. (United States)

    Weber, R; Lino, F; Imagawa, T; Takeuchi, M; Sakurai, T; Sadakata, M


    The difference of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) isomer patterns between stoker type incinerators and some fluidized bed incinerators (FBI) is a key to understand the formation mechanisms in both types of incinerators. The total yield and the isomer patterns of PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz) formed via de novo synthesis from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) indicate that chlorinated aromatics in the FBI are formed as a result of PAH breakdown. The detailed analysis of the isomer patterns of PCDF, PCB and PCN gives a first insight into the transformation mechanism of the PAHs and the sequence of degradation, chlorination and oxygen insertion. The major chlorination takes part at the position of the C-C cleavage during degradation of the PAHs. Further chlorination of the hydrogen position of the former PAH takes part preferably in ortho-position to this chlorination or is directed by incorporated oxygen. A perylene structure in soot is proposed as basis for the observed PCDF pattern in the FBI. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated phenols (PxCP) were formed in lower concentrations from the de novo experiments indicating an additional formation pathway for these compounds in the FBI.

  12. Effect of clomazone herbicide on biochemical and histological aspects of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) and recovery pattern. (United States)

    Crestani, Márcia; Menezes, Charlene; Glusczak, Lissandra; dos Santos Miron, Denise; Spanevello, Roselia; Silveira, Aron; Gonçalves, Fábio Ferreira; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vânia Lúcia


    The effects of the herbicide, clomazone, on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase and TBARS formation in teleost fish (Rhamdia quelen) were studied. The fish were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h. After 192 h of exposure period, fish were transferred to clean water and kept in the same for 192 h to study the recovery response. Same parameters as that of exposure period were assayed after 96 and 192 h of recovery period. Specific AChE activity was reduced in the brain and muscle after treatments, reaching a maximum inhibition of 47% in the brain and 45% in the muscle after 12h of exposure. Fish exposed to clomazone increased TBARS production in the liver for all exposure periods. The brain presented elevated TBARS levels after 12, 24 and 48 h, but after 96 and 192 h, these levels decreased. The decrease of TBARS levels persisted in brain tissue after 96 h of recovery and returned to the control value after 192 h in clean water. Catalase activity was reduced for all periods of exposure. Histological analysis showed vacuolation in the liver after herbicide exposure. Some of the alterations observed were completely restored after recovery period.

  13. Pattern formation in urbanism: a critical reflection on urban morphology, planning and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çaliskan, O.


    This thesis is all about urban patterns, what we see through the windows of the plane with an admiration of their relief-like scenery covering the land surface. In a sense, the spatial pattern within our cities is the biggest collectively produced artifact of human beings. It is both the originator

  14. Biosilica-glass formation using enzymes from sponges [silicatein]: Basic aspects and application in biomedicine [bone reconstitution material and osteoporosis (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Gan, Lu; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.


    In the last 15 years biomineralization, in particular biosilicification (i.e., the formation of biogenic silica, SiO2), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches, following "Nature as model". Among the silica forming organisms there are the sponges that have the unique property to catalyze their silica skeletons by a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In the present review we summarize the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated "biosilica" formation in marine sponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential application in biomedicine. Recent advancements in the production of bone replacement material and in the potential use as a component in the treatment of osteoporosis are highlighted.

  15. Large spiral and target waves: Turbulent diffusion boosts scales of pattern formation

    CERN Document Server

    von Kameke, A; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V


    In absence of advection, reaction-diffusion systems are able to organize into spatiotemporal patterns, in particular spiral and target waves. Whenever advection is present and can be parameterised in terms of effective or turbulent diffusion $D_{*}$, these patterns should be attainable on much greater, boosted lengthscale. However, so far, experimental evidence of these boosted patterns in turbulent flow was lacking. Here, we report the first experimental observation of boosted target and spiral patterns in an excitable chemical reaction in a quasi two-dimensional turbulent flow. The wave patterns observed are $\\sim 50$ times larger than in the case of molecular diffusion only. We vary the turbulent diffusion coefficient $D_{*}$ of the flow and find that the fundamental Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (FKPP) equation $v_{f} \\propto \\sqrt{D_{*}}$ for the asymptotic speed of a reactive wave remains valid. However, not all measures of the boosted wave scale with $D_{*}$ as expected from molecular diffusion,...

  16. Some aspects of the formation of nitric oxide during the combustion of biomass fuels in a laboratory furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olanders, Birgitta (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry); Gunners, N.-E. (National Defence Research Establishment, Tumba (Sweden))


    The influence of bed-region stoichiometric ratio and fuel nitrogen content on the formation of gaseous species formed during grate combustion of biomass fuels is reported based on gas measurements made within the fuel bed. Three fuels were studied: two mixtures of pelletized bark and wood chips and one of pelletized straw. Experiments were performed in a vertical, cylindrical, laboratory-scale grate-furnace with 0.245 m i.d. and 1.8 m height. Results were compared with values calculated using a computer program for thermochemical equilibrium conditions. The measured contents of O[sub 2], CO[sub 2] CO and H[sub 2] show good agreement with calculated equilibrium conditions at all bed region stoichiometries. A higher formation of NO was found for the straw fuel than for the bark/wood chip fuels. This is not in accordance with the thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicating that the formation of nitric oxide does not attain thermochemical equilibrium and that the nitrogen content of the fuel has an influence on the amount of NO that is formed. (author)

  17. Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation (United States)

    Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.


    Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no

  18. MeV Si ion beam implantation as an effective patterning tool for the localized formation of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzon-Quijorna, E., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. Fisica Aplicada C-XII-104, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Torres-Costa, V.; Manso-Silvan, M.; Martin-Palma, R.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. Fisica Aplicada C-XII-104, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. Fisica Aplicada C-XII-104, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)


    Porous silicon (PS), in the form of single layer and multilayer structures, is a low-cost nanomaterial with applications in a wide range of fields. Hence, there is an increasing interest on the fabrication of laterally patterned PS structures. In biophysics for example, PS is a promising material for the development of low cost optical biochips, due to its remarkable biocompatibility and adjustable surface chemistry and optical properties. However, conventional lithography processes have shown to be not suitable for the proper patterning of PS. In this work, implantation of MeV Si ions is proposed as an effective tool for the localized formation of PS in the micrometer range. As previously reported by other groups, irradiation of silicon with H and He keV ions can inhibit the formation of PS. In the case of heavier ions, its higher damage efficiency allows for lower implantation doses to achieve PS growth inhibition, which allows shorter process times, and at the same time provides good lateral resolution below the micrometric range. Besides, the usage of ions of the same elementary nature as the target material avoids inconvenient side effects that may be ascribed to the implanted species. Two dimensional PS patterns with feature size of few micrometers have been successfully fabricated. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy reveal the proper transfer of different mask motifs into a PS/silicon patterned structure. Patterns present well defined lateral contrast and flat surface with no significant height variations, mandatory features for the development of PS based biochips. A resistivity increase has been observed on irradiated samples which could explain the inhibition of PS formation. This effect is attributed to dopant deactivation by the ion beam, since backscattering channeling measurements show no significant lattice damage.

  19. Evolution of spiral wave and pattern formation in a vortical polarized electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Yi Ming; Li Bing-Wei; Li Yan-Long


    In this paper, the evolution of the pattern transition induced by the vortical electric field (VEF) is investigated. Firstly, a scheme is suggested to generate the VEF by changing the spatial magnetic field. Secondly, the VEF is imposed on the whole medium, and the evolutions of the spiral wave and the spatiotemporal chaos are investigated by using the numerical simulation. The result confirms that the drift and the breakup of the spiral wave and the new net-like pattern are observed when different polarized fields are imposed on the whole medium respectively. Finally, the pattern transition induced by the polarized field is discussed theoretically.

  20. Self-assembly structure formation on patterned InP surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Self-assembly of polystyrene spheres guided by patterned n-type InP substrates has been investigated. InP surfaces were patterned using a variety of methods including wet chemical etching,sputter coating,thermal evaporation,and photo lithography. The self-assembly of polystyrene spheres depended on the appearance of patterns and was affected by the deposition techniques (sputter coating and thermal evaporation) of Au micro-squares. SEM and AFM were used to characterize the surface morphologies.

  1. Mechanistic Aspects of Monomer,Polymer Formation,and Synthesis of PQ-Alt-Dialkyl-fluorene Conjugated Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Suzuki coupling reaction is widely used in the construction of conjugated polymers; however, there is still no report describing the mechanism and coupling of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone(PQ) building blocks via Suzuki reaction because PQ is sensitive to bases and light. Herein is reported the efficient Suzuki coupling of PQ with 9,10-dialkylfluorene with Na2CO3 as basic species and high molecular weight PQ-Alt-Dialkyl-Fluorene conjugated copolymer obtained in an yield of 42%. Based on the characterization data and well-accepted literature, we proposed a step-by-step mechanistic explanation for the formation of the PQ containing alternating conjugated copolymer.

  2. Pattern formation in a cell based auxin transport model with numerical bifurcation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Draelants, Delphine; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Vanroose, Wim


    Transport models of growth hormones can be used to reproduce the hormone accumulations that occur in plant organs. Mostly, these accumulation patterns are calculated using time step methods, even though only the resulting steady state patterns of the model are of interest. We examine the steady state solutions of the hormone transport model of Smith et al (2006) for a one-dimensional row of plant cells. We search for the steady state solutions as a function of three of the model parameters by using numerical continuation methods and bifurcation analysis. These methods are more adequate for solving steady state problems than time step methods. We discuss a trivial solution where the concentrations of hormones are equal in all cells and examine its stability region. We identify two generic bifurcation scenarios through which the trivial solution loses its stability. The trivial solution becomes either a steady state pattern with regular spaced peaks or a pattern where the concentration is periodic in time.

  3. The definition of psychological aspects in the formation of student-centered motivation of students for classes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruzhevsky V.A.


    Full Text Available An analysis of the publications, which demonstrates the importance of the emotional state in the formation of motivation as a psychological phenomenon. Shows the impact of physical education on the state of mental and emotional stress. Presented scientific analysis of psycho-emotional states in the 3rd year students with the region of residence and ethnicity. The study used survey results found that the circumstances are displayed on the psycho-emotional state of students. In their view, were: irritability, lack of confidence, fatigue, concern, guilt, etc. These conditions are more common in women of ethnic groups and from rural areas. It should be noted that the girls are very carefully described their emotional state and chose the answer in the questionnaire (sometimes, this response was dominant. Young men in many positions were more restrained. It is established that the formation of student-centered motivation of students to physical education should be adjusted in their emotional state. In this strategy the learning process of physical education is built on individual, ethnic differences.

  4. Massive Galaxies at High-z: Assembly Patterns, Structure & Dynamics in the Fast Phase of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Oñorbe, J; Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Knebe, A; Serna, A


    Relaxed, massive galactic objects have been identified at redshifts z = 4;5; and 6 in hydrodynamical simulations run in a large cosmological volume. This allowed us to analyze the assembly patterns of the high mass end of the galaxy distribution at these high zs, by focusing on their structural and dynamical properties. Our simulations indicate that massive objects at high redshift already follow certain scaling relations. These relations define virial planes at the halo scale, whereas at the galactic scale they define intrinsic dynamical planes that are, however, tilted relative to the virial plane. Therefore, we predict that massive galaxies must lie on fundamental planes from their formation. We briefly discuss the physical origin of the tilt in terms the physical processes underlying massive galaxy formation at high z, in the context of a two-phase galaxy formation scenario. Specifically, we have found that it lies on the different behavior of the gravitationally heated gas as compared with cold gas previ...

  5. Measurements of pattern formation in a confocal optical parametrical oscillator with applications in quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Buchhave, Preben

    We describe simultaneous measurements of signal/idler near field and far field patterns of a 2nd order nonlinear multi-mode parametric downconverter. We also describe the use of auto- and cross correlation techniques to obtain statistical data.......We describe simultaneous measurements of signal/idler near field and far field patterns of a 2nd order nonlinear multi-mode parametric downconverter. We also describe the use of auto- and cross correlation techniques to obtain statistical data....

  6. Kolmogorov complexity of epithelial pattern formation: the role of regulatory network configuration. (United States)

    Flann, Nicholas S; Mohamadlou, Hamid; Podgorski, Gregory J


    The tissues of multicellular organisms are made of differentiated cells arranged in organized patterns. This organization emerges during development from the coupling of dynamic intra- and intercellular regulatory networks. This work applies the methods of information theory to understand how regulatory network structure both within and between cells relates to the complexity of spatial patterns that emerge as a consequence of network operation. A computational study was performed in which undifferentiated cells were arranged in a two dimensional lattice, with gene expression in each cell regulated by identical intracellular randomly generated Boolean networks. Cell-cell contact signalling between embryonic cells is modeled as coupling among intracellular networks so that gene expression in one cell can influence the expression of genes in adjacent cells. In this system, the initially identical cells differentiate and form patterns of different cell types. The complexity of network structure, temporal dynamics and spatial organization is quantified through the Kolmogorov-based measures of normalized compression distance and set complexity. Results over sets of random networks that operate in the ordered, critical and chaotic domains demonstrate that: (1) ordered and critical networks tend to create the most information-rich patterns; (2) signalling configurations in which cell-to-cell communication is non-directional mostly produce simple patterns irrespective of the internal network domain; and (3) directional signalling configurations, similar to those that function in planar cell polarity, produce the most complex patterns, but only when the intracellular networks function in non-chaotic domains.

  7. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. II. Morphologies and their characterization. (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K


    In the preceding paper, we have established an interface equation for directional solidification under the influence of a shear flow parallel to the interface. This equation is asymptotically valid near the absolute stability limit. The flow, described by a nonlocal term, induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern due to its symmetry-breaking properties. We find that at not-too-large flow strengths, the transcritical nature of the transition to hexagonal patterns shows up via a hexagonal modulation of the stripe pattern even when the linear instability threshold of the flowless case has not yet been attained. When the flow term is large, the linear description of the drift velocity breaks down and transitions to flow-dominated morphologies take place. The competition between flow-induced and diffusion-induced patterns (controlled by the temperature gradient) leads to new phenomena such as the transition to a different lattice structure in an array of hexagonal cells. Several methods to characterize the morphologies and their transitions are investigated and compared. In particular, we consider two different ways of defining topological defects useful in the description of patterns and we discuss how they are related to each other.

  8. The Self-Made Puzzle: Integrating Self-Assembly and Pattern Formation Under Non-Random Genetic Regulation (United States)

    Doursat, René

    On the one hand, research in self-assembling systems, whether natural or artificial, has traditionally focused on pre-existing components endowed with fixed shapes. Biological development, by contrast, dynamically creates new cells that acquire selective adhesion properties through differentiation induced by their neighborhood. On the other hand, pattern formation phenomena are generally construed as orderly states of activity on top of a continuous 2-D or 3-D substrate. Yet, again, the spontaneous patterning of an organism into domains of gene expression arises within a multicellular medium in perpetual expansion and reshaping. Finally, both phenomena are often thought in terms of stochastic events, whether mixed components that randomly collide in self-assembly, or spots and stripes that occur unpredictably from instabilities in pattern formation. Here too, these notions need significant revision if they are to be extended and applied to embryogenesis. Cells are not randomly mixed but pre-positioned where cell division occurs. Genetic identity domains are not randomly distributed but highly regulated in number and position. In this work, I present a computational model of program-mable and reproducible artificial morphogenesis that integrates self-assembly and pattern formation under the control of a nonrandom gene regulatory network. The specialized properties of cells (division, adhesion, migration) are determined by the gene expression domains to which they belong, while at the same time these domains further expand and segment into subdomains due to the self-assembly of specialized cells. Through this model, I also promote a new discipline, embryomorphic engineering to solve the paradox of "meta-designing" decentralized, autonomous systems.

  9. Phosphorus Zoning Patterns and the Formation of Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Milman-Barris, M. S.; Baker, M.; Beckett, J.; Sobolev, A.; Vielzeuf, D.; Stolper, E.


    composition produced ol (to ~2 mm in size) with coupled zoning of P, Al, and Cr; some show oscillatory or sector-zoning. Nearly all experimental ol grains have embayments and interior melt pools (up to 1 mm in longest dimension). While many of these are likely in contact with far-field melt, some may be isolated (i.e., true inclusions). Interior melt pools have aspect ratios of 1-40; the more elongate pools are similar in appearance to those of [3]. Enclosed, interior melt pools are surrounded by P-poor ol, but near P-rich ol. Also, boundaries between high- and low-P zones are often deflected in the vicinity of melt pools. These observations are reminiscent of inclusions observed in Hawaiian ol phenocrysts. Our experiments show that P-zoning in ol and associated interior melt pools can be produced by simple linear cooling histories. The proximity of melt inclusions to P-rich zones in both Hawaiian and experimental ol points to the importance of rapid growth in the formation of both features. Cross-cutting (and perhaps replacement) of high-P features in ol by the low-P zones surrounding natural melt inclusions may reflect trapping of melt inclusions in pits formed by localized dissolution of growing ol, recrystallization of high-energy ol adjacent to melt inclusions after trapping, and/or melting/reprecipitation of ol adjacent to trapped melt inclusions due to transient thermal gradients. [1] Sobolev et al. (2000) Nature 404, 986-990. [2] Norman et al. (2002) Chem. Geol. 183, 143-68. [3] Faure &Schiano (2005) EPSL 236, 882-98.

  10. Distinguishing Pattern Formation Phenotypes: Applying Minkowski Functionals to Cell Biology Systems (United States)

    Rericha, Erin; Guven, Can; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang


    Spatial Clustering of proteins within cells or cells themselves frequently occur in cell biology systems. However quantifying the underlying order and determining the regulators of these cluster patterns have proved difficult due to the inherent high noise levels in the systems. For instance the patterns formed by wild type and cyclic-AMP regulatory mutant Dictyostelium cells are visually distinctive, yet the large error bars in measurements of the fractal number, area, Euler number, eccentricity, and wavelength making it difficult to quantitatively distinguish between the patterns. We apply a spatial analysis technique based on Minkowski functionals and develop metrics which clearly separate wild type and mutant cell lines into distinct categories. Having such a metric facilitated the development of a computational model for cellular aggregation and its regulators. Supported by NIH-NGHS Nanotechnology (R01GM085574) and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  11. Linking Pattern Formation and Alternative Stable States: Ecohydrologic Thresholds and Critical Transitions in the Everglades Peatlands (United States)

    Heffernan, J. B.; Ross, M. S.; Sah, J. P.; Isherwood, E.; Cohen, M. J.


    Spatial patterning occurs in a variety of ecosystems, and is important for the functional properties of landscapes; for testing spatial models of ecological processes; and as an indicator of landscape condition and resilience. Theory suggests that regular patterns arise from coupled local- and landscape-scale feedbacks that can also create multiple stable landscape states. In the Florida Everglades, hydrologic modification has degraded much of the historically-extensive ridge-slough landscape, a patterned peatland mosaic with distinct, flow-parallel patches. However, in the Everglades and in general, the hypothesis that patterned landscapes have homogeneous alternative states has little direct empirical support. Here we use microtopographic and vegetative heterogeneity, and their relation to hydrologic conditions, to infer the existence of multiple landscape equilibria and identify the hydrologic thresholds for critical transitions between these states. Dual relationships between elevation variance and water depth, and bi-modal distributions of both elevation variance and plant community distinctness, are consistent with generic predictions of multiple states, and covariation between these measures suggests that microtopography is the leading indicator of landscape degradation. Furthermore, a simple ecohydrologic multiple-state model correctly predicts the hydrologic thresholds for persistence of distinct ridges and sloughs. Predicted ridge-slough elevation differences and their relation to water depth are much greater than observed in the contemporary Everglades, but correspond closely with historical observations of pre-drainage conditions. These multiple lines of evidence represent the broadest and most direct support for the link between regular spatial pattern and landscape-scale alternative states in any ecosystem, and suggest that other patterned landscapes could undergo sudden collapse in response to changing environmental conditions. Hydrologic thresholds

  12. Comparison of defect cluster accumulation and pattern formation in irradiated copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others


    The objective of this study is to compare the contrasting behavior of defect cluster formation in neutron-irradiated copper and nickel specimens. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the density and spatial distribution of defect clusters produced in copper and nickel as the result of fission neutron irradiation to damage levels of 0.01 to 0.25 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperature between 50 and 230{degrees}C. A comparison with published results in the literature indicates that defect cluster wall formation occurs in nickel irradiated at 0.2 to 0.4 T{sub M} in a wide variety of irradiation spectra. Defect cluster wall formation apparently only occurs in copper during low temperature irradiation with electrons and light ions. These results are discussed in terms of the thermal spike model for energetic displacement cascades.

  13. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus


    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  14. Substructure formation during pattern transposition from substrate into polymer blend film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyganik, P; Budkowski, A; Steiner, U; Rysz, J; Bernasik, A; Walheim, S; Postawa, Z; Raczkowska, J


    A chemical pattern on a substrate is transposed into thin films of a ternary polymer blend during spin-casting from a common solvent. One of the blend components intercalates at interfaces between the other two phases to reduce their interfacial energy. As a result, an extensive substructure is form

  15. Developmentally regulated epitopes of cell surface arabinogalactan proteins and their relation to root tissue pattern formation. (United States)

    Knox, J P; Linstead, P J; Peart, J; Cooper, C; Roberts, K


    Two polymorphic forms of an extracellular arabinogalactan protein (AGP1 and AGP2), obtained from the conditioned media of two carrot suspension-cultured cell lines, have been identified in terms of binding of the anti-plasma membrane antibodies JIM4 and MAC207. AGP1 and AGP2 have been used as immunogens to generate further anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies. JIM14 identified an epitope carried by AGP2 and also by glycoproteins of low molecular weight localized to the plant cell wall. In addition, further antibodies (JIM13 and JIM15) identified carbohydrate epitopes of the AGPs that also occur on plasma membrane glycoproteins and are expressed by patterns of cells that reflect cell position at the carrot root apex. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that JIM13 recognized the surface of cells forming the epidermis and cells marking the region and axis of the future xylem. JIM15 recognized a pattern of cells directly complementary to the JIM13 pattern. The panel of anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies now available indicates groups of cells within the root meristem that may reflect an early pre-pattern of the tissues of the mature root structure and suggests extensive modulation of cell surface AGPs during cell development and the positioning of cells within the apex.

  16. Formation of ring calcium oxalate patterns induced by domains in DPPC Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ming Liu; Sui Ping Deng; Hui Zheng; Jian Ming Ouyang


    The ring patterns of calcium oxalate crystals were induced by domains in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dipalmitoylpho-sphatidylcholine (DPPC). The result was explained by the defects at the ring boundaries of liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases of LB film. These boundaries could provide less free energy and much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  17. Efficient formation of extended line intensity patterns using matched-filtering generalized phase contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Aabo, Thomas;


    We demonstrate the efficient generation of line patterns using matched-filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC). So far, the main emphasis of mGPC light addressing has been on the creation of rapidly reconfigurable focused spots. This has recently been extended to encoding extended line patter...

  18. Pattern Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis via Droplet Evaporation on Micropillars Arrays at a Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey-Arce, A.; Gomez Marin, A.; Massey, A.; Oknianska, A.; Diaz-Fernandez, Y.; Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico; Griffiths, E.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Snoeijer, J.H.; Lohse, D.; Raval, R.


    We evaluate the effect of epoxy surface structuring on the evaporation of water droplets containing Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). During evaporation, droplets with S. epidermidis cells yield to complex wetting patterns such as the zipping-wetting1−3 and the coffee-stain effects. Depen

  19. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae). (United States)

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V


    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales.

  20. The influence of projectile ion induced chemistry on surface pattern formation (United States)

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup


    We report the critical role of projectile induced chemical inhomogeneity on surface nanostructure formation. Experimental inconsistency is common for low energy ion beam induced nanostructure formation in the presence of uncontrolled and complex contamination. To explore the precise role of contamination on such structure formation during low energy ion bombardment, a simple and clean experimental study is performed by selecting mono-element semiconductors as the target and chemically inert or reactive ion beams as the projectile as well as the source of controlled contamination. It is shown by Atomic Force Microscopy, Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements that bombardment of nitrogen-like reactive ions on Silicon and Germanium surfaces forms a chemical compound at impact zones. Continuous bombardment of the same ions generates surface instability due to unequal sputtering and non-uniform re-arrangement of the elemental atom and compound. This instability leads to ripple formation during ion bombardment. For Argon-like chemically inert ion bombardment, the chemical inhomogeneity induced boost is absent; as a result, no ripples are observed in the same ion energy and fluence.

  1. A photo-oxidation mechanism for patterning and hologram formation in conjugated polymer/glass composites (United States)

    Levi, Ofer; Perepelitsa, Galina; Davidov, Dan; Shalom, Shoshy; Benjamin, Iris; Neumann, Ronny; Agranat, Aharon J.; Avny, Yair


    Improved diffraction efficiency was observed in holograms stored in disordered conjugated polymer/glass composites. The conjugated polymers used were alkoxy substituted poly(phenylenevinylne) analogs and the glass matrices were zirconia-organosilica xerogels. Investigation of the mechanism of hologram formation revealed evidence of a photochromic process consisting of light induced photo-oxidation (bleaching) of the embedded conjugated polymer resulting in the formation of an absorption grating and a phase grating. Investigation of the hologram formation revealed that the process was oxygen dependent. Oxygen removal increases hologram formation time by more than an order of magnitude and halves the total hologram efficiency. The oxygen dependence was also highly correlated with photobleaching of the samples and beam interaction of the writing beams. The chemical transformations upon photobleaching were shown by infrared and Raman spectroscopy to involve chain scission and oxidation of the polymer at the vinylic position of the conjugated polymer. Film preparation of the composites was optimized showing a tenfold improvement in the holographic properties compared to our previous results. The optimized treatment method allows for a high, >20%, diffraction efficiency, η, to be obtained for the 2.5-μm-thick polymer/glass films. Light sensitivity was compared for several polymer/glass composites and was correlated to the absorption curves and holographic diffraction efficiency showing that the new composites and film preparation techniques are promising for holographic materials sensitive in the blue and ultraviolet spectral regions. A method of information fixing by preventing oxygen entry to the composite film resulted in a fourfold increase of the erasure time. These findings suggest that holograms can be fixed for a long term by nonoxygen permeable coating, applied after hologram formation.

  2. First-passage times for pattern formation in nonlocal partial differential equations (United States)

    Cáceres, Manuel O.; Fuentes, Miguel A.


    We describe the lifetimes associated with the stochastic evolution from an unstable uniform state to a patterned one when the time evolution of the field is controlled by a nonlocal Fisher equation. A small noise is added to the evolution equation to define the lifetimes and to calculate the mean first-passage time of the stochastic field through a given threshold value, before the patterned steady state is reached. In order to obtain analytical results we introduce a stochastic multiscale perturbation expansion. This multiscale expansion can also be used to tackle multiplicative stochastic partial differential equations. A critical slowing down is predicted for the marginal case when the Fourier phase of the unstable initial condition is null. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to show the agreement with our theoretical predictions. Analytic results for the bifurcation point and asymptotic analysis of traveling wave-front solutions are included to get insight into the noise-induced transition phenomena mediated by invading fronts.

  3. Quantum noise and spatio-temporal pattern formation in nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten


    -harmonic field, and the distinct peaks at the critical wave numbers reveal a quantum image. A microscopical model is suggested as a guide to understanding the processes involved in producing a classical pattern. Finally, the quantum nature of the correlations leads to spatial multimode nonclassical light, which......This work concerns analytical and numerical investigations of cavity enhanced x2 frequency conversion processes, specifically second-harmonic generation (SHG). We focus on how the transverse degrees of freedom affect the dynamics, where the interaction between nonlinearity and diffraction gives...... rise to spatially modulated structures, patterns. The two main parts of the thesis are the classical model and the quantum mechanical model, the latter being an extension of the former by including the inherent quantum fluctuations of light. From a theoretical point of view the classical dynamics...

  4. How pattern formation in ring networks of excitatory and inhibitoryspiking neurons depends on the input current regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eKriener


    Full Text Available Pattern formation, i.e., the generation of an inhomogeneous spatial activity distribution in a dynamical system with translation invariant structure, is a well-studied phenomenon in neuronal network dynamics,specifically in neural field models. These are population models to describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of large groups of neurons in terms of macroscopic variables such as population firing rates. Though neural field models are often deduced from and equipped with biophysically meaningfulproperties, a direct mapping to simulations of individual spiking neuron populations is rarely considered. Neurons have a distinct identity defined by their action on their postsynaptic targets. In its simplest form they act either excitatorily or inhibitorily.When the distribution of neuron identities is assumed to be periodic, pattern formation can be observed, given the coupling strength is supercritical, i.e., larger than a critical weight. We find that this critical weight is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the neuronal input, i.e., depends on whether neurons are mean- orfluctuation driven, and different limits in linearizing the full non-linear system apply in order to assess stability.In particular, if neurons are mean-driven, the linearization has a very simple form and becomesindependent of both the fixed point firing rate and the variance of the input current, while in the very strongly fluctuation-driven regime the fixed point rate, as well as the input mean and variance areimportant parameters in the determination of the critical weight.We demonstrate that interestingly even in ``intermediate'' regimes, when the system is technically fluctuation-driven, the simple linearization neglecting the variance of the input can yield the better prediction of the critical couplingstrength. We moreover analyze the effects of structural randomness by rewiring individualsynapses or redistributing weights, as well as coarse-graining on pattern

  5. From crater functions to partial differential equations: a new approach to ion bombardment induced nonequilibrium pattern formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Scott A; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)


    We develop a methodology for deriving continuum partial differential equations for the evolution of large-scale surface morphology directly from molecular dynamics simulations of the craters formed from individual ion impacts. Our formalism relies on the separation between the length scale of ion impact and the characteristic scale of pattern formation, and expresses the surface evolution in terms of the moments of the crater function. We demonstrate that the formalism reproduces the classical Bradley-Harper results, as well as ballistic atomic drift, under the appropriate simplifying assumptions. Given an actual set of converged molecular dynamics moments and their derivatives with respect to the incidence angle, our approach can be applied directly to predict the presence and absence of surface morphological instabilities. This analysis represents the first work systematically connecting molecular dynamics simulations of ion bombardment to partial differential equations that govern topographic pattern-forming instabilities.

  6. From crater functions to partial differential equations: a new approach to ion bombardment induced nonequilibrium pattern formation. (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Brenner, Michael P; Aziz, Michael J


    We develop a methodology for deriving continuum partial differential equations for the evolution of large-scale surface morphology directly from molecular dynamics simulations of the craters formed from individual ion impacts. Our formalism relies on the separation between the length scale of ion impact and the characteristic scale of pattern formation, and expresses the surface evolution in terms of the moments of the crater function. We demonstrate that the formalism reproduces the classical Bradley-Harper results, as well as ballistic atomic drift, under the appropriate simplifying assumptions. Given an actual set of converged molecular dynamics moments and their derivatives with respect to the incidence angle, our approach can be applied directly to predict the presence and absence of surface morphological instabilities. This analysis represents the first work systematically connecting molecular dynamics simulations of ion bombardment to partial differential equations that govern topographic pattern-forming instabilities.

  7. Regulation of Pattern Formation and Gene Amplification During Drosophila Oogenesis by the miR-318 microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Wanzhong; Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting;


    Pattern formation during epithelial development requires the coordination of multiple signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the functions of an ovary-enriched miRNA, miR-318, in epithelial development during Drosophila oogenesis. miR-318 maternal loss-of-function mutants were female sterile...... and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of miR-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. miR-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells, due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone...... signaling pathway activates expression of miR-318 and that miR-318 cooperates with Tramtrack69 (Ttk69) to control the switch from endocycling to chorion gene amplification during differentiation of the follicular epithelium. The multiple functions of miR-318 in oogenesis illustrate the importance of mi...

  8. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geberth


    Full Text Available The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers. This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path.

  9. Ordered nano-scale dimple pattern formation on a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)


    Yue Wang; Sherdeep Singh; Peter Kruse


    Due to the many applications of nanostructured surfaces – including in biomaterials – there is a strong interest in cost- and time-efficient methods for their fabrication. Previously, our group established a simple electrochemical method generating nanoscale patterns on large areas of a number of different metal surfaces. They consist of dimples that are around 6-10 nm deep and hexagonally closed packed with a tunable periodicity of around 50 nm. Ordering requires careful tuning of the surfac...

  10. Formation of coffee-stain patterns at the nanoscale: The role of nanoparticle solubility and solvent evaporation rate. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Milzetti, Jasmin; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian


    When droplets of nanoparticle suspension evaporate from surfaces, they leave behind a deposit of nanoparticles. The mechanism of evaporation-induced pattern formation in the deposit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations for sessile nanodroplets. The influence of the interaction between nanoparticles and liquid molecules and the influence of the evaporation rate on the final deposition pattern are addressed. When the nanoparticle-liquid interaction is weaker than the liquid-liquid interaction, an interaction-driven or evaporation-induced layer of nanoparticles appears at the liquid-vapor interface and eventually collapses onto the solid surface to form a uniform deposit independently of the evaporation rate. When the nanoparticle-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions are comparable, the nanoparticles are dispersed inside the droplet and evaporation takes place with the contact line pinned at a surface defect. In such a case, a pattern with an approximate ring-like shape is found with fast evaporation, while a more uniform distribution is observed with slower evaporation. When the liquid-nanoparticle interaction is stronger than the liquid-liquid interaction, evaporation always occurs with receding contact line. The final deposition pattern changes from volcano-like to pancake-like with decreasing evaporation rate. These findings might help to design nanoscale structures like nanopatterns or nanowires on surface through controlled solvent evaporation.

  11. Pattern Formation in the Turing-Hopf Codimension-2 Phase Space in a Reaction-Diffusion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xu-Jin; SHAO Xin; LIAO Hui-Min; OUYANG Qi


    We systematically investigate the behaviour of pattern formation in a reaction-diffusion system when the system is located near the Turing-Hopf codimension-2 point in phase space. The chloride-iodide-malonic acid (CIMA) reaction is used in this study. A phase diagram is obtained using the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and malonic acid (MA) as control parameters. It is found that the Turing-Hopf mixed state appears only in a small vicinity near the codimension-2 point, and has the form of hexagonal pattern overlapped with anti-target wave; the boundary line separating the Thring state and the wave state is independent of the concentration of MA, only relies on the concentration of PVA. The corresponding numerical simulation using the Lengyel-Epstein (LE) model gives a similar phase diagram as the experiment; it reproduces most patterns observed in the experiment. However, the mixed state we obtain in simulation only appears in the anti-wave tip area, implying that the 3-D effect in the experiments may change the pattern forming behaviour in the codimension-2 regime.

  12. Formation of coffee-stain patterns at the nanoscale: The role of nanoparticle solubility and solvent evaporation rate (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Milzetti, Jasmin; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian


    When droplets of nanoparticle suspension evaporate from surfaces, they leave behind a deposit of nanoparticles. The mechanism of evaporation-induced pattern formation in the deposit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations for sessile nanodroplets. The influence of the interaction between nanoparticles and liquid molecules and the influence of the evaporation rate on the final deposition pattern are addressed. When the nanoparticle-liquid interaction is weaker than the liquid-liquid interaction, an interaction-driven or evaporation-induced layer of nanoparticles appears at the liquid-vapor interface and eventually collapses onto the solid surface to form a uniform deposit independently of the evaporation rate. When the nanoparticle-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions are comparable, the nanoparticles are dispersed inside the droplet and evaporation takes place with the contact line pinned at a surface defect. In such a case, a pattern with an approximate ring-like shape is found with fast evaporation, while a more uniform distribution is observed with slower evaporation. When the liquid-nanoparticle interaction is stronger than the liquid-liquid interaction, evaporation always occurs with receding contact line. The final deposition pattern changes from volcano-like to pancake-like with decreasing evaporation rate. These findings might help to design nanoscale structures like nanopatterns or nanowires on surface through controlled solvent evaporation.

  13. Endogenous electromagnetic fields in plant leaves: a new hypothesis for vascular pattern formation. (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis Mari


    Electromagnetic (EM) phenomena have long been implicated in biological development, but few detailed, practical mechanisms have been put forth to connect electromagnetism with morphogenetic processes. This work describes a new hypothesis for plant leaf veination, whereby an endogenous electric field forming as a result of a coherent Frohlich process, and corresponding to an EM resonant mode of the developing leaf structure, is capable of instigating leaf vascularisation. In order to test the feasibility of this hypothesis, a three-dimensional, EM finite-element model (FEM) of a leaf primordium was constructed to determine if suitable resonant modes were physically possible for geometric and physical parameters similar to those of developing leaf tissue. Using the FEM model, resonant EM modes with patterns of relevance to developing leaf vein modalities were detected. On account of the existence of shared geometric signatures in a leaf's vascular pattern and the electric field component of EM resonant modes supported by a developing leaf structure, further theoretical and experimental investigations are warranted. Significantly, this hypothesis is not limited to leaf vascular patterning, but may be applicable to a variety of morphogenetic phenomena in a number of living systems.

  14. Pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems: From spiral waves to turbulence (United States)

    Davidsen, Joern


    Almost all systems we encounter in nature possess some sort of form or structure. In many cases, the structures arise from an initially unstructured state without the action of an agent that predetermines the pattern. Such self-organized structures emerge from cooperative interactions among the constituents of the system and often exhibit properties that are distinct from those of their constituent elements or molecules. For example, chemical waves in reaction-diffusion systems are at the core of a huge variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. In (quasi) two-dimensional situations, spiral wave patterns are especially prevalent and determine the characteristics of processes such as surface catalytic oxidation reactions, contraction of the heart muscle, and various signaling mechanisms in biological systems. In this talk, I will review and discuss recent theoretical and experimental results regarding the dynamics, properties and stability of spiral waves and their three-dimensional analog (scroll waves). Special emphasis will be given to synchronization defect lines which generically arise in complex-oscillatory media, and the phenomenon of defect-mediated turbulence or filament turbulence where the dynamics of a pattern is dominated by the rapid motion, nucleation, and annihilation of spirals or scroll waves, respectively. The latter is of direct relevance in the context of ventricular fibrillation - a turbulent electrical wave activity that destroys the coherent contraction of the ventricular muscle and its main pumping function leading to sudden cardiac death.

  15. Pattern formation at multiple spatial scales drives the resilience of mussel bed ecosystems. (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Herman, Peter M J; Mooij, Wolf M; Huisman, Jef; Scheffer, Marten; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan


    Self-organized complexity at multiple spatial scales is a distinctive characteristic of biological systems. Yet, little is known about how different self-organizing processes operating at different spatial scales interact to determine ecosystem functioning. Here we show that the interplay between self-organizing processes at individual and ecosystem level is a key determinant of the functioning and resilience of mussel beds. In mussel beds, self-organization generates spatial patterns at two characteristic spatial scales: small-scale net-shaped patterns due to behavioural aggregation of individuals, and large-scale banded patterns due to the interplay of between-mussel facilitation and resource depletion. Model analysis reveals that the interaction between these behavioural and ecosystem-level mechanisms increases mussel bed resilience, enables persistence under deteriorating conditions and makes them less prone to catastrophic collapse. Our analysis highlights that interactions between different forms of self-organization at multiple spatial scales may enhance the intrinsic ability of ecosystems to withstand both natural and human-induced disturbances.

  16. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models (United States)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Berkemer, R.; Caputo, J. G.; Christiansen, P. L.; Kawamoto, A.; Shiga, T.; Sørensen, M. P.; Starke, J.


    A follow-the-leader model of traffic flow on a closed loop is considered in the framework of the extended optimal velocity (OV) model where the driver reacts to both the following and the preceding car. Periodic wave train solutions that describe the formation of traffic congestion patterns are found analytically. Their velocity and amplitude are determined from a perturbation approach based on collective coordinates with the discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equation as the zero order equation. This contains the standard OV model as a special case. The analytical results are in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  17. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaididei, Yu B [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna str. 14 B, 01413, Kiev (Ukraine); Berkemer, R; Soerensen, M P; Starke, J [Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Caputo, J G [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, B.P. 8, 76131 Mont-Saint-Aignan cedex (France); Christiansen, P L [Department of Informatics and Mathematical Modeling and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kawamoto, A; Shiga, T [Toyota Central R and D Labs, Inc., Nagakute Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    A follow-the-leader model of traffic flow on a closed loop is considered in the framework of the extended optimal velocity (OV) model where the driver reacts to both the following and the preceding car. Periodic wave train solutions that describe the formation of traffic congestion patterns are found analytically. Their velocity and amplitude are determined from a perturbation approach based on collective coordinates with the discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries equation as the zero order equation. This contains the standard OV model as a special case. The analytical results are in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  18. Dorsoventral patterning by the Chordin-BMP pathway: a unified model from a pattern-formation perspective for Drosophila, vertebrates, sea urchins and Nematostella. (United States)

    Meinhardt, Hans


    Conserved from Cnidarians to vertebrates, the dorsoventral (DV) axis is patterned by the Chordin-BMP pathway. However, the functions of the pathway's components are very different in different phyla. By modeling it is shown that many observations can be integrated by the assumption that BMP, acting as an inhibitory component in more ancestral systems, became a necessary and activating component for the generation of a secondary and antipodal-located signaling center. The different realizations seen in vertebrates, Drosophila, sea urchins and Nematostella allow reconstruction of a chain of modifications during evolution. BMP-signaling is proposed to be based on a pattern-forming reaction of the activator-depleted substrate type in which BMP-signaling acts via pSmad as the local self-enhancing component and the depletion of the highly mobile BMP-Chordin complex as the long-ranging antagonistic component. Due to the rapid removal of the BMP/Chordin complex during BMP-signaling, an oriented transport and "shuttling" results, although only ordinary diffusion is involved. The system can be self-organizing, allowing organizer formation even from near homogeneous initial situations. Organizers may regenerate after removal. Although connected with some losses of self-regulation, for large embryos as in amphibians, the employment of maternal determinants is an efficient strategy to make sure that only a single organizer of each type is generated. The generation of dorsoventral positional information along a long-extended anteroposterior (AP) axis cannot be achieved directly by a single patch-like organizer. Nature found different solutions for this task. Corresponding models provide a rationale for the well-known reversal in the dorsoventral patterning between vertebrates and insects.

  19. Geochemical patterns and microbial contribution to iron plaque formation in the rice plant rhizosphere (United States)

    Maisch, Markus; Murata, Chihiro; Unger, Julia; Kappler, Andreas; Schmidt, Caroline


    Rice is the major food source for more than half of the world population and 80 percent of the worldwide rice cultivation is performed on water logged paddy soils. The establishment of reducing conditions in the soil and across the soil-water interface not only stimulates the microbial production and release of the greenhouse gas methane. These settings also create optimal conditions for microbial iron(III) reduction and therefore saturate the system with reduced ferrous iron. Through the reduction and dissolution of ferric minerals that are characterized by their high surface activity, sorbed nutrients and contaminants (e.g. arsenic) will be mobilized and are thus available for uptake by plants. Rice plants have evolved a strategy to release oxygen from their roots in order to prevent iron toxification in highly ferrous environments. The release of oxygen to the reduced paddy soil causes ferric iron plaque formation on the rice roots and finally increases the sorption capacity for toxic metals. To this date the geochemical and microbiological processes that control the formation of iron plaque are not deciphered. It has been hypothesized that iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria play a potential role in the iron(III) mineral formation along the roots. However, not much is known about the actual processes, mineral products, and geochemical gradients that establish within the rhizosphere. In the present study we have developed a growth set-up that allows the co-cultivation of rice plants and iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria, as well as the visual observation and in situ measurement of geochemical parameters. Oxygen and dissolved iron(II) gradients have been measured using microelectrodes and show geochemical hot spots that offer optimal growth conditions for microaerophilic iron(II) oxidizers. First mineral identification attempts of iron plaque have been performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and microscopy. The obtained results on mineraology and crystallinity have been

  20. Charge Effects and Nanoparticle Pattern Formation in Electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip Printing of Colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Richner, Patrizia; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos


    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics, to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O(1 {\\mu}m) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by ...

  1. Bifurcation and pattern formation in a coupled higher autocatalator reaction diffusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spatiotemporal structures arising in two identical cells, which are governed by higher autocatalator kinetics and coupled via diffusive interchange of autocatalyst,are discussed.The stability of the unique homogeneous steady state is obtained by the linearized theory.A necessary condition for bifurcations in spatially non-uniform solutions in uncoupled and coupled systems is given.Further information about Turing pattern solutions near bifurcation points is obtained by weakly nonlinear theory.Finally, the stability of equilibrium points of the amplitude equation is discussed by weakly nonlinear theory, with the bifurcation branches of the weakly coupled system.

  2. On the influence of surface plasmon-polariton waves on pattern formation upon laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Chair of Applied Laser Technology, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)


    Here we analyze whether the laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), which appear on solid surfaces exposed to single-pulse femtosecond laser radiation, can be explained by excitation of surface plasmon-polariton waves. We demonstrate that excitation of the surface plasmons is impossible in the laser-ablation experiments, since the excitation conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, properties and morphology of the observed periodic patterns contradict to the theory of the plasmonic nature of the LIPSS. The results are illustrated with experimental examples.

  3. Suppression of transient enhanced diffusion in sub-micron patterned silicon template by dislocation loops formation (United States)

    Hu, Kuan-Kan; Chang, Ruey-Dar; Woon, Wei Yen


    We investigate the evolution of two dimensional transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of phosphorus in sub-micron scale patterned silicon template. Samples doped with low dose phosphorus with and without high dose silicon self-implantation, were annealed for various durations. Dopant diffusion is probed with plane-view scanning capacitance microscopy. The measurement revealed two phases of TED. Significant suppression in the second phase TED is observed for samples with high dose self-implantation. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the suppressed TED is related to the evolution of end of range defect formed around ion implantation sidewalls.

  4. Suppression of transient enhanced diffusion in sub-micron patterned silicon template by dislocation loops formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Kuan-Kan; Woon, Wei Yen [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jungli, 32054, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ruey-Dar [Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 33302 (China)


    We investigate the evolution of two dimensional transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of phosphorus in sub-micron scale patterned silicon template. Samples doped with low dose phosphorus with and without high dose silicon self-implantation, were annealed for various durations. Dopant diffusion is probed with plane-view scanning capacitance microscopy. The measurement revealed two phases of TED. Significant suppression in the second phase TED is observed for samples with high dose self-implantation. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the suppressed TED is related to the evolution of end of range defect formed around ion implantation sidewalls.

  5. Suppression of transient enhanced diffusion in sub-micron patterned silicon template by dislocation loops formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Kan Hu


    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of two dimensional transient enhanced diffusion (TED of phosphorus in sub-micron scale patterned silicon template. Samples doped with low dose phosphorus with and without high dose silicon self-implantation, were annealed for various durations. Dopant diffusion is probed with plane-view scanning capacitance microscopy. The measurement revealed two phases of TED. Significant suppression in the second phase TED is observed for samples with high dose self-implantation. Transmission electron microscopy suggests the suppressed TED is related to the evolution of end of range defect formed around ion implantation sidewalls.

  6. A model for gyrotactic pattern formation of motile micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavsson, K; Jonsson, P R; Mehlig, B


    Recent studies show that the dynamics of motile organisms subject to gravitational torques in turbulence gives rise to patchiness. Spherical motile organisms gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. We determine how shape affects preferential sampling and small-scale spatial clustering (determining local encounter rates) by analysing a statistical model in two and three spatial dimensions. By recursively refining approximations for the paths the organisms take through the flow we determine analytically how preferential sampling and small-scale clustering in the model depend upon the dimensionless parameters of the problem. We show that singularities ("caustics") occur in the dynamics and discuss how these singularities affect spatial patterns.

  7. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich


    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  8. Pattern Formation in Double-Layer Kerr Resonators with Coupled Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Bois, Antoine


    A double-layer Kerr resonator in which both coupled modes are excited and interact with each other via incoherent cross-phase modulation is investigated to reveal stable localized solutions beyond the usual formation mechanism involving a single mode. Periodic solutions from modulational instability are found to occur at a slight penalty on the nonlinear efficiency, but they stabilize the spatial dynamics, leading to dissipative solitons in previously unattainable regimes. Numerical simulations show paired breather solitons in addition to temporally stable solutions. The results demonstrate coupled modes can increase the stability of Kerr frequency comb generation.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species in Planarian Regeneration: An Upstream Necessity for Correct Patterning and Brain Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Pirotte


    Full Text Available Recent research highlighted the impact of ROS as upstream regulators of tissue regeneration. We investigated their role and targeted processes during the regeneration of different body structures using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an organism capable of regenerating its entire body, including its brain. The amputation of head and tail compartments induces a ROS burst at the wound site independently of the orientation. Inhibition of ROS production by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI or apocynin (APO causes regeneration defaults at both the anterior and posterior wound sites, resulting in reduced regeneration sites (blastemas and improper tissue homeostasis. ROS signaling is necessary for early differentiation and inhibition of the ROS burst results in defects on the regeneration of the nervous system and on the patterning process. Stem cell proliferation was not affected, as indicated by histone H3-P immunostaining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, in situ hybridization of smedwi-1, and transcript levels of proliferation-related genes. We showed for the first time that ROS modulate both anterior and posterior regeneration in a context where regeneration is not limited to certain body structures. Our results indicate that ROS are key players in neuroregeneration through interference with the differentiation and patterning processes.

  10. Regular pattern formation on surface of aromatic polymers and its cytocompatibility (United States)

    Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Rimpelová, S.; Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Švorčík, V.


    In this work, we describe ripple and dot nanopatterning of three different aromatic polymer substrates by KrF excimer laser treatment. The conditions for regular structures were established by laser fluence and number of pulses. Subsequently, the influence of the angle of incidence of a laser beam was investigated. We have chosen polyethersulfone (PES), polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as substrates for modification since they are thermally, chemically and mechanically resistant aromatic polymers with high absorption coefficients at excimer laser wavelength. As a tool of wettability investigation, we used contact angle measurement and for determination of the absorption edge, UV-vis spectroscopy was used. Material surface chemistry was analyzed using FTIR and the changes caused by modification were gained as differential spectra by subtraction of the spectra of non-modified material. Surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy, also the roughness and surface area of modified samples were studied. The scans showed the formation of regular periodic structures, ripples and dots, after treatment by 8 and 16 mJ cm-2 and 6000 pulses. Further, initial in vitro cytocompatibility tests were performed using U-2 OS cell line growing on PES samples subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The structure formation mapping contributes strongly to development of new applications using nanostructured polymers, e.g. in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in selected electronics and metamaterials construction.

  11. Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.


    Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.

  12. Spontaneous formation of dynamical patterns with fractal fronts in the cyclic lattice Lotka-Volterra model. (United States)

    Provata, A; Tsekouras, G A


    Dynamical patterns, in the form of consecutive moving stripes or rings, are shown to develop spontaneously in the cyclic lattice Lotka-Volterra model, when realized on square lattice, at the reaction limited regime. Each stripe consists of different particles (species) and the borderlines between consecutive stripes are fractal. The interface width w between the different species scales as w(L,t) approximately L(alpha)f(t/L(z)), where L is the linear size of the interface, t is the time, and alpha and z are the static and dynamical critical exponents, respectively. The critical exponents were computed as alpha=0.49+/-0.03 and z=1.53+/-0.13 and the propagating fronts show dynamical characteristics similar to those of the Eden growth models.

  13. Cyclic competition of mobile species on continuous space: pattern formation and coexistence. (United States)

    Ni, Xuan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso


    We propose a model for cyclically competing species on continuous space and investigate the effect of the interplay between the interaction range and mobility on coexistence. A transition from coexistence to extinction is uncovered with a strikingly nonmonotonic behavior in the coexistence probability. About the minimum in the probability, switches between spiral and plane-wave patterns arise. A strong mobility can either promote or hamper coexistence, depending on the radius of the interaction range. These phenomena are absent in any lattice-based model, and we demonstrate that they can be explained using nonlinear partial differential equations. Our continuous-space model is more physical and we expect the findings to generate experimental interest.

  14. Structural pattern of eastern Himalayan syntaxis in Namjagbarwa and its formation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jinjiang; JI; Jianqing; ZHONG; Dalai; DING; Lin; HE


    The structural pattern of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis in Namjagbarwa consists of two series of structures with different styles. One series compiles the earlier ductile contractional and lateral-slip deformation system, formed by nearly north-south shortening within the syntaxis, left-lateral and right-lateral slipping along its western and eastern boundaries respectively. They were possibly produced by the indentation of the Indian continent into Asian continent after India-Asia collision. The peak deformation-metamorphic ages in these structures are 62-60 Ma, ~23 Ma and ~13 Ma. The other series is composed of ductile-brittle normal faults distributing concentrically and dipping toward the outsides of Namjagbarwa Peak. They were probably the collapse structures caused by rapid uplift in a later time and the beginning ages for the normal faulting are about 7.3-6.3 Ma.

  15. Expression patterns and subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrases are developmentally regulated during tooth formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes-Göran Reibring

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs play fundamental roles in several physiological events, and emerging evidence points at their involvement in an array of disorders, including cancer. The expression of CAs in the different cells of teeth is unknown, let alone their expression patterns during odontogenesis. As a first step towards understanding the role of CAs during odontogenesis, we used immunohistochemistry, histochemistry and in situ hybridization to reveal hitherto unknown dynamic distribution patterns of eight CAs in mice. The most salient findings include expression of CAII/Car2 not only in maturation-stage ameloblasts (MA but also in the papillary layer, dental papilla mesenchyme, odontoblasts and the epithelial rests of Malassez. We uncovered that the latter form lace-like networks around incisors; hitherto these have been known to occur only in molars. All CAs studied were produced by MA, however CAIV, CAIX and CARPXI proteins were distinctly enriched in the ruffled membrane of the ruffled MA but exhibited a homogeneous distribution in smooth-ended MA. While CAIV, CAVI/Car6, CAIX, CARPXI and CAXIV were produced by all odontoblasts, CAIII distribution displayed a striking asymmetry, in that it was virtually confined to odontoblasts in the root of molars and root analog of incisors. Remarkably, from initiation until near completion of odontogenesis and in several other tissues, CAXIII localized mainly in intracellular punctae/vesicles that we show to overlap with LAMP-1- and LAMP-2-positive vesicles, suggesting that CAXIII localizes within lysosomes. We showed that expression of CAs in developing teeth is not confined to cells involved in biomineralization, pointing at their participation in other biological events. Finally, we uncovered novel sites of CA expression, including the developing brain and eye, the olfactory epithelium, melanoblasts, tongue, notochord, nucleus pulposus and sebaceous glands. Our study provides important information for


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Chaudhary


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomical variations in the different parts of brachial plexus in human have been described by many authors. These variations have clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anatomists. A lot of work has been done on the morphology of branching pattern of the different cords of brachial plexus but almost all the workers are silent about their morphometry. That’s why this study is planned on morphology & morphometry of branching pattern of different cords of brachial plexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs belonging to 30 cadavers (Male:Female = 28:02, (Right:Left = 30:30 obtained from Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. These were dissected to expose the different components of brachial plexus. OBSERVATIONS: Out of 60 limbs, the lateral and the medial cords were formed in the usual way in 56 limbs, while the posterior cord was normal in 57 limbs. The average lengths of lateral, medial & posterior cords were 3.37 cm, 4.05 cm & 1.95 cm respectively. The branches of lateral cord depicted more variations in the form of origin as compared with those of medial & posterior cords. The distance of different branches of all the cords from the point of origin to parent cord varied between the two sides of same cadaver as well as on the same side of different cadavers. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The present study on the adult human cadavers is an essential prerequisite for the initial built up of the data base at the grass root level. The anatomy has always provided a bedrock for the sound surgical endeavors. It definitely has an upper edge to widely and indiscriminately used radiological and sophisticated CT and MRI observations which carry a margin of error inherent to any diagnostic procedure because no doubt the machines are a good bet but the eyes see the best.

  17. Formation mechanism and development pattern of aeolian sand landform in Yarlung Zangbo River valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森; 董光荣; 申建友; 杨萍; 刘贤万; 王跃; 靳鹤龄; 王强


    Aeolian sand landforms in the Yarlung Zangbo River valley can be divided into 4 classes and 21 types. The river valley has favourable environment conditions for the development of aeolian sand landforms. Simulation of MM4 mid-scale climate model showed that the near-surface flow field and wind vector field during the winter half year in the fiver valley are generally favourable for the aeolian sand deposition and as a whole they also affect the distribution zones and sites of aeolian sand landforms. Sand dunes and sand dune groups in the fiver valley developed mainly in three ways, namely windward retarding deposition, leeward back flow deposition and bend circumfluence deposition. Through alternating positive-reverse processes of sand dune formation under wind actions and sand dune vanishing under water actions, sand dunes developed from primary zone through main-body zone then to vanishing zone where climbing dunes and falling dunes are declining and are even disappearing.

  18. Formation of anions and cations via a binary-encounter process in OH$^+$ + Ar collisions: the role of dissociative excitation and statistical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lattouf, E; Chesnel, J -Y; Kovács, S T S; Bene, E; Herczku, P; Huber, B A; Méry, A; Poully, J -C; Rangama, J; Sulik, B


    Molecular fragmentation leading to the formation of negatively and positively charged hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH$^+$ + Ar collisions is investigated experimentally. The most striking finding is that negative and positive hydrogen ions are emitted with very similar angular dependences. Also, the kinetic energy distribution of the H$^+$ fragment shows strong similarities with that of the ejected H$^-$ ion. The kinematics of the emitted H core is found to be essentially driven by its scattering on the atomic target. However, in addition to this binary-encounter process, dissociative electronic excitation of the molecular projectile has to be invoked to explain the observed fragmentation patterns. Though the electron capture process is complex, it is shown that the relative population of the different final charge states of the outgoing fragments can be described by simple statistical laws.

  19. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  20. Dependence of crystallite formation and preferential backbone orientations on the side chain pattern in PBDTTPD polymers

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman


    (Figure Presented) Alkyl substituents appended to the π-conjugated main chain account for the solution-processability and film-forming properties of most π-conjugated polymers for organic electronic device applications, including field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Beyond film-forming properties, recent work has emphasized the determining role that side-chain substituents play on polymer self-assembly and thin-film nanostructural order, and, in turn, on device performance. However, the factors that determine polymer crystallite orientation in thin-films, implying preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate, are a matter of some debate, and these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. In this report, we show how systematic changes in the side-chain pattern of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers can (i) influence the propensity of the polymer to order in the π-stacking direction, and (ii) direct the preferential orientation of the polymer crystallites in thin films (e.g., "face-on" vs "edge-on"). Oriented crystallites, specifically crystallites that are well-ordered in the π-stacking direction, are believed to be a key contributor to improved thin-film device performance in both FETs and BHJ solar cells.

  1. Gravity is indeed the driving force for fault pattern formation and westward displacement of the lithosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Papa, A R R


    Gravity influence of the Sun and the Moon on the Earth is the cause of the fault pattern on Earth's surface we observe nowadays and also of the westward displacement of the lithosphere. A somewhat related hypotheses advanced in the past have been that tidal torque of the Moon may be significant. However, it has been argued that it is untenable essentially on the grounds that the viscosity of the Earth's mantle is far too high in comparison with the forces involved. To state this it was assumed that the Earth's relevant characteristic is that of two spherical shells separated by a viscous liquid, the external shell rotating at a constant angular velocity with respect to the inner shell. Here I show that this picture is not quite right and that a more careful look leads us to one in which both shells rotates at different mean angular velocities and with a forward-backward sequence of movements relative to each other. In this way what was supposed to be the principal factor against gravity influence becomes the ...

  2. Pattern formation in fatty acid-nanoparticle and lipid-nanoparticle mixed monolayers at water surface (United States)

    Choudhuri, M.; Datta, A.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Janaki, M. S.


    Dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are self-organized in two different amphiphilic monolayers one of which is a single-tailed fatty acid Stearic acid (StA) and the other a double-tailed lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). In the StA-AuNP film the AuNPs self-organize to form an interconnected network of nanoclusters on compression while in the DMPC-AuNP film the AuNPs aggregate to form random, isolated clusters in the film. The long time evolution of the films at constant surface pressure reveals ring structures in the former and diffusion limited aggregates in the latter that with time evolve into an irregular porous maze of AuNPs in the DMPC film. The difference in structure of the AuNP patterns in the two films can be attributed to a difference in the lipophilic interactions between the NPs and the amphiphilic molecules. The mean square intensity fluctuations f(ln) calculated along a typical line for the 2D structures in both the films at initial and final stages of long time evolution reflect the structural changes in the films over time.

  3. Dependence of crystallite formation and preferential backbone orientations on the side chain pattern in PBDTTPD polymers. (United States)

    El Labban, Abdulrahman; Warnan, Julien; Cabanetos, Clément; Ratel, Olivier; Tassone, Christopher; Toney, Michael F; Beaujuge, Pierre M


    Alkyl substituents appended to the π-conjugated main chain account for the solution-processability and film-forming properties of most π-conjugated polymers for organic electronic device applications, including field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Beyond film-forming properties, recent work has emphasized the determining role that side-chain substituents play on polymer self-assembly and thin-film nanostructural order, and, in turn, on device performance. However, the factors that determine polymer crystallite orientation in thin-films, implying preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate, are a matter of some debate, and these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. In this report, we show how systematic changes in the side-chain pattern of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers can (i) influence the propensity of the polymer to order in the π-stacking direction, and (ii) direct the preferential orientation of the polymer crystallites in thin films (e.g., "face-on" vs "edge-on"). Oriented crystallites, specifically crystallites that are well-ordered in the π-stacking direction, are believed to be a key contributor to improved thin-film device performance in both FETs and BHJ solar cells.

  4. Indium segregation during III–V quantum wire and quantum dot formation on patterned substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Stefano T.; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Chung, Tung-Hsun; Juska, Gediminas; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele [Tyndall National Institute, “Lee Maltings,” University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Vvedensky, Dimitri D. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    We report a model for metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy on non-planar substrates, specifically V-grooves and pyramidal recesses, which we apply to the growth of InGaAs nanostructures. This model—based on a set of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, one for each facet in the system—accounts for the facet-dependence of all kinetic processes (e.g., precursor decomposition, adatom diffusion, and adatom lifetimes) and has been previously applied to account for the temperature-, concentration-, and temporal-dependence of AlGaAs nanostructures on GaAs (111)B surfaces with V-grooves and pyramidal recesses. In the present study, the growth of In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As quantum wires at the bottom of V-grooves is used to determine a set of optimized kinetic parameters. Based on these parameters, we have modeled the growth of In{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As nanostructures formed in pyramidal site-controlled quantum-dot systems, successfully producing a qualitative explanation for the temperature-dependence of their optical properties, which have been reported in previous studies. Finally, we present scanning electron and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy images which show previously unreported facetting at the bottom of the pyramidal recesses that allow quantum dot formation.




    The changes in scorbutic wounds following the administration of ascorbic acid have been investigated using the techniques of electron microscopy, histochemistry, and autoradioggraphy. Particular attention has been paid to the changes seen in the endoplasmic reticulum of the fibroblasts and to the identity of the extracellular filamentous material characteristic of scorbutic wounds. Seven-day-old wounds in scorbutic guinea pigs were examined prior to and from one to 72 hours following the administration of vitamin C. Fibroblasts from wounds of normal animals demonstrate a characteristic configuration of the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum which is suggested to be analogous to polyribosomes described in cells synthesizing protein such as the reticulocyte. Tangential views of the membranes of the ergastoplasm show the ribosomes to be grouped in paired rows which take both straight and curved paths. This configuration is lost in scurvy and can be seen to begin to reappear as early as 4 hours after giving ascorbic acid. With increasing time, the morphology of the ribosomal aggregates approximates that seen in normal cells, so that by 24 hours their reorientation is complete. It is suggested that one of the disturbances in scurvy may relate to an alteration either in messenger RNA, in the ability of the ribosomes to relate to the messenger, or in the membranes of the ergastoplasm. In addition, the lack of formation of hydroxyamino acids necessary for completing collagen synthesis may be related to the architecture of the ribosomal aggregates. Extracellular collagen fibrils appear concomitant with the restoration of ribosomal and ergastoplasmic morphology as early as 12 hours after administration of ascorbic acid, with complete disappearance of the scorbutic extracellular material within 24 hours. Observations of this scorbutic material do not support the concept that it is a collagen precursor.

  6. Effects of Dynamic Changes in Ultrasound Attenuation and Blood Perfusion on Lesion Formation of Multiple focus Pattern during Ultrasound Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen-xi; BAI Jing-feng; CHEN Ya-zhu


    A nonlinear finite-element program was developed to simulate the dynamic evolution of coagulation in tissue considering temperature and thermal-dose dependence of the ultrasound attenuation and blood perfusion rate.The effects of these dynamic parameters on the lesion formation were investigated in the particular case of ultrasound hepatic ablation with bi-focus intensity pattern.The results of simulations were compared that incorporate dynamic changes of ultrasound attenuation and perfusion and results that neglect these effects.The result shows that thermal-dose-dependent ultrasound attenuation is the dominating factor in the full dynamic model.If the dynamic ultrasound attenuation is ignored, a relatively significant underestimation of the temperature rise appears in the focal plane and the region next to the focal plane, resulting in an underestimation in predicting diameter of coagulation.Higher heating intensity leads to greater underestimation.

  7. The role of phase separation for self-organized surface pattern formation by ion beam erosion and metal atom co-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofsaess, H.; Zhang, K.; Pape, A.; Bobes, O.; Broetzmann, M. [Georg-August University Goettingen, II. Institute of Physics, Goettingen (Germany)


    We investigate the ripple pattern formation on Si surfaces at room temperature during normal incidence ion beam erosion under simultaneous deposition of different metallic co-deposited surfactant atoms. The co-deposition of small amounts of metallic atoms, in particular Fe and Mo, is known to have a tremendous impact on the evolution of nanoscale surface patterns on Si. In previous work on ion erosion of Si during co-deposition of Fe atoms, we proposed that chemical interactions between Fe and Si atoms of the steady-state mixed Fe{sub x} Si surface layer formed during ion beam erosion is a dominant driving force for self-organized pattern formation. In particular, we provided experimental evidence for the formation of amorphous iron disilicide. To confirm and generalize such chemical effects on the pattern formation, in particular the tendency for phase separation, we have now irradiated Si surfaces with normal incidence 5 keV Xe ions under simultaneous gracing incidence co-deposition of Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W, Pt, and Au surfactant atoms. The selected metals in the two groups (Fe, Ni, Cu) and (W, Pt, Au) are very similar regarding their collision cascade behavior, but strongly differ regarding their tendency to silicide formation. We find pronounced ripple pattern formation only for those co deposited metals (Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt), which are prone to the formation of mono and disilicides. In contrast, for Cu and Au co-deposition the surface remains very flat, even after irradiation at high ion fluence. Because of the very different behavior of Cu compared to Fe, Ni and Au compared to W, Pt, phase separation toward amorphous metal silicide phases is seen as the relevant process for the pattern formation on Si in the case of Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt co-deposition. (orig.)

  8. Neotectonic formation of drainage patterns and their palaeohydrological implications for the Okwa River catchment, Botswana (United States)

    Hartmann, Kai; Schmidt, Mareike; Shemang, Elisha; Zhang, Shuping; Frank, Riedel


    Large inter- and intramontane endorheic basins provide long term archives of environmental change, often integrating regional to continental climate driven process dynamics of huge drainage systems. On one hand the large-scale integration can be regarded as an advantage by averaging small-scale variations of either local hydrological peculiarities or random triggered drainage behaviour (e.g. internal thresholds, tectonics, etc.) and thus just recording atmospheric circulation pattern up to hemispherical scales with millennial resolution. Otherwise, with increasing basin size the process dynamic and their response system along one or more sediment cascades often become a complexity resulting in crucial problems of sedimentological archive interpretations by e.g. signal interference, equifinality or even multiple reworking. Therefore, studies of geomorphological or hydrological response processes and ecological adaption can only be undertaken on sub-catchment scale considering process dynamics along pathways. For southern-hemispheric palaeoclimate reconstruction of land-ocean linkages, Makgadikgadi Basin - as the largest (c. 37,000 km2) and deepest depression in the middle Kalahari - provides a fluvio-lacustrine archive in high-continental position since at least 300 kyr BP. Recent studies suggest a mega-lake high-stand within the basin for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) For the hydrological persistence of the lake for about 6 kyrs, the since Heinrich Event 1 (17-16 ka) inactive Okwa River seems to play a key role indicating a northward-shift of the winter rainfall zone. However, beside some dating of exposed shell bearing sediments at the river mouth, a thorough investigation of the c. 129,000 km2 drainage system is missing. Our presentation aims to point out the linkages between neotectonic activity and sediment transport. The combination of adaptive DEM-filter and multispectral remote sensing data reveals obvious traps (of neotectonic origin) of small temporary

  9. Expression pattern of odontogenic ameloblast-associated and amelotin during formation and regeneration of the junctional epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kuroda


    Full Text Available The junctional epithelium (JE adheres to the tooth surface, and seals off periodontal tissues from the oral environment. This incompletely differentiated epithelium is formed initially by the fusion of the reduced enamel organ with the oral epithelium (OE. Two proteins, odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM and amelotin (AMTN, have been identified in the JE. The objective of this study was to evaluate their expression pattern during formation and regeneration of the JE. Cytokeratin 14 was used as a differentiation marker for oral epithelial cells, and Ki67 for cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on erupting rat molars, and in regenerating JE following gingivectomy. In the reducing enamel organ and in established JE, ODAM and AMTN were present at the cell-tooth interface while only ODAM and CK14 were found throughout the JE. Both were also conspicuously present in cell clusters situated between the erupting tooth and OE. During JE regeneration, ODAM was detected first at the leading wound edge and then in the regenerating JE. Some cell clusters in the subjacent connective tissue were also positive for ODAM. AMTN appeared later and both AMTN and ODAM accumulated at the interface with the tooth. Cytokeratin 14 gradually appeared in the regenerating JE but the cell clusters showed variable labeling. Cells associated with JE formation and regeneration exhibited higher division activity than adjacent epithelial cells. These findings suggest that ODAM and AMTN have a role at the cell-tooth interface, and that ODAM is likely also implicated in cellular events during formation and regeneration of the JE.

  10. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan


    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  11. Formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles on SiC surface by template confined dewetting of normal and oblique deposited nanoscale films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail:; Grimaldi, M.G.


    We report on the formation of patterned arrays of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on 6H SiC surface. To this end, we exploit the thermal-induced dewetting properties of a template confined deposited nanoscale Au film. In this approach, the Au surface pattern order, on the SiC substrate, is established by a template confined deposition using a micrometric template. Then, a dewetting process of the patterned Au film is induced by thermal processes. We compare the results, about the patterns formation, obtained for normal and oblique deposited Au films. We show that the normal and oblique depositions, through the same template, originate different patterns of the Au film. As a consequence of these different starting patterns, after the thermal processes, different patterns for the arrays of NPs originating from the dewetting mechanisms are obtained. For each fixed deposition angle α, the pattern evolution is analyzed, by scanning electron microscopy, as a function of the annealing time at 1173 K (900 °C). From these analyses, quantitative evaluations on the NPs size evolution are drawn. - Highlights: • Micrometric template-confined nanoscale gold films are deposited on silicon carbide. • The dewetting process of template-confined gold films on silicon carbide is studied. • Comparison of dewetting process of normal and oblique deposited gold films is drawn. • Patterned arrays of gold nanoparticles on silicon carbide surface are produced.

  12. Micro-pattern formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) layers by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and cell culture on the patterned ECMs (United States)

    Ando, Ayumi; Asano, Toshifumi; Urisu, Tsuneo; Hamaguchi, Satoshi


    A new patterning technique for the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited on a Si substrate was developed with the use of a low-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma and a metal stencil mask. The development of such a patterning technique for cell arrangement is a crucial step for the development of future cell chips. In this study, optimal process conditions for ECM patterning over the size of a typical single chip (about 1 cm2) were achieved and the obtained ECM patterns were directly observed by fluorescence labelling. It was also demonstrated that HEK293 cells (human embryo kidney cells) attach to and proliferate on the ECM layer patterned by this technique, arranging themselves on the Si substrate in the mask pattern.

  13. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns (United States)


    Hans J. Morgenthau , Kenneth Waltz, and George Liska. Morgenthau in Politics Among Nations points out that the notion of the Balance of Power can be...sovereign nations.”9 8. Hans Joachim Morgenthau , Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace...New York: Knopf, 1972), 167. 9. Morgenthau , Politics Among Nations, 167. 3 For Waltz, “states behave in ways that result in balances forming.”10

  14. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation, Jharia basin, India: The sedimentary response to basin tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta


    In the Lower Gondwana succession of the Jharia basin of eastern India, the Barren Measures Formation is characterized by the cyclic disposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits and relatively coarse-grained fluvial deposits. The cyclic variation in the rate of coarse clastic input is attributed to the sedimentary response to basin tectonics. The sandstone–shale alternations of the Barren Measures succession can be correlated with the tectonic cyclothems developed on the hangingwall dip-slope and adjoining trough in a continental half-graben setting. Enhancement of the gradient of the hangingwall dip-slope during reactivation of the basin margin faults led to progradation of the existing fluvial system towards the half-graben trough and deposition of the coarser clastics on the fine-grained lacustrine deposits of the trough. Peneplanation of the hangingwall slope and slow increase in the lake level caused lacustrine transgression and retrogration of the fluvial system on the hangingwall block. The fluvial sediments were onlapped by the fine-grained lacustrine deposits. Episodic rejuvenation of the basin margin faults thus caused development of tectonic cyclothem on the hangingwall block. The paleocurrent pattern indicates that a persistent northward paleoslope was maintained during Barren Measures sedimentation. The inferred depositional settings were much more extensive than the present limit of the outcrop. The faults, presently defining the northern limit of the Barren Measures Formation, were possibly emplaced after Barren Measures sedimentation. The final movement along these fault planes caused preservation of the downthrown hangingwall block and the Barren Measures sediments on the footwall block were eroded during subsequent denudation. The Southern Boundary Fault came into existence after the deposition of the Barren Measures sediments.

  15. Diffusion-driven kinetic isotope effect of Fe and Ni during formation of the Widmanstätten pattern (United States)

    Dauphas, Nicolas

    Iron meteorites show resolvable Fe and Ni isotopic fractionation between taenite and kamacite. For Toluca (IAB), the isotopic fractionations between the two phases are around +0.1‰/amu for Fe and -0.4‰/amu for Ni. These variations may be due to i) equilibrium fractionation, ii) differences in the diffusivities of the different isotopes, or iii) a combination of both processes. A computer algorithm was developed in order to follow the growth of kamacite out of taenite during the formation of the Widmanstätten pattern as well as calculate the fractionation of Fe and Ni isotopes for a set of cooling rates ranging from 25 to 500 °C/Myr. Using a relative difference in diffusion coefficients of adjacent isotopes of 4‰/amu for Fe and Ni (β = 0.25), the observations made in Toluca can be reproduced for a cooling rate of 50 °C/Myr. This value agrees with earlier cooling rate estimates based on Ni concentration profiles. This supports the idea that the fractionation measured for Fe and Ni in iron meteorites is driven by differences in diffusivities of isotopes. It also supports the validity of the value of 0.25 adopted for β for diffusion of Fe and Ni in Fe-Ni alloy in the temperature range of 400-700 °C.

  16. 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ion induced pattern formation on Si surface: Roles of sputter erosion and atomic redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Datta, D.P.; Kumar, M. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Som, T., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)


    Highlights: • AFM study of morphological evolution on Si surface under 60 keV Ar{sup +} ions irradiation as a function of angle of incidence and fluence. • Construction of parametric phase diagram of medium energy ion induced ripple formation on Si. • Observation of sticking similarities between medium and low energy ion-induced pattern. • Numerical estimation shows that simultaneous contribution of curvature dependent sputtering and ion induced atomic redistribution. - Abstract: We study the evolution of surface morphology on Si(1 0 0) surface due to 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation at room temperature for a wide range of ion fluences (2–80 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}) and angles of incidence (0°–75°). We have clearly distinguished linear and nonlinear regimes for the observed ripple patterns in our experiment. From our experimental results and those available in the literature, we have created a parametric phase diagram which summarizes an overview of pattern formation on silicon surface under medium energy ion irradiation. On the basis of this phase diagram, we demonstrate some striking similarities between medium and low energy ion-induced ripple patterns and infer that similar mechanisms may be responsible for pattern formation at both regimes. Comparison of our experimental results with numerical estimations reveals that both curvature dependent sputter erosion and ion induced atomic redistribution are responsible for the observed evolution of surface morphology.

  17. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas


    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  18. Formation and growth of fractal patterns in high energy P+-implanted silicon and N+Zn-implanted SiO2/GaAsP during thermal annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜光; 张通和


    The fractal patterns in implanted samples are observed. Possible correlation of fractal patterns with the annealing temperature and the electrical activation ratio are given. The formation and growth process of fractal patterns are compared for implanted layers both in silicon and in SiO2/GaAsP during thermal annealing. The mechanism of formation and growth process of fractal pattern is discussed.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reveal distinct patterns of anastomosis formation and hyphal healing mechanisms between different phylogenic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, F.A.; Fernández, F.; Delmas, N.S.; Declerck, S.


    The significance of anastomosis formation and the hyphal healing mechanism (HHM) for functionality and integrity of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelial network remains poorly documented. Four Glomeraceae and three Gigasporaceae were cultured monoxenically. Anastomosis formation was asses

  20. Pattern formation in terms of semiclassically limited distribution on lower dimensional manifolds for the nonlocal Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation (United States)

    Levchenko, E. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Trifonov, A. Yu


    We have investigated the pattern formation in systems described by the nonlocal Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation for the cases where the dimension of the pattern concentration domain is lower than that of the domain of independent variables. We have obtained a system of integro-differential equations which describe the dynamics of the concentration domain and the semiclassically limited density distribution for a pattern in the class of trajectory concentrated functions. Also, asymptotic large time solutions have been obtained that describe the semiclassically limited distribution for a quasi-steady-state pattern on the concentration manifold. The approach is illustrated by an example for which the analytical solution is in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations.

  1. Sedimentological aspects of four Lower-Paleozoic formations in the northern part of the province of León (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.


    This paper deals with the sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography of the four lowermost formations of the Paleozoic as developed in the Northern part of the Province of León (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). Three of the four formations have a detrital character, and one consists of dolomite

  2. Dynamic aspects of spermiogenic chromatin condensation patterning by phase separation during the histone-to-protamine transition in charalean algae and relation to bryophytes. (United States)

    Kasinsky, H E; Ellis, S; Martens, G; Ausió, J


    During early-to-middle spermiogenesis in multicellular, internally fertilizing charalean green algae (Chara fibrosa, Chara vulgaris, Chara tomentosa, Nitella missouriensis), patterning of chromatin/nucleoplasm in developing spermatid nuclei changes from granules → fibers → contorted lamellae → condensed chromatin. Cytochemical, immunocytochemical, electrophoretic studies on C. vulgaris and C. tomentosa spermatids (Kwiatkowska, Poplonska) and amino acid analysis of protamines in Chara corallina sperm (Reynolds, Wolfe), indicate that more positively charged protamines replace histones directly during spermiogenesis, not indirectly through other intermediate transitional proteins as in internally fertilizing neogastropods and sharks with more ordered spermatid lamellae. We hypothesize that such lamellar-mediated patterning is due to liquid-liquid phase separation by spinodal decomposition. This is a spontaneous thermodynamic process that involves diffusive instability of a lamellar chromatin network, a dominant pattern repeat distance and bicontinuity of chromatin/nucleoplasm phases. C. vulgaris sperm show contorted lamellae in the posterior region, whereas C. corallina sperm display contorted peripheral lamellae and interior fibrils. Among internally fertilizing liverworts, which may have evolved from Zygnematales, mid-spermatid nuclei lack lamellae. Instead they display self-coiled chromatin rods in Blasia pusilla, contain short chromatin tubules in Haplomitrium hookeri resembling those in internally fertilizing mosses and a hornwort and indirectly replace histones with protamines in Marchantia polymorpha.

  3. Temperature control of pattern formation in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-catalyzed BZ-AOT system. (United States)

    McIlwaine, Rachel; Vanag, Vladimir K; Epstein, Irving R


    Using temperature as a control parameter, we observe a transition from stationary Turing patterns at T = 15-20 degrees C to traveling waves at T = 50 degrees C (and above) in the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction incorporated into the water nanodroplets of a water-in-oil aerosol OT (AOT) microemulsion. At constant chemical composition, molar ratio and droplet fraction, the transition takes place via a series of stable patterns, including oscillatory Turing patterns (at 35-40 degrees C) and reversed oscillatory Turing patterns (at 50 degrees C). We attribute the pattern transitions to a temperature-induced percolation transition of the BZ-AOT microemulsion, implying a change from isolated water nanodroplets to a system-spanning network of water channels.

  4. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.


    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  5. Study on Cultural Pattern and Human Migration along the Chinese Silk Road (Gansu-Qinghai Stretch): taking the Salar's Ethnic Formation and Development as an Example




    The present paper “Study on cultural pattern and human migration along the Chinese Silk Road (Gansu-Qinghai stretch): taking the Salar’s ethnic formation and development as an example” has a rather simple framework which unceasingly oscillates between structural analysis and historical narration. Starting from a cross-cultural perspective, it combines traditional historical insights and postmodern paradigms of conceiving history. It consists on three parts - concept definition, historical ...

  6. 高宽比对生态复合墙体破坏模式的影响%Influence of Aspect Ratio on Failure Patterns of Eco-composite Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯莉娜; 卢俊龙; 黄炜; 田英侠


    生态复合墙体是生态复合墙结构的主要受力构件,其破坏模式不单一。高宽比是影响墙体破坏模式的重要因素之一。在不同高宽比生态复合墙体试验研究的基础上,介绍了墙体破坏机理及破坏模式,对比分析了不同高宽比墙体破坏模式及原因,建立非线性有限元模型,对不同高宽比墙体破坏模式进行分析。结果表明:生态复合墙体破坏模式本质上由复合墙板及边框柱的相对强弱决定,对于填充加气混凝土砌块生态复合墙体,当墙体高宽比<1.5时,墙体发生合理的剪切型破坏;对于填充秸秆泥坯砖生态复合墙体,当墙体高宽比<1.7时,墙体发生剪切型破坏。研究结果对于生态复合墙体的抗震优化设计具有一定的参考意义。%As the main bearing member of the eco-composite wall structure ,the eco-composite wall has various failure patterns .Aspect ratio is one of the most important parameters which affects on failure patterns of the walls .Based on the test results of the eco-composite walls with various aspect ratios ,the main failure processes and patterns of the walls were introduced .Contrast analysis on the reason of the walls’ failure patterns with different aspect ratios was conducted .A nonlinear finite element model was set up to study the influence of different aspect ratios on failure patterns of eco -com-posite walls .Results indicate that the failure patterns of the eco-composite walls are essentially determined by the relative strength of the eco-composite slabs and the side-frame columns .For the eco-composite walls with air-entraining concrete blocks ,when the aspect ratio < 1 .5 ,shear failure which is the reasonable failure mechanism occurs ;For the walls with straw mud blocks ,when < 1 .7 ,shear failure occurs .These findings will provide certain reference for optimal a seismic design of eco-composite wall structures .

  7. Fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Appolinário


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRabies virus (RABV isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2,Desmodus rotundus (variant 3, crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene. Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.

  8. Fluorescent antibody test, quantitative polymerase chain reaction pattern and clinical aspects of rabies virus strains isolated from main reservoirs in Brazil. (United States)

    Appolinário, Camila; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Vicente, Acácia Ferreira; Ribeiro, Bruna Devidé; Fonseca, Clóvis Reinaldo da; Antunes, João Marcelo; Peres, Marina Gea; Kotait, Ivanete; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Megid, Jane


    Rabies virus (RABV) isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2), Desmodus rotundus (variant 3), crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene). Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.

  9. Evolution‐development congruence in pattern formation dynamics: Bifurcations in gene expression and regulation of networks structures (United States)

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro


    ABSTRACT Search for possible relationships between phylogeny and ontogeny is important in evolutionary‐developmental biology. Here we uncover such relationships by numerical evolution and unveil their origin in terms of dynamical systems theory. By representing developmental dynamics of spatially located cells with gene expression dynamics with cell‐to‐cell interaction under external morphogen gradient, gene regulation networks are evolved under mutation and selection with the fitness to approach a prescribed spatial pattern of expressed genes. For most numerical evolution experiments, evolution of pattern over generations and development of pattern by an evolved network exhibit remarkable congruence. Both in the evolution and development pattern changes consist of several epochs where stripes are formed in a short time, while for other temporal regimes, pattern hardly changes. In evolution, these quasi‐stationary regimes are generations needed to hit relevant mutations, while in development, they are due to some gene expression that varies slowly and controls the pattern change. The morphogenesis is regulated by combinations of feedback or feedforward regulations, where the upstream feedforward network reads the external morphogen gradient, and generates a pattern used as a boundary condition for the later patterns. The ordering from up to downstream is common in evolution and development, while the successive epochal changes in development and evolution are represented as common bifurcations in dynamical‐systems theory, which lead to the evolution‐development congruence. Mechanism of exceptional violation of the congruence is also unveiled. Our results provide a new look on developmental stages, punctuated equilibrium, developmental bottlenecks, and evolutionary acquisition of novelty in morphogenesis. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 326B:61–84, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution

  10. Evolution-development congruence in pattern formation dynamics: Bifurcations in gene expression and regulation of networks structures. (United States)

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    Search for possible relationships between phylogeny and ontogeny is important in evolutionary-developmental biology. Here we uncover such relationships by numerical evolution and unveil their origin in terms of dynamical systems theory. By representing developmental dynamics of spatially located cells with gene expression dynamics with cell-to-cell interaction under external morphogen gradient, gene regulation networks are evolved under mutation and selection with the fitness to approach a prescribed spatial pattern of expressed genes. For most numerical evolution experiments, evolution of pattern over generations and development of pattern by an evolved network exhibit remarkable congruence. Both in the evolution and development pattern changes consist of several epochs where stripes are formed in a short time, while for other temporal regimes, pattern hardly changes. In evolution, these quasi-stationary regimes are generations needed to hit relevant mutations, while in development, they are due to some gene expression that varies slowly and controls the pattern change. The morphogenesis is regulated by combinations of feedback or feedforward regulations, where the upstream feedforward network reads the external morphogen gradient, and generates a pattern used as a boundary condition for the later patterns. The ordering from up to downstream is common in evolution and development, while the successive epochal changes in development and evolution are represented as common bifurcations in dynamical-systems theory, which lead to the evolution-development congruence. Mechanism of exceptional violation of the congruence is also unveiled. Our results provide a new look on developmental stages, punctuated equilibrium, developmental bottlenecks, and evolutionary acquisition of novelty in morphogenesis.

  11. Mechanical Model of Geometric Cell and Topological Algorithm for Cell Dynamics from Single-Cell to Formation of Monolayered Tissues with Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Kachalo, Sëma


    Geometric and mechanical properties of individual cells and interactions among neighboring cells are the basis of formation of tissue patterns. Understanding the complex interplay of cells is essential for gaining insight into embryogenesis, tissue development, and other emerging behavior. Here we describe a cell model and an efficient geometric algorithm for studying the dynamic process of tissue formation in 2D (e.g. epithelial tissues). Our approach improves upon previous methods by incorporating properties of individual cells as well as detailed description of the dynamic growth process, with all topological changes accounted for. Cell size, shape, and division plane orientation are modeled realistically. In addition, cell birth, cell growth, cell shrinkage, cell death, cell division, cell collision, and cell rearrangements are now fully accounted for. Different models of cell-cell interactions, such as lateral inhibition during the process of growth, can be studied in detail. Cellular pattern formation for monolayered tissues from arbitrary initial conditions, including that of a single cell, can also be studied in detail. Computational efficiency is achieved through the employment of a special data structure that ensures access to neighboring cells in constant time, without additional space requirement. We have successfully generated tissues consisting of more than 20,000 cells starting from 2 cells within 1 hour. We show that our model can be used to study embryogenesis, tissue fusion, and cell apoptosis. We give detailed study of the classical developmental process of bristle formation on the epidermis of D. melanogaster and the fundamental problem of homeostatic size control in epithelial tissues. Simulation results reveal significant roles of solubility of secreted factors in both the bristle formation and the homeostatic control of tissue size. Our method can be used to study broad problems in monolayered tissue formation. Our software is publicly

  12. Epidemiological aspects of bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic focus of eastern Zambia: The role of trypanosome strain variability in disease pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Masumu


    Full Text Available Bovine trypanosomosis displays various epidemiological aspects in various areas. In some instances the disease has a high prevalence in animals with high impact on production whereas in other cases the disease has a low impact on production despite a high level of infection in animals. In addition epidemiological changes are frequently observed in various areas and are related to many factors including the vectors, the host, the parasites, the environment as well as the livestock management. However the implication of these factors in these changes is not fully elucidated. In eastern Zambia, factors predicting the establishment of severe infection in cattle are all present. However trypanosomosis occurring in cattle in this area has a low impact on livestock production. Several studies on the characterisation of trypanosome strains circulating in domestic and wild animals have been conducted in order to clarify the epidemiology of this disease in this area. These studies aimed at evaluating genetic and biological characteristics of these strains including their virulence profiles, their transmissibility by tsetse flies, their resistance to drugs and interference between different strains. In this review these findings are analysed in order to elucidate the implication of trypanosome strain variability in the distribution and the expression of this disease in the study area. The evolutionary trends of the situation occurring in this study area are also explained. Use of these findings is the context of disease control in the study area is further discussed.

  13. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie


    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  14. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Formation of Anti-Corruption Mechanisms in the System of Higher Education of the Russian Federation (United States)

    Abramov, Ruslan A.; Sokolov, Maxim S.


    Relevance of the study lies in the fact that modern higher education in the Russian Federation are increasingly approaching the critical state--despite attempts to reform and use of successful foreign practices, our country is still lagging behind in the role. The aim of the article is the formation on the events that occurred in the country over…

  15. Measurement of Large Spiral and Target Waves in Chemical Reaction-Diffusion-Advection Systems: Turbulent Diffusion Enhances Pattern Formation (United States)

    von Kameke, A.; Huhn, F.; Muñuzuri, A. P.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.


    In the absence of advection, reaction-diffusion systems are able to organize into spatiotemporal patterns, in particular spiral and target waves. Whenever advection is present that can be parametrized in terms of effective or turbulent diffusion D*, these patterns should be attainable on a much greater, boosted length scale. However, so far, experimental evidence of these boosted patterns in a turbulent flow was lacking. Here, we report the first experimental observation of boosted target and spiral patterns in an excitable chemical reaction in a quasi-two-dimensional turbulent flow. The wave patterns observed are ˜50 times larger than in the case of molecular diffusion only. We vary the turbulent diffusion coefficient D* of the flow and find that the fundamental Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov equation, vf∝D*, for the asymptotic speed of a reactive wave remains valid. However, not all measures of the boosted wave scale with D* as expected from molecular diffusion, since the wave fronts turn out to be highly filamentous.

  16. Pattern formation, long-term transients, and the Turing-Hopf bifurcation in a space- and time-discrete predator-prey system. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Alberto Díaz; Mistro, Diomar Cristina; Petrovskii, Sergei


    Understanding of population dynamics in a fragmented habitat is an issue of considerable importance. A natural modelling framework for these systems is spatially discrete. In this paper, we consider a predator-prey system that is discrete both in space and time, and is described by a Coupled Map Lattice (CML). The prey growth is assumed to be affected by a weak Allee effect and the predator dynamics includes intra-specific competition. We first reveal the bifurcation structure of the corresponding non-spatial system. We then obtain the conditions of diffusive instability on the lattice. In order to reveal the properties of the emerging patterns, we perform extensive numerical simulations. We pay a special attention to the system properties in a vicinity of the Turing-Hopf bifurcation, which is widely regarded as a mechanism of pattern formation and spatiotemporal chaos in space-continuous systems. Counter-intuitively, we obtain that the spatial patterns arising in the CML are more typically stationary, even when the local dynamics is oscillatory. We also obtain that, for some parameter values, the system's dynamics is dominated by long-term transients, so that the asymptotical stationary pattern arises as a sudden transition between two different patterns. Finally, we argue that our findings may have important ecological implications.

  17. Pattern formation in a two-component reaction-diffusion system with delayed processes on a network (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Asllani, Malbor; Fanelli, Duccio; Lauwens, Ben; Carletti, Timoteo


    Reaction-diffusion systems with time-delay defined on complex networks have been studied in the framework of the emergence of Turing instabilities. The use of the Lambert W-function allowed us to get explicit analytic conditions for the onset of patterns as a function of the main involved parameters, the time-delay, the network topology and the diffusion coefficients. Depending on these parameters, the analysis predicts whether the system will evolve towards a stationary Turing pattern or rather to a wave pattern associated to a Hopf bifurcation. The possible outcomes of the linear analysis overcome the respective limitations of the single-species case with delay, and that of the classical activator-inhibitor variant without delay. Numerical results gained from the Mimura-Murray model support the theoretical approach.

  18. Mediterranean dietary pattern and VEGF +405 G/C gene polymorphisms in patients with metabolic syndrome: An aspect of gene-nutrient interaction (United States)

    Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Jahangiry, Leila


    Aims To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). Materials and methods In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed. Anthropometric assessments and blood pressure measurement were performed. Biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose (FSG), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), liver enzymes and lipid profiles were also assessed. Polymorphism of +405 G/C VEGF gene was determined utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results Serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations and FSG were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients compared with control group (P LDL concentrations. In metabolic syndrome patients with CC genotype, mean score of “saturated fatty acid” subgroup was significantly higher compared with other genotypes; whereas, in healthy individuals, mean score of “fruit-vegetable” subgroup in individuals of CC and GG genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion Our findings indicated a significant relationship between Mediterranean dietary quality index and both anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. We also indicated a higher “saturated fatty acid” intake in CC genotype among metabolic syndrome patients. PMID:28212431

  19. Statistical Aspects Related to the Search of Spatial and Temporary Patterns of Some Climate and Vegetation Parameters Around the Timberline of Pico de Orizaba (United States)

    Cruz-Kuri, L.; Castillo-González, N.; Mora-Domínguez, J.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-González, R.


    Pico de Orizaba (19° N), the tallest mountain in Mexico, has environmental conditions that probably could have occurred in ancient Mars and may also be relevant to the future introduction of life on Mars. Pico de Orizaba has the highest tree line in the world (>4200m). Therefore, our interest to study tree lines at thermal gradients. Since March of 1999 we started to monitor the environmental conditions of the mountain at several sites, above, below and within the tree line of the domineering species P. hartweggi and have been studying the physical and chemical properties of soil as well as those of microbial activity. In particular, soil temperatures at various depths, as well as external temperatures and other measurements such as air humidity, rain events, etc., in addition to tree trunk temperatures, are being recorded hourly since then in an ongoing process to continue for several years. The present is a report of some of the statistical analysis performed on the data, including cross correlations of the resulting time series, in an effort to detect spatial and temporary patterns.

  20. Regeneration of surgically created mixed-handed axolotl forelimbs: pattern formation in the dorsal-ventral axis. (United States)

    Holder, N; Weekes, C


    The regeneration of surgically created mixed-handed limb stumps is examined in the axolotl. Operations were performed in the lower arm and upper arm regions and grafts were allowed to heal for approximately one month prior to amputation or were amputated immediately. In the lower arm group both anterior and posterior limb halves were inverted, whereas only posterior halves were inverted in the upper arm group. Almost all the limbs regenerated were normal in the anterior-posterior axis, whereas a range of limb types were found when the dorsal-ventral axis was analysed using the metacarpal muscle pattern and epidermal Leydig cell number as positional markers. The carpal and forearm muscle patterns were also analysed in order to assess whether the pattern determined from analysis at the metacarpal level reflected that seen at more proximal levels. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of cell contribution from the stump to the blastema and the relevance of the study to models of pattern regulation.

  1. Foam-stabilizing effects and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in lager beer. (United States)

    Kunimune, Takeshi; Shellhammer, Thomas H


    Foam-stabilizing properties and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids were investigated using an unhopped lager beer. Unhopped beer was dosed with iso-alpha-acid (Iso), rho-iso-alpha-acid (Rho), tetrahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Tetra), and hexahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Hexa), separately, over a range of concentrations from 2 to 10 ppm. A uniform foam was created by Inpack 2000 Flasher Head and was measured by a NIBEM Foam Stability Tester (NIBEM-TPH) followed by a NIBEM Cling Meter (NIBEM-CLM) to determine the relationship between the concentration and NIBEM-30 and the cling formation ability of each compound. The foam-stabilizing power was determined to be Tetra, Hexa, Iso, and Rho from the strongest to weakest. Linear regression models were created using the NIBEM-TPH data set, and on the basis of 95% confidence intervals, the foam stability of Tetra or Hexa became significantly larger than that of Iso when 2.4 or 4.2 ppm of Tetra or Hexa was used as a replacement for Iso, respectively. Cling formation patterns could be categorized into three groups: "ring", "mesh", and "powdery". The control beer had the lowest foam stability and did not yield any foam cling.

  2. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова


    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  3. A CANDELS-3D-HST synergy: Resolved star formation patterns at 0.7 < z < 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Chang, Yu-Yen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Faber, Sandra M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E., E-mail: [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others


    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, with multi-wavelength broadband imaging from CANDELS and Hα surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec resolution from 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Hα morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Hα dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Hα/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called 'main sequence of star formation' established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced Hα equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Hα/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  4. New aspects of absorption line formation in intervening turbulent clouds; 3, The inverse problem in the study of H+D profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F


    A new method, based on a Reverse Monte Carlo technique and aimed at the inverse problem in the analysis of interstellar (intergalactic) absorption lines is presented. We consider the process of line formation in media with a stochastic velocity field accounting for the effects of a finite correlation length (mesoturbulence). This approach generalizes the standard microturbulent approximation, which is commonly used to model the formation of absorption spectra in turbulent media. The method allows to estimate from an observed spectrum both, the physical parameters of the absorbing gas, and an appropriate structure of the velocity distribution parallel to the line of sight. The procedure is applied to a template H+D Ly-alpha profile which reproduces the Burles and Tytler [BT] spectrum of the quasar Q 1009+2956 with the DI Ly-alpha line seen at the redshift z = 2.504. The results obtained favor a low D/H ratio in this particular absorption system, although the inferred upper limit for the hydrogen isotopic ratio...

  5. WBC27, an Adenosine Tri-phosphate-binding Cassette Protein, Controls Pollen Wall Formation and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Yi Zhang; Wei Wang; Xiao-Lei Liu; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; De Ye


    In flowering plants, the exine components are derived from tapetum. Despite its importance to sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the translocation of exine materials from tapetum to developing microspores. Here we report functional characterization of the arabidopsis WBC27 gene. WBC27 encodes an adenosine tri-phosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is expressed preferentially in tapetum. Mutation of WBC27 disrupted the exine formation. The wbc27 mutant microspores began to degenerate once released from tetrads and most of the microspores collapsed at the uninucleate stage. Only a small number of wbc27-1 microspores could develop into tricellular pollen grains. These survival pollen grains lacked exine and germinated in the anther before anthesis. All of these results suggest that the ABC transporter, WBC27 plays important roles in the formation of arabidopsis exine, possibly by translocation of lipidic precursors of sporopollenin from tapetum to developing microspores.

  6. Analysis of biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens in patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi A Tayal


    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms attach to surfaces and produce polysaccharides resulting in the formation of biofilms and providing an ideal niche for the exchange of genetic material leading to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. Biofilms can develop on anatomical surfaces and implants producing chronic and intractable infections. Aims: Detection of biofilm formation and comparison of antibiotic resistance between biofilm producers and nonproducers. Study Design: Prospective study in which urine specimens from adult patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during the period of the study were analyzed (1 year. Materials and Methods: Mid-stream clean catch urine from noncatheterized and urine aspirated from in-dwelling urinary catheter in catheterized patients were taken for microbiological processing. Wet mounts, Gram-staining, and urine culture were done. Biofilm formation was detected by tissue culture plate method (TCPM. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and mid "P" test were used to analyze the data. A value ofP<0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Gram-negative organisms predominated (89%. Biofilm production was detected in 27% isolates. Maximum biofilm production was seen in Enterococcus spp. (71%, followed by Escherichia coli (26%. Biofilm-producing isolates demonstrated higher antibiotic resistance. All the biofilm-producing Enterococcus spp. showed high-level aminoglycoside resistance. The biofilm-producing isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated multi-drug resistance. Conclusions: TCPM is an economical phenotypic method which can be used routinely to detect biofilm formation. Biofilms contribute to an increased resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of UTIs. Therefore, detection of biofilms is recommended for all patients presenting with chronic or recurrent disease.

  7. Self-organization-induced three-dimensional honeycomb pattern in structure-controlled bulky methacrylate polymers: Synthesis, morphology, and mechanism of pore formation. (United States)

    Deepak, V D; Asha, S K


    Here we report, for the first time, a novel molecular design for three-dimensional honeycomb structures through a self-organization of hydrogen-bonded bulky anchoring group in a methacrylic polymer backbone. The polymerizable monomer design includes a methacrylic double bond linked to various hydrophobic anchoring units such as ethane, n-decane, tricyclodecane (TCD), and adamantane via a hydrogen-bonded cycloaliphatic urethane linkage. The structures of the polymers were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the molecular weights of the polymer were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The methacrylate polymers having tricyclodecane and adamantane bulky anchoring groups self-organized to produce three-dimensional honeycomb patterns in tetrahydrofuran-water solvent mixture at ambient conditions, whereas its linear analogues (ethane, n-decane) failed to produce any micropattern. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the above-prepared polymer films revealed that the structure of the polymer played a major role in the formation of the honeycomb patterns. The solution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements confirmed that the bulky tricyclodecane and adamantane polymers have strong hydrogen-bonding interaction compared to that of their linear analogues, which is the driving force for the micropatterns. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the bulky polymers revealed that the polymers exist as vesicles or micelles in the solution, which leads to the formation of the honeycomb pattern. The honeycomb pattern formation in the bulky polymer systems suggests that two cooperative factors such as hydrogen-bonding interaction and hydrophobicity of bulky anchoring units are necessary to induce three-dimensional honeycomb structures. To investigate the effect of molecular weights and its distribution on the self-organization process, both benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiated free radical and

  8. In vitro megakaryocyte differentiation and proplatelet formation in Ph-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms: distinct patterns in the different clinical phenotypes.

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    Alessandra Balduini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are clonal disorders that include primary myelofibrosis (PMF, polycythemia vera (PV and essential thrombocythemia (ET. Although the pathogenesis of MPNs is still incompletely understood, an involvement of the megakaryocyte lineage is a distinctive feature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the in vitro megakaryocyte differentiation and proplatelet formation in 30 PMF, 8 ET, 8 PV patients, and 17 healthy controls (CTRL. Megakaryocytes were differentiated from peripheral blood CD34(+ or CD45(+ cells in the presence of thrombopoietin. Megakaryocyte output was higher in MPN patients than in CTRL with no correlation with the JAK2 V617F mutation. PMF-derived megakaryocytes displayed nuclei with a bulbous appearance, were smaller than ET- or PV-derived megakaryocytes and formed proplatelets that presented several structural alterations. In contrast, ET- and PV-derived megakaryocytes produced more proplatelets with a striking increase in bifurcations and tips compared to both control and PMF. Proplatelets formation was correlated with platelet counts in patient peripheral blood. Patients with pre-fibrotic PMF had a pattern of megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation that was similar to that of fibrotic PMF and different from that of ET. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, MPNs are associated with high megakaryocyte proliferative potential. Profound differences in megakaryocyte morphology and proplatelet formation distinguish PMF, both fibrotic and prefibrotic, from ET and PV.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi


    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  10. Different temporal patterns in the expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins and noggin during astroglial scar formation after ischemic stroke. (United States)

    Shin, Jin A; Kang, Jihee Lee; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Eun-Mi


    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists have roles in scar formation and regeneration after central nervous system injuries. However, temporal changes in their expression during astroglial scar formation in the ischemic brain are unknown. Here, we examined protein levels of BMP2, BMP7, and their antagonist noggin in the ischemic brain up to 4 weeks after experimental stroke in mice. BMP2 and BMP7 levels were increased from 1 to 4 weeks in the ischemic brain, and their expression was associated with astrogliosis. BMP7 expression was more intense and co-localized in reactive astrocytes in the ischemic subcortex at 1 week. Noggin expression began to increase after 2 weeks and was further increased at 4 weeks only in the ischemic subcortex, but the intensity was weak compared to the intensity of BMPs. Noggin was co-localized mainly in activated microglia. These findings show that expression of BMPs and noggin differed over time, in intensity and in types of cell, and suggest that BMPs and noggin have different roles in the processes of glial scar formation and neurorestoration in the ischemic brain.

  11. Formation of vanadium carbide precipitations at the surface of alloys: Thermodynamics and kinetics aspects; Bildung von Vanadiumcarbid-Ausscheidungen auf Legierungsoberflaechen: Thermodynamische und kinetische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.; Uebing, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    The paper describes the formation of vanadium carbides on the surface layers of Fe-3%V-C(100) alloys. The phase diagram calculated for this alloyed material using the ThermoCalc program package reveals a co-existence of ferritic matrix and V{sub 3}C{sub 2} at temperatures of T{<=}650 C. This carbide is instable at elevated temperatures, leading to co-existence of ferrite and the cubic VC{sub 1-x}. Experimental analyses revealed the formation of a 2D VC compound in the top layers of the surface of Fe-3%V-C(100) alloys, induced by equilibrium segregation. The paper explains the usefulness of thermodynamic and kinetic calculations for interpretation of precipitation phenomena in steels. Mathematically derived and experimental results of analyses for the case of non-equilibrium segregation showed excellent agreement in the determination of carbide thickness (nanometer scale) and time dependence of segregation under fast cooling conditions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Bildung von Vanadiumcarbiden auf Fe-3%V-C(100)-Legierungsoberflaechen beschrieben. Das anhand des ThermoCalc-Programmpakets fuer diese Legierungszusammensetzung berechnete Phasendiagramm zeigt bei niedrigen Temperaturen T{<=}650 C die Koexistenz von ferritischer Matrix und V{sub 3}C{sub 2}. Bei hoeheren Temperaturen ist dieses Carbid instabil und es liegt Koexistenz von Ferrit und dem kubischen VC{sub 1-x} vor. Die experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigen die Ausbildung einer zweidimensionalen VC-Oberflaechenverbindung auf Fe-3%V-C(100)-Legierungsoberflaechen durch Gleichgewichtssegregation. Diese Arbeit zeigt, dass thermodynamische und kinetische Rechnungen bei der Deutung von Ausscheidungsphaenomenen in Staehlen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden koennen. Bei der Nichtgleichgewichtssegregation wurde bezueglich Carbiddicke (im Nanometerbereich) und Zeitabhaengigkeit der Ausscheidung bei schneller Abkuehlung eine hervorragende Uebereinstimmung zwischen Simulation und Experiment gefunden

  12. The mechanisms responsible for 2-dimensional pattern formation in bacterial macrofiber populations grown on solid surfaces: fiber joining and the creation of exclusion zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Bacillus subtilis is cultured in a complex fluid medium under conditions where cell separation is suppressed, populations of multicellular macrofibers arise that mature into ball-like structures. The final sedentary forms are found distributed in patterns on the floor of the growth chamber although individual cells have no flagellar-driven motility. The nature of the patterns and their mode of formation are described in this communication. Results Time-lapse video films reveal that fiber-fiber contact in high density populations of macrofibers resulted in their joining either by entwining or supercoiling. Joining led to the production of aggregate structures that eventually contained all of the fibers located in an initial area. Fibers were brought into contact by convection currents and motions associated with macrofiber self-assembly such as walking, pivoting and supercoiling. Large sedentary aggregate structures cleared surrounding areas of other structures by dragging them into the aggregate using supercoiling of extended fibers to power dragging. The spatial distribution of aggregate structures in 6 mature patterns containing a total of 637 structures was compared to that expected in random theoretical populations of the same size distributed in the same surface area. Observed and expected patterns differ significantly. The distances separating all nearest neighbors from one another in observed populations were also measured. The average distance obtained from 1451 measurements involving 519 structures was 0.73 cm. These spacings were achieved without the use of flagella or other conventional bacterial motility mechanisms. A simple mathematical model based upon joining of all structures within an area defined by the minimum observed distance between structures in populations explains the observed distributions very well. Conclusions Bacterial macrofibers are capable of colonizing a solid surface by forming large

  13. On Hans Marchand’s Analysis of Word- formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>Word -formation is the branch of the science of language which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical units,i.e.words.Marchand’s study of word - formation involves three aspects of morphology,semantics,and grammar.He suggested that nominal compounds are derived from sentences only that the underlying sentences will take on different nominal forms, which provides a detailed analysis of word - formation.

  14. Infrared absorption imaging of 2D supersonic jet expansions: Free expansion, cluster formation, and shock wave patterns. (United States)

    Zischang, Julia; Suhm, Martin A


    N2O/He gas mixtures are expanded through a 10 × 0.5 mm(2) slit nozzle and imaged by direct absorption vibrational spectroscopy, employing a HgCdTe focal plane array detector after interferometric modulation. N2O cluster formation in the free supersonic expansion is visualized. The expansion structure behind the frontal shock is investigated as a function of background pressure. At high pressures, a sequence of stationary density peaks along a narrow directed flow channel is characterized. The potential of the technique for the elucidation of aggregation mechanisms is emphasized.

  15. Disentangling endogenous versus exogenous pattern formation in spatial ecology: a case study of the ant Azteca sericeasur in southern Mexico. (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Vandermeer, John H; Perfecto, Ivette


    Spatial patterns in ecology can be described as reflective of environmental heterogeneity (exogenous), or emergent from dynamic relationships between interacting species (endogenous), but few empirical studies focus on the combination. The spatial distribution of the nests of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone tropical arboreal ant, is thought to form endogenous spatial patterns among the shade trees of a coffee plantation through self-regulating interactions with controlling agents (i.e. natural enemies). Using inhomogeneous point process models, we found evidence for both types of processes in the spatial distribution of A. sericeasur. Each year's nest distribution was determined mainly by a density-dependent relationship with the previous year's lagged nest density; but using a novel application of a Thomas cluster process to account for the effects of nest clustering, we found that nest distribution also correlated significantly with tree density in the later years of the study. This coincided with the initiation of agricultural intensification and tree felling on the coffee farm. The emergence of this significant exogenous effect, along with the changing character of the density-dependent effect of lagged nest density, provides clues to the mechanism behind a unique phenomenon observed in the plot, that of an increase in nest population despite resource limitation in nest sites. Our results have implications in coffee agroecological management, as this system provides important biocontrol ecosystem services. Further research is needed, however, to understand the effective scales at which these relationships occur.

  16. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  17. Formation of inverse Chladni patterns at microscale by acoustic streaming on a silicon membrane immersed in a liquid (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Vuillermet, Gael; Casset, Fabrice


    High frequency acoustics (in the MHz range) is known to be very efficient to handle micro particles or living cells in microfluidics by taking advantage of the acoustic radiation force. Here, we will show that low frequency (~ 50kHz) together with use ultra thin silicon plate can give rise to a micro streaming that enables to move particles at will. Indeed, by means of silicon membranes excited in the low ultrasound range, we show that it is possible to form inverse two-dimensional Chladni patterns of micro-beads in liquid. Unlike the well-known effect in a gaseous environment at macroscale, where gravity effects are generally dominant, leading particles towards the nodal regions of displacement, we will show that the micro scale streaming in the vicinity of the plate tends to gather particles in antinodal regions. Moreover, a symmetry breaking effect together with the streaming can trigger a whole rotation of the beads in the fluidic cavity. We demonstrate that it is possible to make the patterns rotate at a well defined angular velocity where beads actually jump from one acoustic trap to another.

  18. Patterns of superficial fibre formation in the European pearlfish (Rutilus frisii meidingeri) provide a general template for slow muscle development in teleost fish. (United States)

    Stoiber, W; Haslett, J R; Goldschmid, A; Sänger, A M


    The debate about the pattern of muscle formation in teleost fish has recently been heightened in the literature. Here we examine superficial muscle development in the pearlfish, a cyprinid endemic to a small area of Central Europe, and uninfluenced by economic interest and breeding. Using light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry techniques, we report that: (1) Superficial fibre precursors originate close to the notochord, are part of the same cell population as the so-called muscle pioneer cells, and are transferred laterally to end up at the surface of the myotome. (2) Superficial fibre maturation is exceptionally rapid. Structural and enzymatic functionality is attained at a time when prospective deep fibres have not passed beyond the early myotube state. This strong contrast weakens as the embryo develops. (3) Apart from the muscle pioneers, the superficial fibres appear to be capable of functioning before they receive any direct innervation, implying that signals are transferred to these fibres via cell-to-cell junctions. We suggest that the capability of rapid superficial fibre maturation is a rather general feature among teleosts and may aid pre-hatch survival under a variable environment. Our results indicate that muscle formation in teleost fish may follow a common basic pattern that is open to considerable ontogenetic and phylogenetic modification in response to habitat conditions.

  19. Neurofibromatosis-1 heterozygosity increases microglia in a spatially and temporally restricted pattern relevant to mouse optic glioma formation and growth. (United States)

    Simmons, Grant W; Pong, Winnie W; Emnett, Ryan J; White, Crystal R; Gianino, Scott M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gutmann, David H


    Whereas carcinogenesis requires the acquisition of driver mutations in progenitor cells, tumor growth and progression are heavily influenced by the local microenvironment. Previous studies from our laboratory have used Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically engineered mice to characterize the role of stromal cells and signals to optic glioma formation and growth. Previously, we have shown that Nf1+/- microglia in the tumor microenvironment are critical cellular determinants of optic glioma proliferation. To define the role of microglia in tumor formation and maintenance further, we used CD11b-TK mice, in which resident brain microglia (CD11b+, CD68+, Iba1+, CD45low cells) can be ablated at specific times after ganciclovir administration. Ganciclovir-mediated microglia reduction reduced Nf1 optic glioma proliferation during both tumor maintenance and tumor development. We identified the developmental window during which microglia are increased in the Nf1+/- optic nerve and demonstrated that this accumulation reflected delayed microglia dispersion. The increase in microglia in the Nf1+/- optic nerve was associated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, such that reduced Cx3cr1 expression in Cx3cr1-GFP heterozygous knockout mice led to a similar increase in optic nerve microglia. These results establish a critical role for microglia in the development and maintenance of Nf1 optic glioma.

  20. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  1. Excitation and Adaptation in Bacteria–a Model Signal Transduction System that Controls Taxis and Spatial Pattern Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Xue


    Full Text Available The machinery for transduction of chemotactic stimuli in the bacterium E. coli is one of the most completely characterized signal transduction systems, and because of its relative simplicity, quantitative analysis of this system is possible. Here we discuss models which reproduce many of the important behaviors of the system. The important characteristics of the signal transduction system are excitation and adaptation, and the latter implies that the transduction system can function as a “derivative sensor” with respect to the ligand concentration in that the DC component of a signal is ultimately ignored if it is not too large. This temporal sensing mechanism provides the bacterium with a memory of its passage through spatially- or temporally-varying signal fields, and adaptation is essential for successful chemotaxis. We also discuss some of the spatial patterns observed in populations and indicate how cell-level behavior can be embedded in population-level descriptions.

  2. Self-organized Pattern Formation of Whole-body Action-perception Coordination: A Study of Street Dancers and Non-dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa Kimitaka


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole-body action-perception coordination is governed by dynamical principles using basic street dance movement. Six skilled street dancers and 8 novice controls performed 2 movement patterns: knee-flexion-on-the-beat (down movement and knee-extension-on-the-beat (up movement in the standing position, and they did not intervene in the pattern change. The beat rate increased/decreased between 60 and 220 beats per minute (bpm in steps of 20 bpm. The relative phase between knee movements (as measured by twin-axis electrogoniometer and the beat were calculated. In the ascending beat rate condition of the up movement, phase transition from knee-extension-on-the-beat to knee-flexion-on-the-beat occurred at averages of 125 bpm in non-dancers and 164 bpm in dancers. Critical fluctuation and hysteresis were also observed. These results suggest that whole-body action-perception pattern formation is governed by general dynamical principles and that critical frequency could be a parameter of proficiency in street dance.

  3. Patterns beyond Faraday waves: observation of parametric crossover from Faraday instabilities to the formation of vortex lattices in open dual fluid strata (United States)

    Ohlin, Kjell; Berggren, Karl Fredrik


    Faraday first characterised the behaviour of a fluid in a container subjected to vertical periodic oscillations. His study pertaining to hydrodynamic instability, the ‘Faraday instability’, has catalysed a myriad of experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for the transition of a system at rest to a new state of well-ordered vibrational patterns at fixed frequencies. Here we study dual strata in a shallow vessel containing distilled water and high-viscosity lubrication oil on top of it. At elevated driving power, beyond the Faraday instability, the top stratum is found to ‘freeze’ into a rigid pattern with maxima and minima. At the same time there is a dynamic crossover into a new state in the form of a lattice of recirculating vortices in the lower layer containing the water. Instrumentation and the physics behind are analysed in a phenomenological way together with a basic heuristic modelling of the wave field. The study, which is based on relatively low-budget equipment, stems from related art projects that have evolved over the years. The study is of value within basic research as well as in education, especially as more advanced collective project work in e.g. engineering physics, where it invites further studies of pattern formation, the emergence of vortex lattices and complexity.

  4. Role of the temperature instabilities for formation of nano-patterns upon single femtosecond laser pulses on gold

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, Evgeny L; Gurevich, Svetlana V; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M


    In this paper we investigate whether the periodic structures on metal surfaces exposed to single ultrashort laser pulses can appear due to an instability induced by two-temperature heating dynamics. The results of two-temperature model (TTM) 2D simulations are presented on the irradiation of gold by a single 800 nm femtosecond laser pulse whose intensity is modulated in order to reproduce a small initial temperature perturbation, which can arise from incoming and scattered surface wave interference. The growing (unstable) modes of the temperature distribution along the surface may be responsible for the LIPSS (Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures) formation. After the end of the laser pulse and before the complete coupling between lattice and electrons occurs, the evolution of the amplitude of the subsequent modulation in the lattice temperature reveals different tendencies depending on the spatial period of the initial modulation. This instability-like behaviour is shown to arise due to the perturbation...

  5. Structural Evolution During Formation and Filling of Self-patterned Nanoholes on GaAs (100 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lin


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanohole formation on an AlAs/GaAs superlattice gives insight to both the “drilling” effect of Ga droplets on AlAs as compared to GaAs and the hole-filling process. The shape and depth of the nanoholes formed on GaAs (100 substrates has been studied by the cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The Ga droplets “drill” through the AlAs layer at a much slower rate than through GaAs due to differences in activation energy. Refill of the nanohole results in elongated GaAs mounds along the [01−1] direction. As a result of capillarity-induced diffusion, GaAs favors growth inside the nanoholes, which provides the possibility to fabricate GaAs and AlAs nanostructures.

  6. Phase-field modeling of microstructural pattern formation during directional solidification of peritectic alloys without morphological instability. (United States)

    Lo, T S; Karma, A; Plapp, M


    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, two stable solid phases (parent and peritectic) grow competitively into a metastable liquid phase of larger impurity content than either solid phase. When the parent or both solid phases are morphologically unstable, i.e., for a small temperature gradient/growth rate ratio (G/v(p)), one solid phase usually outgrows and covers the other phase, leading to a cellular-dendritic array structure closely analogous to the one formed during monophase solidification of a dilute binary alloy. In contrast, when G/v(p) is large enough for both phases to be morphologically stable, the formation of the microstructure becomes controlled by a subtle interplay between the nucleation and growth of the two solid phases. The structures that have been observed in this regime (in small samples where convection effects are suppressed) include alternate layers (bands) of the parent and peritectic phases perpendicular to the growth direction, which are formed by alternate nucleation and lateral spreading of one phase onto the other as proposed in a recent model [R. Trivedi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 1 (1995)], as well as partially filled bands (islands), where the peritectic phase does not fully cover the parent phase which grows continuously. We develop a phase-field model of peritectic solidification that incorporates nucleation processes in order to explore the formation of these structures. Simulations of this model shed light on the morphology transition from islands to bands, the dynamics of spreading of the peritectic phase on the parent phase following nucleation, which turns out to be characterized by a remarkably constant acceleration, and the types of growth morphology that one might expect to observe in large samples under purely diffusive growth conditions.

  7. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). (United States)

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao


    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  8. Regulatory aspects (United States)

    Stern, Arthur M.


    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  9. WEREWOLF, a regulator of root hair pattern formation, controls flowering time through the regulation of FT mRNA stability. (United States)

    Seo, Eunjoo; Yu, Jihyeon; Ryu, Kook Hui; Lee, Myeong Min; Lee, Ilha


    A key floral activator, FT, integrates stimuli from long-day, vernalization, and autonomous pathways and triggers flowering by directly regulating floral meristem identity genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Since a small amount of FT transcript is sufficient for flowering, the FT level is strictly regulated by diverse genes. In this study, we show that WEREWOLF (WER), a MYB transcription factor regulating root hair pattern, is another regulator of FT. The mutant wer flowers late in long days but normal in short days and shows a weak sensitivity to vernalization, which indicates that WER controls flowering time through the photoperiod pathway. The expression and double mutant analyses showed that WER modulates FT transcript level independent of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS C. The histological analysis of WER shows that it is expressed in the epidermis of leaves, where FT is not expressed. Consistently, WER regulates not the transcription but the stability of FT mRNA. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of FT that is non cell autonomous.

  10. Modifying the product pattern of Clostridium acetobutylicum: physiological effects of disrupting the acetate and acetone formation pathways. (United States)

    Lehmann, Dörte; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Schmidt, Michael; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Bahl, Hubert; Lütke-Eversloh, Tina


    Clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a natural source for microbial n-butanol production and regained much interest in academia and industry in the past years. Due to the difficult genetic accessibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum and other solventogenic clostridia, successful metabolic engineering approaches are still rare. In this study, a set of five knock-out mutants with defects in the central fermentative metabolism were generated using the ClosTron technology, including the construction of targeted double knock-out mutants of C. acetobtuylicum ATCC 824. While disruption of the acetate biosynthetic pathway had no significant impact on the metabolite distribution, mutants with defects in the acetone pathway, including both acetoacetate decarboxylase (Adc)-negative and acetoacetyl-CoA:acyl-CoA transferase (CtfAB)-negative mutants, exhibited high amounts of acetate in the fermentation broth. Distinct butyrate increase and decrease patterns during the course of fermentations provided experimental evidence that butyrate, but not acetate, is re-assimilated via an Adc/CtfAB-independent pathway in C. acetobutylicum. Interestingly, combining the adc and ctfA mutations with a knock-out of the phosphotransacetylase (Pta)-encoding gene, acetate production was drastically reduced, resulting in an increased flux towards butyrate. Except for the Pta-negative single mutant, all mutants exhibited a significantly reduced solvent production.

  11. Sox17 expression patterns during gastrulation and early neurulation in the rabbit suggest two sources of endoderm formation. (United States)

    Hassoun, Romia; Püschel, Bernd; Viebahn, Christoph


    Most gastrointestinal tract and associated gland epithelia originate from the endoderm germ layer discovered by Pander in 1817. The recent surge in stem cell concepts revived interest in the findings of 30 years ago that the endoderm layer itself originates from the epiblast (which since Pander's time had been held to be the forerunner of the ectoderm and mesoderm germ layers only). However, the question as to which parts of the mammalian gastrulation-stage embryonic disc generate endoderm cells is still unresolved. Therefore, the expression of the gene coding for the transcription factor Sox17, a key transcription factor involved in endoderm formation in mouse, chick, frog, and zebrafish, was analyzed in the rabbit, a model organism for mammalian gastrulation morphology, using whole-mount in situ hybridization and high-resolution histological analysis of embryos at gastrulation and early neurulation stages. Sox17 mRNA in the mesoderm and lower layer (hypoblast) compartments within and adjacent to Hensen's node and the anterior segment of the primitive streak confirmed the validity of this approach, as this region had previously been shown to form endoderm in mouse and chick. However, Sox17 expression in central and posterior epiblast at pregastrulation stages together with a transient expression at the posterior extremity of the primitive streak suggest that endoderm (possibly hindgut) may be formed close to the emerging cloacal membrane, as well.

  12. A CANDELS - 3D-HST Synergy: Resolved Star Formation Patterns at 0.7 < z < 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wuyts, Stijn; Nelson, Erica J; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Brammer, Gabe; Chang, Yu-Yen; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Genzel, Reinhard; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lundgren, Britt; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rosario, David; Skelton, Rosalind E; Tacconi, Linda J; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E


    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, with multi-wavelength broad-band imaging from CANDELS and Halpha surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec resolution from 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Halpha morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Halpha dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction towards HII regions. The prescription leads to consistent SFR estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Halpha/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, both on a pixel-by-pixel and on a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within gal...

  13. Multiscale modeling of cellular epigenetic states: stochasticity in molecular networks, chromatin folding in cell nuclei, and tissue pattern formation of cells (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Cao, Youfang; Gürsoy, Gamze; Naveed, Hammad; Terebus, Anna; Zhao, Jieling


    Genome sequences provide the overall genetic blueprint of cells, but cells possessing the same genome can exhibit diverse phenotypes. There is a multitude of mechanisms controlling cellular epigenetic states and that dictate the behavior of cells. Among these, networks of interacting molecules, often under stochastic control, depending on the specific wirings of molecular components and the physiological conditions, can have a different landscape of cellular states. In addition, chromosome folding in three-dimensional space provides another important control mechanism for selective activation and repression of gene expression. Fully differentiated cells with different properties grow, divide, and interact through mechanical forces and communicate through signal transduction, resulting in the formation of complex tissue patterns. Developing quantitative models to study these multi-scale phenomena and to identify opportunities for improving human health requires development of theoretical models, algorithms, and computational tools. Here we review recent progress made in these important directions. PMID:27480462

  14. Modelling sociocognitive aspects of students' learning (United States)

    Koponen, I. T.; Kokkonen, T.; Nousiainen, M.


    We present a computational model of sociocognitive aspects of learning. The model takes into account a student's individual cognition and sociodynamics of learning. We describe cognitive aspects of learning as foraging for explanations in the epistemic landscape, the structure (set by instructional design) of which guides the cognitive development through success or failure in foraging. We describe sociodynamic aspects as an agent-based model, where agents (learners) compare and adjust their conceptions of their own proficiency (self-proficiency) and that of their peers (peer-proficiency) in using explanatory schemes of different levels. We apply the model here in a case involving a three-tiered system of explanatory schemes, which can serve as a generic description of some well-known cases studied in empirical research on learning. The cognitive dynamics lead to the formation of dynamically robust outcomes of learning, seen as a strong preference for a certain explanatory schemes. The effects of social learning, however, can account for half of one's success in adopting higher-level schemes and greater proficiency. The model also predicts a correlation of dynamically emergent interaction patterns between agents and the learning outcomes.

  15. Nephron proximal tubule patterning and corpuscles of Stannius formation are regulated by the sim1a transcription factor and retinoic acid in zebrafish. (United States)

    Cheng, Christina N; Wingert, Rebecca A


    The mechanisms that establish nephron segments are poorly understood. The zebrafish embryonic kidney, or pronephros, is a simplified yet conserved genetic model to study this renal development process because its nephrons contain segments akin to other vertebrates, including the proximal convoluted and straight tubules (PCT, PST). The zebrafish pronephros is also associated with the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), endocrine glands that regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but whose ontogeny from renal progenitors is largely mysterious. Initial patterning of zebrafish renal progenitors in the intermediate mesoderm (IM) involves the formation of rostral and caudal domains, the former being reliant on retinoic acid (RA) signaling, and the latter being repressed by elevated RA levels. Here, using expression profiling to gain new insights into nephrogenesis, we discovered that the gene single minded family bHLH transcription factor 1a (sim1a) is dynamically expressed in the renal progenitors-first marking the caudal domain, then becoming restricted to the proximal segments, and finally exhibiting specific CS expression. In loss of function studies, sim1a knockdown expanded the PCT and abrogated both the PST and CS populations. Conversely, overexpression of sim1a modestly expanded the PST and CS, while it reduced the PCT. These results show that sim1a activity is necessary and partially sufficient to induce PST and CS fates, and suggest that sim1a may inhibit PCT fate and/or negotiate the PCT/PST boundary. Interestingly, the sim1a expression domain in renal progenitors is responsive to altered levels of RA, suggesting that RA regulates sim1a, directly or indirectly, during nephrogenesis. sim1a deficient embryos treated with exogenous RA formed nephrons that were predominantly composed of PCT segments, but lacked the enlarged PST observed in RA treated wild-types, indicating that RA is not sufficient to rescue the PST in the absence of sim1a expression. Alternately

  16. General aspects of surface alloy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Berko, Andras


    Surface confined alloys are excellent model systems for studies of structure-property relationships of bimetallic surfaces. They are formed by deposition of a guest metal B onto a substrate A, followed by annealing to a temperature, where place exchange between adatoms and atoms from the underlying surface layer becomes possible and diffusion into the bulk is sufficiently slow. We exemplarily confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy for PtRu/Ru(0001), PdRu/Ru(0001), AuPt/Pt(111), AgPt/Pt(111), and AgPd/Pd(111), surface alloys are obtained for systems where metal B has a negative surface segregation energy within metal A. By exchanging A and B, however, AB surface alloys are most likely overgrown by metal B, which we demonstrate for RuPt/Pt(111) in comparison to PtRu/Ru(0001).

  17. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik


    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  18. Patterning mechanisms in the evolution of derived developmental life histories: the role of Wnt signaling in axis formation of the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeffrey S; Raff, Rudolf A


    A number of echinoderm species have replaced indirect development with highly modified direct-developmental modes, and provide models for the study of the evolution of early embryonic development. These divergent early ontogenies may differ significantly in life history, oogenesis, cleavage pattern, cell lineage, and timing of cell fate specification compared with those of indirect-developing species. No direct-developing echinoderm species has been studied at the level of molecular specification of embryonic axes. Here we report the first functional analysis of Wnt pathway components in Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a direct-developing sea urchin. We show by misexpression and dominant negative knockout construct expression that Wnt8 and TCF are functionally conserved in the generation of the primary (animal/vegetal) axis in two independently evolved direct-developing sea urchins. Thus, Wnt pathway signaling is an overall deeply conserved mechanism for axis formation that transcends radical changes to early developmental ontogenies. However, the timing of expression and linkages between Wnt8, TCF, and components of the PMC-specification pathway have changed. These changes correlate with the transition from an indirect- to a direct-developing larval life history.

  19. Bacterial diversity and successional patterns during biofilm formation on freshly exposed basalt surfaces at diffuse-flow deep-sea vents. (United States)

    Gulmann, Lara K; Beaulieu, Stace E; Shank, Timothy M; Ding, Kang; Seyfried, William E; Sievert, Stefan M


    Many deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems are regularly impacted by volcanic eruptions, leaving fresh basalt where abundant animal and microbial communities once thrived. After an eruption, microbial biofilms are often the first visible evidence of biotic re-colonization. The present study is the first to investigate microbial colonization of newly exposed basalt surfaces in the context of vent fluid chemistry over an extended period of time (4-293 days) by deploying basalt blocks within an established diffuse-flow vent at the 9°50' N vent field on the East Pacific Rise. Additionally, samples obtained after a recent eruption at the same vent field allowed for comparison between experimental results and those from natural microbial re-colonization. Over 9 months, the community changed from being composed almost exclusively of Epsilonproteobacteria to a more diverse assemblage, corresponding with a potential expansion of metabolic capabilities. The process of biofilm formation appears to generate similar surface-associated communities within and across sites by selecting for a subset of fluid-associated microbes, via species sorting. Furthermore, the high incidence of shared operational taxonomic units over time and across different vent sites suggests that the microbial communities colonizing new surfaces at diffuse-flow vent sites might follow a predictable successional pattern.

  20. 基于面向对象技术的二元结构缝纫花样格式研究%Research on New Type of Efficient and High-fidelity Sewing Pattern Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 黄禹; 龚时华; 李敏; 王平江; 陆凤


    Based on object oriented technology, by analysis of other mainstream sewing pattern formats, such as DST\\DSB and DSZ.this paper brings up a new type of dual structure sewing pattern format-SDT/BAS-which separates the information of curve fitting and sewing control movement. The characteristics of SDT/BAS pattern format have been described. By analysis of distortion emerged in secondary customization of those traditional pattern formats, the high-fidelity algorithm principle of pattern transformation has been introduced. At present, using the SDT/BAS pattern format in our new self-developed computer sewing machine system, the machine system' s efficiency of secondary customizing and sewing movement can be evidently increased.%基于面向对象技术,在深入研究DST、DSB和DSZ等主流缝纫花样格式的基础上,设计出花样拟合信息和缝纫控制信息相分离的SDT/BAS二元花样格式.介绍了SDT/BAS二元花样格式的特点.分析了原花样格式二次定制时失真原因,在此基础上阐述了SDT/BAS花样格式二次定制的保真性原理.目前,此种新型花样格式已应用于自主研发的电脑花样机系统,能高效且保真地实现花样二次定制,并且高效配合缝纫运动.

  1. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki


    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  2. Electromyographic identification of spinal oscillator patterns and recouplings in a patient with incomplete spinal cord lesion: oscillator formation training as a method to improve motor activities. (United States)

    Schalow, G; Blanc, Y; Jeltsch, W; Zäch, G A


    A patient with a strongly lesioned spinal cord, sub C5, relearned running, besides improving other movements, by an oscillator formation training (rhythmic, dynamic, stereotyped exercise). After 45 days of jumping on a springboard and other rhythm trainings, the patient was able to run 90 m in 41 s (7.9 km/h) (even 9.3 km/h 3 years after the lesion) besides marching (5.7 km/h), cycling, playing tennis and skiing. FF-type (alpha 1) (f = 8.3-11.4 Hz) and FR-type (alpha 2) (f = 6.7 Hz) motor unit firings were identified by electromyography (EMG) with surface electrodes by their oscillatory firing patterns in this patient. In EMG literature, the alpha 2-oscillatory firing is called "myokymic discharging". Alternating long and short oscillation periods were measured in FF-type motor units, with changing focus (change from long/short to short/long oscillation periods). The alternating mean period durations differed by approximately 10 ms. Transient synchronization of oscillatory firing FF-type motor units was observed with up to two phase relations per oscillation cycle. In recumbent position, the phase change in synchronization of two oscillatory firing motor units in the soleus muscle of one leg correlated with the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing of a third motor unit in the soleus muscle of the other leg. This measurement indicates that the alternating oscillatory firing of premotor neuronal networks is correlated with synchronization of oscillatory firing neuronal subnetworks, i.e., with coupling changes of oscillators, and is not due to reciprocal inhibition of half-centre oscillators as suggested by the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing. Coupling changes of oscillatory firing subnetworks to generate macroscopic (integrative) network functions are therefore a general organization form of the central nervous system (CNS), and are not related to rhythmic movements like walking or running only. It is proposed that

  3. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring


    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  4. Relationships among student attitudes, motivation, learning styles, learning strategies, patterns of learning, and achievement: A formative evaluation of distance education via Web-based courses (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Chun

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is the latest in a long line of educational technologies, and the list of courses on it is growing daily. Formative evaluations would help educators enhance teaching and learning in Web-based courses. This study analyzed the relationships between student achievement and the following variables: attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, patterns of learning, learning styles, and selected demographics. It was a population study that included 99 students taking two non-major introductory biology courses offered over the WWW by Iowa State University in the fall of 1997. Seventy-four (75%) students completed a learning style test, an on-line questionnaire, and received a grade by the end of the semester. The learning style test was the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which classified students as either field-dependent or field-independent. The on-line questionnaire consisted of four scales (attitude, motivation, learning strategies, and patterns of learning), whose pilot-test reliabilities ranged from .71 to .91. The selected demographic variables were gender, class level, previous experience in subject area, hours per week studying and working, computer access, and types of students as off-campus, on-campus, or adult students. Over two-thirds of the students taking the Web-based courses were field-independent learners; however, there were no significant differences (.05 level) in achievement by learning style. Also, different backgrounds of students with different learning styles learned equally well in Web-based courses. The students enjoyed the convenience and self-controlled learning pace and were motivated by competition and high expectations in Web-based learning. They used most the learning strategies of finding important ideas from lectures and memorizing key words of important concepts and least the learning strategy of making charts or tables to organize the material. They seemed more interested in checking their grades than in

  5. Abstruse neologism formation: parallel processing revisited. (United States)

    Christman, S S


    Aspects of two different approaches to normal syllable formation (Berg, 1989; Clements, 1988, 1990) are incorporated into a model of abstruse neologism production characterized by redundant coding of sonority at various levels of parallel language processing. Data suggesting that the sonority profiles of abstruse neologisms accord with patterns found in legitimate English words are presented. Discussion explores neologism genesis from two well-known theoretical perspectives, illustrates how each theory of syllable formation might be instantiated within the model, and illustrates the role of sonority in constraining abstruse neologism production at several levels of parallel processing.

  6. Aspect and Reference time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borik, O.


    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  7. Grid-pattern formation of extracellular matrix on silicon by low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for neural network biochip fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Ayumi, E-mail: [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Uno, Hidetaka; Urisu, Tsuneo [FIRST Research Center for Innovative Nanobiodevice, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)


    Grid patterns of extracellular matrices (ECMs) have been formed on silicon (Si) substrates with the use of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) jets with metal stencil masks and neuron model cells have been successfully cultured on the patterned ECMs. Arrangement of living neuron cells on a microelectronics chip in a desired pattern is one of the major challenges for the fabrication of neuron-cell biochips. The APP-based technique presented in this study offers a cost-effective solution to this problem by providing a simple patterning method of ECMs, which act as biological interfaces between living cells and non-biological materials such as Si.

  8. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio


    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  9. Optimising AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie


    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three...... all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper discusses the question of how to teach word-formation knowledge effectively. To achieve a better result, teachers may not only be interested in the form, meaning and function of a certain word part, but also in such aspects as the determining factor which governs the choice of variant forms and the various changes brought about by the word-formation process. When teaching word parts, teachers are advised to pay attention to their usefulness and productiveness and draw their learners’ attention to various linguistic patterns. A tentative procedure is suggested for the effective teaching of word-formation knowledge.

  11. 广州批发市场的供应物流空间格局及其形成机制%Spatial Patterns and Their Formation Mechanism of Supply Logistics Network of Wholesale Markets in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘裕娟; 曹小曙


    Urban wholesale markets are distribution centers that integrate the information flow, trade flow, and material flow; and their logistics activities belong to the urban logistics activities. Based on the data of an investigation in the wholesale markets of Guangzhou city, this paper examines the spatial patterns of supply logistics network by using social network analysis. Firstly, a 2-mode matrix comprising 19 supplying places and 21 receiving places is constructed, with the visualization of the relationship between places. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The allocation of logistics nodes is characterized by surrounding traffic lines, concentrating in inner cities, and distributing to spheres. (2) Most of the goods in wholesale markets come from districts outside Guangzhou city, especially from foreign countries, other provinces, other parts of the Pearl River Delta, and northern Guangdong Province. (3) The 21 receiving places vary greatly in goods quantities, and form a reversed y-shaped pattern in the city. Secondly, applying the centrality analysis of the logistics network through measuring the indicators of degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, the core-edge places of the network are identified. Results indicate that the Pearl River Delta, other provinces and Baiyun District are the core supplying places, the wholesale markets of Liuhua and Zhongda are core receiving places; while Nansha District and Huangpu Maogang wholesale market are the edge places in the network. Finally, this paper discusses the formation mechanism of the spatial patterns in four aspects: the city character, the urban spatial disparity, the industrial cluster, and the logistics service. In brief, by analyzing the spatial patterns and their formation mechanism of supply logistics network of wholesale markets in Guangzhou, this paper is expected to provide helpful reference for the future optimization of the urban logistics space.%城市批发市

  12. Spontaneous Pattern Formation Induced by Bénard-Marangoni Convection for Sol-Gel-Derived Titania Dip-Coating Films: Effect of Co-solvents with a High Surface Tension and Low Volatility. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Matsui, Tadayuki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu


    Evaporation-driven surface tension gradient in the liquid layer often causes the convective flow, i.e., Bénard-Marangoni convection, resulting in the formation of cell-like patterns on the surface. Here, we prepared sol-gel-derived titania films from Ti(OC3H7(i))4 solutions by dip coating and discussed the effect of the addition of co-solvents with a high surface tension and low volatility on the spontaneous pattern formation induced by Bénard-Marangoni convection. Propylene glycol (PG, with a surface tension of 38.6 mN m(-1)) and dipropylene glycol (DPG, with a surface tension of 33.9 mN m(-1)) were added to the coating solutions containing 2-propanol (2-Pr, with a surface tension of 22.9 mN m(-1)) for controlling the evaporation-driven surface tension gradient in the coating layer on a substrate. During dip coating at a substrate withdrawal speed of 50 cm min(-1) in a thermostatic oven at 60 °C, linearly arranged cell-like patterns on a micrometer scale were spontaneously formed on the titania gel films, irrespective of the composition of coating solutions. Such surface patterns remained even after the heat treatment at 200 and 600 °C, where the densification and crystallization of the titania films progressed. The width and height of the cell-like patterns increased with increasing PG and DPG contents in the coating solutions, where the addition of PG resulted in the formation of cells with a larger height than DPG.

  13. Discovering Early Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baniassad, E.; Clements, P.; Araujo, J.; Moreira, A.; Rashid, A.; Tekinerdogan, B.


    Traditionally, aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) has focused on the software life cycle's implementation phase: aspects are identified and captured mainly in code. But aspects are evident earlier in the life cycle, such as during requirements gathering and architecture development. Identif

  14. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Ronald; Wiersema, Wiebe; Köppe, Christian


    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that, whe

  15. An Orthogonal D2 O-Based Induction System that Provides Insights into d-Amino Acid Pattern Formation by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Peptide Epimerases. (United States)

    Morinaka, Brandon I; Verest, Marjan; Freeman, Michael F; Gugger, Muriel; Piel, Jörn


    Radical S-adenosyl methionine peptide epimerases (RSPEs) are an enzyme family that accomplishes regiospecific and irreversible introduction of multiple d-configured residues into ribosomally encoded peptides. Collectively, RSPEs can generate diverse epimerization patterns in a wide range of substrates. Previously, the lack of rapid methods to localize epimerized residues has impeded efforts to investigate the function and applicative potential of RSPEs. An efficient mass spectrometry-based assay is introduced that permits characterization of products generated in E. coli. Applying this to a range of non-natural peptide-epimerase combinations, it is shown that the d-amino acid pattern is largely but not exclusively dictated by the core peptide sequence, while the epimerization order is dependent on the enzyme-leader pair. RSPEs were found to be highly promiscuous, which allowed for modular introduction of peptide segments with defined patterns.

  16. 临夏回族舞蹈的动律特征及形成因素%Movement Patterns and Formative factors of Hui Dance in Linxia Area,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马路明; 李琦


    "动律"是一个民族舞蹈风格的重要体现,对动律特征及形成因素的深入分析,能帮助我们理解该民族舞蹈中的多元文化现象。笔者以甘肃临夏地区的回族舞蹈为切入点,试析在特定的自然环境、生活习俗和民族心理等因素中回族舞蹈的动律特征及形成因素,以进一步推进回族舞蹈的继承与发展。%Movement pattern is an important manifestation of ethnic dance styles. By analyzing features of movement patterns and their formative factors,multi-cultures can be revealed in the ethnic dance. The author of the paper examines Hui dance in Linxia area of Gansu Province,analyzing how specific environment,living habit and customs as well as ethnic psychology has influenced the movement patterns and formation of the dance of Hui people. The purpose of the study is to offer suggestions to the inheritance and development of Hui dance.

  17. A CANDELS-3d-HST Synergy: Resolved Star Formation Patterns at 0.7 less than z less than 1.5 (United States)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabe; Chang, Yu-Yen; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Genzel, Reinhard; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lundgren, Britt; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rosario, David; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.


    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 stars are being formed. We find the Halpha morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Halpha dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Halpha/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called "main sequence of star formation" established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced H alpha equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Halpha/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  18. Static and Dynamic Quality Assurance by Aspect Oriented Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Knabe, Christoph


    The overall goal of the described research project was to create applicable quality assurance patterns for Java software systems using the aspect-oriented programming language extension AspectJ 5. We tried to develop aspects to check static quality criteria as a variable mutator convention and architectural layering rules. We successfully developed aspects for automating the following dynamic quality criteria: Parameterized Exception Chaining, Comfortable Declaration of Parameterized Exceptions, Not-Null Checking of Reference Variables.

  19. Formation of Self-Connected Si0.8Ge0.2 Lateral Nanowires and Pyramids on Rib-Patterned Si(1 1 10) Substrate. (United States)

    Du, Lei; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei


    In this work, Si0.8Ge0.2 is deposited onto the rib-patterned Si (1 1 10) template oriented in the [1 -1 0] direction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the rib sidewalls reshape into pyramid-covered (0 0 1) and smooth {1 1 3} facets, respectively, while the {1 0 5} facets-bounded lateral SiGe nanowires dominate the rib top along the [5 5 -1] direction. At both the rib shoulder sites and the pyramid vacancy sites, self-connecting occurs between the meeting nanowire and pyramids to form elongated huts, which are driven by the minimization of the total energy density according to the finite-element simulations results. These results suggest a convenient solution to form lateral SiGe nanowires covering multi-faceted surfaces on the patterned template.

  20. Two-dimensional patterning by a trapping/depletion mechanism: the role of TTG1 and GL3 in Arabidopsis trichome formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bouyer


    Full Text Available Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis serves as a model system to study how single cells are selected within a field of initially equivalent cells. Current models explain this pattern by an activator-inhibitor feedback loop. Here, we report that also a newly discovered mechanism is involved by which patterning is governed by the removal of the trichome-promoting factor TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1 from non-trichome cells. We demonstrate by clonal analysis and misexpression studies that Arabidopsis TTG1 can act non-cell-autonomously and by microinjection experiments that TTG1 protein moves between cells. While TTG1 is expressed ubiquitously, TTG1-YFP protein accumulates in trichomes and is depleted in the surrounding cells. TTG1-YFP depletion depends on GLABRA3 (GL3, suggesting that the depletion is governed by a trapping mechanism. To study the potential of the observed trapping/depletion mechanism, we formulated a mathematical model enabling us to evaluate the relevance of each parameter and to identify parameters explaining the paradoxical genetic finding that strong ttg1 alleles are glabrous, while weak alleles exhibit trichome clusters.