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Sample records for aspartate kinase activity

  1. Small Interfering RNA Specific for N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor 2B Offers Neuroprotection to Dopamine Neurons through Activation of MAP Kinase

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    Olivia T.W. Ng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B-specific siRNA was applied in parkinsonian models. Our previous results showed that reduction in expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1, the key subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, by antisense oligos amelio-rated the motor symptoms in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rat, an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD [Lai et al.: Neurochem Int 2004;45:11-22]. To further the investigation on the efficacy of gene silencing, small interference RNA (siRNA specific for the NR2B subunit was designed and administered in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The present results show that administration of NR2B-specific siRNA decreased the number of apomorphine-induced rotations in the lesioned rats and that there was a significant reduction in NR2B proteins levels after NR2B-specific siRNA administration. Furthermore, attenuation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons was found in both the striatal and substantia nigra regions of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats that had been continuously infused with siRNA for 7 days. In addition, a significant upregulation of p-p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2; Thr202/Tyr204 and p-CREB (Ser133 in striatal neurons was found. These results suggest that application of the gene silencing targeting NR2B could be a potential treatment of PD, and they also revealed the possibility of NR2B-specific siRNA being involved in the prosurvival pathway.

  2. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Galili, G.; Sørensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance...... the accumulation of the corresponding amino acids, we have generated transgenic barley plants that constitutively express mutant Escherichia coli genes encoding lysine feed-back insensitive forms of AK and DHPS. As a result, leaves of primary transformants (T0) exhibited a 14-fold increase of free lysine and an 8......, no differences were observed in the composition of total amino acids. The introduced genes were inherited in the T1 generation where enzymic activities revealed a 2.3-fold increase of AK activity and a 4.0-9.5-fold increase for DHPS. T1 seeds of DHPS transformants showed the same changes in free amino acids...

  3. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

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    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  4. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  5. Adaptation Mechanism of the Aspartate Receptor: Electrostatics of the Adaptation Subdomain Play a Key Role in Modulating Kinase Activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Diane J.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The aspartate receptor of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis pathway generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. Previous studies have identified a region of the cytoplasmic domain that is critical to receptor adaptation and kinase regulation. This region, termed the adaptation subdomain, contains a high density of acidic residues, including specific glutamate residues that serve as receptor adaptation sites. However, the mechanism of signal propagation through this region remains poorly understood. This study uses site-directed mutagenesis to neutralize each acidic residue within the subdomain to probe the hypothesis that electrostatics in this region play a significant role in the mechanism of kinase activation and modulation. Each point mutant was tested for its ability to regulate chemotaxis in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. Four point mutants (D273N, E281Q, D288N, and E477Q) were found to superactivate the kinase relative to the wild-type receptor, and all four of these kinase-activating substitutions are located along the same intersubunit interface as the adaptation sites. These activating substitutions retained the wild-type ability of the attractant-occupied receptor to inhibit kinase activity. When combined in a quadruple mutant (D273N/E281Q/D288N/E477Q), the four charge-neutralizing substitutions locked the receptor in a kinase-superactivating state that could not be fully inactivated by the attractant. Similar lock-on character was observed for a charge reversal substitution, D273R. Together, these results implicate the electrostatic interactions at the intersubunit interface as a major player in signal transduction and kinase regulation. The negative charge in this region destabilizes the local structure in a way that enhances conformational dynamics, as detected by disulfide trapping, and this effect is reversed by charge neutralization of the adaptation sites. Finally, two

  6. Mutations that cause threonine sensitivity identify catalytic and regulatory regions of the aspartate kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Rodríguez, M; Calderón, I L; Holmberg, S

    1999-01-01

    The HOM3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes aspartate kinase, which catalyses the first step in the branched pathway leading to the synthesis of threonine and methionine from aspartate. Regulation of the carbon flow into this pathway takes place mainly by feedback inhibition of this enzyme ...

  7. SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINE KINASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN HORSES WITH COLIC ATIVIDADE SÉRICA DAS ENZIMAS ASPARTATO AMINOTRANSFERASE, CREATINA QUINASE E LACTATO DESIDROGENASE EM EQÜINOS COM CÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Evangelista Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy equines distributed in two experimental groups were used, G1 (20 healthy equines, and G2 (50 equines with colic. Blood samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture in ten different moments. The variables aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by spectrophotometric assay using specific reagents. The average values presented by the animals of the G2 for variables CK, AST, and LDH were higher (P<0.05 than the values presented by the animals of the G1 in all the evaluation moments. The results showed for G2 animals suggest the existence of acute muscle injury. The muscle injuries in equines with colic were attributed to the tissue hypoperfusion, and the muscular damage.

    KEY WORDS: Acute abdomen, horses, muscles enzyme. De setenta eqüinos, distribuídos em dois grupos experimentais – G1 (vinte eqüinos hígidos e G2 (cinqüenta eqüinos com cólica –, colheram-se amostras de sangue em dez diferentes momentos, mediante punção da jugular, para a determinação da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina quinase (CK e lactato desidrogenase (LDH. Os valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G2, para as variáveis CK, AST e LDH, foram superiores (P<0,05 aos valores médios apresentados pelos animais do G1 em todos os momentos de avaliação. Os resultados apresentados pelos animais com cólica (G2 sugerem a existência de lesão muscular aguda, porém com tendência a cura, e foram atribuídos a hipoperfusão tecidual e a traumas musculares. A análise seriada das enzimas CK, AST e LDH auxilia tanto no diagnóstico de lesões musculares em eqüinos com cólica como no acompanhamento da evolução do processo de cura.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Abdômen agudo, cavalos, enzimas musculares.

  8. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  9. Detection of Aspartic Proteinase Activities Using Gel Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani

    2017-01-01

    Gel zymography is a two-stage process where the proteins from the test sample are first separated by electrophoresis followed by the detection of the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. Many zymography procedures use sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with an appropriate substrate. The procedure described here uses native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the absence of both SDS and substrate. In order to visualize aspartic proteinase activity, the gel is impregnated in bovine hemoglobin at pH 3.0 for 15 min after the electrophoresis procedure. Subsequently, the gel is incubated in a humid container in the absence of hemoglobin for 1 h at 37 °C. At the end, the gel is stained with amido black and destained. Clear areas against a dark background corresponding to aspartic proteinase activities can be detected.

  10. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs), such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  11. Extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation induces cytoplasmic translocation of the CDKL5 kinase and its proteasomal degradation.

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    Rusconi, Laura; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2011-10-21

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been found in patients with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other types of seizures, severe developmental delay, and often the development of Rett syndrome-like features. Despite its clear involvement in proper brain development, CDKL5 functions are still far from being understood. In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the endogenous kinase in primary murine hippocampal neurons. CDKL5 was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm and, conversely to proliferating cells, did not undergo constitutive shuttling between these compartments. Nevertheless, glutamate stimulation was able to induce the exit of the kinase from the nucleus and its subsequent accumulation in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that sustained glutamate stimulation promoted CDKL5 proteasomal degradation. Both events were mediated by the specific activation of extrasynaptic pool of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Proteasomal degradation was also induced by withdrawal of neurotrophic factors and hydrogen peroxide treatment, two different paradigms of cell death. Altogether, our results indicate that both subcellular localization and expression of CDKL5 are modulated by the activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and suggest regulation of CDKL5 by cell death pathways.

  12. Extrasynaptic N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Stimulation Induces Cytoplasmic Translocation of the CDKL5 Kinase and Its Proteasomal Degradation*

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    Rusconi, Laura; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been found in patients with epileptic encephalopathy characterized by early onset intractable epilepsy, including infantile spasms and other types of seizures, severe developmental delay, and often the development of Rett syndrome-like features. Despite its clear involvement in proper brain development, CDKL5 functions are still far from being understood. In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the endogenous kinase in primary murine hippocampal neurons. CDKL5 was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm and, conversely to proliferating cells, did not undergo constitutive shuttling between these compartments. Nevertheless, glutamate stimulation was able to induce the exit of the kinase from the nucleus and its subsequent accumulation in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that sustained glutamate stimulation promoted CDKL5 proteasomal degradation. Both events were mediated by the specific activation of extrasynaptic pool of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Proteasomal degradation was also induced by withdrawal of neurotrophic factors and hydrogen peroxide treatment, two different paradigms of cell death. Altogether, our results indicate that both subcellular localization and expression of CDKL5 are modulated by the activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and suggest regulation of CDKL5 by cell death pathways. PMID:21832092

  13. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

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    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M E; Rocha, G F; Kise, F; Rosso, A M; Guevara, M G; Parisi, M G

    2018-05-08

    Plant proteases play a fundamental role in several processes like growth, development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In particular, aspartic proteases (AP) are expressed in different plant organs and have antimicrobial activity. Previously, we purified an AP from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits called salpichroin. The aim of this work was to determine the cytotoxic activity of this enzyme on selected plant and human pathogens. For this purpose, the growth of the selected pathogens was analysed after exposure to different concentrations of salpichroin. The results showed that the enzyme was capable of inhibiting Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner. It was determined that 1·2 μmol l -1 of salpichroin was necessary to inhibit 50% of conidial germination, and the minimal bactericidal concentration was between 1·9 and 2·5 μmol l -1 . Using SYTOX Green dye we were able to demonstrate that salpichroin cause membrane permeabilization. Moreover, the enzyme treated with its specific inhibitor pepstatin A did not lose its antibacterial activity. This finding demonstrates that the cytotoxic activity of salpichroin is due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of the AP could represent a potential alternative for the control of pathogens that affect humans or crops of economic interest. This study provides insights into the antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease isolated from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits on plant and human pathogens. The proteinase inhibited Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of salpichroin suggests its potential applications as an important tool for the control of pathogenic micro-organisms affecting humans and crops of economic interest. Therefore, it would

  15. Chitin and stress induced protein kinase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Azevedo da Silva, Raquel; Bressendorff, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The assays described here are pertinent to protein kinase studies in any plant. They include an immunoblot phosphorylation/activation assay and an in-gel activity assay for MAP kinases (MPKs) using the general protein kinase substrate myelin basic protein. They also include a novel in-gel peptide...... substrate assay for Snf1-related kinase family 2 members (SnRK2s). This kinase family-specific assay overcomes some limitations of in-gel assays and permits the identification of different types of kinase activities in total protein extracts....

  16. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  17. Enzyme activity and allosteric characteristics of gamma-irradiated solid aspartate transcarbamylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, W.N.; Tolbert, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase purified from E. coli was lyophilized, irradiated in vacuo with γ radiation from a cesium-137 source, redissolved in buffer under a nitrogen atmosphere, and assayed for enzyme activity. Lyophilized and redissolved enzyme had normal catalytic and allosteric kinetic characteristics. The average D 37 observed with saturating substrate, 25 mM aspartate, was 4.1 Mrad. With less than saturating substrate, 5 mM aspartate, the activity increases from zero to 1.6 Mrad and then decreases with a D 37 of 7.2 Mrad. Inclusion of 1 mM CTP, an allosteric inhibitor, in the 5 mM aspartate assays results in a more pronounced maximum in the activity curve occurring at slightly higher dose, 2.2 Mrad. Inhibitability by CTP has a D 37 of 2.3 Mrad with doses below the activity maximum. Enzyme lyophilized in the presence of 1 mM CTP has a D 37 of 2.9 Mrad. ATCase activity changes caused by irradiation of lyophylized bacteria were qualitatively like the changes observed in the detailed studies with the purified enzyme. Apparent radiation sensitivities of ATCase in lyophilized bacteria were observed to vary with the technique used to disrupt the resuspended bacteria

  18. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Measuring Kinase Activity-A Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Marissa L; McDonald, Ian M; East, Michael P; Johnson, Gary L; Graves, Lee M

    2017-11-01

    The kinase enzymes within a cell, known collectively as the kinome, play crucial roles in many signaling pathways, including survival, motility, differentiation, stress response, and many more. Aberrant signaling through kinase pathways is often linked to cancer, among other diseases. A major area of scientific research involves understanding the relationships between kinases, their targets, and how the kinome adapts to perturbations of the cellular system. This review will discuss many of the current and developing methods for studying kinase activity, and evaluate their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3595-3606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  1. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  2. syk kinase activation by a src kinase-initiated activation loop phosphorylation chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hillal, O.; Kurosaki, T.; Yamamura, H.; Kinet, J.-P.; Scharenberg, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the syk tyrosine kinase occurs almost immediately following engagement of many types of antigen receptors, including Fc receptors, but the mechanism through which syk is activated is currently unclear. Here we demonstrate that Fc receptor-induced syk activation occurs as the result of phosphorylation of the syk activation loop by both src family kinases and other molecules of activated syk, suggesting that syk activation occurs as the result of a src kinase-initiated activation loop phosphorylation chain reaction. This type of activation mechanism predicts that syk activation would exhibit exponential kinetics, providing a potential explanation for its rapid and robust activation by even weak antigen receptor stimuli. We propose that a similar mechanism may be responsible for generating rapid activation of other cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, such as those of the Bruton tyrosine kinase/tec family, as well. PMID:9050880

  3. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, J.A.; Taylor, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of [ 14 C]glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified

  4. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for ... receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. ... surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, ... Abbreviations used: Abs, antibodies; ANOVA, analysis of variance; AP-1, activator protein -1; BCG, ...

  6. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Demonstration of a functional relationship between aspartate 93 and Mg2+ by site-directed mutagenesis and proton, phosphorus-31, and magnesium-25 NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Honggao; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1991-01-01

    Earlier magnetic resonance studies suggested no direct interaction between Mg 2+ ions and adenylate kinase (AK) in the AK·MgATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) complex. However, recent NMR studies concluded that the carboxylate of aspartate 119 accepts a hydrogen bond from a water ligand of the bound Mg 2+ ion in the muscle AK · MgATP complex. On the other hand, in the 2.6-angstrom crystal structure of the yeast AK·MgAP 5 A [P 1 , P 5 -bis(5'-adenosyl)pentaphosphate] complex, the Mg 2+ ion is in proximity to aspartate 93. Substitution of Asp-93 with alanine resulted in no change in dissociation constants, 4-fold increases in K m , and a 650-fold decrease in k cat . Notable changes have been observed in the chemical shifts of the aromatic protons of histidine 36 and a few other aromatic residues. However, the results of detailed analyses of the free enzymes and the AK·MgAP 5 A complexes by one- and two-dimensional NMR suggested that the changes are due to localized perturbations. Thus it is concluded that Asp-93 stabilizes the transition state by ca. 3.9 kcal/mol. Other results raised the question of whether Mg 2+ could bind to D93A·nucleotide complexes, which was then probed by 25 MgNMR. The results suggest that Mg 2+ does bind to the D93A·AP 5 A complex, but possibly only weakly

  7. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    204) although phosphorylation of b-Raf (Ser445) and c-Raf (Ser 338) remained unchanged. Furthermore, increased activation of the PAK1 activator Rac1 induced the formation of a triple complex of Rac1, PAK1 and Mek1, independent of the kinase activity of PAK1. These data suggest that PAK1 can stimulate...... MEK activity in a kinase independent manner, probably by serving as a scaffold to facilitate interaction of c-Raf....

  8. Changes in D-aspartic acid and D-glutamic acid levels in the tissues and physiological fluids of mice with various D-aspartate oxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Koga, Reiko; Mita, Masashi; Konno, Ryuichi; Hamase, Kenji

    2015-12-10

    D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) and D-glutamic acid (D-Glu) are currently paid attention as modulators of neuronal transmission and hormonal secretion. These two D-amino acids are metabolized only by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) in mammals. Therefore, in order to design and develop new drugs controlling the D-Asp and D-Glu amounts via regulation of the DDO activities, changes in these acidic D-amino acid amounts in various tissues are expected to be clarified in model animals having various DDO activities. In the present study, the amounts of Asp and Glu enantiomers in 6 brain tissues, 11 peripheral tissues and 2 physiological fluids of DDO(+/+), DDO(+/-) and DDO(-/-) mice were determined using a sensitive and selective two-dimensional HPLC system. As a result, the amounts of D-Asp were drastically increased with the decrease in the DDO activity in all the tested tissues and physiological fluids. On the other hand, the amounts of D-Glu were almost the same among the 3 strains of mice. The present results are useful for designing new drug candidates, such as DDO inhibitors, and further studies are expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Terence M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Nyati, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ross, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rehemtulla, Alnawaz, E-mail: alnawaz@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  10. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions modulate cellular processes in health and disease. However, tracing weak or rare associations or dissociations of proteins is not a trivial task. Kinases are often regulated through interaction partners and, at the same time, themselves regulate cellular interaction networks. The use of kinase domains for creating a synthetic sensor device that reads low concentration protein-protein interactions and amplifies them to a higher concentration interaction which is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain modules for the reading of kinase activity were assembled and expression protocols for fusion proteins containing Lyn, Src, and Fak kinase domains in bacterial and in cell-free systems were optimized. Also, two non-overlapping methods for measuring the kinase activity of these proteins were stablished and, finally, a protein-fragment complementation assay with the split-kinase constructs was tested. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that features such as codon optimization, vector design and expression conditions have an impact on the expression yield and activity of kinase-based proteins. Furthermore, it has been found that the defined PURE cell-free system is insufficient for the active expression of catalytic kinase domains. In contrast, the bacterial co-expression with phosphatases produced active kinase fusion proteins for two out of the three tested Tyrosine kinase domains.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aiyelabola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard.

  13. Structural coupling of SH2-kinase domains links Fes and Abl substrate recognition and kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kofler, Michael; Hantschel, Oliver; Gish, Gerald D; Grebien, Florian; Salah, Eidarus; Neudecker, Philipp; Kay, Lewis E; Turk, Benjamin E; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pawson, Tony; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-09-05

    The SH2 domain of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases can enhance catalytic activity and substrate recognition, but the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. We have solved the structure of the prototypic SH2-kinase unit of the human Fes tyrosine kinase, which appears specialized for positive signaling. In its active conformation, the SH2 domain tightly interacts with the kinase N-terminal lobe and positions the kinase alphaC helix in an active configuration through essential packing and electrostatic interactions. This interaction is stabilized by ligand binding to the SH2 domain. Our data indicate that Fes kinase activation is closely coupled to substrate recognition through cooperative SH2-kinase-substrate interactions. Similarly, we find that the SH2 domain of the active Abl kinase stimulates catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation through a distinct SH2-kinase interface. Thus, the SH2 and catalytic domains of active Fes and Abl pro-oncogenic kinases form integrated structures essential for effective tyrosine kinase signaling.

  14. Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J L; Wu, Q P; Huang, J M; Chen, R; Cai, M; Tan, J B

    2007-01-01

    L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.

  15. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, Lizzy M.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Bindraban, Navin R.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascular

  16. Correlation between myocardial malate/aspartate shuttle activity and EAAT1 protein expression in hyper- and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphe, J Carter; Bedell, Kurt; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2005-05-01

    In the heart, elevated thyroid hormone leads to upregulation of metabolic pathways associated with energy production and development of hypertrophy. The malate/aspartate shuttle, which transfers cytosolic-reducing equivalents into the cardiac mitochondria, is increased 33% in hyperthyroid rats. Within the shuttle, the aspartate-glutamate carrier is rate limiting. The excitatory amino acid transporter type 1 (EAAT1) functions as a glutamate carrier in the malate/aspartate shuttle. In this study, we hypothesize that EAAT1 is regulated by thyroid hormone. Adult rats were injected with triiodothyronine (T3) or saline over a period of 8-9 days or provided with propylthiouracil (PTU) in their drinking water for 2 mo. Steady-state mRNA levels of EAAT1 and aralar1 and citrin (both cardiac mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporters) were determined by Northern blot analysis and normalized to 18S rRNA. A spectrophotometric assay of maximal malate/aspartate shuttle activity was performed on isolated cardiac mitochondria from PTU-treated and control animals. Protein lysates from mitochondria were separated by SDS-PAGE and probed with a human anti-EAAT1 IgG. Compared with control, EAAT1 mRNA levels (arbitrary units) were increased nearly threefold in T3-treated (3.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.2; P Hyperthyroidism in rats is related to an increase in cardiac expression of EAAT1 mRNA and protein. The 49% increase in EAAT1 mitochondrial protein level shows that malate/aspartate shuttle activity increased in hyperthyroid rat cardiac mitochondria. Although hypothyroidism resulted in a decrease in EAAT1 mRNA, neither the EAAT1 protein level nor shuttle activity was affected. EAAT1 regulation by thyroid hormone may facilitate increased metabolic demands of the cardiomyocyte during hyperthyroidism and impact cardiac function in hyperthyroidism.

  17. Triazacyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded histidine and aspartic acid residues as mimics of non-heme metalloenzyme active sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.; Soulimani, F.; Jacobs, H.J.F.; Versluis, C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and coordination behaviour to copper(II) of two close structural triazacyclophane-based mimics of two often encountered aspartic acid and histidine containing metalloenzyme active sites. Coordination of these mimics to copper(I) and their reaction with molecular oxygen

  18. Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Lindin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD simulations of: (1 MK5 alone; (2 MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3 MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α binding decreases the residual fluctuation of the MK5 model. Electrostatic Potential Surface (EPS calculations of MK5 and p38α showed that electrostatic interactions are important for recognition and binding.

  19. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  20. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  1. Activation of oocyte phosphatidylinositol kinase by polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allende, J.E.; Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Membrane bound phosphatidylinositol is phosphorylated by a specific membrane enzyme to form phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate (PIP) which in turn is again phosphorylated to generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIPP). The regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation and hydrolysis is relevant to the possible role of inositol phosphates as second messengers of hormone action. The membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes contain a phosphatidylinositol kinase that can generate radioactive PIP after incubation with [ 32 ATP]. The radioactive product is extracted with methanol-chloroform and isolated by thin layer chromatography. The oocyte enzyme has an app Km for ATP of 80 μM and cannot use GTP as a phosphate donor. The formation of PIP is greatly stimulated by the addition of synthetic peptides containing clusters of polylysine at concentrations 0.5 mM. A similar effect is observed with a lysine rich peptide that corresponds to the 14 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of the Kirstein ras 2 protein and also by polyornithine. Polyarginine and histone H 1 have much lower effects. Peptides containing polylysine clusters have also been found to affect the activity of other key membrane enzymes such as protein kinases and adenylate cyclase

  2. Resveratrol stimulates AMP kinase activity in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Biplab; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2007-04-24

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by plants that has multiple beneficial activities similar to those associated with caloric restriction (CR), such as increased life span and delay in the onset of diseases associated with aging. CR improves neuronal health, and the global beneficial effects of CR have been postulated to be mediated by the nervous system. One key enzyme thought to be activated during CR is the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy levels. AMPK is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio, whereupon it functions to help preserve cellular energy. In this regard, the regulation of dietary food intake by hypothalamic neurons is mediated by AMPK. The suppression of nonessential energy expenditure by activated AMPK along with the CR mimetic and neuroprotective properties of resveratrol led us to hypothesize that neuronal activation of AMPK could be an important component of resveratrol activity. Here, we show that resveratrol activated AMPK in Neuro2a cells and primary neurons in vitro as well as in the brain. Resveratrol and the AMPK-activating compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) promoted robust neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells, which was blocked by genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of AMPK. Resveratrol also stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an AMPK-dependent manner. Resveratrol-stimulated AMPK activity in neurons depended on LKB1 activity but did not require the NAD-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 during this time frame. These findings suggest that neuronal activation of AMPK by resveratrol could affect neuronal energy homeostasis and contribute to the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol.

  3. Secreted Aspartic Protease Cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 Activates Cek1 MAPK Signaling Affecting Biofilm Formation and Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Sonia; Tati, Swetha; Conti, Heather R.; Hube, Bernhard; Cullen, Paul J.; Edgerton, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1) phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA), a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps). Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ) or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ) resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence. PMID:23139737

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinases interacting kinases are autoinhibited by a reprogrammed activation segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Cho, Min-Kyu; Jäkel, Stefan; Netter, Catharina; Schreiter, Kay; Aicher, Babette; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jäckle, Herbert; Wahl, Markus C

    2006-09-06

    Autoinhibition is a recurring mode of protein kinase regulation and can be based on diverse molecular mechanisms. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based nucleotide affinity studies and rational mutagenesis that nonphosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases interacting kinase (Mnk) 1 is autoinhibited by conversion of the activation segment into an autoinhibitory module. In a Mnk1 crystal structure, the activation segment is repositioned via a Mnk-specific sequence insertion at the N-terminal lobe with the following consequences: (i) the peptide substrate binding site is deconstructed, (ii) the interlobal cleft is narrowed, (iii) an essential Lys-Glu pair is disrupted and (iv) the magnesium-binding loop is locked into an ATP-competitive conformation. Consistently, deletion of the Mnk-specific insertion or removal of a conserved phenylalanine side chain, which induces a blockade of the ATP pocket, increase the ATP affinity of Mnk1. Structural rearrangements required for the activation of Mnks are apparent from the cocrystal structure of a Mnk2 D228G -staurosporine complex and can be modeled on the basis of crystal packing interactions. Our data suggest a novel regulatory mechanism specific for the Mnk subfamily.

  5. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed that the presence of the SH2 domain is frequently required for catalytic activity, suggesting a crucial function stabilizing the active state of many nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Recently, the structure of the SH2-kinase domain of Fes revealed that the SH2 domain stabilizes the active kinase conformation by direct interactions with the regulatory helix alphaC. Stabilizing interactions between the SH2 and the kinase domains have also been observed in the structures of active Csk and Abl. Interestingly, mutations in the SH2 domain found in human disease can be explained by SH2 domain destabilization or incorrect positioning of the SH2. Here we summarize our understanding of mechanisms that lead to tyrosine kinase activation by direct interactions mediated by the SH2 domain and discuss how mutations in the SH2 domain trigger kinase inactivation.

  6. Evidence for the presence of proteolytically active secreted aspartic proteinase 1 of Candida parapsilosis in the cell wall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinterová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Dostál, Jiří; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pichová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2011), s. 2004-2012 ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ČR GA310/09/1945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * secreted aspartic proteinases * Sapp1p * cell wall * biotin * proteolytic activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2011

  7. Constitutive Activity in an Ancestral Form of Abl Tyrosine Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat U Aleem

    Full Text Available The c-abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is found in all metazoans, and is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues. The Abl tyrosine kinase plays important roles in the regulation of mammalian cell physiology. Abl-like kinases have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates, the closest relatives to the Metazoa, and in related unicellular organisms. Here, we have carried out the first characterization of a premetazoan Abl kinase, MbAbl2, from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The enzyme possesses SH3, SH2, and kinase domains in a similar arrangement to its mammalian counterparts, and is an active tyrosine kinase. MbAbl2 lacks the N-terminal myristoylation and cap sequences that are critical regulators of mammalian Abl kinase activity, and we show that MbAbl2 is constitutively active. When expressed in mammalian cells, MbAbl2 strongly phosphorylates cellular proteins on tyrosine, and transforms cells much more potently than mammalian Abl kinase. Thus, MbAbl2 appears to lack the autoinhibitory mechanism that tightly constrains the activity of mammalian Abl kinases, suggesting that this regulatory apparatus arose more recently in metazoan evolution.

  8. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. [ 14 C]Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of [ 14 C]methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA + led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S 14 CN - . These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the ∼69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels

  9. SH2 domains: modulators of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is a sequence-specific phosphotyrosine-binding module present in many signaling molecules. In cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the SH2 domain is located N-terminally to the catalytic kinase domain (SH1) where it mediates cellular localization, substrate recruitment, and regulation of kinase activity. Initially, structural studies established a role of the SH2 domain stabilizing the inactive state of Src family members. However, biochemical characterization showed ...

  10. Cocoa Procyanidins Suppress Transformation by Inhibiting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Dong Eun; Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa was shown to inhibit chemically induced carcinogenesis in animals and exert antioxidant activity in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive potential of cocoa and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Here we report that cocoa procyanidins inhibit neoplastic cell transformation by suppressing the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). A cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and procyanidin B2 at 5 μg/ml and 40 μm, respectively, inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by 47 and 93%, respectively. The TPA-induced promoter activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which is involved in tumor promotion and inflammation, were dose-dependently inhibited by CPF or procyanidin B2. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB induced by TPA was also attenuated by CPF or procyanidin B2. The TPA-induced phosphorylation of MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p90 ribosomal s6 kinase was suppressed by CPF or procyanidin B2. In vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data demonstrated that CPF or procyanidin B2 inhibited the kinase activity of MEK1 and directly bound with MEK1. CPF or procyanidin B2 suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor or H-Ras, both of which are known to be involved in MEK/ERK signal activation. In contrast, theobromine (up to 80 μm) had no effect on TPA-induced transformation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the transactivation of activator protein-1 or nuclear factor-κB, or MEK. Notably, procyanidin B2 exerted stronger inhibitory effects compared with PD098059 (a well known pharmacological inhibitor of MEK) on MEK1 activity and neoplastic cell transformation. PMID:18519570

  11. Effect of X-irradiation on the alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver, kidney and spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungowska-Klin, B; Lozinska, M; Wojtaszek, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT and GPT) activities and the protein content were measured in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of mice exposed to a single whole body X-irradiation with a 900 R dose. The assays were performed in 6 h intervals during the first day and 24 h intervals from the 2nd until the 6th day after the exposure. Significant differences in the enzymatic activity were found in the course of 24 h in control animals and a marked increase of this activity was found after irradiation. This may be explained by changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane for enzyme molecules.

  12. Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, W V; Lehninger, A L

    1977-11-01

    Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  13. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction......Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline......-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50% by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None...

  14. The kinase activity of the Ser/Thr kinase BUB1 promotes TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Shyam; Schinske-Sebolt, Katrina; Pitchiaya, Sethuramasundaram; Chekhovskiy, Katerina; Chator, Areeb; Chaudhry, Nauman; Dosch, Joseph; Van Dort, Marcian E; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Nyati, Mukesh Kumar; Ray, Dipankar; Walter, Nils G; Yu, Hongtao; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2015-01-06

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, which contributes to development and disease. Upon binding TGF-β, the type I receptor (TGFBRI) binds TGFBRII, leading to the activation of the transcription factors SMAD2 and SMAD3. Using an RNA interference screen of the human kinome and a live-cell reporter for TGFBR activity, we identified the kinase BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles-1) as a key mediator of TGF-β signaling. BUB1 interacted with TGFBRI in the presence of TGF-β and promoted the heterodimerization of TGFBRI and TGFBRII. Additionally, BUB1 interacted with TGFBRII, suggesting the formation of a ternary complex. Knocking down BUB1 prevented the recruitment of SMAD3 to the receptor complex, the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 and their interaction with SMAD4, SMAD-dependent transcription, and TGF-β-mediated changes in cellular phenotype including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and invasion. Knockdown of BUB1 also impaired noncanonical TGF-β signaling mediated by the kinases AKT and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). The ability of BUB1 to promote TGF-β signaling depended on the kinase activity of BUB1. A small-molecule inhibitor of the kinase activity of BUB1 (2OH-BNPP1) and a kinase-deficient mutant of BUB1 suppressed TGF-β signaling and formation of the ternary complex in various normal and cancer cell lines. 2OH-BNPP1 administration to mice bearing lung carcinoma xenografts reduced the amount of phosphorylated SMAD2 in tumor tissue. These findings indicated that BUB1 functions as a kinase in the TGF-β pathway in a role beyond its established function in cell cycle regulation and chromosome cohesion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. CIKS, a connection to Ikappa B kinase and stress-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Chariot, A; Claudio, E; Cunningham, K; Siebenlist, U

    2000-09-12

    Pathogens, inflammatory signals, and stress cause acute transcriptional responses in cells. The induced expression of genes in response to these signals invariably involves transcription factors of the NF-kappaB and AP-1/ATF families. Activation of NF-kappaB factors is thought to be mediated primarily via IkappaB kinases (IKK), whereas that of AP-1/ATF can be mediated by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs; also named Jun kinases or JNKs). IKKalpha and IKKbeta are two catalytic subunits of a core IKK complex that also contains the regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator)/IKKgamma. The latter protein is essential for activation of the IKKs, but its mechanism of action is not known. Here we describe the molecular cloning of CIKS (connection to IKK and SAPK/JNK), a previously unknown protein that directly interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma in cells. When ectopically expressed, CIKS stimulates IKK and SAPK/JNK kinases and it transactivates an NF-kappaB-dependent reporter. Activation of NF-kappaB is prevented in the presence of kinase-deficient, interfering mutants of the IKKs. CIKS may help to connect upstream signaling events to IKK and SAPK/JNK modules. CIKS could coordinate the activation of two stress-induced signaling pathways, functions reminiscent of those noted for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor adaptor proteins.

  16. CIKS, a connection to IκB kinase and stress-activated protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Antonio; Chariot, Alain; Claudio, Estefania; Cunningham, Kirk; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    Pathogens, inflammatory signals, and stress cause acute transcriptional responses in cells. The induced expression of genes in response to these signals invariably involves transcription factors of the NF-κB and AP-1/ATF families. Activation of NF-κB factors is thought to be mediated primarily via IκB kinases (IKK), whereas that of AP-1/ATF can be mediated by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs; also named Jun kinases or JNKs). IKKα and IKKβ are two catalytic subunits of a core IKK complex that also contains the regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator)/IKKγ. The latter protein is essential for activation of the IKKs, but its mechanism of action is not known. Here we describe the molecular cloning of CIKS (connection to IKK and SAPK/JNK), a previously unknown protein that directly interacts with NEMO/IKKγ in cells. When ectopically expressed, CIKS stimulates IKK and SAPK/JNK kinases and it transactivates an NF-κB-dependent reporter. Activation of NF-κB is prevented in the presence of kinase-deficient, interfering mutants of the IKKs. CIKS may help to connect upstream signaling events to IKK and SAPK/JNK modules. CIKS could coordinate the activation of two stress-induced signaling pathways, functions reminiscent of those noted for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor adaptor proteins. PMID:10962033

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β promotes liver innate immune activation by restraining AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoming; Wang, Han; Ni, Ming; Yue, Shi; Xia, Yongxiang; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2018-02-13

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β [Gsk3b]) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase with distinctive functions in different types of cells. Although its roles in regulating innate immune activation and ischaemia and reperfusion injuries (IRIs) have been well documented, the underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous, in part because of the lack of cell-specific tools in vivo. We created a myeloid-specific Gsk3b knockout (KO) strain to study the function of Gsk3β in macrophages in a murine liver partial warm ischaemia model. Compared with controls, myeloid Gsk3b KO mice were protected from IRI, with diminished proinflammatory but enhanced anti-inflammatory immune responses in livers. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, Gsk3β deficiency resulted in an early reduction of Tnf gene transcription but sustained increase of Il10 gene transcription on Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation in vitro. These effects were associated with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which led to an accelerated and higher level of induction of the novel innate immune negative regulator small heterodimer partner (SHP [Nr0b2]). The regulatory function of Gsk3β on AMPK activation and SHP induction was confirmed in wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages with a Gsk3 inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that this immune regulatory mechanism was independent of Gsk3β Ser9 phosphorylation and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signalling pathway. In vivo, myeloid Gsk3β deficiency facilitated SHP upregulation by ischaemia-reperfusion in liver macrophages. Treatment of Gsk3b KO mice with either AMPK inhibitor or SHP small interfering RNA before the onset of liver ischaemia restored liver proinflammatory immune activation and IRI in these otherwise protected hosts. Additionally, pharmacological activation of AMPK protected wild-type mice from liver IRI, with reduced proinflammatory immune activation. Inhibition of the AMPK-SHP pathway by liver ischaemia was demonstrated in tumour resection

  18. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, N.E.; Clausen, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 angstrom resolution...

  19. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  20. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  1. Profiling bacterial kinase activity using a genetic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Bech, Rasmus; Lehning, Christina Eva

    Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates the activity of several key proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes. Accordingly, a variety of tools has been developed to measure kinase activity. To couple phosphorylation to an in vivo fluorescent readout we used the Bacillus...... subtilis kinase PtkA, transmembrane activator TkmA and the repressor FatR to construct a genetic circuit in E. coli. By tuning the repressor and kinase expression level at the same time, we were able to show a 4.2-fold increase in signal upon kinase induction. We furthermore validated that the previously...... reported FatR Y45E mutation1 attenuates operator repression. This genetic circuit provides a starting point for computational protein design and a metagenomic library-screening tool....

  2. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by up to 8-fold, and this could be blocked by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. We show that p38alpha MAP kinase, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, can directly interact with the alpha and beta subunits of CK2 to activate the holoenzyme through what appears...

  3. D-Aspartate Modulates Nociceptive-Specific Neuron Activity and Pain Threshold in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Condition in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Boccella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available D-Aspartate (D-Asp is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO. D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs. Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo−/− or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo−/− mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition. We found that Ddo−/− mice show an increased evoked activity of the nociceptive specific (NS neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L6 and a significant decrease of mechanical and thermal thresholds, as compared to control mice. Moreover, Ddo gene deletion exacerbated the nocifensive responses in the formalin test and slightly reduced pain thresholds in neuropathic mice up to 7 days after chronic constriction injury. These findings suggest that the NMDAR agonist, D-Asp, may play a role in the regulation of NS neuron electrophysiological activity and behavioral responses in physiological and pathological pain conditions.

  4. Expression, purification and kinase activity analysis of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Kinase activity is essential for a protein kinase to perform its biological function. In previous study we have cloned a novel plant SnRK2 subfamily gene from maize and named it as ZmSPK1. In this study the. cDNA of ZmSPK1 with dHA-His6 tag was amplified by PCR and was subcloned into the yeast.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Wolfgang [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, Nils Egil [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Clausen, Anders Ranegaard [Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden); Willer, Mette [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Gojkovic, Zoran [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Piskur, Jure, E-mail: Jure.Piskur@cob.lu.se [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  6. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  7. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  8. Damage-induced DNA replication stalling relies on MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köpper, Frederik; Bierwirth, Cathrin; Schön, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    knockdown of the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a kinase currently implicated in p38 stress signaling and G2 arrest. Depletion or inhibition of MK2 also protected cells from DNA damage-induced cell death, and mice deficient for MK2 displayed decreased apoptosis in the skin upon UV irradiation...

  9. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerpr...

  10. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification

  11. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, L.A.; Bacon, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32 P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  12. Intramolecular Crosstalk between Catalytic Activities of Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Kwezi, Lusisizwe

    2018-01-22

    Signal modulation is important for the growth and development of plants and this process is mediated by a number of factors including physiological growth regulators and their associated signal transduction pathways. Protein kinases play a central role in signaling, including those involving pathogen response mechanisms. We previously demonstrated an active guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in the brassinosteroid insensitive receptor (AtBRI1) within an active intracellular kinase domain resulting in dual enzymatic activity. Here we propose a novel type of receptor architecture that is characterized by a functional GC catalytic center nested in the cytosolic kinase domain enabling intramolecular crosstalk. This may be through a cGMP-AtBRI1 complex forming that may induce a negative feedback mechanism leading to desensitisation of the receptor, regulated through the cGMP production pathway. We further argue that the comparatively low but highly localized cGMP generated by the GC in response to a ligand is sufficient to modulate the kinase activity. This type of receptor therefore provides a molecular switch that directly and/or indirectly affects ligand dependent phosphorylation of downstream signaling cascades and suggests that subsequent signal transduction and modulation works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream signaling.

  13. Intramolecular Crosstalk between Catalytic Activities of Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Kwezi, Lusisizwe; Wheeler, Janet I; Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Irving, Helen R

    2018-01-01

    Signal modulation is important for the growth and development of plants and this process is mediated by a number of factors including physiological growth regulators and their associated signal transduction pathways. Protein kinases play a central role in signaling, including those involving pathogen response mechanisms. We previously demonstrated an active guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in the brassinosteroid insensitive receptor (AtBRI1) within an active intracellular kinase domain resulting in dual enzymatic activity. Here we propose a novel type of receptor architecture that is characterized by a functional GC catalytic center nested in the cytosolic kinase domain enabling intramolecular crosstalk. This may be through a cGMP-AtBRI1 complex forming that may induce a negative feedback mechanism leading to desensitisation of the receptor, regulated through the cGMP production pathway. We further argue that the comparatively low but highly localized cGMP generated by the GC in response to a ligand is sufficient to modulate the kinase activity. This type of receptor therefore provides a molecular switch that directly and/or indirectly affects ligand dependent phosphorylation of downstream signaling cascades and suggests that subsequent signal transduction and modulation works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream signaling.

  14. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  15. Prion protein is a key determinant of alcohol sensitivity through the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Petit-Paitel

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrP is absolutely required for the development of prion diseases; nevertheless, its physiological functions in the central nervous system remain elusive. Using a combination of behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical approaches in transgenic mouse models, we provide strong evidence for a crucial role of PrP in alcohol sensitivity. Indeed, PrP knock out (PrP(-/- mice presented a greater sensitivity to the sedative effects of EtOH compared to wild-type (wt control mice. Conversely, compared to wt mice, those over-expressing mouse, human or hamster PrP genes presented a relative insensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation. An acute tolerance (i.e. reversion to ethanol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices developed slower in PrP(-/- mice than in wt mice. We show that PrP is required to induce acute tolerance to ethanol by activating a Src-protein tyrosine kinase-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. In an attempt to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying PrP-dependent ethanol effect, we looked for changes in lipid raft features in hippocampus of ethanol-treated wt mice compared to PrP(-/- mice. Ethanol induced rapid and transient changes of buoyancy of lipid raft-associated proteins in hippocampus of wt but not PrP(-/- mice suggesting a possible mechanistic link for PrP-dependent signal transduction. Together, our results reveal a hitherto unknown physiological role of PrP on the regulation of NMDAR activity and highlight its crucial role in synaptic functions.

  16. Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Pedersen, Malene Mejer; Paspaliari, Dafni Katerina

    2010-01-01

    -phosphorylated proteins in B. subtilis. We found that the majority of these proteins could be phosphorylated by PtkA in vitro. Among these new substrates, single-stranded DNA exonuclease YorK, and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Asd were activated by PtkA-dependent phosphorylation. Because enzyme activity......A was dramatically altered in Delta ptkA background. Our results confirm that PtkA can control enzyme activity of its substrates in some cases, but also reveal a new mode of action for PtkA, namely ensuring correct cellular localization of its targets.......P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously shown to phosphorylate, and thereby regulate the activity of two classes of protein substrates: UDP-glucose dehydrogenases and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Our recent phosphoproteome study identified nine new tyrosine...

  17. VHH Activators and Inhibitors for Protein Kinase C Epsilon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summanen, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), which is one of the novel PKC isozymes, is widely expressed throughout the body and has important roles in the function of the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In order to better understand PKCε regulated pathways, isozyme specific activity modulators are

  18. Protein kinase activity associated with the corticosteroid binder IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujicic, M.; Djordjevic-Markovic, R.; Radic, O.; Krstic, M.; Kanazir, D.

    1997-01-01

    The physiological effects elicited by glucocorticoids are mediated via glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Analysis of specific glucocorticoid binding to radioactively labelled [ 3 H] triamcinolone acetonide in rat liver cytosol and analysis by ion exchange chromatography have revealed the presence of two distinct molecular species. The major form, designated as binder II appears to correspond to the well characterized glucocorticoid receptor by virtue of its size, charge, steroid binding characteristics and ability to bind to DNA.The second form, designated as corticosteroid binder IB, is a minor binding component in the liver. The binder IB differs from the binder II receptor by virtue of its lower molecular weight and its elution in the pre gradient of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column which retains the un activated binder II receptor complexes. We examined the kinase activity of partially purified corticosteroid binder IB. Using (γ 3 2 P) ATP we detected kinase activity associated with the IB fraction from the rat liver. This kinase phosphorylate mixed histones and and dose not phosphorylate IB protein in vitro. The kinase activity is completely inhibited by the addition of Mg 2 + ions and is partially inhibited by the addition of Ca 2 +ions. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjects presenting with major VOC. Keywords: Serum creatine kinase activity, Serum inorganic phosphate concentration, Sickle cell disease,. Steady state, Vaso‑occlusive crisis. Original Article. Address for correspondence: Dr. John C Aneke,. Department of Hematology,. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching. Hospital ...

  20. A mathematical model of human thymidine kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radivoyevitch, Tom; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Wang, Liya

    2011-01-01

    _ The mitochondrial enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) phosphorylates deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC) to form dTMP and dCMP, which in cells rapidly become the negative-feedback end-products dTTP and dCTP. TK2 kinetic activity exhibits Hill coefficients of ∼0.5 (apparent negative cooperati...

  1. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: There is the recognition of a pattern of elevations of serum enzymes in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The aims of this study were to determine the activities of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate deydrogenase (LDH) in thyroid disorders, and to evaluate the relationship between CK, ...

  2. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in thyroid function are common endocrine disorders affecting 5-10% of individuals over ... Key words: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase ... individuals depends on age, race, lean body mass and physical activity. ... measured by radioimmunoassay on AXSYM System (Abbott.

  3. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects ...

  4. Relationship between changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity and brain edema after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity and brain edema after injury in rats.   Methods: The brain injury models were made by using a free-falling body. The treatment model was induced by means of injecting AP5 into lateral ventricle before brain injury; water contents in brain cortex were measured with dry-wet method; and NMDA receptor activity was detected with a radio ligand binding assay.   Results: The water contents began to increase at 30 minutes and reached the peak at 6 hours after brain injury. The maximal binding (Bmax) of NMDA receptor increased significantly at 15 minutes and reached the peak at 30 minutes, then decreased gradually and had the lowest value 6 hours after brain injury. Followed the treatment with AP5, NMDA receptor activity in the injured brain showed a normal value; and the water contents were lower than that of AP5-free injury group 24 hours after brain injury.   Conclusions: It suggests that excessive activation of NMDA receptor may be one of the most important factors to induce the secondary cerebral impairments, and AP5 may protect the brain from edema after brain injury.

  5. Protein S blocks the extrinsic apoptotic cascade in tissue plasminogen activator/N-methyl D-aspartate-treated neurons via Tyro3-Akt-FKHRL1 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Robert S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA benefits patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA increases the risk for intracerebral bleeding and enhances post-ischemic neuronal injury if administered 3-4 hours after stroke. Therefore, combination therapies with tPA and neuroprotective agents have been considered to increase tPA's therapeutic window and reduce toxicity. The anticoagulant factor protein S (PS protects neurons from hypoxic/ischemic injury. PS also inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA excitotoxicity by phosphorylating Bad and Mdm2 which blocks the downstream steps in the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. To test whether PS can protect neurons from tPA toxicity we studied its effects on tPA/NMDA combined injury which in contrast to NMDA alone kills neurons by activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Neither Bad nor Mdm2 which are PS's targets and control the intrinsic apoptotic pathway can influence the extrinsic cascade. Thus, based on published data one cannot predict whether PS can protect neurons from tPA/NMDA injury by blocking the extrinsic pathway. Neurons express all three TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer receptors that can potentially interact with PS. Therefore, we studied whether PS can activate TAM receptors during a tPA/NMDA insult. Results We show that PS protects neurons from tPA/NMDA-induced apoptosis by suppressing Fas-ligand (FasL production and FasL-dependent caspase-8 activation within the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. By transducing neurons with adenoviral vectors expressing the kinase-deficient Akt mutant AktK179A and a triple FKHRL1 Akt phosphorylation site mutant (FKHRL1-TM, we show that Akt activation and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FKHRL1, a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors, are critical for FasL down-regulation and caspase-8 inhibition. Using cultured neurons from Tyro3, Axl and Mer mutants, we show that Tyro3, but not Axl and Mer, mediates

  6. Partial purification and characterization of a wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase that activates heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez, J; Bertrand, L; Alessi, D R; Krause, U; Hue, L; Rider, M H

    2000-01-01

    A wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase (WISK), which phosphorylates and activates cardiac 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2), was partially purified from perfused rat hearts. Immunoblotting showed that WISK was devoid of protein kinase B (PKB), serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase and protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta). Comparison of the inhibition of WISK, PKCalpha and PKCzeta by different protein kinase inhibitors suggested that WISK was not a member of the PKC...

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... effector molecules and also in the control of intracellular bacterial replication ..... H37Ra in THP-1 cells. The fall and rise in the activation of .... use this distinct role of p38 MAPK to balance the expression of CD44 during ...

  8. Timeless links replication termination to mitotic kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraju Dheekollu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1. Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication.

  9. Src kinase conformational activation: thermodynamics, pathways, and mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichun Yang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinases of the Src-family are large allosteric enzymes that play a key role in cellular signaling. Conversion of the kinase from an inactive to an active state is accompanied by substantial structural changes. Here, we construct a coarse-grained model of the catalytic domain incorporating experimental structures for the two stable states, and simulate the dynamics of conformational transitions in kinase activation. We explore the transition energy landscapes by constructing a structural network among clusters of conformations from the simulations. From the structural network, two major ensembles of pathways for the activation are identified. In the first transition pathway, we find a coordinated switching mechanism of interactions among the alphaC helix, the activation-loop, and the beta strands in the N-lobe of the catalytic domain. In a second pathway, the conformational change is coupled to a partial unfolding of the N-lobe region of the catalytic domain. We also characterize the switching mechanism for the alphaC helix and the activation-loop in detail. Finally, we test the performance of a Markov model and its ability to account for the structural kinetics in the context of Src conformational changes. Taken together, these results provide a broad framework for understanding the main features of the conformational transition taking place upon Src activation.

  10. Effects of Butyltins (BTs) on Mitogen-Activated-Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAP3K) and Ras Activity in Human Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Lindsay J.; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally-infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to the activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 minutes of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after one hour exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT are impacting the regulation of c-Raf. PMID:24038145

  11. ROS and CDPK-like kinase-mediated activation of MAP kinase in rice roots exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsai-Lien; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2008-04-01

    Lead (Pb2+) is a cytotoxic metal ion in plants, the mechanism of which is not yet established. The aim of this study is to investigate the signalling pathways that are activated by elevated concentrations of Pb2+ in rice roots. Root growth was stunted and cell death was accelerated when exposed to different dosages of Pb2+ during extended time periods. Using ROS-sensitive dye and Ca2+ indicator, we demonstrated that Pb2+ induced ROS production and Ca2+ accumulation, respectively. In addition, Pb2+ elicited a remarkable increase in myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase activities. By immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analysis, 40- and 42-kDa MBP kinases that were activated by Pb2+ were identified to be mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Pre-treatment of rice roots with an antioxidant and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, glutathione (GSH) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), effectively reduced Pb2+-induced cell death and MAP kinase activation. Moreover, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) antagonist, W7, attenuated Pb2+-induced cell death and MAP kinase activation. These results suggested that the ROS and CDPK may function in the Pb2+-triggered cell death and MAP kinase signalling pathway in rice roots.

  12. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  13. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  14. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guocan [Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gao, Yuan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Liren [Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chao, Jui-I [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Kuan, E-mail: hklin@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  16. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guocan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Liren; Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen; Chao, Jui-I; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  17. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...

  18. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    crossinhibition, feedback control, and scaffolding. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including stress and hormonal responses, innate immunity, and developmental programs. Genetic analyses have uncovered several predominant MAPK components shared by several of these processes including...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  1. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-01-01

    is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain

  2. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR’s expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801’s influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA’s direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development.

  3. Aspartate protects Lactobacillus casei against acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspartate on the acid tolerance of L. casei. Acid stress induced the accumulation of intracellular aspartate in L. casei, and the acid-resistant mutant exhibited 32.5 % higher amount of aspartate than that of the parental strain at pH 4.3. Exogenous aspartate improved the growth performance and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus casei during acid stress. When cultivated in the presence of 50 mM aspartate, the biomass of cells increased 65.8 % compared with the control (without aspartate addition). In addition, cells grown at pH 4.3 with aspartate addition were challenged at pH 3.3 for 3 h, and the survival rate increased 42.26-fold. Analysis of the physiological data showed that the aspartate-supplemented cells exhibited higher intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular NH4 (+) content, H(+)-ATPase activity, and intracellular ATP pool. In addition, higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were observed in cells in the presence of aspartate. The increased contents of many amino acids including aspartate, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine in aspartate-added cells may contribute to the regulation of pHi. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of argG and argH increased during acid stress, and the addition of aspartate induced 1.46- and 3.06-fold higher expressions of argG and argH, respectively, compared with the control. Results presented in this manuscript suggested that aspartate may protect L. casei against acid stress, and it may be used as a potential protectant during the production of probiotics.

  4. Activation of GABAB receptors inhibits protein kinase B /Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Frances Fangjia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABAB receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABAB receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308 and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser-21/β (Ser-9 in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABAB receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of β-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABAB receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  5. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  6. Evidence for an Elevated Aspartate pKa in the Active Site of Human Aromatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Breitner, Maximilian; Bandino, Andrea; Ghosh, Debashis; Jennings, Gareth K.; Hackett, John C.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp309 in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pKa for Asp309 and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp309 with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp309 based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pKa of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp309. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pKa value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures. PMID:25425647

  7. Cellular reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eLee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are conserved eukaryote signaling modules where MAPKs, as the final kinases in the cascade, phosphorylate protein substrates to regulate cellular processes. While some progress in the identification of MAPK substrates has been made in plants, the knowledge on the spectrum of substrates and their mechanistic action is still fragmentary. In this focused review, we discuss the biological implications of the data in our original paper (Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana; Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 554 in the context of related research. In our work, we mimicked in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, through transgenic manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana and used phosphoproteomics analysis to identify potential novel MAPK substrates. Here, we plotted the identified putative MAPK substrates (and downstream phosphoproteins as a global protein clustering network. Based on a highly stringent selection confidence level, the core networks highlighted a MAPK-induced cellular reprogramming at multiple levels of gene and protein expression – including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational (such as protein modification, folding and degradation steps, and also protein re-compartmentalization. Additionally, the increase in putative substrates/phosphoproteins of energy metabolism and various secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways coincides with the observed accumulation of defense antimicrobial substances as detected by metabolome analysis. Furthermore, detection of protein networks in phospholipid or redox elements suggests activation of downstream signaling events. Taken in context with other studies, MAPKs are key regulators that reprogram cellular events to orchestrate defense signaling in eukaryotes.

  8. Hierarchical modeling of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains: thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by cancer mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and functional studies of the ABL and EGFR kinase domains have recently suggested a common mechanism of activation by cancer-causing mutations. However, dynamics and mechanistic aspects of kinase activation by cancer mutations that stimulate conformational transitions and thermodynamic stabilization of the constitutively active kinase form remain elusive. We present a large-scale computational investigation of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains by a panel of clinically important cancer mutants ABL-T315I, ABL-L387M, EGFR-T790M, and EGFR-L858R. We have also simulated the activating effect of the gatekeeper mutation on conformational dynamics and allosteric interactions in functional states of the ABL-SH2-SH3 regulatory complexes. A comprehensive analysis was conducted using a hierarchy of computational approaches that included homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, protein stability analysis, targeted molecular dynamics, and molecular docking. Collectively, the results of this study have revealed thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by major cancer-causing mutations in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains. By using multiple crystallographic states of ABL and EGFR, computer simulations have allowed one to map dynamics of conformational fluctuations and transitions in the normal (wild-type and oncogenic kinase forms. A proposed multi-stage mechanistic model of activation involves a series of cooperative transitions between different conformational states, including assembly of the hydrophobic spine, the formation of the Src-like intermediate structure, and a cooperative breakage and formation of characteristic salt bridges, which signify transition to the active kinase form. We suggest that molecular mechanisms of activation by cancer mutations could mimic the activation process of the normal kinase, yet exploiting conserved structural catalysts to accelerate a conformational transition

  9. Effect of mammals’ excretory function on aspartate aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis of research of Cd impact on the activity of the enzyme of aspartate aminotransferase (AST nitrogen metabolism and the content of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, which dominated in the research area (in natural floodplain oak forest with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts of Cd(NO32 in the range of concentrations of: 0.25, 1.25, 2.5 g/m2, equivalent to the inclusion of Cd in 1, 5, 10 doses of MAC. Increase (P < 0.05 in the activity of AST 2.6–3.0 times (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС and albumin content by 37% (with adding Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС compared to control (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals was shown. Using of excreta of some representatives of mammals (for example, Capreolus capreolus L. contributed to reduction of Cd toxic effects and restoring of the functional metabolic activity of AST by 23% (with Cd 1 МAС and by 34% (Cd 5 МAС. It is the evidence of protective function of mammals and their normalization effect at the above concentrations of Cd. Whereas the adding of Cd salts at a dose of 10 МAС led to 3 times’ inhibition of AST activity, the toxic effect of metal by excretory function of mammals was not reduced. Observations revealed the albumin content normalization by 22% in the presence of Cd 1MAC respectively (with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta and to the control level (the area without Cd pollution and excretory activity of mammals with the excreta of Sus scrofa L. in the setting of Cd 10 MAC. It proves the need to use the different mammal species for integrated and comprehensive normalization of ecosystems under conditions of uncontrolled anthropogenic pollution.

  10. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inê s CR; Willige, Bjö rn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  11. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina

    2014-06-19

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  12. Alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonists Improve Memory by Activating -methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Ion Currents in the Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hee Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Alpha1 (α1-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. These drugs not only act on peripheral tissues, but also cross the blood-brain barrier and affect the central nervous system. Therefore, α1-adrenoceptor antagonists may enhance brain functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, on short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, in rats. Methods: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, and an eight-arm radial maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining was performed in order to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Patch clamp recordings were used to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin on ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA, and kainate receptors, in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Results: Tamsulosin treatment improved short-term memory, as well as spatial learning and memory, without altering apoptosis. The amplitudes of NMDA-induced ion currents were dose-dependently increased by tamsulosin. However, the amplitudes of AMPA- and kainate-induced ion currents were not affected by tamsulosin. Conclusions: Tamsulosin enhanced memory function by activating NMDA receptor-mediated ion currents in the hippocampus without initiating apoptosis. The present study suggests the possibility of using tamsulosin to enhance memory under normal conditions, in addition to its use in treating overactive bladder.

  13. Synapses of Amphids Defective (SAD-A) Kinase Promotes Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion through Activation of p21-activated Kinase (PAK1) in Pancreatic β-Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis. PMID:22669945

  14. Synapses of amphids defective (SAD-A) kinase promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) in pancreatic β-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Sun, Chao; Faruque, Omar; Ye, Guangming; Li, Jia; Liang, Qiangrong; Chang, Zhijie; Yang, Wannian; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-07-27

    The p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1) is implicated in regulation of insulin exocytosis as an effector of Rho GTPases. PAK1 is activated by the onset of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through phosphorylation of Thr-423, a major activation site by Cdc42 and Rac1. However, the kinase(s) that phosphorylates PAK1 at Thr-423 in islet β-cells remains elusive. The present studies identified SAD-A (synapses of amphids defective), a member of AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinases exclusively expressed in brain and pancreas, as a key regulator of GSIS through activation of PAK1. We show that SAD-A directly binds to PAK1 through its kinase domain. The interaction is mediated by the p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and requires both kinases in an active conformation. The binding leads to direct phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr-423 by SAD-A, triggering the onset of GSIS from islet β-cells. Consequently, ablation of PAK1 kinase activity or depletion of PAK1 expression completely abolishes the potentiating effect of SAD-A on GSIS. Consistent with its role in regulating GSIS, overexpression of SAD-A in MIN6 islet β-cells significantly stimulated cytoskeletal remodeling, which is required for insulin exocytosis. Together, the present studies identified a critical role of SAD-A in the activation of PAK1 during the onset of insulin exocytosis.

  15. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  16. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-01-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulat...

  17. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  18. Involvement of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases in experimental normothermic liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursio, R; Filippa, N; Miele, C; Van Obberghen, E; Gugenheim, J

    2006-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of protein kinase B (PKB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in normothermic ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced apoptosis in rat liver. Rats were divided into two groups that received either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-2,6-dichorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-cmk), injected intravenously 2 min before the induction of 120 min of normothermic liver ischaemia. Liver apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. PI3-K, PKB, BAD and MAPK activities were measured in ischaemic and non-ischaemic lobes at various times after reperfusion. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased after pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. In controls, PI3-K and PKB activities and BAD phosphorylation were inhibited in ischaemic liver lobes. The MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38) showed different patterns of activation during IR. PKB activity was not modified by pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. Induction of apoptosis during IR liver injury might be triggered by inactivation of the antiapoptotic PI3-K-PKB pathway and activation of the proapoptotic MAPKs. Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Kinase activation through dimerization by human SH2-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Werner, Eric D; Oh, Byung-Chul; Frantz, J Daniel; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Hansen, Lone; Lee, Jongsoon; Shoelson, Steven E

    2005-04-01

    The isoforms of SH2-B, APS, and Lnk form a family of signaling proteins that have been described as activators, mediators, or inhibitors of cytokine and growth factor signaling. We now show that the three alternatively spliced isoforms of human SH2-B readily homodimerize in yeast two-hybrid and cellular transfections assays, and this is mediated specifically by a unique domain in its amino terminus. Consistent with previous reports, we further show that the SH2 domains of SH2-B and APS bind JAK2 at Tyr813. These findings suggested a model in which two molecules of SH2-B or APS homodimerize with their SH2 domains bound to two JAK2 molecules, creating heterotetrameric JAK2-(SH2-B)2-JAK2 or JAK2-(APS)2-JAK2 complexes. We further show that APS and SH2-B isoforms heterodimerize. At lower levels of SH2-B or APS expression, dimerization approximates two JAK2 molecules to induce transactivation. At higher relative concentrations of SH2-B or APS, kinase activation is blocked. SH2-B or APS homodimerization and SH2-B/APS heterodimerization thus provide direct mechanisms for activating and inhibiting JAK2 and other kinases from the inside of the cell and for potentiating or attenuating cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling when ligands are present.

  20. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from [ 14 C]asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from [ 14 C]asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis

  1. The Axl kinase domain in complex with a macrocyclic inhibitor offers first structural insights into an active TAM receptor kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Ketan S; Grodsky, Neil; Bolaños, Ben; Feng, Junli; Ferre, RoseAnn; Timofeevski, Sergei; Xu, Meirong; Murray, Brion W; Johnson, Ted W; Stewart, Al

    2017-09-22

    The receptor tyrosine kinase family consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) is one of the most recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase families. TAM receptors are up-regulated postnatally and maintained at high levels in adults. They all play an important role in immunity, but Axl has also been implicated in cancer and therefore is a target in the discovery and development of novel therapeutics. However, of the three members of the TAM family, the Axl kinase domain is the only one that has so far eluded structure determination. To this end, using differential scanning fluorimetry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, we show here that a lower stability and greater dynamic nature of the Axl kinase domain may account for its poor crystallizability. We present the first structural characterization of the Axl kinase domain in complex with a small-molecule macrocyclic inhibitor. The Axl crystal structure revealed two distinct conformational states of the enzyme, providing a first glimpse of what an active TAM receptor kinase may look like and suggesting a potential role for the juxtamembrane region in enzyme activity. We noted that the ATP/inhibitor-binding sites of the TAM members closely resemble each other, posing a challenge for the design of a selective inhibitor. We propose that the differences in the conformational dynamics among the TAM family members could potentially be exploited to achieve inhibitor selectivity for targeted receptors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  3. Aspartic protease inhibitory and nematocidal activity of phenyl-4-(2-phenylhydrazonohexahydrofuro[3,2-c]pyridazin-7-ol (Percival dianhydroosazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed H. El Ashry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized Phenyl-4-(2-phenylhydrazonohexahydrofuro[3,2-c]pyridazin-7-ol (compound 3. The structure compound 3 was elucidated with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EIMS spectra. Compound 3 showed potent inhibitory activity against aspartic proteases, human cathepsin D and Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin-II with IC50 = 20 μM. Enzyme-inhibitor complexes were predicted to stabilize by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the side chains of amino acid residues at the active center and compound 3. Moreover, compound 3 displayed good nematocidal activity against all developmental stages of C. elegans.

  4. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) by their ligands and protein kinase A activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Canaple, Laurence; Saugy, Damien; Wahli, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, β and γ activate the transcription of multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism. Several natural and synthetic ligands have been identified for each PPAR isotype but little is known about the phosphorylation state of these receptors. We show here that activators of protein kinase A (PKA) can enhance mouse PPAR activity in the absence and the presence of exogenous ligands in transient transfection experiments. The activation function 1 (AF-1) of PPARs was dispensable for transcriptional enhancement, whereas the activation function 2 (AF-2) was required for this effect. We also show that several domains of PPAR can be phosphorylated by PKA in vitro. Moreover, gel experiments suggest that PKA stabilizes binding of the liganded PPAR to DNA. PKA inhibitors decreased not only the kinase dependent induction of PPARs but also their ligand-dependent induction, suggesting that the ligands may also mobilize the PKA pathway to lead to maximal transcriptional induction by PPARs. Moreover, comparing PPARα KO with PPARα wild-type mice, we show that the expression of the ACO gene can be regulated by PKA-activated PPARα in liver. These data demonstrate that the PKA pathway is an important modulator of PPAR activity and we propose a model associating this pathway in the control of fatty acid β-oxidation under conditions of fasting, stress and exercise. PMID:11117527

  5. Arctigenin protects against steatosis in WRL68 hepatocytes through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-Yen; Lin, Jui-An; Yao, Han-Yun; Hsu, An-Chih; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jui-Tai; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Shen, Tang-Long; Hsu, Ren-Yi; Wu, Hong-Tan; Wang, Guey Horng; Ho, Bing-Ying; Chen, Yu-Pei

    2018-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ATG significantly mitigated the expression of acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and significantly increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The 40 targets of the Human Inflammation Antibody Array indicated that ATG significantly inhibited the elevation of the U937 lymphocyte chemoattractant, ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-7, and IL-8. ATG could activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways and could increase the phosphorylation levels of Akt and AMPK to mediate cell survival, lipid metabolism, oxidation stress, and inflammation. Thus, we demonstrated that ATG could inhibit NAFLD progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation, and we provided insights into the underlying mechanisms and revealed potential targets to enable a thorough understanding of NAFLD progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  7. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB, WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note.

  8. Visual Snapshots of Intracellular Kinase Activity At The Onset of Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Dulyaninova, Natalya G.; Kumar, Sanjai; Bresnick, Anne R.; Lawrence, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Visual snapshots of intracellular kinase activity can be acquired with exquisite temporal control using a light-activatable (caged) sensor, thereby providing a means to interrogate enzymatic activity at any point during the cell division cycle. Robust protein kinase activity transpires just prior to, but not immediately following, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). Furthermore, kinase activity is required for progression from prophase into metaphase. Finally, the application of selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, in combination with the caged sensor, correlates the action of the PKC β isoform with subsequent NEB. PMID:18022564

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme that works as a fuel gauge, being activated in situations of high-energy phosphate depletion. Upon activation, AMPK functions to restore cellular ATP by modifying diverse metabolic pathways. AMPK is activated robustly by skeletal muscle contraction and myocardial ischemia, and may be involved in the stimulation of glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation produced by these stimuli. In liver, activation of AMPK results in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and in decreased production of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Recent studies have shown that AMPK is the cellular mediator for many of the metabolic effects of drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones, as well as the insulin sensitizing adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin. These data, along with evidence from studies showing that chemical activation of AMPK in vivo with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) improves blood glucose concentrations and lipid profiles, make this enzyme an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

  10. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  11. Kinase activity determination of specific AMPK complexes/heterotrimers in the skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the kinase activity of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an essential part of understanding the regulation of this metabolic master switch. The AMPK heterotrimer can exist in 12 different constellations with potentially diverse activation patterns. It is therefore important ...

  12. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases activate nucleoside antibiotics in severely pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against pathog...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria.......Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. We show that pyrimidine-based nucleoside analogs, like 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',2'-difluoro-2'deoxycytidine (gemcitabine), are specifically activated by the endogenous bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases, leading to cell death. Deoxyribonucleoside...

  13. Cardiac imaging in RASopathies/mitogen activated protein kinase syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gravino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RASopathies include a spectrum of disorders due to dysregulation of RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway that plays an essential role in the control of the cell cycle and differentiation. As a consequence, its dysregulation has profound developmental consequences, in particular cardiac malformations. RASopathies with cardiac features are: Noonan syndrome, multiple lentigines syndrome, cardio-faciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis- 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis- Noonan syndrome. The former syndromes are associated with a high rate of cardiac involvement (60-85% and 12 genes: PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, HRAS, BRAF, MEK1/MAP2K1, MEK2/MAP2K2, NRAS, SHOC2, CBL and SPRED1. Although the majority of these diseases are readily distinguishable in clinical terms, an integrated imaging study of the cardiac condition associated to RASopathies helps to better define risk assessment, surveillance, and management of these patients.

  14. A Novel Aspartic Protease with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activity from Fresh Fruiting Bodies of the Wild Mushroom Xylaria hypoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Xiu Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel aspartic protease with HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity was isolated and characterized from fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Xylaria hypoxylon. The purification protocol comprised distilled water homogenization and extraction step, three ion exchange chromatographic steps (on DEAE-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and CM-cellulose in succession, and final purification was by FPLC on Superdex 75. The protease was adsorbed on all the three ion exchangers. It was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 43 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and FPLC. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was HYTELLSQVV, which exhibited no sequence homology to other proteases reported. The activity of the protease was adversely affected by Pepstatin A, indicating that it is an aspartic protease. The protease activity was maximal or nearly so in the pH range 6–8 and in the temperature range 35–60°C. The purified enzyme exhibited HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 8.3 μM, but was devoid of antifungal, ribonuclease, and hemagglutinating activities.

  15. Effects of phorbol ester on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activity in wild-type and phorbol ester-resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K C; Homma, M K; Licciardi, K A; Seger, R; Ahn, N G; Peterson, M J; Krebs, E G; Meier, K E

    1993-08-05

    Phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cell lines differ in their ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to phorbol ester. Treatment of wild-type EL4 cells with phorbol ester results in the rapid activations of MAPK and pp90rsk kinase, a substrate for MAPK, while neither kinase is activated in response to phorbol ester in variant EL4 cells. This study examines the activation of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), an activator of MAPK, in wild-type and variant EL4 cells. Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa substrate, identified as MAPK, was observed following in vitro phosphorylation reactions using cytosolic extracts or Mono Q column fractions prepared from phorbol ester-treated wild-type EL4 cells. MAPKK activity coeluted with a portion of the inactive MAPK upon Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography, permitting detection of the MAPKK activity in fractions containing both kinases. This MAPKK activity was present in phorbol ester-treated wild-type cells, but not in phorbol ester-treated variant cells or in untreated wild-type or variant cells. The MAPKK from wild-type cells was able to activate MAPK prepared from either wild-type or variant cells. MAPKK activity could be stimulated in both wildtype and variant EL4 cells in response to treatment of cells with okadaic acid. These results indicate that the failure of variant EL4 cells to activate MAP kinase in response to phorbol ester is due to a failure to activate MAPKK. Therefore, the step that confers phorbol ester resistance to variant EL4 cells lies between the activation of protein kinase C and the activation of MAPKK.

  16. DNA Damage-Induced Acetylation of Lysine 3016 of ATM Activates ATM Kinase Activity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingli; Xu, Ye; Roy, Kanaklata; Price, Brendan D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATM protein kinase is essential for cells to repair and survive genotoxic events. The activation of ATM's kinase activity involves acetylation of ATM by the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. In this study, systematic mutagenesis of lysine residues was used to identify regulatory ATM acetylation sites. The results identify a single acetylation site at lysine 3016, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal FATC domain adjacent to the kinase domain. Antibodies specific for acetyl-ly...

  17. Selective anticancer activity of a hexapeptide with sequence homology to a non-kinase domain of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwala Usha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6 (Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 are closely structurally homologous proteins which are classically understood to control the transition from the G1 to the S-phases of the cell cycle by combining with their appropriate cyclin D or cyclin E partners to form kinase-active holoenzymes. Deregulation of Cdk4 is widespread in human cancer, CDK4 gene knockout is highly protective against chemical and oncogene-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis, despite the continued presence of CDK2 and CDK6; and overexpresssion of Cdk4 promotes skin carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, however, Cdk4 kinase inhibitors have not yet fulfilled their expectation as 'blockbuster' anticancer agents. Resistance to inhibition of Cdk4 kinase in some cases could potentially be due to a non-kinase activity, as recently reported with epidermal growth factor receptor. Results A search for a potential functional site of non-kinase activity present in Cdk4 but not Cdk2 or Cdk6 revealed a previously-unidentified loop on the outside of the C'-terminal non-kinase domain of Cdk4, containing a central amino-acid sequence, Pro-Arg-Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (PRGPRP. An isolated hexapeptide with this sequence and its cyclic amphiphilic congeners are selectively lethal at high doses to a wide range of human cancer cell lines whilst sparing normal diploid keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Treated cancer cells do not exhibit the wide variability of dose response typically seen with other anticancer agents. Cancer cell killing by PRGPRP, in a cyclic amphiphilic cassette, requires cells to be in cycle but does not perturb cell cycle distribution and is accompanied by altered relative Cdk4/Cdk1 expression and selective decrease in ATP levels. Morphological features of apoptosis are absent and cancer cell death does not appear to involve autophagy. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential new paradigm for the development of broad-spectrum cancer specific therapeutics with

  18. Relationship between structure, conformational flexibility, and biological activity of agonists and antagonists at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Brehm, L; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between conformational flexibility and agonist or antagonist actions at the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of central L-glutamic acid (GLU) receptors of a series of racemic piperidinedicarboxylic acids (PDAs) was studied. The conformational analyses were based on 1H NMR...... receptors. Each of the three cyclic acidic amino acids showing NMDA agonist activities was found to exist as an equilibrium mixture of two conformers in aqueous solution. In contrast, the NMDA antagonists cis-2,3-PDA and cis-2,4-PDA as well as the inactive compounds trans-2,5-PDA and cis-2,6-PDA were shown...

  19. UV ACTIVATION OF RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE-ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COFFER, PJ; BURGERING, BMT; PEPPELENBOSCH, MP; BOS, JL; KRUIJER, W

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet radiation (UV) may lead to DNA damage resulting in mutation and thus possibly cancer, while irradiation can further act as a potent tumour promoter. In addition UV induces p21ras-mediated signalling leading to activation of transcription factors such as

  20. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.; Kwezi, Lusisizwe; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Christoph A

    2012-01-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  1. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2012-02-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  2. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ regulates RhoA activation via a kinase-independent scaffolding mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Abramovici, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    , but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, selectively dissociates Rac1 by stimulating PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-101/174. Similarly, phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-34 by protein kinase Cα (PKCα......GDI and was required for efficient interaction of PKCα and RhoA. DGKζ-null fibroblasts had condensed F-actin bundles and altered focal adhesion distribution, indicative of aberrant RhoA signaling. Two targets of the RhoA effector ROCK showed reduced phosphorylation in DGKζ-null cells. Collectively our findings suggest...

  3. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA...... increased HCV IRES-mediated translation and MAPKAPK3-dependent HCV IRES activity was further increased by core protein. These data suggest that HCV core may modulate MAPKAPK3 to facilitate its own propagation....

  4. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  5. Alzheimer's disease pathological lesions activate the spleen tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, Jonas Elias; Yao, Hailan; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Mouzon, Benoit; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dystrophic neurites (DNs) surrounding extracellular Aβ-plaques, microgliosis, astrogliosis, intraneuronal tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation. We have previously shown that inhibition of the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) lowers Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ-overexpressing Tg PS1/APPsw, Tg APPsw mice, and tau overexpressing Tg Tau P301S mice exhibit a pathological activation of Syk compared to wild-type littermates. Syk activation is occurring in a subset of microglia and is age-dependently increased in Aβ-plaque-associated dystrophic neurites of Tg PS1/APPsw and Tg APPsw mice. In Tg Tau P301S mice, a pure model of tauopathy, activated Syk occurs in neurons that show an accumulation of misfolded and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, the tau pathology is exacerbated in neurons that display high levels of Syk activation supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathological species in vivo. Importantly, human AD brain sections show both pathological Syk activation in DNs around Aβ deposits and in neurons immunopositive for pathological tau species recapitulating the data obtained in transgenic mouse models of AD. Additionally, we show that Syk overexpression leads to increased tau accumulation and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple epitopes in human neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells, further supporting a role of Syk in the formation of tau pathogenic species. Collectively, our data show that Syk activation occurs following Aβ deposition and the formation of tau pathological species. Given that we have previously shown that Syk activation also promotes Aβ formation and tau hyperphosphorylation, our data suggest that AD pathological lesions may be self-propagating via a Syk dependent mechanism highlighting Syk as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of alanine and aspartate transaminases in subcellular fractions of the brain and heart in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenin, A E

    1973-01-01

    In experiments on rats, the activity of alanine (I) and aspartate transaminases (II) was studied in homogenates and subcellular fractions of the brain and myocardium under normal conditions and for 30 days after ..gamma.. irradiation at 40 rads. The activity of II in brain homogenates increased 1 hour after irradiation but decreased by 20 percent on day 3; it decreased again on days 7 and 15. The activity of brain I increased after 1 hour and 3 days but then returned to normal. The activity of I in heart homogenates increased in all the periods after irradiation. The subcellular fractions exhibited phase changes in the activity of the enzymes. These changes were different in nature from those observed after X and ..gamma.. irradiation at the same dose.

  7. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    , inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...... phosphorylation of the MAP kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2. The MAP kinase activation was sustained, because ERK1 and ERK2 were phosphorylated in PC12-E2 cells and primary hippocampal neurons even after 24 hr of cultivation on NCAM-expressing fibroblasts. Based on these results, we...

  8. DMPD: Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14726496 Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Cor...osine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. PubmedID 14726496 Title Receptor tyrosine...rell PH, Morrison AC, Lutz MA. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):731-7. Epub 2004 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Receptor tyr

  9. Structures of down syndrome kinases, DYRKs, reveal mechanisms of kinase activation and substrate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soundararajan, M.; Roos, A.K.; Savitsky, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) play key roles in brain development, regulation of splicing, and apoptosis, and are potential drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We present crystal structures of one representative member of each DYRK sub...

  10. Maintaining glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity is critical for mTOR kinase inhibitors to inhibit cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Junghui; Yue, Ping; Gal, Anthony A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2014-05-01

    mTOR kinase inhibitors that target both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are being evaluated in cancer clinical trials. Here, we report that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a critical determinant for the therapeutic response to this class of experimental drugs. Pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 antagonized their suppressive effects on the growth of cancer cells similarly to genetic attenuation of GSK3. Conversely, expression of a constitutively activated form of GSK3β sensitized cancer cells to mTOR inhibition. Consistent with these findings, higher basal levels of GSK3 activity in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines correlated with more efficacious responses. Mechanistic investigations showed that mTOR kinase inhibitors reduced cyclin D1 levels in a GSK3β-dependent manner, independent of their effects on suppressing mTORC1 signaling and cap binding. Notably, selective inhibition of mTORC2 triggered proteasome-mediated cyclin D1 degradation, suggesting that mTORC2 blockade is responsible for GSK3-dependent reduction of cyclin D1. Silencing expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBX4 rescued this reduction, implicating FBX4 in mediating this effect of mTOR inhibition. Together, our findings define a novel mechanism by which mTORC2 promotes cell growth, with potential implications for understanding the clinical action of mTOR kinase inhibitors. ©2014 AACR.

  11. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  12. Thymidine uptake, thymidine incorporation, and thymidine kinase activity in marine bacterium isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, W.H.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    One assumption made in bacterial production estimates from [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation is that all heterotrophic bacteria can incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA. Heterotrophic marine bacterium isolates from Tampa Bay, Fla., Chesapeake Bay, Md., and a coral surface microlayer were examined for thymidine uptake (transport), thymidine incorporation, the presence of thymidine kinase genes, and thymidine kinase enzyme activity. Of the 41 isolates tested, 37 were capable of thymidine incorporation into DNA. The four organisms that could not incorporate thymidine also transported the thymidine poorly and lacked thymidine kinase activity. Attempts to detect thymidine kinase genes in the marine isolates by molecular probing with gene probes made from Escherichia coli and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes proved unsuccessful. To determine if the inability to incorporate thymidine was due to the lack of thymidine kinase, one organism, Vibro sp. strain DI9, was transformed with a plasmid (pGQ3) that contained an E. coli thymidine kinase gene. Although enzyme assays indicated high levels of thymidine kinase activity in transformants, these cells still failed to incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA or to transport thymidine into cells. These results indicate that the inability of certain marine bacteria to incorporate thymidine may not be solely due to the lack of thymidine kinase activity but may also be due to the absence of thymidine transport systems

  13. A cluster of aspartic residues in the extracellular loop II of PAR 4 is important for thrombin interaction and activation of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Centellas, Daniel; Gudlur, Sushanth; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2017-06-01

    Thrombin activates platelets via proteolytic cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs) 1 and 4. The two PARs have distinct but complementary roles. The mechanisms responsible for PAR1 activation by thrombin have been extensively studied. However, much less is known regarding thrombin activation of PAR4, especially the potential involvement of regions of PAR4 other than the N-terminal, which is bound to the catalytic site of thrombin. We have studied PAR4 in S. cerevisiae strain MMY12, an expression system in which the GPCR receptors are connected to a Lac Z reporter gene resulting in increased β-galactosidase activity. This approach was used to assess PAR4 mutants to evaluate the contribution of different aspartic residues in facilitating PAR4 activation. Furthermore, peptides mimicking parts of the PAR4 N-terminal and the second extracellular loop (ECLII) were tested for their ability to inhibit platelet activation by thrombin. Binding of these peptides to γ-thrombin was studied by monitoring the decrease in tryptophan fluorescence intensity of thrombin. We conclude that not only the N-terminal but also the electronegative aspartic residues D224, D230 and D235 (located in ECLII) are be important for PAR4 binding to thrombin. We further suggest that they play a role for the tethered ligand binding to the receptor, as mutations also affected activation in response to a PAR4-activating peptide mimicking the new N-terminal formed after cleavage. This agrees with previous results on PAR1 and thrombin binding. We suggest that the ECLII of PAR4 could be a potential target for antithrombotic drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  15. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2015), s. 495-502 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus oocyte complexes * meiosis resumption * mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.453, year: 2015

  16. Redox regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death.The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC.Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation.In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-N(G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC.Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells.

  17. Sphingosine kinase activity is not required for tumor cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rex

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology.

  18. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase activity in canine cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative. Statistical analysis showed that CSF-CK alone cannot be used as a diagnostic tool and that total proteins in the CSF and red blood cells (RBCs) do not have a significant relationship with the CSF-CK activity. CSF-CK did not have a diagnostic value for different disease groups or anatomical areas of the nervous system.

  19. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  20. Pervanadate induces Mammalian Ste20 Kinase 3 (MST3) tyrosine phosphorylation but not activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Wei-Chih; Lu, Te-Ling; Ling, Pin; Lee, Te-Hsiu; Cho, Chien-Yu; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Weng, Yui-Ping; Chiang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Jin Bin; Lu, Te-Jung

    2016-07-01

    The yeast Ste20 (sterile) protein kinase, which is a serine/threonine kinase, responds to the stimulation of the G proteincoupled receptor (GPCR) pheromone receptor. Ste20 protein kinase serves as the critical component that links signaling from the GPCR/G proteins to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in yeast. The yeast Ste20p functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase (MAP4K) in the pheromone response. Ste20-like kinases are structurally conserved from yeast to mammals. The mechanism by which MAP4K links GPCR to the MAPK pathway is less clearly defined in vertebrates. In addition to MAP4K, the tyrosine kinase cascade bridges G proteins and the MAPK pathway in vertebrate cells. Mammalian Ste20 Kinase 3 (MST3) has been categorized into the Ste20 family and has been reported to function in the regulation of cell polarity and migration. However, whether MST3 tyrosine phosphorylation regulates diverse signaling pathways is unknown. In this study, the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate was found to induce MST3 tyrosine phosphorylation in intact cells, and the activity of tyrosine-phosphorylated MST3 was measured. This tyrosine-directed phosphorylation was independent of MST3 activity. Parameters including protein conformation, Triton concentration and ionic concentration influenced the sensitivity of MST3 activity. Taken together, our data suggests that the serine/threonine kinase MST3 undergoes tyrosinedirected phosphorylation. The tyrosine-phosphorylated MST3 may create a docking site for the structurally conserved SH2/SH3 (Src Homology 2 and 3) domains within the Src oncoprotein. The unusual tyrosinephosphorylated MST3 may recruit MST3 to various signaling components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Novel autophosphorylation sites of Src family kinases regulate kinase activity and SH2 domain-binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Marion E; Mann, Jacqueline E; Corwin, Thomas; Fulton, Zachary W; Hao, Jennifer M; Maniscalco, Jeanine F; Kenney, Marie C; Roman Roque, Kristal M; Chapdelaine, Elizabeth F; Stelzl, Ulrich; Deming, Paula B; Ballif, Bryan A; Hinkle, Karen L

    2016-04-01

    Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are critical players in normal and aberrant biological processes. While phosphorylation importantly regulates SFKs at two known tyrosines, large-scale phosphoproteomics have revealed four additional tyrosines commonly phosphorylated in SFKs. We found these novel tyrosines to be autophosphorylation sites. Mimicking phosphorylation at the C-terminal site to the activation loop decreased Fyn activity. Phosphomimetics and direct phosphorylation at the three SH2 domain sites increased Fyn activity while reducing phosphotyrosine-dependent interactions. While 68% of human SH2 domains exhibit conservation of at least one of these tyrosines, few have been found phosphorylated except when found in cis to a kinase domain. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase but Not of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Lymphocytes Requires Allosteric Activation of SOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jesse E.; Yang, Ming; Chen, Hang; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-01-01

    Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation. Here we employed computational modeling and biochemical experiments with model cell lines and thymocytes to show that TCR-induced ERK activation grows exponentially in thymocytes and that a W729E allosteric pocket mutant, SOS1, can only reconstitute analog ERK signaling. In agreement with RasGRP allosterically priming SOS, exponential ERK activation is severely decreased by pharmacological or genetic perturbation of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-diacylglycerol-RasGRP1 pathway. In contrast, p38 activation is not sharply thresholded and requires high-level TCR signal input. Rac and p38 activation depends on SOS1 expression but not allosteric activation. Based on computational predictions and experiments exploring whether SOS functions as a RacGEF or adaptor in Rac-p38 activation, we established that the presence of SOS1, but not its enzymatic activity, is critical for p38 activation. PMID:23589333

  3. Theoretical Insights Reveal Novel Motions in Csk's SH3 Domain That Control Kinase Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulyman Barkho

    Full Text Available The Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs regulate numerous aspects of cell growth and differentiation and are under the principal control of the C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk. Although Csk and SFKs share conserved kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, they differ considerably in three-dimensional structure, regulatory mechanism, and the intrinsic kinase activities. Although the SH2 and SH3 domains are known to up- or down-regulate tyrosine kinase function, little is known about the global motions in the full-length kinase that govern these catalytic variations. We use a combination of accelerated Molecular Dynamics (aMD simulations and experimental methods to provide a new view of functional motions in the Csk scaffold. These computational studies suggest that high frequency vibrations in the SH2 domain are coupled through the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain to motions in the SH3 domain. The effects of these reflexive movements on the kinase domain can be viewed using both Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (DXMS and steady-state kinetic methods. Removal of several contacts, including a crystallographically unobserved N-terminal segment, between the SH3 and kinase domains short-circuit these coupled motions leading to reduced catalytic efficiency and stability of N-lobe motifs within the kinase domain. The data expands the model of Csk's activation whereby separate domains productively interact with two diametrically opposed surfaces of the kinase domain. Such reversible transitions may organize the active structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of Csk.

  4. S -Nitrosylation inhibits the kinase activity of tomato phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian-Zhong; Duan, Jicheng; Ni, Min; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Wen-Li; Whitham, Steven A.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2017-09-29

    It is well known that the reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), can trigger cell death in plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that NO may trigger cell death in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) through inhibiting the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) kinase activity via S-nitrosylation. Biotin-switch assays and LC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated that SlPDK1 was a target of S-nitrosylation modification, which primarily occurred on the cysteine residue at position 128 (Cys128). Accordingly, the kinase activity of SlPDK1 was inhibited by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) both in vitro and in vivo in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that SlPDK1 activity is regulated by S-nitrosylation. The inhibition of SlPDK1 kinase activity by GSNO was reversible in the presence of a reducing agent but synergistically enhanced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Mutation of Cys128 to serine completely abolished SlPDK1 kinase activity, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys128 is responsible for the inhibition of the kinase activity of SlPDK1. In sum, our results established a potential link between NO-triggered cell death and inhibition of the kinase activity of tomato PDK1, a conserved negative regulator of cell death in yeasts, mammals and plants. Nitric oxide (NO) potentiates the induction of hypersensitive cell death in soybean cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1). However, the molecular mechanism of the NO-induced cell death remains an enigma. One potential mechanism is that the activity of proteins that control cell death may be altered by a post-translational modification, S-nitrosylation. S-nitrosylation is the addition of the NO moiety to thiol groups, including cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins, to form S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). S-nitrosylation is an enzyme-independent post-translational and labile modification that can function as an on/off switch of protein activity (2- 4). Thousands of diverse

  5. A chimeric cyclic interferon-α2b peptide induces apoptosis by sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase Cδ and p38 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, V C; Bertucci, L; Furmento, V A; Peña, C; Marino, V J; Roguin, L P

    2013-06-10

    We have previously demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation are involved in the apoptotic response triggered by a chimeric cyclic peptide of the interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) in WISH cells. Since the peptide also induced serine phosphorylation of STAT proteins, in the present study we examined the kinase involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation and the signaling effectors acting upstream such activation. We first found that p38 MAPK is involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation, since a reduction of phophoserine-STAT1 levels was evident after incubating WISH cells with cyclic peptide in the presence of a p38 pharmacological inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38 mutant. Next, we demonstrated that the peptide induced activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). Based on this finding, the role of this kinase was then evaluated. After incubating WISH cells with a PKCδ inhibitor or after decreasing PKCδ expression levels by RNA interference, both peptide-induced serine STAT1 and p38 phosphorylation levels were significantly decreased, indicating that PKCδ functions as an upstream regulator of p38. We also showed that PKCδ and p38 activation stimulated by the peptide was inhibited by a specific pharmacological inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or by a dominant-negative p85 PI3K-regulatory subunit, suggesting that PI3K is upstream in the signaling cascade. In addition, the role of PI3K and PKCδ in cyclic peptide-induced apoptosis was examined. Both signaling effectors were found to regulate the antiproliferative activity and the apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that STAT1 serine phosphorylation is mediated by the sequential activation of PI3K, PKCδ and p38 MAPK. This signaling cascade contributes to the antitumor effect induced by the chimeric IFN-α2b cyclic peptide in WISH cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  6. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the kidney: Target for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; Wassef, L.; Kelly, D.J.; van Goor, H.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular signal transduction molecules, which connect cell-surface receptor signals to intracellular processes. MAPKs regulate a range of cellular activities including cell proliferation, gene expression, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cytokine

  7. Diacylglycerol kinase theta and zeta isoforms : regulation of activity, protein binding partners and physiological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Alrik Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) phosphorylate the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) yielding phosphatidic acid (PA). In this thesis, we investigated which structural domains of DGKtheta are required for DGK activity. Furthermore, we showed that DGKzeta binds to and is activated by the

  8. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. ... have shown that the stress associated with cold temperature ..... vation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, studied using.

  9. Herpesviruses in the Activated Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-δ Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I. Cohen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. They present with lymphoproliferation and often have infections, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe virus infections. The most frequent virus infections are due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV; patients often present with persistent EBV and/or CMV viremia, EBV lymphoproliferative disease, or CMV lymphadenitis. No patients have been reported with CMV pneumonia, colitis, or retinitis. Other herpesvirus infections have included herpes simplex pneumonia, recurrent zoster, and varicella after vaccination with the varicella vaccine. Additional viral infections have included adenovirus viremia, severe warts, and extensive Molluscum contagiosum virus infection. The increased susceptibility to virus infections in these patients is likely due to a reduced number of long-lived memory CD8 T cells and an increased number of terminally differentiated effector CD8 T cells.

  10. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  11. Lindersin B from Lindernia crustacea induces neuritogenesis by activation of tyrosine kinase A/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lihong; Ye, Ying; Xiang, Lan; Osada, Hiroyuki; Qi, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) play important roles in nervous system. NGF is a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of physicochemical property, NGF cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Hence, small molecules which exhibit NGF-mimic activity and can pass through the BBB are considered to be promising drug candidates for treatment of such diseases. The present study was designed to isolate NGF-mimic substance from extract of natural products, determine their structures and investigate mechanism of action of the active substance. Extract of Lindernia crustacean was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate to obtain water layer and ethyl acetate layer samples, respectively, and then evaluated their neuritogenic activity in PC12 cells. The active sample was separated by open columns, followed by HPLC purification to obtain active compound. Then, specific inhibitors were used to investigate signaling pathway of neurite outgrowth induced by the active compound. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to confirm the pathway proposed by inhibitor experiments. The ethyl acetate layer sample of extract of Lindernia crustacea exhibited significant neuritogenic activity. Two new compounds, named as linderside A and lindersin B, were isolated; their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical derivatization methods. Linderside A is a cucurbitane glycoside, whereas lindersin B is a cucurbitane triterpenoid. Each compound has an unusual isopentene unit, namely, a double bond bound to an unmodified isopropyl group at the end of cucurbitane triterpenoid side chain. Among them, lindersin B induced significant neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, while linderside A was inactive against PC12 cells. Western blotting analysis results showed that lindersin B-induced neuritogenic activity depended on the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal

  12. Structure and allosteric effects of low-molecular-weight activators on the protein kinase PDK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindie, Valerie; Stroba, Adriana; Zhang, Hua

    2009-01-01

    -dependent activation of AGC kinases. The AGC kinase PDK1 is activated by the docking of a phosphorylated motif from substrates. Here we present the crystallography of PDK1 bound to a rationally developed low-molecular-weight activator and describe the conformational changes induced by small compounds in the crystal...... molecular details of the allosteric changes induced by small compounds that trigger the activation of PDK1 through mimicry of phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes....

  13. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  14. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)

    2010-09-21

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  15. Xanthene derivatives increase glucose utilization through activation of LKB1-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that regulates energy expenditure by activating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. Therefore AMPK activators are considered to be drug targets for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. To identify novel AMPK activators, we screened xanthene derivatives. We determined that the AMPK activators 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-nitro-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xn and 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-cyano-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xc elevated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes by stimulating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4. Treatment with the chemical AMPK inhibitor compound C and infection with dominant-negative AMPKa2-virus inhibited AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake in myotubes induced by either Xn or Xc. Of the two major upstream kinases of AMPK, we found that Xn and Xc showed LKB1 dependency by knockdown of STK11, an ortholog of human LKB1. Single intravenous administration of Xn and Xc to high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice stimulated AMPK phosphorylation of skeletal muscle and improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results suggest that Xn and Xc regulate glucose homeostasis through LKB1-dependent AMPK activation and that the compounds are potential candidate drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Comparative active-site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Uhlin, Ulla; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    surrounding the substrate base. In CeTK1, some of these mutations led to increased activity with deoxycytidine and deoxyguanosine, two unusual substrates for TK1-like kinases. In HuTK1, mutation of T163 to S resulted in a kinase with a 140-fold lower K(m) for the antiviral nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3...

  17. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH, Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly, and Porphyra (P334 were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK. These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies.

  18. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  19. A Requirement for ZAK Kinase Activity in Canonical TGF-β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Nyati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase ZAK (AZK, MLT, MLK7, is a MAPK-kinase kinase (MKKK. Like most MAPKKKs which are known to activate the c-Jun. amino-terminal kinase (JNK pathway, ZAK has been shown to participate in the transduction of Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β-mediated non-canonical signaling. A role for ZAK in SMAD-dependent, canonical TGF-β signaling has not been previously appreciated. Using a combination of functional genomics and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that ZAK regulates canonical TGFβRI/II signaling in lung and breast cancer cell lines and may serve as a key node in the regulation of TGFBR kinase activity. Remarkably, we demonstrate that siRNA mediated depletion of ZAK strongly inhibited TGF-β dependent SMAD2/3 activation and subsequent promoter activation (SMAD binding element driven luciferase expression; SBE4-Luc. A ZAK specific inhibitor (DHP-2, dose-dependently activated the bioluminescent TGFBR-kinase activity reporter (BTR, blocked TGF-β induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and SBE4-Luc activation and cancer cell-invasion. In aggregate, these findings identify a novel role for the ZAK kinase in canonical TGF-β signaling and an invasive cancer cell phenotype thus providing a novel target for TGF-β inhibition.

  20. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Stimulation of casein kinase II by epidermal growth factor: Relationship between the physiological activity of the kinase and the phosphorylation state of its beta subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, P.; Osheroff, N.; Glover, C.V.C.

    1990-01-01

    To determine relationships between the hormonal activation of casein kinase II and its phosphorylation state, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated and EGF-naive human A-431 carcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of [ 32 P]orthophosphate. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that casein kinase II in the cytosol of EGF-treated cells contained approximately 3-fold more incorporated [ 32 P]phosphate than did its counterpart in untreated cells. Levels of kinase phosphorylation paralleled levels of kinase activity over a wide range of EGF concentrations as well as over a time course of hormone action. Approximately 97% of the incorporated [ 32 P]phosphate was found in the β subunit of casein kinase II. Both activated and hormone-naive kinase contained radioactive phosphoserine and phosphothreonine but no phosphotyronsine. On the basis of proteolytic mapping experiments, EGF treatment of A-431 cells led to an increase in the average [ 32 P]phosphate content (i.e., hyperphosphorylation) of casein kinase II β subunit peptides which were modified prior to hormone treatment. Finally, the effect of alkaline phosphatase on the reaction kinetics of activated casein kinase II indicated that hormonal stimulation of the kinase resulted from the increase in its phosphorylation state

  2. Activation of G-proteins by receptor-stimulated nucleoside diphosphate kinase in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bominaar, A A; Molijn, A C; Pestel, M; Veron, M; Van Haastert, P J

    1993-01-01

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase activity on cellular processes might be the result of altered transmembrane signal transduction via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). In the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, extracellular cAMP induces an increase of phospholipase C activity via a surface cAMP receptor and G-proteins. In this paper it is demonstrated that part of the cellular NDP kinase is associated with the membrane and stimulated by cell surface cAMP receptors. The GTP produced by the action of NDP kinase is capable of activating G-proteins as monitored by altered G-protein-receptor interaction and the activation of the effector enzyme phospholipase C. Furthermore, specific monoclonal antibodies inhibit the effect of NDP kinase on G-protein activation. These results suggest that receptor-stimulated NDP kinase contributes to the mediation of hormone action by producing GTP for the activation of GTP-binding proteins. Images PMID:8389692

  3. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  4. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Siang Nicholas Tan

    Full Text Available Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation.

  5. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Kwek, Joly; Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Saner, Nicholas J.; Yap, Charlotte; Felquer, Fernando; Morris, Michael B.; Gardner, David K.; Rathjen, Peter D.; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation. PMID:27723793

  6. Disruption of the LOV-Jalpha helix interaction activates phototropin kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shannon M; Christie, John M; Gardner, Kevin H

    2004-12-28

    Light plays a crucial role in activating phototropins, a class of plant photoreceptors that are sensitive to blue and UV-A wavelengths. Previous studies indicated that phototropin uses a bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) within its light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain to generate a protein-flavin covalent bond under illumination. In the C-terminal LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1, formation of this bond triggers a conformational change that results in unfolding of a helix external to this domain called Jalpha [Harper, S. M., et al. (2003) Science 301, 1541-1545]. Though the structural effects of illumination were characterized, it was unknown how these changes are coupled to kinase activation. To examine this, we made a series of point mutations along the Jalpha helix to disrupt its interaction with the LOV domain in a manner analogous to light activation. Using NMR spectroscopy and limited proteolysis, we demonstrate that several of these mutations displace the Jalpha helix from the LOV domain independently of illumination. When placed into the full-length phototropin protein, these point mutations display constitutive kinase activation, without illumination of the sample. These results indicate that unfolding of the Jalpha helix is the critical event in regulation of kinase signaling for the phototropin proteins.

  7. IKAP: A heuristic framework for inference of kinase activities from Phosphoproteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Marcel; Sacco, Francesca; Cox, Jürgen; Schneider, Hans-Christoph; Schäfer, Matthias; Hendlich, Manfred; Crowther, Daniel; Mann, Matthias; Klabunde, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoproteomics measurements are widely applied in cellular biology to detect changes in signalling dynamics. However, due to the inherent complexity of phosphorylation patterns and the lack of knowledge on how phosphorylations are related to functions, it is often not possible to directly deduce protein activities from those measurements. Here, we present a heuristic machine learning algorithm that infers the activities of kinases from Phosphoproteomics data using kinase-target information from the PhosphoSitePlus database. By comparing the estimated kinase activity profiles to the measured phosphosite profiles, it is furthermore possible to derive the kinases that are most likely to phosphorylate the respective phosphosite. We apply our approach to published datasets of the human cell cycle generated from HeLaS3 cells, and insulin signalling dynamics in mouse hepatocytes. In the first case, we estimate the activities of 118 at six cell cycle stages and derive 94 new kinase-phosphosite links that can be validated through either database or motif information. In the second case, the activities of 143 kinases at eight time points are estimated and 49 new kinase-target links are derived. The algorithm is implemented in Matlab and be downloaded from github. It makes use of the Optimization and Statistics toolboxes. https://github.com/marcel-mischnik/IKAP.git. marcel.mischnik@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Toward a Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Plant Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Janitza, Philipp; Ullrich, Kristian Karsten; Quint, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of...

  9. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase modulates the activated phenotype of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Alessandra; Bertolani, Cristiana; Guerra, Cristina Tosti; Aleffi, Sara; Galastri, Sara; Trappoliere, Marco; Vizzutti, Francesco; Gelmini, Stefania; Laffi, Giacomo; Pinzani, Massimo; Marra, Fabio

    2008-02-01

    Adiponectin limits the development of liver fibrosis and activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a sensor of the cellular energy status, but its possible modulation of the fibrogenic properties of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK activation in the biology of activated human HSCs. A time-dependent activation of AMPK was observed in response to a number of stimuli, including globular adiponectin, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), or metformin. All these compounds significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated proliferation and migration of human HSCs and reduced the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, AICAR limited the secretion of type I procollagen. Knockdown of AMPK by gene silencing increased the mitogenic effects of PDGF, confirming the negative modulation exerted by this pathway on HSCs. AMPK activation did not reduce PDGF-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or Akt at early time points, whereas a marked inhibition was observed 24 hours after addition of PDGF, reflecting a block in cell cycle progression. In contrast, AICAR blocked short-term phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p70(S6K)) and 4E binding protein-1 (4EBP1), 2 downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, by PDGF. The ability of interleukin-a (IL-1) to activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) was also reduced by AICAR. Activation of AMPK negatively modulates the activated phenotype of HSCs.

  10. Aspartic acid functions as carbonyl trapper to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products by chemical chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Govindarajan; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-05-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were implicated in pathology of numerous diseases. In this study, we present the bioactivity of aspartic acid (Asp) to inhibit the AGEs. Hemoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated with glucose, fructose, and ribose in the presence and absence of Asp (100-200 μM). HbA1c inhibition was investigated using human blood and characterized by micro-column ion exchange chromatography. The effect of methyl glyoxal (MG) on hemoglobin and BSA was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. The effect of MG on red blood cells morphology was characterized by scanning electron micrographs. Molecular docking was performed on BSA with Asp. Asp is capable of inhibiting the formation of fluorescent AGEs by reacting with the reducing sugars. The presence of Asp as supplement in whole blood reduced the HbA1c% from 8.8 to 6.1. The presence of MG showed an increase in fluorescence and the presence of Asp inhibited the glycation thereby the fluorescence was quenched. MG also affected the electrophoretic mobility of hemoglobin and BSA by forming high molecular weight aggregates. Normal RBCs showed typical biconcave shape. MG modified RBCs showed twisted and elongated shape whereas the presence of ASP tends to protect RBC from twisting. Asp interacted with arginine residues of bovine serum albumin particularly ARG 194, ARG 198, and ARG 217 thereby stabilized the protein complex. We conclude that Asp has dual functions as a chemical chaperone to stabilize protein and as a dicarbonyl trapper, and thereby it can prevent the complications caused by glycation.

  11. Recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promotes cancer cell migration via mitogen activated protein kinase activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, David L; Ohannessian, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions activate signaling cascades such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). Integrin binding to extracellular matrix increases tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK activity by expression of its carboxyl terminus decreases cell motility, and cells from FAK deficient mice also show reduced migration. Paxillin is a focal adhesion protein which is also phosphorylated on tyrosine. FAK recruitment of paxillin to the cell membrane correlates with Shc phosphorylation and activation of MAPK. Decreased FAK expression inhibits papilloma formation in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model. We previously demonstrated that MAPK activation was required for growth factor induced in vitro migration and invasion by human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines. Adapter protein recruitment to integrin subunits was examined by co-immunoprecipitation in SCC cells attached to type IV collagen or plastic. Stable clones overexpressing FAK or paxillin were created using the lipofection technique. Modified Boyden chambers were used for invasion assays. In the present study, we showed that FAK and paxillin but not Shc are recruited to the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain following attachment of SCC cells to type IV collagen. Overexpression of either FAK or paxillin stimulated cancer cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane which was dependent on MAPK activity. We concluded that recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promoted cancer cell migration via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway

  12. Recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promotes cancer cell migration via mitogen activated protein kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohannessian Arthur

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions activate signaling cascades such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. Integrin binding to extracellular matrix increases tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Inhibition of FAK activity by expression of its carboxyl terminus decreases cell motility, and cells from FAK deficient mice also show reduced migration. Paxillin is a focal adhesion protein which is also phosphorylated on tyrosine. FAK recruitment of paxillin to the cell membrane correlates with Shc phosphorylation and activation of MAPK. Decreased FAK expression inhibits papilloma formation in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model. We previously demonstrated that MAPK activation was required for growth factor induced in vitro migration and invasion by human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC lines. Methods Adapter protein recruitment to integrin subunits was examined by co-immunoprecipitation in SCC cells attached to type IV collagen or plastic. Stable clones overexpressing FAK or paxillin were created using the lipofection technique. Modified Boyden chambers were used for invasion assays. Results In the present study, we showed that FAK and paxillin but not Shc are recruited to the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain following attachment of SCC cells to type IV collagen. Overexpression of either FAK or paxillin stimulated cancer cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane which was dependent on MAPK activity. Conclusions We concluded that recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promoted cancer cell migration via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

  13. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  14. CSK negatively regulates nerve growth factor induced neural differentiation and augments AKT kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Nandini; Howell, Brian W.; De, Pradip K.; Durden, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Src family kinases are involved in transducing growth factor signals for cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types. The activity of all Src family kinases (SFKs) is controlled by phosphorylation at their C-terminal 527-tyrosine residue by C-terminal SRC kinase, CSK. There is a paucity of information regarding the role of CSK and/or specific Src family kinases in neuronal differentiation. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, blocked NGF-induced activation of SFKs and obliterated neurite outgrowth. To confirm a role for CSK and specific isoforms of SFKs in neuronal differentiation, we overexpressed active and catalytically dead CSK in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. CSK overexpression caused a profound inhibition of NGF-induced activation of FYN, YES, RAS, and ERK and inhibited neurite outgrowth, NGF-stimulated integrin-directed migration and blocked the NGF-induced conversion of GDP-RAC to its GTP-bound active state. CSK overexpression markedly augmented the activation state of AKT following NGF stimulation. In contrast, kinase-dead CSK augmented the activation of FYN, RAS, and ERK and increased neurite outgrowth. These data suggest a distinct requirement for CSK in the regulation of NGF/TrkA activation of RAS, RAC, ERK, and AKT via the differential control of SFKs in the orchestration of neuronal differentiation

  15. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003472.htm Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test measures the level of the enzyme AST in ...

  16. Detection of protein kinase activity by renaturation in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anostario, M. Jr.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a procedure for identifying protein kinase activity in protein samples following electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins are allowed to renature directly in the gel by removal of detergent. The gel is then incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP to allow renatured protein kinases to autophosphorylate or to phosphorylate various substrates which can be incorporated into the gel. The positions of the radiolabeled proteins can then be detected by autoradiography. With this technique, using purified catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme concentrations as low as 0.01 μg can be detected on gels containing 1.0 mg/ml casein. The procedure is also applicable for the determination of active subunits of multisubunit protein kinases. For example, when the two subunits of casein kinase II are separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and allowed to renature, only the larger α subunit shows activity. This procedure can also be used to detect and distinguish kinases present in heterogeneous mixtures. Starting with a particulate fraction from LSTRA, a murine T cell lymphoma, several distinct enzymes were detected, including a 30,000 Dalton protein with protein-tyrosine kinase activity. This same enzyme has also been detected in T lymphocytes and other T lymphoid cell lines

  17. Involvement of protein kinase C-δ activation in betulininduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical benefits and underlying mechanisms of action of betulin in the treatment of cancer using a neuroblastoma (NB) cell model. Method: Cell viability ... of tumor recurrence. Keywords: Betulin, Neuroblastoma, Apoptosis, protein kinase C-δ, Adjuvant chemotherapy, Tumor recurrence, Caspase ...

  18. Assessment of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ina bid to investigate the influence of menopausal on coronary heart disease, plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were analysed on a prospective cohort of 100 women attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Edo state-Nigeria. They were divided into two groups; ...

  19. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  20. Level of hamstrings damage depending on force-generating capacity and creatine kinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, Gerard; Alomar, Xavier; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Serrano, David; Padullés, Josep Maria; Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Rodas Font, Gil; Cusso Calabuig, Roser; Guerrero, M.; Idoate, F.; Balius, Ramon; Cadefau, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to categorize the eccentric exercise-induced hamstrings damage by using easy measurable markers such as force-generating capacity and serum creatine kinase activity Peer Reviewed

  1. Characterization of breakpoint cluster region kinase and SH2-binding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afar, D E; Witte, O N

    1995-01-01

    BCR is an interesting signaling protein, whose cellular function is currently unknown. Its biochemical properties include serine kinase activity, SH2-binding activity, and a GTPase-activating activity. The SH2-binding activity is particularly interesting because it may link BCR to signaling pathways involving SH2-containing molecules. Since tyrosine phosphorylation of BCR has been detected in CML-derived cell lines and since tyrosine-phosphorylated BCR shows increased affinity toward certain SH2 domains, it seems particularly important to further characterize this activity. This chapter described a simple purification scheme for partial purification of BCR, which can be used to assess in vitro kinase and SH2-binding activities.

  2. Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel

  3. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  4. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs) Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Combarnous, Yves; Praud, Christophe; Duittoz, Anne; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR) accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+), or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609). Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β), CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β) and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+) entry in sperm through the Ca(2+)/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+)/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2+) entry

  5. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+, or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609. Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β, CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+. Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+ entry in sperm through the Ca(2+/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2

  6. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E

    1996-01-01

    area of the cell and mostly associated with the cytosolic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon epidermal growth factor treatment and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, the immunolabeling became peripheral and was found to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  7. 2-Aminopyridine-Based Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Inhibitors: Assessment of Mechanism-Based Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Robert L; Ammirati, Mark; Bagley, Scott W; Bhattacharya, Samit K; Buckbinder, Leonard; Cortes, Christian; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ford, Kristen; Freeman, Gary B; Guimarães, Cristiano R W; Liu, Shenping; Niosi, Mark; Skoura, Athanasia; Tess, David

    2018-04-12

    Studies have linked the serine-threonine kinase MAP4K4 to the regulation of a number of biological processes and/or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, inflammation, and angiogenesis. With a majority of the members of our lead series (e.g., 1) suffering from time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, we sought design avenues that would eliminate this risk. One such approach arose from the observation that carboxylic acid-based intermediates employed in our discovery efforts retained high MAP4K4 inhibitory potency and were devoid of the TDI risk. The medicinal chemistry effort that led to the discovery of this central nervous system-impaired inhibitor together with its preclinical safety profile is described.

  8. Duodenal activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces vagal afferent firing and lowers glucose production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Brittany A; Breen, Danna M; Luo, Ping; Cheung, Grace W C; Yang, Clair S; Sun, Biying; Kokorovic, Andrea; Rong, Weifang; Lam, Tony K T

    2012-04-01

    The duodenum senses nutrients to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis, but little is known about the signaling and neuronal mechanisms involved. We tested whether duodenal activation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is sufficient and necessary for cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling to trigger vagal afferent firing and regulate glucose production. In rats, we selectively activated duodenal PKA and evaluated changes in glucose kinetics during the pancreatic (basal insulin) pancreatic clamps and vagal afferent firing. The requirement of duodenal PKA signaling in glucose regulation was evaluated by inhibiting duodenal activation of PKA in the presence of infusion of the intraduodenal PKA agonist (Sp-cAMPS) or CCK1 receptor agonist (CCK-8). We also assessed the involvement of a neuronal network and the metabolic impact of duodenal PKA activation in rats placed on high-fat diets. Intraduodenal infusion of Sp-cAMPS activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production, in association with increased vagal afferent firing in control rats. The metabolic and neuronal effects of duodenal Sp-cAMPS were negated by coinfusion with either the PKA inhibitor H89 or Rp-CAMPS. The metabolic effect was also negated by coinfusion with tetracaine, molecular and pharmacologic inhibition of NR1-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the dorsal vagal complex, or hepatic vagotomy in rats. Inhibition of duodenal PKA blocked the ability of duodenal CCK-8 to reduce glucose production in control rats, whereas duodenal Sp-cAMPS bypassed duodenal CCK resistance and activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production in rats on high-fat diets. We identified a neural glucoregulatory function of duodenal PKA signaling. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Src-family-tyrosine kinase Lyn is critical for TLR2-mediated NF-κB activation through the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Belaidouni, Nadia; Grimaldi, David; Pene, Frederic; Chafey, Philippe; Comba, Béatrice; Camoin, Luc; Bismuth, Georges; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2015-10-01

    TLR2 has a prominent role in host defense against a wide variety of pathogens. Stimulation of TLR2 triggers MyD88-dependent signaling to induce NF-κB translocation, and activates a Rac1-PI 3-kinase dependent pathway that leads to transactivation of NF-κB through phosphorylation of the P65 NF-κB subunit. This transactivation pathway involves tyrosine phosphorylations. The role of the tyrosine kinases in TLR signaling is controversial, with discrepancies between studies using only chemical inhibitors and knockout mice. Here, we show the involvement of the tyrosine-kinase Lyn in TLR2-dependent activation of NF-κB in human cellular models, by using complementary inhibition strategies. Stimulation of TLR2 induces the formation of an activation cluster involving TLR2, CD14, PI 3-kinase and Lyn, and leads to the activation of AKT. Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of the p110 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase is essential to the control of PI 3-kinase biological activity upstream of AKT and thereby to the transactivation of NF-κB. Thus, Lyn kinase activity is crucial in TLR2-mediated activation of the innate immune response in human mononuclear cells. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity induced by selective p38alpha map kinase and map kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) inhibitors in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dale L; O'Neil, Shawn P; Devraj, Rajesh V; Portanova, Joseph P; Gilles, Richard W; Gross, Cindy J; Curtiss, Sandra W; Komocsar, Wendy J; Garner, Debra S; Happa, Fernando A; Kraus, Lori J; Nikula, Kristen J; Monahan, Joseph B; Selness, Shaun R; Galluppi, Gerald R; Shevlin, Kimberly M; Kramer, Jeffrey A; Walker, John K; Messing, Dean M; Anderson, David R; Mourey, Robert J; Whiteley, Laurence O; Daniels, John S; Yang, Jerry Z; Rowlands, Philip C; Alden, Carl L; Davis, John W; Sagartz, John E

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to moderately selective p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in the Beagle dog results in an acute toxicity consisting of mild clinical signs (decreased activity, diarrhea, and fever), lymphoid necrosis and depletion in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, and linear colonic and cecal mucosal hemorrhages. Lymphocyte apoptosis and necrosis in the GALT is the earliest and most prominent histopathologic change observed, followed temporally by neutrophilic infiltration and acute inflammation of the lymph nodes and spleen and multifocal mucosal epithelial necrosis and linear hemorrhages in the colon and cecum. These effects are not observed in the mouse, rat, or cynomolgus monkey. To further characterize the acute toxicity in the dog, a series of in vivo, in vitro, and immunohistochemical studies were conducted to determine the relationship between the lymphoid and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and p38 MAPK inhibition. Results of these studies demonstrate a direct correlation between p38alpha MAPK inhibition and the acute lymphoid and gastrointestinal toxicity in the dog. Similar effects were observed following exposure to inhibitors of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), further implicating the role of p38alpha MAPK signaling pathway inhibition in these effects. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that p38alpha MAPK inhibition results in acute lymphoid and GI toxicity in the dog and is unique among the species evaluated in these studies.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by tributyltin induces neuronal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Hino, Atsuko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the metabolite-sensing protein kinase family, is activated by energy deficiency and is abundantly expressed in neurons. The environmental pollutant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), is a neurotoxin, and has been reported to decrease cellular ATP in some types of cells. Therefore, we investigated whether TBT activates AMPK, and whether its activation contributes to neuronal cell death, using primary cultures of cortical neurons. Cellular ATP levels were decreased 0.5 h after exposure to 500 nM TBT, and the reduction was time-dependent. It was confirmed that most neurons in our culture system express AMPK, and that TBT induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced the neurotoxicity of TBT, suggesting that AMPK is involved in TBT-induced cell death. Next, the downstream target of AMPK activation was investigated. Nitric oxide synthase, p38 phosphorylation and Akt dephosphorylation were not downstream of TBT-induced AMPK activation because these factors were not affected by compound C, but glutamate release was suggested to be controlled by AMPK. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by TBT causes neuronal death through mediating glutamate release

  12. Cloning and characterization of a G protein-activated human phosphoinositide-3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B; Volinia, S; Hanck, T; Rubio, I; Loubtchenkov, M; Malek, D; Stoyanova, S; Vanhaesebroeck, B; Dhand, R; Nürnberg, B

    1995-08-04

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinase activity is implicated in diverse cellular responses triggered by mammalian cell surface receptors and in the regulation of protein sorting in yeast. Receptors with intrinsic and associated tyrosine kinase activity recruit heterodimeric phosphoinositide-3 kinases that consist of p110 catalytic subunits and p85 adaptor molecules containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. A phosphoinositide-3 kinase isotype, p110 gamma, was cloned and characterized. The p110 gamma enzyme was activated in vitro by both the alpha and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) and did not interact with p85. A potential pleckstrin homology domain is located near its amino terminus. The p110 gamma isotype may link signaling through G protein-coupled receptors to the generation of phosphoinositide second messengers phosphorylated in the D-3 position.

  13. Acetyl aspartic acid, a novel active ingredient, demonstrates potential to improve signs of skin ageing: from consumer need to clinical proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The megatrend of population ageing is leading to a growing demand for "anti-ageing" treatments, especially to prevent or treat skin ageing. Facing an increasing offer, consumers are choosing more and more skin care products supported by a scientific rationale, active ingredients and clinical proof of efficacy. Considering consumer expectations, this research led to the discovery of acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A), a novel active ingredient to improve sagging skin and loss of skin firmness. This supplement is featuring seven manuscripts aiming at presenting the research and investigations from consumer insights, discovery of A-A-A, its in vitro activity confirmation, safety assessment, formulation and its dermal absorption to the clinical proof of efficacy, investigated through two pilots' double bind randomized and placebo controlled studies on photo-aged skin. This extensive research enabled us to discover A-A-A, as an active ingredient with potential to repair sign of skin ageing and supported by clinical proof of efficacy. This active ingredient will be soon launched in a commercial innovative skin care range, delivering desirable anti-wrinkle and skin lifting benefits. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  15. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation by addictive drugs: a signal toward pathological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Vincent; Cahill, Emma; Bellivier, Frank; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2014-12-15

    Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. Our laboratory contributed to the identification of salient molecular changes induced by administration of addictive drugs to rodents. We pioneered the observation that a common feature of addictive drugs is to activate, by a double tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the striatum, which control a plethora of substrates, some of them being critically involved in cocaine-mediated molecular and behavioral adaptations. Herein, we review how the interplay between dopamine and glutamate signaling controls cocaine-induced ERK1/2 activation in MSNs. We emphasize the key role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor potentiation by D1 receptor to trigger ERK1/2 activation and its subsequent nuclear translocation where it modulates both epigenetic and genetic processes engaged by cocaine. We discuss how cocaine-induced long-term synaptic and structural plasticity of MSNs, as well as behavioral adaptations, are influenced by ERK1/2-controlled targets. We conclude that a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by drugs of abuse and/or its role in long-term neuronal plasticity in the striatum may provide a new route for therapeutic treatment in addiction. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  17. Structural basis for activation of ZAP-70 by phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingrong; Barros, Tiago; Visperas, Patrick R; Deindl, Sebastian; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John

    2013-06-01

    Serial activation of the tyrosine kinases Lck and ZAP-70 initiates signaling downstream of the T cell receptor. We previously reported the structure of an autoinhibited ZAP-70 variant in which two regulatory tyrosine residues (315 and 319) in the SH2-kinase linker were replaced by phenylalanine. We now present a crystal structure of ZAP-70 in which Tyr 315 and Tyr 319 are not mutated, leading to the recognition of a five-residue sequence register error in the SH2-kinase linker of the original crystallographic model. The revised model identifies distinct roles for these two tyrosines. As seen in a recently reported structure of the related tyrosine kinase Syk, Tyr 315 of ZAP-70 is part of a hydrophobic interface between the regulatory apparatus and the kinase domain, and the integrity of this interface would be lost upon engagement of doubly phosphorylated peptides by the SH2 domains. Tyr 319 is not necessarily dislodged by SH2 engagement, which activates ZAP-70 only ∼5-fold in vitro. In contrast, phosphorylation by Lck activates ZAP-70 ∼100-fold. This difference is due to the ability of Tyr 319 to suppress ZAP-70 activity even when the SH2 domains are dislodged from the kinase domain, providing stringent control of ZAP-70 activity downstream of Lck.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maddalena Di Fiore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and aurora kinase B (AURKB. Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2 interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation.

  19. Structural Insights into the HWE Histidine Kinase Family: The Brucella Blue Light-Activated Histidine Kinase Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Jimena; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; Sycz, Gabriela; Cerutti, María Laura; Berguer, Paula M; Paris, Gastón; Estrín, Darío Ariel; Martí, Marcelo Adrián; Klinke, Sebastián; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto

    2016-03-27

    In response to light, as part of a two-component system, the Brucella blue light-activated histidine kinase (LOV-HK) increases its autophosphorylation, modulating the virulence of this microorganism. The Brucella histidine kinase (HK) domain belongs to the HWE family, for which there is no structural information. The HWE family is exclusively present in proteobacteria and usually coupled to a wide diversity of light sensor domains. This work reports the crystal structure of the Brucella HK domain, which presents two different dimeric assemblies in the asymmetric unit: one similar to the already described canonical parallel homodimers (C) and the other, an antiparallel non-canonical (NC) dimer, each with distinct relative subdomain orientations and dimerization interfaces. Contrary to these crystallographic structures and unlike other HKs, in solution, the Brucella HK domain is monomeric and still active, showing an astonishing instability of the dimeric interface. Despite this instability, using cross-linking experiments, we show that the C dimer is the functionally relevant species. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the autophosphorylation activity occurs in cis. The different relative subdomain orientations observed for the NC and C states highlight the large conformational flexibility of the HK domain. Through the analysis of these alternative conformations by means of molecular dynamics simulations, we also propose a catalytic mechanism for Brucella LOV-HK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PaASK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that controls cell degeneration and cell differentiation in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicka, Sébastien; Silar, Philippe

    2004-03-01

    MAPKKK are kinases involved in cell signaling. In fungi, these kinases are known to regulate development, pathogenicity, and the sensing of external conditions. We show here that Podospora anserina strains mutated in PaASK1, a MAPKKK of the MEK family, are impaired in the development of crippled growth, a cell degeneration process caused by C, a nonconventional infectious element. They also display defects in mycelium pigmentation, differentiation of aerial hyphae, and making of fruiting bodies, three hallmarks of cell differentiation during stationary phase in P. anserina. Overexpression of PaASK1 results in exacerbation of crippled growth. PaASK1 is a large protein of 1832 amino acids with several domains, including a region rich in proline and a 60-amino-acid-long polyglutamine stretch. Deletion analysis reveals that the polyglutamine stretch is dispensable for PaASK1 activity, whereas the region that contains the prolines is essential but insufficient to promote full activity. We discuss a model based on the hysteresis of a signal transduction cascade to account for the role of PaASK1 in both cell degeneration and stationary-phase cell differentiation.

  1. Interaction of human biliverdin reductase with Akt/protein kinase B and phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1 regulates glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity: a novel mechanism of Akt activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Gibbs, Peter E M; Jenkins, Jermaine L; Heimiller, Chelsea; Maines, Mahin D

    2016-08-01

    Biliverdin reductase A (BVR) and Akt isozymes have overlapping pleiotropic functions in the insulin/PI3K/MAPK pathway. Human BVR (hBVR) also reduces the hemeoxygenase activity product biliverdin to bilirubin and is directly activated by insulin receptor kinase (IRK). Akt isoenzymes (Akt1-3) are downstream of IRK and are activated by phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylating T(308) before S(473) autophosphorylation. Akt (RxRxxSF) and PDK1 (RFxFPxFS) binding motifs are present in hBVR. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) isoforms α/β by Akts inhibits their activity; nonphosphorylated GSK3β inhibits activation of various genes. We examined the role of hBVR in PDK1/Akt1/GSK3 signaling and Akt1 in hBVR phosphorylation. hBVR activates phosphorylation of Akt1 at S(473) independent of hBVR's kinase competency. hBVR and Akt1 coimmunoprecipitated, and in-cell Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and glutathione S-transferase pulldown analyses identified Akt1 pleckstrin homology domain as the interactive domain. hBVR activates phosphorylation of Akt1 at S(473) independent of hBVR's kinase competency. Site-directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometry, and kinetic analyses identified S(230) in hBVR (225)RNRYLSF sequence as the Akt1 target. Underlined amino acids are the essential residues of the signaling motifs. In cells, hBVR-activated Akt1 increased both GSK3α/β and forkhead box of the O class transcription class 3 (FoxO3) phosphorylation and inhibited total GSK3 activity; depletion of hBVR released inhibition and stimulated glucose uptake. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PDK1 and hBVR interact through hBVR's PDK1 binding (161)RFGFPAFS motif and formation of the PDK1/hBVR/Akt1 complex. sihBVR blocked complex formation. Findings identify hBVR as a previously unknown coactivator of Akt1 and as a key mediator of Akt1/GSK3 pathway, as well as define a key role for hBVR in Akt1 activation by PDK1.-Miralem, T., Lerner

  2. Interaction of human biliverdin reductase with Akt/protein kinase B and phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1 regulates glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity: a novel mechanism of Akt activation

    OpenAIRE

    Miralem, Tihomir; Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Heimiller, Chelsea; Maines, Mahin D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliverdin reductase A (BVR) and Akt isozymes have overlapping pleiotropic functions in the insulin/PI3K/MAPK pathway. Human BVR (hBVR) also reduces the hemeoxygenase activity product biliverdin to bilirubin and is directly activated by insulin receptor kinase (IRK). Akt isoenzymes (Akt1–3) are downstream of IRK and are activated by phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylating T308 before S473 autophosphorylation. Akt (RxRxxSF) and PDK1 (RFxFPxFS) binding motifs are present ...

  3. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M.

    1990-01-01

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol [32P]phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the [32P]phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in [32P]phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively

  4. The Rho kinases I and II regulate different aspects of myosin II activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    The homologous mammalian rho kinases (ROCK I and II) are assumed to be functionally redundant, based largely on kinase construct overexpression. As downstream effectors of Rho GTPases, their major substrates are myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase. Both kinases are implicated in microfilament...... bundle assembly and smooth muscle contractility. Here, analysis of fibroblast adhesion to fibronectin revealed that although ROCK II was more abundant, its activity was always lower than ROCK I. Specific reduction of ROCK I by siRNA resulted in loss of stress fibers and focal adhesions, despite...

  5. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Ssu-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  6. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J. (Abbott)

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  7. RhoA/Rho Kinase Mediates Neuronal Death Through Regulating cPLA2 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangbing; Walker, Chandler L; Lu, Qingbo; Wu, Wei; Eddelman, Daniel B; Parish, Jonathan M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level. We found that co-administration of TNF-α and glutamate induced spinal neuron death, and activation of RhoA, Rho kinase and cPLA 2 . Inhibition of RhoA, Rho kinase and cPLA 2 significantly reduced TNF-α/glutamate-induced cell death by 33, 52 and 43 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase also significantly downregulated cPLA 2 activation by 66 and 60 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase reduced the release of arachidonic acid, a downstream substrate of cPLA 2 . The immunofluorescence staining showed that ROCK 1 or ROCK 2 , two isoforms of Rho kinase, was co-localized with cPLA 2 in neuronal cytoplasm. Interestingly, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay showed that ROCK 1 or ROCK 2 bonded directly with cPLA 2 and phospho-cPLA 2 . When the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 was applied in mice with T10 contusion injury, it significantly decreased cPLA 2 activation and expression and reduced injury-induced apoptosis at and close to the lesion site. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated neuronal death through regulating cPLA 2 activation.

  8. Protein kinase C activation induces conductance changes in Hermissenda photoreceptors like those seen in associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J; Auerbach, S

    Phosphorylation of ion channels has been suggested as one molecular mechanism responsible for learning-produced long-term changes in neuronal excitability. Persistent training-produced changes in two distinct K+ currents (IA (ref. 2), IK-Ca (refs 3,4)) and a voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa; refs 3,4) have previously been shown to occur in type B photoreceptors of Hermissenda, as a result of associative learning. But the identity of the phosphorylation pathway(s) responsible for these changes has not as yet been determined. Injections of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase reduce a K+ current (IK) in B cells which is different from those changed by training, but fails to reduce IA and IK-Ca. Phosphorylase b kinase (an exogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase) reduces IA, but whether IK-Ca and ICa are changed in the manner of associative training is not yet known. Another protein kinase present in high concentrations in both mammalian brain and molluscan nervous systems is protein kinase C, which is both calcium- and phospholipid-sensitive. We now present evidence that activation of protein kinase C by the tumour promoter phorbol ester (PDB) and intracellular injection of the enzyme induce conductance changes similar to those caused by associative training in Hermissenda B cells (that is a reduction of IA and IK-Ca, and enhancement of ICa). These results represent the first direct demonstration that protein kinase C affects membrane K+ ion conductance mechanisms.

  9. Differential sensitivity of Src-family kinases to activation by SH3 domain displacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Moroco

    Full Text Available Src-family kinases (SFKs are non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in a variety of signaling pathways in virtually every cell type. The SFKs share a common negative regulatory mechanism that involves intramolecular interactions of the SH3 domain with the PPII helix formed by the SH2-kinase linker as well as the SH2 domain with a conserved phosphotyrosine residue in the C-terminal tail. Growing evidence suggests that individual SFKs may exhibit distinct activation mechanisms dictated by the relative strengths of these intramolecular interactions. To elucidate the role of the SH3:linker interaction in the regulation of individual SFKs, we used a synthetic SH3 domain-binding peptide (VSL12 to probe the sensitivity of downregulated c-Src, Hck, Lyn and Fyn to SH3-based activation in a kinetic kinase assay. All four SFKs responded to VSL12 binding with enhanced kinase activity, demonstrating a conserved role for SH3:linker interaction in the control of catalytic function. However, the sensitivity and extent of SH3-based activation varied over a wide range. In addition, autophosphorylation of the activation loops of c-Src and Hck did not override regulatory control by SH3:linker displacement, demonstrating that these modes of activation are independent. Our results show that despite the similarity of their downregulated conformations, individual Src-family members show diverse responses to activation by domain displacement which may reflect their adaptation to specific signaling environments in vivo.

  10. Structural changes in human cytomegalovirus cytoplasmic assembly sites in the absence of UL97 kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzeh, Maysa; Honigman, Alik; Taraboulos, Albert; Rouvinski, Alexander; Wolf, Dana G.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 kinase deletion mutant (ΔUL97) indicated a multi-step role for this kinase in early and late phases of the viral life cycle, namely, in DNA replication, capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Here, we addressed its possible involvement in cytoplasmic steps of HCMV assembly. Using the ΔUL97 and the UL97 kinase inhibitor NGIC-I, we demonstrate that the absence of UL97 kinase activity results in a modified subcellular distribution of the viral structural protein assembly sites, from compact structures impacting upon the nucleus to diffuse perinuclear structures punctuated by large vacuoles. Infection by either wild type or ΔUL97 viruses induced a profound reorganization of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-positive Golgi-related structures. Importantly, the viral-induced Golgi remodeling along with the reorganization of the nuclear architecture was substantially altered in the absence of UL97 kinase activity. These findings suggest that UL97 kinase activity might contribute to organization of the viral cytoplasmic assembly sites

  11. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-01-01

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-α induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N G -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. ► Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK. ► Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. ► Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  12. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase downregulates Kv7.1 cell surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin N; Krzystanek, Katarzyna; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in response to polarization of the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and that this was mediated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, the pathway downstream of PKC, which leads to internalization of Kv7.1 upon cell polarization, is elucidated. We show by confocal...... microscopy that Kv7.1 is endocytosed upon initiation of the polarization process and sent for degradation by the lysosomal pathway. The internalization could be mimicked by pharmacological activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) using three different AMPK activators. We demonstrate...

  14. Her4 and Her2/neu tyrosine kinase domains dimerize and activate in a reconstituted in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsey, John; Shen, Wei; Schlesinger, Paul; Bose, Ron

    2010-03-05

    Her4 (ErbB-4) and Her2/neu (ErbB-2) are receptor-tyrosine kinases belonging to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Crystal structures of EGFR and Her4 kinase domains demonstrate kinase dimerization and activation through an allosteric mechanism. The kinase domains form an asymmetric dimer, where the C-lobe surface of one monomer contacts the N-lobe of the other monomer. EGFR kinase dimerization and activation in vitro was previously reported using a nickel-chelating lipid-liposome system, and we now apply this system to all other members of the EGFR family. Polyhistidine-tagged Her4, Her2/neu, and Her3 kinase domains are bound to these nickel-liposomes and are brought to high local concentration, mimicking what happens to full-length receptors in vivo following ligand binding. Addition of nickel-liposomes to Her4 kinase domain results in 40-fold activation in kinase activity and marked enhancement of C-terminal tail autophosphorylation. Activation of Her4 shows a sigmoidal dependence on kinase concentration, consistent with a cooperative process requiring kinase dimerization. Her2/neu kinase activity is also activated by nickel-liposomes, and is increased further by heterodimerization with Her3 or Her4. The ability of Her3 and Her4 to heterodimerize and activate other family members is studied in vitro. Her3 kinase domain readily activates Her2/neu but is a poor activator of Her4, which differs from the prediction made by the asymmetric dimer model. Mutation of Her3 residues (952)ENI(954) to the corresponding sequence in Her4 enhanced the ability of Her3 to activate Her4, demonstrating that sequence differences on the C-lobe surface influence the heterodimerization and activation of ErbB kinase domains.

  15. Navigating the conformational landscape of G protein-coupled receptor kinases during allosteric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin-Qiu; Cato, M Claire; Labudde, Emily; Beyett, Tyler S; Tesmer, John J G; Grant, Barry J

    2017-09-29

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for transferring extracellular signals into carefully choreographed intracellular responses controlling diverse aspects of cell physiology. The duration of GPCR-mediated signaling is primarily regulated via GPCR kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation of activated receptors. Although many GRK structures have been reported, the mechanisms underlying GRK activation are not well-understood, in part because it is unknown how these structures map to the conformational landscape available to this enzyme family. Unlike most other AGC kinases, GRKs rely on their interaction with GPCRs for activation and not phosphorylation. Here, we used principal component analysis of available GRK and protein kinase A crystal structures to identify their dominant domain motions and to provide a framework that helps evaluate how close each GRK structure is to being a catalytically competent state. Our results indicated that disruption of an interface formed between the large lobe of the kinase domain and the regulator of G protein signaling homology domain (RHD) is highly correlated with establishment of the active conformation. By introducing point mutations in the GRK5 RHD-kinase domain interface, we show with both in silico and in vitro experiments that perturbation of this interface leads to higher phosphorylation activity. Navigation of the conformational landscape defined by this bioinformatics-based study is likely common to all GPCR-activated GRKs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide, induces antitumor proliferation via activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 by decreasing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Sato, Takashi; Ito, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., exerts antitumorigenic actions against several tumor cells, but the intracellular target signal molecule(s) for this antitumorigenesis activity of triptolide remains to be identified. In the present study, we demonstrated that triptolide, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited the proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080, human squamous carcinoma SAS, and human uterine cervical carcinoma SKG-II cells. In addition, triptolide was found to decrease phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. A PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, mimicked the triptolide-induced antiproliferative activity in HT-1080, SAS, and SKG-II cells. There was no change in the activity of Akt or protein kinase C (PKC), both of which are downstream effectors in the PI3K pathway. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was not modified in HT-1080 cells treated with triptolide. However, the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) was found to increase in both triptolide- and LY-294002-treated cells. Furthermore, the triptolide-induced inhibition of HT-1080 cell proliferation was not observed by JNK1 siRNA-treatment. These results provide novel evidence that PI3K is a crucial target molecule in the antitumorigenic action of triptolide. They further suggest a possible triptolide-induced inhibitory signal for tumor cell proliferation that is initiated by the decrease in PI3K activity, which in turn leads to the augmentation of JNK1 phosphorylation via the Akt and/or PKC-independent pathway(s). Moreover, it is likely that the activation of JNK1 is required for the triptolide-induced inhibition of tumor proliferation

  17. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John von Freyend, Simona; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Fink, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now. Using an E. coli protein co-expression system we identified...... LmxMKK5, a STE7-like protein kinase from L. mexicana, which phosphorylates and activates recombinant LmxMPK4 in vitro. LmxMKK5 is comprised of 525 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 55.9kDa. The co-expressed, purified LmxMPK4 showed strong phosphotransferase activity in radiometric...... kinase assays and was confirmed by immunoblot and tandem mass spectrometry analyses to be phosphorylated on threonine 190 and tyrosine 192 of the typical TXY MAP kinase activation motif. The universal protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine reduced the phosphotransferase activity of co...

  18. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-02-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulated, phospholipase D-dependent PC hydrolysis and subsequent translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta to the plasma membrane. Wortmannin did not inhibit PKC directly in vitro, or the PKC-dependent effects of phorbol esters on glucose transport in intact adipocytes. The PKC inhibitor RO 31-8220 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase directly or its activation in situ by insulin, but inhibited both insulin-stimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated glucose transport. Our findings suggest that insulin acts through PI 3-kinase to activate a PC-specific phospholipase D and causes the translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in plasma membranes of rat adipocytes.

  19. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pnegative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  20. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  1. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, influences grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Penggen; Rao, Yuchun; Zeng, Dali; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Ran; Zhang, Baolan; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Li, Yunhai

    2014-02-01

    Although grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield, little information is known about the mechanisms that determine final grain size in crops. Here we characterize rice small grain1 (smg1) mutants, which exhibit small and light grains, dense and erect panicles and comparatively slightly shorter plants. The short grain and panicle phenotypes of smg1 mutants are caused by a defect in cell proliferation. The smg1 mutations were identified, using a map-based cloning approach, in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (OsMKK4). Relatively higher expression of OsMKK4/SMG1 was detected in younger organs than in older ones, consistent with its role in cell proliferation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OsMKK4/SMG1 fusion proteins appear to be distributed ubiquitously in plant cells. Further results revealed that OsMKK4 influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression of BR-related genes. Thus, our findings have identified OsMKK4 as a factor for grain size, and suggest a possible link between the MAPK pathways and BRs in grain growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. Autoinhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and activation by soluble inositol hexakisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Vogan, Erik M; Nocka, Laura M; Rosen, Connor E; Zorn, Julie A; Harrison, Stephen C; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a Tec-family tyrosine kinase, is essential for B-cell function. We present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of Btk, which together reveal molecular details of its autoinhibition and activation. Autoinhibited Btk adopts a compact conformation like that of inactive c-Src and c-Abl. A lipid-binding PH-TH module, unique to Tec kinases, acts in conjunction with the SH2 and SH3 domains to stabilize the inactive conformation. In addition to the expected activation of Btk by membranes containing phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3), we found that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a soluble signaling molecule found in both animal and plant cells, also activates Btk. This activation is a consequence of a transient PH-TH dimerization induced by IP6, which promotes transphosphorylation of the kinase domains. Sequence comparisons with other Tec-family kinases suggest that activation by IP6 is unique to Btk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06074.001 PMID:25699547

  5. Exercise in rats does not alter hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Nielsen, Jakob Nis

    2005-01-01

    . In recovery, glucose feeding increased plasma glucose and insulin concentrations whereas ghrelin and PYY decreased to (ghrelin) or below (PPY) resting levels. It is concluded that 1 h of strenuous exercise in rats does not elicit significant changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity despite an increase in plasma...... ghrelin. Thus, changes in energy metabolism during or after exercise are likely not coordinated by changes in hypothalamic AMPK activity.......Recent studies have demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake. Because exercise is known to influence appetite and cause substrate depletion, it may also influence AMPK in the hypothalamus. Male rats that either rested...

  6. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Ahlfors, Helena; Carter, Kara L.; Ruuska, Marja; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kieff, Elliott; Koskinen, Paeivi J.

    2005-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth

  7. Activation of the ATR kinase by the RPA-binding protein ETAA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Peter; Hoffmann, Saskia; Tollenaere, Maxim A X

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the ATR kinase following perturbations to DNA replication relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1. Here, we discovered an independent ATR activation pathway...... in vertebrates, mediated by the uncharacterized protein ETAA1 (Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1). Human ETAA1 accumulates at DNA damage sites via dual RPA-binding motifs and promotes replication fork progression and integrity, ATR signalling and cell survival after genotoxic insults. Mechanistically...

  8. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-01-01

    production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly......Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...

  9. Structural Basis for Selective Small Molecule Kinase Inhibition of Activated c-Met

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, Keith W.; Patel, Sangita B.; Allison, Timothy J.; Byrne, Noel J.; Darke, Paul L.; Ford, Rachael E.; Guerin, David J.; Hall, Dawn L.; Kornienko, Maria; Lu, Jun; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Reid, John C.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Elizabeth F.; Wilson, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathon R.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Lumb, Kevin J. (Merck)

    2012-03-15

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is implicated in oncogenesis and is the target for several small molecule and biologic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Binding of the hepatocyte growth factor to the cell surface receptor of c-Met induces activation via autophosphorylation of the kinase domain. Here we describe the structural basis of c-Met activation upon autophosphorylation and the selective small molecule inhibiton of autophosphorylated c-Met. MK-2461 is a potent c-Met inhibitor that is selective for the phosphorylated state of the enzyme. Compound 1 is an MK-2461 analog with a 20-fold enthalpy-driven preference for the autophosphorylated over unphosphorylated c-Met kinase domain. The crystal structure of the unbound kinase domain phosphorylated at Tyr-1234 and Tyr-1235 shows that activation loop phosphorylation leads to the ejection and disorder of the activation loop and rearrangement of helix {alpha}C and the G loop to generate a viable active site. Helix {alpha}C adopts a orientation different from that seen in activation loop mutants. The crystal structure of the complex formed by the autophosphorylated c-Met kinase domain and compound 1 reveals a significant induced fit conformational change of the G loop and ordering of the activation loop, explaining the selectivity of compound 1 for the autophosphorylated state. The results highlight the role of structural plasticity within the kinase domain in imparting the specificity of ligand binding and provide the framework for structure-guided design of activated c-Met inhibitors.

  10. Cell-type-specific activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in PAN-induced progressive renal disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2004-01-01

    We examined the time-course activation and the cell-type specific role of MAP kinases in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced renal disease. The maximal activation of c-Jun-NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAP kinase was detected on Days 52, 38, and 38 after PAN-treatment, respectively. p-JNK was localized in mesangial and proximal tubular cells at the early renal injury. It was expressed, therefore, in the inflammatory cells of tubulointerstitial lesions. While, p-ERK was markedly increased in the glomerular regions and macrophages p-p38 was observed in glomerular endothelial cells, tubular cells, and some inflammatory cells. The results show that the activation of MAP kinases in the early renal injury by PAN-treatment involves cellular changes such as cell proliferation or apoptosis in renal native cells. The activation of MAP kinases in infiltrated inflammatory cells and fibrotic cells plays an important role in destructive events such as glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis

  11. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  12. Bortezomib induces neuropathic pain through protein kinase C-mediated activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing-Dun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs, including bortezomib, often cause painful peripheral neuropathy, which is a severe dose-limiting adverse effect experienced by many cancer patients. The glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at the spinal cord level are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity associated with neuropathic pain. In this study, we determined whether treatment with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, affects the NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons. Systemic treatment with bortezomib in rats did not significantly affect postsynaptic NMDAR currents elicited by puff application of NMDA directly to dorsal horn neurons. Bortezomib treatment markedly increased the baseline frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), which was completely normalized by the NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5). AP5 also reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by dorsal root stimulation in bortezomib-treated, but not vehicle-treated, rats. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with chelerythrine fully reversed the increased frequency of miniature EPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in bortezomib-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of AP5 and chelerythrine both profoundly attenuated mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by systemic treatment with bortezomib. In addition, treatment with bortezomib induced striking membrane translocation of PKC-βII, PKC-δ, and PKC-ε in the dorsal root ganglion. Our findings indicate that bortezomib treatment potentiates nociceptive input from primary afferent nerves via PKC-mediated tonic activation of presynaptic NMDARs. Targeting presynaptic NMDARs and PKC at the spinal cord level may be an effective strategy for treating chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nucleoporin 62 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase kinase 2 regulate androgen receptor activity in castrate resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacosta, Loukia G; Kuroski, Laura A; Hofmann, Wilma A; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Mastri, Michalis; Gocher, Angela M; Dai, Shuhang; Hoste, Allen J; Edelman, Arthur M

    2016-02-15

    Re-activation of the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is an important factor mediating progression from androgen-responsive to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the mechanisms regulating AR activity in CRPC remain incompletely understood. Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) 2 was previously shown to regulate AR activity in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells. Our objective was to further explore the basis of this regulation in CRPC cells. The abundance of CaMKK2 in nuclear fractions of androgen-responsive prostate cancer and CRPC, cells were determined by subcellular fractionation and Western blotting. CaMKK2 association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and nucleoporins (Nups) including Nup62, were imaged by structured illumination and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. The abundance and subcellular localization of CaMKK2 and Nup62 in human clinical specimens of prostate cancer was visualized by immunohistochemistry. The role of Nups in the growth and viability of CRPC cells was assessed by RNA interference and cell counting. The involvement of CaMKK2 and Nup62 in regulating AR transcriptional activity was addressed by RNA interference, chromatin immunoprecipitation, androgen response element reporter assay, and Western blotting. CaMKK2 was expressed at higher levels in the nuclear fraction of CPRC C4-2 cells, than in that of androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. In C4-2 cells, CaMKK2 associated with NPCs of the nuclear envelope and physically interacted with Nup62. CaMKK2 and Nup62 demonstrated pronounced, and similar increases in both expression and perinuclear/nuclear localization in human clinical specimens of advanced prostate cancer relative to normal prostate. Knockdown of Nup62, but not of Nups, 98 or 88, reduced growth and viability of C4-2 cells. Knockdown of Nup62 produced a greater reduction of the growth and viability of C4-2 cells than of non

  14. Induction of osteoblast differentiation by selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousteni, Stavroula; Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Bellido, Teresita; Jilka, Robert L; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2007-02-01

    Estrogens control gene transcription by cis or trans interactions of the estrogen receptor (ER) with target DNA or via the activation of cytoplasmic kinases. We report that selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the ER with 4-estren-3alpha,17beta-diol (estren) or an estradiol-dendrimer conjugate, each a synthetic compound that stimulates kinase-mediated ER actions 1,000 to 10,000 times more potently than direct DNA interactions, induced osteoblastic differentiation in established cell lines of uncommitted osteoblast precursors and primary cultures of osteoblast progenitors by stimulating Wnt and BMP-2 signaling in a kinase-dependent manner. In sharp contrast, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) suppressed BMP-2-induced osteoblast progenitor commitment and differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro findings, estren, but not E(2), stimulated Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated transcription in T-cell factor-lacZ transgenic mice. Moreover, E(2) stimulated BMP signaling in mice in which ERalpha lacks DNA binding activity and classical estrogen response element-mediated transcription (ERalpha(NERKI/-)) but not in wild-type controls. This evidence reveals for the first time the existence of a large signalosome in which inputs from the ER, kinases, bone morphogenetic proteins, and Wnt signaling converge to induce differentiation of osteoblast precursors. ER can either induce it or repress it, depending on whether the activating ligand (and presumably the resulting conformation of the receptor protein) precludes or accommodates ERE-mediated transcription.

  15. Insulin aspart in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    in insulin requirements during pregnancy necessitate short-acting insulins for postprandial control of hyperglycemia. The fast-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart has been tested in a large, randomized trial of pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes and offers benefits in control of postprandial...... hyperglycemia with a tendency towards fewer episodes of severe hypoglycemia compared with human insulin. Treatment with insulin aspart was associated with a tendency toward fewer fetal losses and preterm deliveries than treatment with human insulin. Insulin aspart could not be detected in the fetal circulation...... and no increase in insulin antibodies was found. Thus, the use of insulin aspart in pregnancy is regarded safe....

  16. Cisplatin Induces Cytotoxicity through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways ana Activating Transcription Factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly St. Germain

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the proapoptotic effect of the chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, are largely undefined. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cisplatin cytotoxicity may uncover strategies to enhance the efficacy of this important therapeutic agent. This study evaluates the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 as a mediator of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. Cytotoxic doses of cisplatin and carboplatin treatments consistently induced ATF3 expression in five tumor-derived cell lines. Characterization of this induction revealed a p53, BRCA1, and integrated stress response-independent mechanism, all previously implicated in stress-mediated ATF3 induction. Analysis of mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK pathway involvement in ATF3 induction by cisplatin revealed a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Cisplatin treatment combined with specific inhibitors to each MAPK pathway (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellularsignal-regulated kinase, and p38 resulted in decreasedATF3 induction at the protein level. MAPK pathway inhibition led to decreased ATF3 messenger RNA expression and reduced cytotoxic effects of cisplatin as measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-ylF2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay. In A549 lung carcinoma cells, targeting ATF3 with specific small hairpin RNA also attenuated the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. Similarly, ATF3-/murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were shown to be less sensitive to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity compared with ATF3+/+ MEFs. This study identifies cisplatin as a MAPK pathway-dependent inducer of ATF3, whose expression influences cisplatin’s cytotoxic effects.

  17. Inhibition of stress-activated MAP kinases induces clinical improvement in moderate to severe Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Daan; van den Blink, Bernt; Plasse, Terry; Bartelsman, Joep; Xu, Cuiping; Macpherson, Bret; Tytgat, Guido; Peppelenbosch, Mailkel; van Deventer, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims: We investigated if inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was beneficial in Crohn's disease. Methods: Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK activation with CNI-1493, a guanylhydrazone, was tested in vitro. Twelve patients with severe Crohn's disease (mean baseline, CDAI

  18. Nucleoside analogues are activated by bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases in a species-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, Anders; On, Stephen L. W.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of antiviral and anticancer nucleoside analogues against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and characterize the activating enzymes, deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). Several FDA-approved nucleoside analogue drugs were screened for their potential bacteric......-specific manner. Therefore, nucleoside analogues have a potential to be employed as antibiotics in the fight against emerging multiresistant bacteria....

  19. The Structural Basis for Activation and Inhibition of ZAP-70 Kinase Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Roland G; Fan, Hao; Bond, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a tyrosine kinase that interacts directly with the activated T-cell receptor to transduce downstream signals, and is hence a major player in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Dysfunction of ZAP-70 causes selective T cell deficiency that in turn results in persistent infections. ZAP-70 is activated by a variety of signals including phosphorylation of the kinase domain (KD), and binding of its regulatory tandem Src homology 2 (SH2) domains to the T cell receptor. The present study investigates molecular mechanisms of activation and inhibition of ZAP-70 via atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulation approaches. We report microsecond timescale simulations of five distinct states of the ZAP-70 KD, comprising apo, inhibited and three phosphorylated variants. Extensive analysis of local flexibility and correlated motions reveal crucial transitions between the states, thus elucidating crucial steps in the activation mechanism of the ZAP-70 KD. Furthermore, we rationalize previously observed staurosporine-bound crystal structures, suggesting that whilst the KD superficially resembles an "active-like" conformation, the inhibitor modulates the underlying protein dynamics and restricts it in a compact, rigid state inaccessible to ligands or cofactors. Finally, our analysis reveals a novel, potentially druggable pocket in close proximity to the activation loop of the kinase, and we subsequently use its structure in fragment-based virtual screening to develop a pharmacophore model. The pocket is distinct from classical type I or type II kinase pockets, and its discovery offers promise in future design of specific kinase inhibitors, whilst mutations in residues associated with this pocket are implicated in immunodeficiency in humans.

  20. The Structural Basis for Activation and Inhibition of ZAP-70 Kinase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland G Huber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 is a tyrosine kinase that interacts directly with the activated T-cell receptor to transduce downstream signals, and is hence a major player in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Dysfunction of ZAP-70 causes selective T cell deficiency that in turn results in persistent infections. ZAP-70 is activated by a variety of signals including phosphorylation of the kinase domain (KD, and binding of its regulatory tandem Src homology 2 (SH2 domains to the T cell receptor. The present study investigates molecular mechanisms of activation and inhibition of ZAP-70 via atomically detailed molecular dynamics simulation approaches. We report microsecond timescale simulations of five distinct states of the ZAP-70 KD, comprising apo, inhibited and three phosphorylated variants. Extensive analysis of local flexibility and correlated motions reveal crucial transitions between the states, thus elucidating crucial steps in the activation mechanism of the ZAP-70 KD. Furthermore, we rationalize previously observed staurosporine-bound crystal structures, suggesting that whilst the KD superficially resembles an "active-like" conformation, the inhibitor modulates the underlying protein dynamics and restricts it in a compact, rigid state inaccessible to ligands or cofactors. Finally, our analysis reveals a novel, potentially druggable pocket in close proximity to the activation loop of the kinase, and we subsequently use its structure in fragment-based virtual screening to develop a pharmacophore model. The pocket is distinct from classical type I or type II kinase pockets, and its discovery offers promise in future design of specific kinase inhibitors, whilst mutations in residues associated with this pocket are implicated in immunodeficiency in humans.

  1. Enantiospecific (+)- and (-)-germacrene D synthases, cloned from goldenrod, reveal a functionally active variant of the universal isoprenoid-biosynthesis aspartate-rich motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ian; Altug, Iris G; Phillips, Andy L; König, Wilfried A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Beale, Michael H

    2004-12-15

    The naturally occurring, volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D has strong effects on insect behaviour and genes encoding enzymes that produce this compound are of interest in the study of plant-insect interactions and in a number of biotechnological approaches to pest control. Goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, is unusual in that it produces both enantiomers of germacrene D. Two new sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs, designated Sc11 and Sc19, have been isolated from goldenrod and functional expression in Escherichia coli identified Sc11 as (+)-germacrene D synthase and Sc19 as (-)-germacrene D synthase. Thus, the enantiomers of germacrene D are the products of separate, but closely related (85% amino-acid identity), enzymes. Unlike other sesquiterpene synthases and the related monoterpene synthases and prenyl transferases, which contain the characteristic amino-acid motif DDXX(D,E), Sc11 is unusual in that this motif occurs as (303)NDTYD. Mutagenesis of this motif to (303)DDTYD gave rise to an enzyme that fully retained (+)-germacrene D synthase activity. The converse mutation in Sc19 (D303N) resulted in a less efficient but functional enzyme. Mutagenesis of position 303 to glutamate in both enzymes resulted in loss of activity. These results indicate that the magnesium ion-binding role of the first aspartate in the DDXXD motif may not be as critical as previously thought. Further amino-acid sequence comparisons and molecular modelling of the enzyme structures revealed that very subtle changes to the active site of this family of enzymes are required to alter the reaction pathway to form, in this case, different enantiomers from the same enzyme-bound carbocationic intermediate.

  2. Antiepileptic activity of total triterpenes isolated from Poria cocos is mediated by suppression of aspartic and glutamic acids in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanqiong; Yan, Hua; Jin, Ruirui; Lei, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Triterpenes from Poria cocos Wolf (Polyporaceae) have been used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the antiepileptic effects and mechanism are not fully understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the antiepileptic properties of total triterpenes (TTP) from the whole P. cocos. The ethanol extract TTP was identified by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Male ICR mice were gavaged (i.g.) with TTP (5, 20, 80 or 160 mg/kg) or reference drugs twice a day for 7 d. Antiepileptic activities of TTP were evaluated by maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Locomotor activity and Rota-rod tests were performed for 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly) in convulsive mice were estimated. The chronic epileptic model of Wistar rats was built to measure expressions of glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GABA A in rat brain after TTP treatment. The LC 50 of TTP (i.g.) was above 6 g/kg. TTP (5-160 mg/kg) protected mice against MES- and PTZ-induced convulsions at 65.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but have no effect on rota-rod treadmill; TTP (20-160 mg/kg) significantly reduced the locomotor activities, shortened the onset of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep; TTP decreased Glu and Asp levels in convulsive mice, but increased the GAD65 and GABA A expressions in chronic epileptic rats at doses usage. TTP extracted from P. cocos possessed potential antiepileptic properties and is a candidate for further antiepileptic drug development.

  3. Insulin aspart pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Roge, Rikke Meldgaard; Ma, Zhulin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insulin aspart (IAsp) is used by many diabetics as a meal-time insulin to control postprandial glucose levels. As is the case with many other insulin types, the pharmacokinetics (PK), and consequently the pharmacodynamics (PD), is associated with clinical variability, both between...... to investigate and quantify the properties of the subcutaneous depot. Data from Brange et al. (1990) are used to determine the effects of insulin chemistry in subcutis on the absorption rate. Intravenous (i.v.) bolus and infusion PK data for human insulin are used to understand and quantify the systemic...... distribution and elimination (Porksen et al., 1997; Sjostrand et al., 2002). PK and PD profiles for type 1 diabetics from Chen et al. (2005) are analyzed to demonstrate the effects of IAsp antibodies in terms of bound and unbound insulin. PK profiles from Thorisdottir et al. (2009) and Ma et al. (2012b...

  4. Mururins A-C, three new lignoids from Brosimum acutifolium and their protein kinase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Junko; Asano, Shoichi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2002-07-01

    Two new flavonolignans, mururins A and B ( 1 and 2), and a new lignan, mururin C ( 3), were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium Huber together with three known lignans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and chemical modifications. They were tested for protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity. Mururin A showed 3 % and 63 % inhibition to PKA and PKC, respectively, at 20 microM. Mururin B showed 58 % and 38 % inhibition, respectively. Mururin C did not have significant activity.

  5. Beyond AICA Riboside: In Search of New Specific AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigas, Bruno; Sakamoto, Kei; Taleux, Nellie; Reyna, Sara M.; Musi, Nicolas; Viollet, Benoit; Hue, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Summary 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICA riboside) has been extensively used in vitro and in vivo to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic sensor involved in both cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. However, it has been recently highlighted that AICA riboside also exerts AMPK-independent effects, mainly on AMP-regulated enzymes and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), leading to the conclusion that new compounds with reduced off target effects are needed to specifically activate AMPK. Here, we review recent findings on newly discovered AMPK activators, notably on A-769662, a nonnucleoside compound from the thienopyridone family. We also report that A-769662 is able to activate AMPK and stimulate glucose uptake in both L6 cells and primary myotubes derived from human satellite cells. In addition, A-769662 increases AMPK activity and phosphorylation of its main downstream targets in primary cultured rat hepatocytes but, by contrast with AICA riboside, does neither affect mitochondrial OXPHOS nor change cellular AMP:ATP ratio. We conclude that A-769662 could be one of the new promising chemical agents to activate AMPK with limited AMPK-independent side effects. PMID:18798311

  6. Berberine promotes glucose consumption independently of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xu

    Full Text Available Berberine is a plant alkaloid with anti-diabetic action. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK pathway has been proposed as mechanism for berberine's action. This study aimed to examine whether AMPK activation was necessary for berberine's glucose-lowering effect. We found that in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes, berberine significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release in a dose-dependent manner. AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACC phosphorylation were stimulated by 20 µmol/L berberine. Nevertheless, berberine was still effective on stimulating glucose utilization and lactate production, when the AMPK activation was blocked by (1 inhibition of AMPK activity by Compound C, (2 suppression of AMPKα expression by siRNA, and (3 blockade of AMPK pathway by adenoviruses containing dominant-negative forms of AMPKα1/α2. To test the effect of berberine on oxygen consumption, extracellular flux analysis was performed in Seahorse XF24 analyzer. The activity of respiratory chain complex I was almost fully blocked in C2C12 myotubes by berberine. Metformin, as a positive control, showed similar effects as berberine. These results suggest that berberine and metformin promote glucose metabolism by stimulating glycolysis, which probably results from inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, independent of AMPK activation.

  7. Matriptase is required for the active form of hepatocyte growth factor induced Met, focal adhesion kinase and protein kinase B activation on neural stem/progenitor cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jung-Da; Lee, Sheau-Ling

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a chemoattractant and inducer for neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cell migration. Although the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase (MTP) is an activator of the latent HGF, MTP is indispensable on NS/P cell motility induced by the active form of HGF. This suggests that MTP's action on NS/P cell motility involves mechanisms other than proteolytic activation of HGF. In the present study, we investigate the role of MTP in HGF-stimulated signaling events. Using specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) or focal adhesion kinase (FAK), we demonstrated that in NS/P cells HGF-activated c-Met induces PI3k-Akt signaling which then leads to FAK activation. This signaling pathway ultimately induces MMP2 expression and NS/P cell motility. Knocking down of MTP in NS/P cells with specific siRNA impaired HGF-stimulation of c-Met, Akt and FAK activation, blocked HGF-induced production of MMP2 and inhibited HGF-stimulated NS/P cell motility. MTP-knockdown NS/P cells cultured in the presence of recombinant protein of MTP protease domain or transfected with the full-length wild-type but not the protease-defected MTP restored HGF-responsive events in NS/P cells. In addition to functioning as HGF activator, our data revealed novel function of MTP on HGF-stimulated c-Met signaling activation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg 2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg 2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Nitric Oxide Binds to and Modulates the Activity of a Pollen Specific Arabidopsis Diacylglycerol Kinase

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Aloysius Tze

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in plants. In the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, NO causes re-orientation of the growing tube and this response is mediated by 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, in plants, NO-sensors have remained somewhat elusive. Here, the findings of an NO-binding candidate, Arabidopsis thaliana DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE 4 (ATDGK4; AT5G57690) is presented. In addition to the annotated diacylglycerol kinase domain, this molecule also harbors a predicted heme-NO/oxygen (H-NOX) binding site and a guanylyl cyclase (GC) catalytic domain which have been identified based on the alignment of functionally conserved amino acid residues across species. A 3D model of the molecule was constructed, and from which the locations of the kinase catalytic center, the ATP-binding site, the GC and H-NOX domains were estimated. Docking of ATP to the kinase catalytic center was also modeled. The recombinant ATDGK4 demonstrated kinase activity in vitro, catalyzing the ATP-dependent conversion of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity was inhibited by the mammalian DAG kinase inhibitor R59949 and importantly also by the NO donors diethylamine NONOate (DEA NONOate) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Recombinant ATDGK4 also has GC activity in vitro, catalyzing the conversion of guanosine-5\\'-triphosphate (GTP) to cGMP. The catalytic domains of ATDGK4 kinase and GC may be independently regulated since the kinase but not the GC, was inhibited by NO while Ca2+ only stimulates the GC. It is likely that the DAG kinase product, PA, causes the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores and Ca2+ in turn activates the GC domain of ATDGK4 through a feedback mechanism. Analysis of publicly available microarray data has revealed that ATDGK4 is highly expressed in the pollen. Here, the pollen tubes of mis-expressing atdgk4 recorded slower growth rates than the wild-type (Col-0) and importantly, they showed altered

  10. Crystal Structure of Ripk4 Reveals Dimerization-Dependent Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christine S; Oberbeck, Nina; Hsiao, Yi-Chun; Liu, Peter; Johnson, Adam R; Dixit, Vishva M; Hymowitz, Sarah G

    2018-05-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is a highly conserved regulator of epidermal differentiation. Members of the RIPK family possess a common kinase domain as well as unique accessory domains that likely dictate subcellular localization and substrate preferences. Mutations in human RIPK4 manifest as Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS), a genetic disorder characterized by severe craniofacial and limb abnormalities. We describe the structure of the murine Ripk4 (MmRipk4) kinase domain, in ATP- and inhibitor-bound forms. The crystallographic dimer of MmRipk4 is similar to those of RIPK2 and BRAF, and we show that the intact dimeric entity is required for MmRipk4 catalytic activity through a series of engineered mutations and cell-based assays. We also assess the impact of BPS mutations on protein structure and activity to elucidate the molecular origins of the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by natural and synthetic activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grahame Hardie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a sensor of cellular energy status that is almost universally expressed in eukaryotic cells. While it appears to have evolved in single-celled eukaryotes to regulate energy balance in a cell-autonomous manner, during the evolution of multicellular animals its role has become adapted so that it also regulates energy balance at the whole body level, by responding to hormones that act primarily on the hypothalamus. AMPK monitors energy balance at the cellular level by sensing the ratios of AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP, and recent structural analyses of the AMPK heterotrimer that have provided insight into the complex mechanisms for these effects will be discussed. Given the central importance of energy balance in diseases that are major causes of morbidity or death in humans, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders, there has been a major drive to develop pharmacological activators of AMPK. Many such activators have been described, and the various mechanisms by which these activate AMPK will be discussed. A particularly large class of AMPK activators are natural products of plants derived from traditional herbal medicines. While the mechanism by which most of these activate AMPK has not yet been addressed, I will argue that many of them may be defensive compounds produced by plants to deter infection by pathogens or grazing by insects or herbivores, and that many of them will turn out to be inhibitors of mitochondrial function.

  12. Ohmyungsamycins promote antimicrobial responses through autophagy activation via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Shin, Yern-Hyerk; Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Jin Kyung; Choe, Jin Ho; Jang, Ji-Chan; Um, Soohyun; Jin, Hyo Sun; Komatsu, Masaaki; Cha, Guang-Ho; Chae, Han-Jung; Oh, Dong-Chan; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-06-13

    The induction of host cell autophagy by various autophagy inducers contributes to the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a major pathogenic strain that causes human tuberculosis. In this study, we present a role for the newly identified cyclic peptides ohmyungsamycins (OMS) A and B in the antimicrobial responses against Mtb infections by activating autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). OMS robustly activated autophagy, which was essentially required for the colocalization of LC3 autophagosomes with bacterial phagosomes and antimicrobial responses against Mtb in BMDMs. Using a Drosophila melanogaster-Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we showed that OMS-A-induced autophagy contributed to the increased survival of infected flies and the limitation of bacterial load. We further showed that OMS triggered AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for OMS-mediated phagosome maturation and antimicrobial responses against Mtb. Moreover, treating BMDMs with OMS led to dose-dependent inhibition of macrophage inflammatory responses, which was also dependent on AMPK activation. Collectively, these data show that OMS is a promising candidate for new anti-mycobacterial therapeutics by activating antibacterial autophagy via AMPK-dependent signaling and suppressing excessive inflammation during Mtb infections.

  13. Structure of the human protein kinase MPSK1 reveals an atypical activation loop architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Bernad, Antonio; Ligos, Jose M; Guinea, Barbara; Debreczeni, Judit E; Sobott, Frank; Parker, Sirlester A; Najmanovich, Rafael; Turk, Benjamin E; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The activation segment of protein kinases is structurally highly conserved and central to regulation of kinase activation. Here we report an atypical activation segment architecture in human MPSK1 comprising a beta sheet and a large alpha-helical insertion. Sequence comparisons suggested that similar activation segments exist in all members of the MPSK1 family and in MAST kinases. The consequence of this nonclassical activation segment on substrate recognition was studied using peptide library screens that revealed a preferred substrate sequence of X-X-P/V/I-phi-H/Y-T*-N/G-X-X-X (phi is an aliphatic residue). In addition, we identified the GTPase DRG1 as an MPSK1 interaction partner and specific substrate. The interaction domain in DRG1 was mapped to the N terminus, leading to recruitment and phosphorylation at Thr100 within the GTPase domain. The presented data reveal an atypical kinase structural motif and suggest a role of MPSK1 regulating DRG1, a GTPase involved in regulation of cellular growth.

  14. Activation loop targeting strategy for design of receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsuwong, Chalada; Pinkas, Daniel M; Ray, Soumya S; Bufton, Joshua C; Dai, Bing; Bullock, Alex N; Degterev, Alexei; Cuny, Gregory D

    2018-02-15

    Development of selective kinase inhibitors remains a challenge due to considerable amino acid sequence similarity among family members particularly in the ATP binding site. Targeting the activation loop might offer improved inhibitor selectivity since this region of kinases is less conserved. However, the strategy presents difficulties due to activation loop flexibility. Herein, we report the design of receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) inhibitors based on pan-kinase inhibitor regorafenib that aim to engage basic activation loop residues Lys169 or Arg171. We report development of CSR35 that displayed >10-fold selective inhibition of RIPK2 versus VEGFR2, the target of regorafenib. A co-crystal structure of CSR35 with RIPK2 revealed a resolved activation loop with an ionic interaction between the carboxylic acid installed in the inhibitor and the side-chain of Lys169. Our data provides principle feasibility of developing activation loop targeting type II inhibitors as a complementary strategy for achieving improved selectivity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eLassowskat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phosphoproteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g. WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the PEN pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens. Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org.

  16. Calcium is the switch in the moonlighting dual function of the ligand-activated receptor kinase phytosulfokine receptor 1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, Victor

    2014-09-23

    Background: A number of receptor kinases contain guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic centres encapsulated in the cytosolic kinase domain. A prototypical example is the phytosulfokine receptor 1 (PSKR1) that is involved in regulating growth responses in plants. PSKR1 contains both kinase and GC activities however the underlying mechanisms regulating the dual functions have remained elusive. Findings: Here, we confirm the dual activity of the cytoplasmic domain of the PSKR1 receptor. We show that mutations within the guanylate cyclase centre modulate the GC activity while not affecting the kinase catalytic activity. Using physiologically relevant Ca2+ levels, we demonstrate that its GC activity is enhanced over two-fold by Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, increasing Ca2+ levels inhibits kinase activity up to 500-fold at 100 nM Ca2+. Conclusions: Changes in calcium at physiological levels can regulate the kinase and GC activities of PSKR1. We therefore propose a functional model of how calcium acts as a bimodal switch between kinase and GC activity in PSKR1 that could be relevant to other members of this novel class of ligand-activated receptor kinases.

  17. Structures of the inactive and active states of RIP2 kinase inform on the mechanism of activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Innate immune receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial peptidoglycans leading to recruitment of adaptor kinase RIP2, which, upon phosphorylation and ubiquitination, becomes a scaffold for downstream effectors. The kinase domain (RIP2K is a pharmaceutical target for inflammatory diseases caused by aberrant NOD2-RIP2 signalling. Although structures of active RIP2K in complex with inhibitors have been reported, the mechanism of RIP2K activation remains to be elucidated. Here we analyse RIP2K activation by combining crystal structures of the active and inactive states with mass spectrometric characterization of their phosphorylation profiles. The active state has Helix αC inwardly displaced and the phosphorylated Activation Segment (AS disordered, whilst in the inactive state Helix αC is outwardly displaced and packed against the helical, non-phosphorylated AS. Biophysical measurements show that the active state is a stable dimer whilst the inactive kinase is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, consistent with the observed structural differences at the dimer interface. We conclude that RIP2 kinase auto-phosphorylation is intimately coupled to dimerization, similar to the case of BRAF. Our results will help drug design efforts targeting RIP2 as a potential treatment for NOD2-RIP2 related inflammatory diseases.

  18. Fueling the engine: induction of AMP-activated protein kinase in trout skeletal muscle by swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, L.J.; Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is well known to be induced by exercise and to mediate important metabolic changes in the skeletal muscle of mammals. Despite the physiological importance of exercise as a modulator of energy use by locomotory muscle, the regulation of this enzyme by swimming has

  19. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  20. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  1. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza; Jung, Sung Yun; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Qin, Jun

    2012-01-01

    capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit

  2. Antibody-induced dimerization activates the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, M.; Defize, L. H.; Boonstra, J.; de Laat, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) protein tyrosine kinase activation and ligand-induced receptor dimerization was investigated using several bivalent anti-EGF-R antibodies directed against various receptor epitopes. In A431 membrane preparations and permeabilized

  3. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  4. How to awaken your nanomachines: Site-specific activation of focal adhesion kinases through ligand interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna Wiktoria

    2015-06-17

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the related protein-tyrosine kinase 2-beta (Pyk2) are highly versatile multidomain scaffolds central to cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Due to their key role in cancer metastasis, understanding and inhibiting their functions are important for the development of targeted therapy. Because FAK and Pyk2 are involved in many different cellular functions, designing drugs with partial and function-specific inhibitory effects would be desirable. Here, we summarise recent progress in understanding the structural mechanism of how the tug-of-war between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions allows these protein ‘nanomachines’ to become activated in a site-specific manner.

  5. A conserved cysteine motif is critical for rice ceramide kinase activity and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Bi

    Full Text Available Ceramide kinase (CERK is a key regulator of cell survival in dicotyledonous plants and animals. Much less is known about the roles of CERK and ceramides in mediating cellular processes in monocot plants. Here, we report the characterization of a ceramide kinase, OsCERK, from rice (Oryza sativa spp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare and investigate the effects of ceramides on rice cell viability.OsCERK can complement the Arabidopsis CERK mutant acd5. Recombinant OsCERK has ceramide kinase activity with Michaelis-Menten kinetics and optimal activity at 7.0 pH and 40°C. Mg2+ activates OsCERK in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, a CXXXCXXC motif, conserved in all ceramide kinases and important for the activity of the human enzyme, is critical for OsCERK enzyme activity and in planta function. In a rice protoplast system, inhibition of CERK leads to cell death and the ratio of added ceramide and ceramide-1-phosphate, CERK's substrate and product, respectively, influences cell survival. Ceramide-induced rice cell death has apoptotic features and is an active process that requires both de novo protein synthesis and phosphorylation, respectively. Finally, mitochondria membrane potential loss previously associated with ceramide-induced cell death in Arabidopsis was also found in rice, but it occurred with different timing.OsCERK is a bona fide ceramide kinase with a functionally and evolutionarily conserved Cys-rich motif that plays an important role in modulating cell fate in plants. The vital function of the conserved motif in both human and rice CERKs suggests that the biochemical mechanism of CERKs is similar in animals and plants. Furthermore, ceramides induce cell death with similar features in monocot and dicot plants.

  6. Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK α subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 waf/cip as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21 waf/cip and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21 waf/cip pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

  7. Efficient production of infectious viruses requires enzymatic activity of Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takayuki; Isomura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Toyama, Shigenori; Sato, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2009-06-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 gene product is the only protein kinase encoded by the virus genome. In order to elucidate its physiological roles in viral productive replication, we here established a BGLF4-knockout mutant and a revertant virus. While the levels of viral DNA replication of the deficient mutant were equivalent to those of the wild-type and the revertant, virus production was significantly impaired. Expression of the BGLF4 protein in trans fully complemented the low yield of the mutant virus, while expression of a kinase-dead (K102I) form of the protein failed to restore the virus titer. These results demonstrate that BGLF4 plays a significant role in production of infectious viruses and that the kinase activity is crucial.

  8. In Vitro Assessment of Guanylyl Cyclase Activity of Plant Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen; Gehring, Christoph A

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides such as 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are increasingly recognized as key signaling molecules in plants, and a growing number of plant mononucleotide cyclases, both adenylate cyclases (ACs) and guanylate cyclases (GCs), have been reported. Catalytically active cytosolic GC domains have been shown to be part of many plant receptor kinases and hence directly linked to plant signaling and downstream cellular responses. Here we detail, firstly, methods to identify and express essential functional GC domains of receptor kinases, and secondly, we describe mass spectrometric methods to quantify cGMP generated by recombinant GCs from receptor kinases in vitro.

  9. In Vitro Assessment of Guanylyl Cyclase Activity of Plant Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen

    2017-05-31

    Cyclic nucleotides such as 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are increasingly recognized as key signaling molecules in plants, and a growing number of plant mononucleotide cyclases, both adenylate cyclases (ACs) and guanylate cyclases (GCs), have been reported. Catalytically active cytosolic GC domains have been shown to be part of many plant receptor kinases and hence directly linked to plant signaling and downstream cellular responses. Here we detail, firstly, methods to identify and express essential functional GC domains of receptor kinases, and secondly, we describe mass spectrometric methods to quantify cGMP generated by recombinant GCs from receptor kinases in vitro.

  10. The alpha2-5'AMP-activated protein kinase is a site 2 glycogen synthase kinase in skeletal muscle and is responsive to glucose loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Nielsen, Jakob N.; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2004-01-01

    The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential antidiabetic drug target. Here we show that the pharmacological activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-1-beta-4-carboxamide ribofuranoside (AICAR) leads to inactivation of glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of GS at Ser 7 (site 2). ...

  11. Shugoshin-1 balances Aurora B kinase activity via PP2A to promote chromosome bi-orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Amanda; Kabeche, Lilian; Vromans, Martijn J M; Compton, Duane A; Lens, Susanne M A

    2015-01-01

    Correction of faulty kinetochore-microtubule attachments is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and dictated by the opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and PP1 and PP2A phosphatases. How kinase and phosphatase activities are appropriately balanced is less clear. Here, we show that a

  12. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A

    2010-01-01

    show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1......), a highly conserved anchoring protein involved in various biological processes, such as cell growth and proliferation. RACK1 binds strongly to the RQC domain of WRN and weakly to its acidic repeat region. Purified RACK1 has no impact on the helicase activity of WRN, but selectively inhibits WRN exonuclease...... activity in vitro. Interestingly, knocking down RACK1 increased the cellular frequency of DNA breaks. Depletion of the WRN protein in return caused a fraction of nuclear RACK1 to translocate out of the nucleus to bind and activate PKCdelta and PKCbetaII in the membrane fraction of cells. In contrast...

  13. Creatine supplementation: effects on blood creatine kinase activity responses to resistance exercise and creatine kinase activity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation and exercise on the integrity of muscle fiber, as well as the effect of the supplementation on the creatine kinase (CK assay measurement. Forty-nine sedentary individuals participated in a double-blind study and were divided into two groups: C (n=26 received 4x5-day packages of 0.6 g.kg-1 of body weight contained 50% of creatine + 50% of dextrose, and P (n=23 received packages containing only dextrose. On the first day the groups performed a 1RM test for bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl and leg press. On D7 they received the supplements. On the fourteenth day, they performed a training session of five exercises, each in three sets of ten repetitions at 75% of 1RM. Blood was collected before (D14 and after the exercise session (D15. Differing levels of blood creatine were tested to determine the influence on the assay measurements of CK. ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests were used to compare groups and different times of study protocol (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o efeito da suplementação de creatina e do exercício na integridade das fibras musculares e, também, o efeito da suplementação na técnica de mensuração da atividade da creatina kinase (CK. Quarenta e nove sedentários participaram de um estudo duplo-cego e foram divididos em dois grupos: C (n=26 que receberam 4x5 dias embalagens com 0,6 g.kg-1 de massa corporal com 50% de creatina + 50% de dextrose, e P (n=23 que receberam embalagens contendo apenas dextrose. No primeiro dia, eles realizaram o teste de 1RM para os exercícios supino reto, remada sentada, cadeira extensora, mesa flexora, e leg press. No D7 receberam os suplementos. No décimo quarto dia eles realizaram uma sessão de treinos com os cinco exercícios, cada um com 3x10 repetições a 75% de 1RM. Sangue foi coletado antes (D14 e depois da sessão de exercícios (D15. Diferentes concentrações de

  14. Metabolism of [14C] bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: the synthesis, uptake and excretion of aspartate by resting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Rice, G.H.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis C10 were able to synthesize aspartic acid de novo but could not actively transport aspartic acid into the cell. Intracellular aspartate was excreted from the cell in the presence of glucose but did not exchange with any extracellular amino acids. The results indicate that Str. lactis C10 obtains the aspartic acid it requires for growth by bicarbonate fixation instead of by the utilization of extracellular aspartic acid. (author)

  15. Differences between magnesium-activated and manganese-activated pyruvate kinase from the muscle of Concholepas concholepas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Carvajal, N; Morán, A

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the Mg2+-activated enzyme, in the presence of Mn2+ pyruvate kinase exhibits hyperbolic kinetics with respect to the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate and is insensitive to fructose 1,6-biphosphate, phenylalanine and alanine. However, with both metal activated species inhibition by excess ADP is observed. In contrast with Mg2+, which affords significant protection against inactivation caused by 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid), the rate of inactivation by this reagent is increased in the presence of Mn2+. Differences in conformational changes induced by combination of pyruvate kinase with Mg2+ or Mn2+ were indicated by u.v. difference spectra.

  16. Structural Characterization of Maize SIRK1 Kinase Domain Reveals an Unusual Architecture of the Activation Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aquino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kinases are primary regulators of plant metabolism and excellent targets for plant breeding. However, most kinases, including the abundant receptor-like kinases (RLK, have no assigned role. SIRK1 is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK, the largest family of RLK. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SIRK1 (AtSIRK1 is phosphorylated after sucrose is resupplied to sucrose-starved seedlings and it modulates the sugar response by phosphorylating several substrates. In maize, the ZmSIRK1 expression is altered in response to drought stress. In neither Arabidopsis nor in maize has the function of SIRK1 been completely elucidated. As a first step toward the biochemical characterization of ZmSIRK1, we obtained its recombinant kinase domain, demonstrated that it binds AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, and solved the structure of ZmSIRK1- AMP-PNP co-crystal. The ZmSIRK1 crystal structure revealed a unique conformation for the activation segment. In an attempt to find inhibitors for ZmSIRK1, we screened a focused small molecule library and identified six compounds that stabilized ZmSIRK1 against thermal melt. ITC analysis confirmed that three of these compounds bound to ZmSIRK1 with low micromolar affinity. Solving the 3D structure of ZmSIRK1-AMP-PNP co-crystal provided information on the molecular mechanism of ZmSIRK1 activity. Furthermore, the identification of small molecules that bind this kinase can serve as initial backbone for development of new potent and selective ZmSIRK1 antagonists.

  17. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. → CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca 2+ -insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. → Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits FcεRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. → Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl 2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl 2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  18. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico); Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  19. Crystal structure of an SH2-kinase construct of c-Abl and effect of the SH2 domain on kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Sonja; Deng, Patricia; Hantschel, Oliver; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Kuriyan, John

    2015-06-01

    Constitutive activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl (cellular Abelson tyrosine protein kinase 1, Abl1) in the Bcr (breakpoint cluster region)-Abl1 fusion oncoprotein is the molecular cause of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Recent studies have indicated that an interaction between the SH2 (Src-homology 2) domain and the N-lobe (N-terminal lobe) of the c-Abl kinase domain (KD) has a critical role in leukaemogenesis [Grebien et al. (2011) Cell 147, 306-319; Sherbenou et al. (2010) Blood 116, 3278-3285]. To dissect the structural basis of this phenomenon, we studied c-Abl constructs comprising the SH2 and KDs in vitro. We present a crystal structure of an SH2-KD construct bound to dasatinib, which contains the relevant interface between the SH2 domain and the N-lobe of the KD. We show that the presence of the SH2 domain enhances kinase activity moderately and that this effect depends on contacts in the SH2/N-lobe interface and is abrogated by specific mutations. Consistently, formation of the interface decreases slightly the association rate of imatinib with the KD. That the effects are small compared with the dramatic in vivo consequences suggests an important function of the SH2-N-lobe interaction might be to help disassemble the auto-inhibited conformation of c-Abl and promote processive phosphorylation, rather than substantially stimulate kinase activity.

  20. DNA-dependent protein kinase participates in the radiation activation of NF-kB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Youmell, Matthew B.; Price, Brendan D.

    1997-01-01

    The NF-kB transcription factor is maintained in an inactive state by binding to the lkBa inhibitory protein. Activation requires phosphorylation and degradation of lkBa, releasing active NF-kB. NF-kB can be activated by cytokines, antigens, free radicals and X-ray irradiation. The protein kinase responsible for phosphorylation of lkBa in vivo has not been fully characterized. Here, we have examined the role of the DNA-dependent protein kinases (DNA-PK) in the radiation-activation of NF-kB. Wortmannin is an inhibitor of DNA-PK and related kinases. Exposure of SW480 cells to wortmannin inhibited the radioactivation of NF-kB DNA-binding. Analysis of lkBa levels by western blotting indicated that wortmannin blocked the radiation induced degradation of lkBa. In in vitro experiments, purified DNA-PK was able to efficiently phosphorylate lkBa, and this phosphorylation was inhibited by wortmannin. In contrast, the induction of NF-kB activity by TNFa was unaffected by wortmannin. The results suggest that DNA-PK may phosphorylate lkBa following irradiation, leading to degradation of lkBa and the release of active NF-kB. The inability of wortmannin to block TNFa activation of NF-kB indicates there may be more than one pathway for the activation of NF-kB

  1. Differences in muscle pain and plasma creatine kinase activity after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encephalopathy,18 and the decrement in muscle power associated with muscle damage.6 ... A high degree of intra-individual variability in plasma. CK activity was ..... 21. Komi PV. Stretch-shortening cycle exercise: a powerful model to study.

  2. Advances in lanthanide-based luminescent peptide probes for monitoring the activity of kinase and phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2014-02-01

    Signaling pathways based on protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play critical roles in the orchestration of complex biochemical events and form the core of most signaling pathways in cells (i.e. cell cycle regulation, cell motility, apoptosis, etc.). The understanding of these complex signaling networks is based largely on the biochemical study of their components, i.e. kinases and phosphatases. The development of luminescent sensors for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity is therefore an active field of research. Examples in the literature usually rely on the modulation of the fluorescence emission of organic fluorophores. However, given the exceptional photophysical properties of lanthanide ions, there is an increased interest in their application as emissive species for monitoring kinase and phosphatase activity. This review summarizes the advances in the development of lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors as tools for the study of kinases and phosphatases and provides a critical description of current examples and synthetic approaches to understand these lanthanide-based luminescent peptide sensors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Protein kinaseactivates NF-κB in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit; Gopas, Jacob; Livneh, Etta

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη) is an upstream regulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway. → PKCη activates NF-κB in non-stressed conditions and in response to DNA damage. → PKCη regulates NF-κB by activating IκB kinase (IKK) and inducing IκB degradation. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors participates in the regulation of genes involved in innate- and adaptive-immune responses, cell death and inflammation. The involvement of the Protein kinase C (PKC) family in the regulation of NF-κB in inflammation and immune-related signaling has been extensively studied. However, not much is known on the role of PKC in NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PKC-eta (PKCη) regulates NF-κB upstream signaling by activating the IκB kinase (IKK) and the degradation of IκB. Furthermore, PKCη enhances the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-κB under non-stressed conditions and in response to the anticancer drug camptothecin. We and others have previously shown that PKCη confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKCη is involved in NF-κB signaling leading to drug resistance.

  4. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jeremy A; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Guo, Zhi; Filsuf, Darius; Belkina, Natalya V; You, Zhongsheng; Paull, Tanya T; Sleckman, Barry P; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Nussenzweig, André

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is a key deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signaling kinase that regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. The majority of patients with A-T, a cancer-prone neurodegenerative disease, present with null mutations in Atm. To determine whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition and increased genomic instability. These results may explain why missense mutations with no detectable kinase activity are rarely found in patients with classical A-T. We propose that ATM kinase-inactive missense mutations, unless otherwise compensated for, interfere with HR during embryogenesis.

  5. Protein kinase D stabilizes aldosterone-induced ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in M1 renal cortical collecting duct cells to promote cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEneaney, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Aldosterone elicits transcriptional responses in target tissues and also rapidly stimulates the activation of protein kinase signalling cascades independently of de novo protein synthesis. Here we investigated aldosterone-induced cell proliferation and extra-cellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1\\/2) mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in the M1 cortical collecting duct cell line (M1-CCD). Aldosterone promoted the proliferative growth of M1-CCD cells, an effect that was protein kinase D1 (PKD1), PKCdelta and ERK1\\/2-dependent. Aldosterone induced the rapid activation of ERK1\\/2 with peaks of activation at 2 and 10 to 30 min after hormone treatment followed by sustained activation lasting beyond 120 min. M1-CCD cells suppressed in PKD1 expression exhibited only the early, transient peaks in ERK1\\/2 activation without the sustained phase. Aldosterone stimulated the physical association of PKD1 with ERK1\\/2 within 2 min of treatment. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist RU28318 inhibited the early and late phases of aldosterone-induced ERK1\\/2 activation, and also aldosterone-induced proliferative cell growth. Aldosterone induced the sub-cellular redistribution of ERK1\\/2 to the nuclei at 2 min and to cytoplasmic sites, proximal to the nuclei after 30 min. This sub-cellular distribution of ERK1\\/2 was inhibited in cells suppressed in the expression of PKD1.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Soon; Kang, Gum-Yong; Bang, Joo Young [Center for Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, Diatech Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Jung [National Research Laboratory for Chromatin Dynamics, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hong-Duk, E-mail: hdyoun@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  7. Expression of MMPs is dependent on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaomeng; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) serve an important role in chondrosarcoma. The present study investigated whether the expression of MMPs was dependent on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in chondrosarcoma. Surgical pathological specimens were collected to detect MMP-1, MMP-13, TIMP-1, type II collagen and phosphorylated MAPK levels in normal cartilage, enchondroma and chondrosarcoma tissues. The expression of MMP‑1, MMP‑13, TIMP‑1 and type II collagen was investigated utilizing MAPK inhibitors in chondrosarcoma cells. It was noted that the expression levels of MMP‑1, MMP‑13 and TIMP‑1 were increased in chondrosarcoma with the activity of MAPK. After chondrosarcoma cells were pretreated with MAPK inhibitors, the levels of MMP‑1, MMP‑13 and TIMP‑1 were inhibited. Furthermore, MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 are essential in regulating the degradation of type II collagen and decomposing cartilage matrix major. The high expression levels of MMP‑1 and MMP‑13 in chondrosarcoma expedite the invasion by chondrosarcoma cells and their expression can be depressed by MAPK inhibitors.

  8. Antidiabetic effect of gomisin N via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2017-12-16

    Gomisin N (GN) is a lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) has gained attention as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Previously, we reported that GN activated the AMPK pathway and ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of GN in C2C12 myotubes and HFD obese mice. GN enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and Akt. In addition, GN promoted glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, which was accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Treatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, suppressed GN-mediated stimulation of glucose uptake. Furthermore, GN increased the expression of mitochondria biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation genes in C2C12 myotubes. In the in vivo study, administration of GN to HFD mice decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, and improved glucose tolerance in HFD obese mice. GN administration rescued the decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt and stimulated the expression of mitochondria biogenesis genes in the skeletal muscle of HFD mice. These findings suggested that GN exerted anti-hyperglycemic effects through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of c-Raf-1 kinase signal transduction pathway in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, G; Hildt, E

    1999-09-24

    Integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice develop a novel form of muscular dystrophy. Here we report that deficiency of alpha(7) integrin causes an activation of the c-Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 2 kinase signal transduction pathway in muscle cells. The observed activation of c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases is a specific effect, because the alpha(7) integrin deficiency does not cause unspecific stress as determined by measurement of the Hsp72/73 level and activity of the JNK2 kinase. Because an increased level of activated FAK was found in muscle of alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the activation of c-Raf-1 kinase is triggered most likely by an integrin-dependent pathway. In accordance with this, in the integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice, part of the integrin beta(1D) variant in muscle is replaced by the beta(1A) variant, which permits the FAK activation. A recent report describes that integrin activity can be down-modulated by the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinase pathway. Specific activation of the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases by cell-permeable peptides in skeletal muscle of rabbits causes degeneration of muscle fibers. Therefore, we conclude that in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the continuous activation of c-Raf-1 kinase causes a permanent reduction of integrin activity diminishing integrin-dependent cell-matrix interactions and thereby contributing to the development of the dystrophic phenotype.

  10. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chen-Chieh; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chao, Jian-Kang; Lai, Yi-Liang; Chang, Wei-En; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu; Kuo, Wu-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis

  11. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  12. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  13. Discovery of aminofurazan-azabenzimidazoles as inhibitors of Rho-kinase with high kinase selectivity and antihypertensive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenger, Robert A; Cui, Haifeng; Dowdell, Sarah E; Franz, Robert G; Gaitanopoulos, Dimitri E; Goodman, Krista B; Hilfiker, Mark A; Ivy, Robert L; Leber, Jack D; Marino, Joseph P; Oh, Hye-Ja; Viet, Andrew Q; Xu, Weiwei; Ye, Guosen; Zhang, Daohua; Zhao, Yongdong; Jolivette, Larry J; Head, Martha S; Semus, Simon F; Elkins, Patricia A; Kirkpatrick, Robert B; Dul, Edward; Khandekar, Sanjay S; Yi, Tracey; Jung, David K; Wright, Lois L; Smith, Gary K; Behm, David J; Doe, Christopher P; Bentley, Ross; Chen, Zunxuan X; Hu, Erding; Lee, Dennis

    2007-01-11

    The discovery, proposed binding mode, and optimization of a novel class of Rho-kinase inhibitors are presented. Appropriate substitution on the 6-position of the azabenzimidazole core provided subnanomolar enzyme potency in vitro while dramatically improving selectivity over a panel of other kinases. Pharmacokinetic data was obtained for the most potent and selective examples and one (6n) has been shown to lower blood pressure in a rat model of hypertension.

  14. Phosphoinositide 3–kinase γ participates in T cell receptor–induced T cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Isabela; Marqués, Miriam; Kumar, Amit; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias; Carrera, Ana C.; Barber, Domingo F.

    2007-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3–kinases (PI3Ks) constitute a family of enzymes that generates 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides at the cell membrane after stimulation of protein tyrosine (Tyr) kinase–associated receptors or G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The class I PI3Ks are divided into two types: class IA p85/p110 heterodimers, which are activated by Tyr kinases, and the class IB p110γ isoform, which is activated by GPCR. Although the T cell receptor (TCR) is a protein Tyr kinase–associated receptor, p110γ deletion affects TCR-induced T cell stimulation. We examined whether the TCR activates p110γ, as well as the consequences of interfering with p110γ expression or function for T cell activation. We found that after TCR ligation, p110γ interacts with Gαq/11, lymphocyte-specific Tyr kinase, and ζ-associated protein. TCR stimulation activates p110γ, which affects 3-phosphorylated polyphosphoinositide levels at the immunological synapse. We show that TCR-stimulated p110γ controls RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 activity, F-actin polarization, and the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, illustrating a crucial role for p110γ in TCR-induced T cell activation. PMID:17998387

  15. A role for Pyk2 and Src in linking G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikic, I; Tokiwa, G; Lev, S; Courtneidge, S A; Schlessinger, J

    1996-10-10

    The mechanisms by which mitogenic G-protein-coupled receptors activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway are poorly understood. Candidate protein tyrosine kinases that link G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase include Src family kinases, the epidermal growth factor receptor, Lyn and Syk. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and bradykinin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and complex formation between Pyk2 and activated Src. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 leads to binding of the SH2 domain of Src to tyrosine 402 of Pyk2 and activation of Src. Transient overexpression of a dominant interfering mutant of Pyk2 or the protein tyrosine kinase Csk reduces LPA- or bradykinin-induced activation of MAP kinase. LPA- or bradykinin-induced MAP kinase activation was also inhibited by overexpression of dominant interfering mutants of Grb2 and Sos. We propose that Pyk2 acts with Src to link Gi- and Gq-coupled receptors with Grb2 and Sos to activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway in PC12 cells.

  16. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  17. KFC, a Ste20-like kinase with mitogenic potential and capability to activate the SAPK/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, J T; Li, D; Robinson, D; Kung, H J

    2000-02-03

    The Sterile-20 (Ste20) family of serine-threonine kinases has been implicated in the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathways. However, the physiological role has remained ambiguous for most of the investigated mammalian Ste20's. Here we report the cloning of a novel Ste20-like kinase, from chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, which we have named KFC, for Kinase From Chicken. The 898 amino acid full-length KFC protein contains an amino-terminal kinase domain, an adjacent downstream serine-rich region, and a C-terminal tail containing a coiled-coil domain. Here we show that the coiled-coil domain of KFC negatively regulates the intrinsic kinase activity. We have also identified a splice variant of KFC in which there is a 207 nucleotide in-frame deletion. This deletion of 69 amino acids encompasses the serine-rich region. These two isoforms, called KFCL, for full-length, and KFCS for spliced (or short) form, not only differ in structure, but also in biological properties. Stable CEF cells overexpressing KFCL, but not KFCS, have a significant increase in growth rate when compared to parental cells. This mitogenic effect is the first such reported for this family of kinases. Finally, we found that KFC, when activated by truncation of the regulatory C-terminus, has a specific activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathway.

  18. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C),

  20. Kinase inhibitors can produce off-target effects and activate linked pathways by retroactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn Michelle L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown in experimental and theoretical work that covalently modified signaling cascades naturally exhibit bidirectional signal propagation via a phenomenon known as retroactivity. An important consequence of retroactivity, which arises due to enzyme sequestration in covalently modified signaling cascades, is that a downstream perturbation can produce a response in a component upstream of the perturbation without the need for explicit feedback connections. Retroactivity may, therefore, play an important role in the cellular response to a targeted therapy. Kinase inhibitors are a class of targeted therapies designed to interfere with a specific kinase molecule in a dysregulated signaling pathway. While extremely promising as anti-cancer agents, kinase inhibitors may produce undesirable off-target effects by non-specific interactions or pathway cross-talk. We hypothesize that targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors can produce off-target effects as a consequence of retroactivity alone. Results We used a computational model and a series of simple signaling motifs to test the hypothesis. Our results indicate that within physiologically and therapeutically relevant ranges for all parameters, a targeted inhibitor can naturally induce an off-target effect via retroactivity. The kinetics governing covalent modification cycles in a signaling network were more important for propagating an upstream off-target effect in our models than the kinetics governing the targeted therapy itself. Our results also reveal the surprising and crucial result that kinase inhibitors have the capacity to turn "on" an otherwise "off" parallel cascade when two cascades share an upstream activator. Conclusions A proper and detailed characterization of a pathway's structure is important for identifying the optimal protein to target as well as what concentration of the targeted therapy is required to modulate the pathway in a safe and effective

  1. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  2. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B

    2015-10-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr(308) in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr(308) dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser(473)) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr(308)) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr(308) phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Baneyx, Gretchen; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Workman, Gail A; Weaver, Matt; Menon, Priya M; Dedhar, Shoukat; Rempel, Sandra A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Vogel, Viola; Sage, E Helene

    2005-10-28

    SPARC, a 32-kDa matricellular glycoprotein, mediates interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, and targeted deletion of Sparc results in compromised extracellular matrix in mice. Fibronectin matrix provides provisional tissue scaffolding during development and wound healing and is essential for the stabilization of mature extracellular matrix. Herein, we report that SPARC expression does not significantly affect fibronectin-induced cell spreading but enhances fibronectin-induced stress fiber formation and cell-mediated partial unfolding of fibronectin molecules, an essential process in fibronectin matrix assembly. By phage display, we identify integrin-linked kinase as a potential binding partner of SPARC and verify the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in vitro. Cells lacking SPARC exhibit diminished fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation and integrin-linked kinase-dependent cell-contractile signaling. Furthermore, induced expression of SPARC in SPARC-null fibroblasts restores fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation, downstream signaling, and fibronectin unfolding. These data further confirm the function of SPARC in extracellular matrix organization and identify a novel mechanism by which SPARC regulates extracellular matrix assembly.

  4. Polarization of migrating monocytic cells is independent of PI 3-kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Volpe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of mammalian cells is a complex cell type and environment specific process. Migrating hematopoietic cells assume a rapid amoeboid like movement when exposed to gradients of chemoattractants. The underlying signaling mechanisms remain controversial with respect to localization and distribution of chemotactic receptors within the plasma membrane and the role of PI 3-kinase activity in cell polarization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel model for the investigation of human leukocyte migration. Monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with the alpha(2A-adrenoceptor (alpha(2AAR display comparable signal transduction responses, such as calcium mobilization, MAP-kinase activation and chemotaxis, to the noradrenaline homologue UK 14'304 as when stimulated with CCL2, which binds to the endogenous chemokine receptor CCR2. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that chemotactic receptors remain evenly distributed over the plasma membrane and that their internalization is not required for migration. Measurements of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET of alpha(2AAR-YFP/CFP suggest a uniform activation of the receptors over the entire plasma membrane. Nevertheless, PI 3-kinase activation is confined to the leading edge. When reverting the gradient of chemoattractant by moving the dispensing micropipette, polarized monocytes--in contrast to neutrophils--rapidly flip their polarization axis by developing a new leading edge at the previous posterior side. Flipping of the polarization axis is accompanied by re-localization of PI-3-kinase activity to the new leading edge. However, reversal of the polarization axis occurs in the absence of PI 3-kinase activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Accumulation and internalization of chemotactic receptors at the leading edge is dispensable for cell migration. Furthermore, uniformly distributed receptors allow the cells to rapidly reorient and adapt to changes in the

  5. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  6. Emerging Roles of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    or has focused on specific physiological situations and tissues. The present PhD thesis has addressed the role of AMPK in regulation of: 1) substrate utilisation during and in recovery from exercise, 2) adipose tissue metabolism during weight loss, and 3) autophagy in skeletal muscle during exercise...... during post exercise recovery. AMPK seems therefore to play a role in substrate selection post exercise. In adipose tissue, basal AMPK activity is decreased in obese and insulin resistant states and is increased in human adipose tissue during weight loss. The underlying mechanisms for increased AMPK...

  7. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-α transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling

  8. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: evoked release of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamate decarboxylase activity in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-05-02

    Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation in isotonic Percoll sucrose, we have characterized two subcellular fractions (PII and PIII) enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes and two others (SII and SIII) enriched in small synaptosomes. These synaptosomal fractions were compared with those obtained from adult hippocampus irradiated at neonatal stage to destroy granule cells and their mossy fibers. Synaptosomes were viable as judged by their ability to release aspartate, glutamate and GABA upon K+ depolarization. After irradiation, compared to the control values, the release of glutamate and GABA was decreased by 57 and 74% in the PIII fraction, but not in the other fractions and the content of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was also decreased in PIII fraction by 62, 44 and 52% respectively. These results suggest that mossy fiber (MF) synaptosomes contain and release glutamate and GABA. Measurement of the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, exhibited no significant difference after irradiation, suggesting that GABA is not synthesized by this enzyme in mossy fibers.

  9. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of protein kinase C activators on phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansbury, H M; Wisehart-Johnson, A E; Qi, C; Fulwood, S; Meier, K E

    1997-09-01

    Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase C's (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC activators had similar effects on cell viability and ERK activation, but differed in their abilities to induce JNK activation and interleukin-2 synthesis. PD 098059, an inhibitor of the mitogen activated protein (MAP)/ERK kinase kinase MEK, partially inhibited ERK activation and completely blocked phorbol ester-induced cell death in sensitive cells. Thus MEK and/or ERK activation, but not JNK activation or interleukin-2 synthesis, appears to be required for phorbol ester-induced toxicity. Alterations in phorbol ester response pathways, rather than altered expression of PKC isoforms, appear to confer phorbol ester resistance to EL4 cells.

  11. 5´AMP activated protein kinase α2 controls substrate metabolism during post-exercise recovery via regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    after prolonged exercise and during the following six hours post exercise in 5´AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 and α1 knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice with free access to food. Substrate oxidation was similar during exercise at the same relative intensity between genotypes. During post...

  12. Catalytic properties of inositol trisphosphate kinase: activation by Ca2+ and calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, K.Y.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (Ins-1,4,5-P 3 ) is an important second-messenger molecule that mobilizes Ca 2+ from intracellular stores in response to the occupancy of receptor by various Ca 2+ -mobilizing agonists. The fate of Ins-1,4,5-P 3 is determined by two enzymes, a 3-kinase and a 5-phosphomonoesterase. The first enzyme converts Ins-1,4,5-P 3 to Ins-1,3,4,5-P 4 , whereas the latter forms Ins-1,4-P 2 . Recent studies suggest that Ins-1,3,4,5-P 4 might modulate the entry of Ca 2+ from an extracellular source. In the current report, the authors describe the partial purification of the 3-kinase from the cytosolic fraction of bovine brain and studies of its catalytic properties. They found that the 3-kinase activity is significantly activated by the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex. Therefore, they propose that Ca 2+ mobilized from endoplasmic reticulum by the action of Ins-1,4,5-P 3 forms a complex with calmodulin, and that the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex stimulates the conversion of Ins-1,4,5-P 3 , and intracellular Ca 2+ mobilizer, to Ins-1,3,4,5-P 4 , an extracellular Ca 2+ mobilizer. A rapid assay method for the 3-kinase was developed that is based on the separation of [3- 32 P]Ins-1,3,4,5-P 4 and [γ- 32 P]ATP by thin-layer chromatography. Using this new assay method, they evaluated kinetic parameters (K/sub m/ for ATP = 40 μM, K/sub m/ for Ins-1,4,5-P 3 = 0.7 μM, K/sub i/ for ADP = 12 μM) and divalent cation specificity (Mg 2+ > > Mn 2+ > Ca 2+ ) for the 3-kinase

  13. Multilevel dysregulation of STAT3 activation in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive T/null-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Raghunath, Puthryaveett N; Xue, Liquan

    2002-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), typically due to t(2;5) translocation, defines a distinct type of T/null-cell lymphoma (TCL). The resulting nucleophosmin (NPM) /ALK chimeric kinase is constitutively active and oncogenic. Downstream effector mol...

  14. Kinase activity in the olfactory bulb is required for odor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle T; Kim, Tae-Young P; Cleland, Thomas A

    2018-05-01

    Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)-a process that is closely associated with BDNF signaling. We sought to elucidate the role of neurotrophin signaling within the OB on odor memory consolidation. Male mice were trained on odor-reward associative discriminations after bilateral infusion of the kinase inhibitor K252a, or vehicle control, into the OB. K252a is a partially selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors, including the TrkB receptor for BDNF, though it also inhibits other plasticity-related kinases such as PKC and CaMKII/IV. K252a infusion into the OB did not impair odor acquisition or short-term (2 h) memory for the learned discriminations, but significantly impaired long-term (48 h) odor memory (LTM). This LTM deficit also was associated with reduced selectivity for the conditioned odorant in a reward-seeking digging task. Infusions of K252a immediately prior to testing did not impair LTM recall. These results indicate that kinase activation in the OB is required for the consolidation of odor memory of incrementally acquired information. © 2018 Tong et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Phosphopeptide binding by Sld3 links Dbf4-dependent kinase to MCM replicative helicase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Tom D; Yeeles, Joseph Tp; Diffley, John Fx

    2016-05-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires the assembly of active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicases at replication origins by a set of conserved and essential firing factors. This process is controlled during the cell cycle by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and in response to DNA damage by the checkpoint kinase Rad53/Chk1. Here we show that Sld3, previously shown to be an essential CDK and Rad53 substrate, is recruited to the inactive MCM double hexamer in a DDK-dependent manner. Sld3 binds specifically to DDK-phosphorylated peptides from two MCM subunits (Mcm4, 6) and then recruits Cdc45. MCM mutants that cannot bind Sld3 or Sld3 mutants that cannot bind phospho-MCM or Cdc45 do not support replication. Moreover, phosphomimicking mutants in Mcm4 and Mcm6 bind Sld3 without DDK and facilitate DDK-independent replication. Thus, Sld3 is an essential "reader" of DDK phosphorylation, integrating signals from three distinct protein kinase pathways to coordinate DNA replication during S phase. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Protein kinase A activation enhances β-catenin transcriptional activity through nuclear localization to PML bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase A (PKA and Wnt signaling cascades are fundamental pathways involved in cellular development and maintenance. In the osteoblast lineage, these pathways have been demonstrated functionally to be essential for the production of mineralized bone. Evidence for PKA-Wnt crosstalk has been reported both during tumorigenesis and during organogenesis, and the nature of the interaction is thought to rely on tissue and cell context. In this manuscript, we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of β-catenin to intranuclear punctuate structures, which were identified as PML bodies. Cellular redistribution of β-catenin could be recapitulated by pharmacologic activation of PKA. Using 3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts as a model system, we found that PKA phosphorylation sites on β-catenin were required for nuclear re-localization. Further, β-catenin's transport to the nucleus was accompanied by an increase in canonical Wnt-dependent transcription, which also required the PKA sites. PKA-Wnt crosstalk in the cells was bi-directional, including enhanced interactions between β-catenin and the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB and transcriptional crosstalk between the Wnt and PKA signaling pathways. Increases in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling were associated with a decrease in the activity of the non-canonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway, which has been shown to antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, this study provides a new understanding of the complex regulation of the subcellular distribution of β-catenin and its differential protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by PKA signaling.

  17. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 μM PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 μM of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 μM PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 μM PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression

  18. Disruption of Fyn SH3 domain interaction with a proline-rich motif in liver kinase B1 results in activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Yamada

    Full Text Available Fyn-deficient mice display increased AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK activity as a result of Fyn-dependent regulation of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1 in skeletal muscle. Mutation of Fyn-specific tyrosine sites in LKB1 results in LKB1 export into the cytoplasm and increased AMPK activation site phosphorylation. This study characterizes the structural elements responsible for the physical interaction between Fyn and LKB1. Effects of point mutations in the Fyn SH2/SH3 domains and in the LKB1 proline-rich motif on 1 Fyn and LKB1 binding, 2 LKB1 subcellular localization and 3 AMPK phosphorylation were investigated in C2C12 muscle cells. Additionally, novel LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides were generated to disrupt Fyn/LKB1 binding and investigate the consequences on AMPK activity in both C2C12 cells and mouse skeletal muscle. Mutation of either Fyn SH3 domain or the proline-rich motif of LKB1 resulted in the disruption of Fyn/LKB1 binding, re-localization of 70% of LKB1 signal in the cytoplasm and a 2-fold increase in AMPK phosphorylation. In vivo disruption of the Fyn/LKB1 interaction using LKB1 proline-rich motif mimicking cell permeable peptides recapitulated Fyn pharmacological inhibition. We have pinpointed the structural elements within Fyn and LKB1 that are responsible for their binding, demonstrating the functionality of this interaction in regulating AMPK activity.

  19. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  20. cAMP-dependent kinase does not modulate the Slack sodium-activated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwer, Megan O; Picchione, Kelly E; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2009-09-01

    The Slack gene encodes a Na(+)-activated K(+) channel and is expressed in many different types of neurons. Like the prokaryotic Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channel MthK, Slack contains two 'regulator of K(+) conductance' (RCK) domains within its carboxy terminal, domains likely involved in Na(+) binding and channel gating. It also contains multiple consensus protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites and although regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, modulation by PKA has not been determined. To test if PKA directly regulates Slack, nystatin-perforated patch whole-cell currents were recorded from a human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line stably expressing Slack. Bath application of forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, caused a rapid and complete inhibition of Slack currents however, the inactive homolog of forskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin caused a similar effect. In contrast, bath application of 8-bromo-cAMP did not affect the amplitude nor the activation kinetics of Slack currents. In excised inside-out patch recordings, direct application of the PKA catalytic subunit to patches did not affect the open probability of Slack channels nor was open probability affected by direct application of protein phosphatase 2B. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720 also did not change current density. Finally, mutating the consensus phosphorylation site located between RCK domain 1 and domain 2 from serine to glutamate did not affect current activation kinetics. We conclude that unlike PKC, phosphorylation by PKA does not acutely modulate the function and gating activation kinetics of Slack channels.

  1. Action of mercurials on activity of partially purified soluble protein kinase C from mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Saijoh, K.; Sumino, K.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of soluble protein kinase C from mice brain was inhibited by mercuric chloride (II) (HgCl 2 ) and organic mercurials, i.e. methyl mercury, phenyl mercury and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB). The IC50 was 0.08 μM for HgCl 2 and about 1 μM for organic mercurials. Sulfhydryl blocking reagents such as 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were less potent but nevertheless inhibited the enzymic activity of protein kinase C. The Hill coefficients of HgCl 2 , DTNB and NEM were close to unity whereas the values for organic mercurials were 1.3 to 1.5. The inhibition was of a non-competitive type with respect to Hl histone. 3 H-PDBu binding activity was also inhibited by all of the reagents in a non-competitive manner. Mercurials apparently bind to sulfhydryl groups of protein kinase C to inhibit the enzymatic activity. (author)

  2. Cerebellar Ataxia and Coenzyme Q Deficiency through Loss of Unorthodox Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefely, Jonathan A; Licitra, Floriana; Laredj, Leila; Reidenbach, Andrew G; Kemmerer, Zachary A; Grangeray, Anais; Jaeg-Ehret, Tiphaine; Minogue, Catherine E; Ulbrich, Arne; Hutchins, Paul D; Wilkerson, Emily M; Ruan, Zheng; Aydin, Deniz; Hebert, Alexander S; Guo, Xiao; Freiberger, Elyse C; Reutenauer, Laurence; Jochem, Adam; Chergova, Maya; Johnson, Isabel E; Lohman, Danielle C; Rush, Matthew J P; Kwiecien, Nicholas W; Singh, Pankaj K; Schlagowski, Anna I; Floyd, Brendan J; Forsman, Ulrika; Sindelar, Pavel J; Westphall, Michael S; Pierrel, Fabien; Zoll, Joffrey; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Kannan, Natarajan; Bingman, Craig A; Coon, Joshua J; Isope, Philippe; Puccio, Hélène; Pagliarini, David J

    2016-08-18

    The UbiB protein kinase-like (PKL) family is widespread, comprising one-quarter of microbial PKLs and five human homologs, yet its biochemical activities remain obscure. COQ8A (ADCK3) is a mammalian UbiB protein associated with ubiquinone (CoQ) biosynthesis and an ataxia (ARCA2) through unclear means. We show that mice lacking COQ8A develop a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia linked to Purkinje cell dysfunction and mild exercise intolerance, recapitulating ARCA2. Interspecies biochemical analyses show that COQ8A and yeast Coq8p specifically stabilize a CoQ biosynthesis complex through unorthodox PKL functions. Although COQ8 was predicted to be a protein kinase, we demonstrate that it lacks canonical protein kinase activity in trans. Instead, COQ8 has ATPase activity and interacts with lipid CoQ intermediates, functions that are likely conserved across all domains of life. Collectively, our results lend insight into the molecular activities of the ancient UbiB family and elucidate the biochemical underpinnings of a human disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of stress-activated protein kinase in the cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other DNA-damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; Datta, R; Yuan, Z M; Kharbanda, S; Kufe, D

    1995-12-01

    The cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) includes activation of Jun/AP-1, induction of c-jun transcription, and programmed cell death. The stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases stimulate the transactivation function of c-jun by amino terminal phosphorylation. The present work demonstrates that ara-C activates p54 SAP kinase. The finding that SAP kinase is also activated by alkylating agents (mitomycin C and cisplatinum) and the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-camptothecin supports DNA damage as an initial signal in this cascade. The results demonstrate that ara-C also induces binding of SAP kinase to the SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein Grb2. SAP kinase binds to the SH3 domains of Grb2, while interaction of the p85 alpha-subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. The results also demonstrate that ara-C treatment is associated with inhibition of lipid and serine kinase activities of PI 3-kinase. The potential significance of the ara-C-induced interaction between SAP kinase and PI 3-kinase is further supported by the demonstration that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, stimulates SAP kinase activity. The finding that Wortmannin treatment is also associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation may support a potential link between PI 3-kinase and regulation of both SAP kinase and programmed cell death.

  4. Spermidine decreases Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity through NMDA receptor and protein kinase G activation in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabiano B; Mello, Carlos F; Marisco, Patricia C; Tonello, Raquel; Girardi, Bruna A; Ferreira, Juliano; Oliveira, Mauro S; Rubin, Maribel A

    2012-06-05

    Spermidine is an endogenous polyamine with a polycationic structure present in the central nervous system of mammals. Spermidine regulates biological processes, such as Ca(2+) influx by glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor), which has been associated with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cGMP/PKG pathway activation and a decrease of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in rats' cerebral cortex synaptosomes. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase establishes Na(+) and K(+) gradients across membranes of excitable cells and by this means maintains membrane potential and controls intracellular pH and volume. However, it has not been defined whether spermidine modulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the hippocampus. In this study we investigated whether spermidine alters Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in slices of hippocampus from rats, and possible underlying mechanisms. Hippocampal slices and homogenates were incubated with spermidine (0.05-10 μM) for 30 min. Spermidine (0.5 and 1 μM) decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in slices, but not in homogenates. MK-801 (100 and 10 μM), a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptor, arcaine (0.5μM), an antagonist of the polyamine binding site at the NMDA receptor, and L-NAME (100μM), a NOS inhibitor, prevented the inhibitory effect of spermidine (0.5 μM). ODQ (10 μM), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, and KT5823 (2 μM), a protein kinase G inhibitor, also prevented the inhibitory effect of spermidine on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. Spermidine (0.5 and 1.0 μM) increased NO(2) plus NO(3) (NOx) levels in slices, and MK-801 (100 μM) and arcaine (0.5 μM) prevented the effect of spermidine (0.5 μM) on the NOx content. These results suggest that spermidine-induced decrease of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity involves NMDA receptor/NOS/cGMP/PKG pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Stafford, S; Adachi, T

    2000-01-01

    Eotaxin and other CC chemokines acting via CC chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) are believed to play an integral role in the development of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma and allergic inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the intracellular events following agonist binding to CCR3...... and the relationship of these events to the functional response of the cell. The objectives of this study were to investigate CCR3-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2), p38, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in eosinophils and to assess...... the requirement for MAP kinases in eotaxin-induced eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) release and chemotaxis. MAP kinase activation was studied in eotaxin-stimulated eosinophils (more than 97% purity) by Western blotting and immune-complex kinase assays. ECP release was measured by radioimmunoassay. Chemotaxis...

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The MAP kinase-activated protein kinase Rck2p regulates cellular responses to cell wall stresses, filamentation and virulence in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xichuan; Du, Wei; Zhao, Jingwen; Zhang, Lilin; Zhu, Zhiyan; Jiang, Linghuo

    2010-06-01

    Rck2p is the Hog1p-MAP kinase-activated protein kinase required for the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to an osmotic challenge in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rck2p also regulates rapamycin sensitivity in both S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In this study, we demonstrate that the deletion of CaRCK2 renders C. albicans cells sensitive to, and CaRck2p translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to, cell wall stresses caused by Congo red, Calcoflor White, elevated heat and zymolyase. However, the kinase activity of CaRck2p is not required for the cellular response to these cell wall stresses. Furthermore, transcripts of cell wall protein-encoding genes CaBGL2, CaHWP1 and CaXOG1 are reduced in C. albicans cells lacking CaRCK2. The deletion of CaRCK2 also reduces the in vitro filamentation of C. albicans and its virulence in a mouse model of systemic candidasis. The kinase activity of CaRck2p is required for the virulence, but not for the in vitro filamentation, in C. albicans. Therefore, Rck2p regulates cellular responses to cell wall stresses, filamentation and virulence in the human fungal pathogen C. albicans.

  8. Activation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Is a Consequence of Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixia Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is similar to other Cdks but is activated during cell differentiation and cell death rather than cell division. Since activation of Cdk5 has been reported in many situations leading to cell death, we attempted to determine if it was required for any form of cell death. We found that Cdk5 is activated during apoptotic deaths and that the activation can be detected even when the cells continue to secondary necrosis. This activation can occur in the absence of Bim, calpain, or neutral cathepsins. The kinase is typically activated by p25, derived from p35 by calpain-mediated cleavage, but inhibition of calpain does not affect cell death or the activation of Cdk5. Likewise, RNAi-forced suppression of the synthesis of Cdk5 does not affect the incidence or kinetics of cell death. We conclude that Cdk5 is activated as a consequence of metabolic changes that are common to many forms of cell death. Thus its activation suggests processes during cell death that will be interesting or important to understand, but activation of Cdk5 is not necessary for cells to die.

  9. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  10. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Copper-Binding Mutant of the Organomercurial Lyase MerB: Insight into the Key Role of the Active Site Aspartic Acid in Hg-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Metal Binding Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Haytham M; Lecoq, Lauriane; Stevenson, Michael; Mansour, Ahmed; Cappadocia, Laurent; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Sygusch, Jurgen; Wilcox, Dean E; Omichinski, James G

    2016-02-23

    In bacterial resistance to mercury, the organomercurial lyase (MerB) plays a key role in the detoxification pathway through its ability to cleave Hg-carbon bonds. Two cysteines (C96 and C159; Escherichia coli MerB numbering) and an aspartic acid (D99) have been identified as the key catalytic residues, and these three residues are conserved in all but four known MerB variants, where the aspartic acid is replaced with a serine. To understand the role of the active site serine, we characterized the structure and metal binding properties of an E. coli MerB mutant with a serine substituted for D99 (MerB D99S) as well as one of the native MerB variants containing a serine residue in the active site (Bacillus megaterium MerB2). Surprisingly, the MerB D99S protein copurified with a bound metal that was determined to be Cu(II) from UV-vis absorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. X-ray structural studies revealed that the Cu(II) is bound to the active site cysteine residues of MerB D99S, but that it is displaced following the addition of either an organomercurial substrate or an ionic mercury product. In contrast, the B. megaterium MerB2 protein does not copurify with copper, but the structure of the B. megaterium MerB2-Hg complex is highly similar to the structure of the MerB D99S-Hg complexes. These results demonstrate that the active site aspartic acid is crucial for both the enzymatic activity and metal binding specificity of MerB proteins and suggest a possible functional relationship between MerB and its only known structural homologue, the copper-binding protein NosL.

  11. [Ulysses retrotransposon aspartate proteinase (Drosophila virilis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D A; Savvateeva, L V; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2002-01-01

    Retrotransposones are mobile genetic elements occurring in genomes of bacteria, plants or animals. Retrotransposones were found to contain nucleotide sequences encoding proteins which are homological to retroviral aspartic proteinases. Our research has been focused on Ulysses which is mobile genetic element found in Drosophila virilis. We suggested a primary structure of Ulysses proteinase using comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of retroviral proteinases and proteinases from retrotransposones. The appropriate cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purification of recombinant protein (12 kD) has been carried out by affinity chromatography using pepstatine-agarose. The obtained protein has proteolytic activity at optimum pH 5.5 like the majority of aspartic proteinases.

  12. Blockades of mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcineurin both change fibre-type markers in skeletal muscle culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higginson, James; Wackerhage, Henning; Woods, Niall

    2002-01-01

    A and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) blockade with U0126 upon myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform mRNA levels and activities of metabolic enzymes after 1 day, 3 days and 7 days of treatment in primary cultures of spontaneously twitching rat skeletal muscle. U0126 treatment significantly decreased......Activation of either the calcineurin or the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway increases the percentage of slow fibres in vivo suggesting that both pathways can regulate fibre phenotypes in skeletal muscle. We investigated the effect of calcineurin blockade with cyclosporin...

  13. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N Alagramam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4-8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b , Cacna1g , and Pla2g6 , related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway.

  14. PRO40 is a scaffold protein of the cell wall integrity pathway, linking the MAP kinase module to the upstream activator protein kinase C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Teichert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes. Most ascomycetes possess three MAPK modules that are involved in key developmental processes like sexual propagation or pathogenesis. However, the regulation of these modules by adapters or scaffolds is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of the cell wall integrity (CWI MAPK module in the model fungus Sordaria macrospora. Using a forward genetic approach, we found that sterile mutant pro30 has a mutated mik1 gene that encodes the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK of the proposed CWI pathway. We generated single deletion mutants lacking MAPKKK MIK1, MAPK kinase (MAPKK MEK1, or MAPK MAK1 and found them all to be sterile, cell fusion-deficient and highly impaired in vegetative growth and cell wall stress response. By searching for MEK1 interaction partners via tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified previously characterized developmental protein PRO40 as a MEK1 interaction partner. Although fungal PRO40 homologs have been implicated in diverse developmental processes, their molecular function is currently unknown. Extensive affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that PRO40 is able to bind MIK1, MEK1, and the upstream activator protein kinase C (PKC1. We further found that the PRO40 N-terminal disordered region and the central region encompassing a WW interaction domain are sufficient to govern interaction with MEK1. Most importantly, time- and stress-dependent phosphorylation studies showed that PRO40 is required for MAK1 activity. The sum of our results implies that PRO40 is a scaffold protein for the CWI pathway, linking the MAPK module to the upstream activator PKC1. Our data provide important insights into the mechanistic role of a protein that has been implicated in sexual and asexual development, cell fusion, symbiosis, and pathogenicity in different fungal systems.

  15. A bipolar clamp mechanism for activation of Jak-family protein tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Barua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most cell surface receptors for growth factors and cytokines dimerize in order to mediate signal transduction. For many such receptors, the Janus kinase (Jak family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases are recruited in pairs and juxtaposed by dimerized receptor complexes in order to activate one another by trans-phosphorylation. An alternative mechanism for Jak trans-phosphorylation has been proposed in which the phosphorylated kinase interacts with the Src homology 2 (SH2 domain of SH2-B, a unique adaptor protein with the capacity to homo-dimerize. Building on a rule-based kinetic modeling approach that considers the concerted nature and combinatorial complexity of modular protein domain interactions, we examine these mechanisms in detail, focusing on the growth hormone (GH receptor/Jak2/SH2-Bbeta system. The modeling results suggest that, whereas Jak2-(SH2-Bbeta(2-Jak2 heterotetramers are scarcely expected to affect Jak2 phosphorylation, SH2-Bbeta and dimerized receptors synergistically promote Jak2 trans-activation in the context of intracellular signaling. Analysis of the results revealed a unique mechanism whereby SH2-B and receptor dimers constitute a bipolar 'clamp' that stabilizes the active configuration of two Jak2 molecules in the same macro-complex.

  16. Serum thymidine kinase activity of various cancer and HBV positive liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Kiji, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Kiichiro; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Ohshiro, Iwao; Hirose, Tetsuhito

    1987-03-01

    Clinical utility of determination of serum deoxythymidine kinase (TK) activity is described. It is well known that elevated TK level is observed in leukemia and other malignant diseases, or some viral infectious diseases. The TK activity was assayed on normal subjects, hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive liver diseases and various cancer by a newly developed high sensitive method, radioenzyme assay (REA) utilizing /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine as the substrate. Measurement of TK activity by the REA is revealed to be useful for ''the marker of DNA metabolism anomaly'' in leukemia, etc.

  17. Phosphopeptide occupancy and photoaffinity cross-linking of the v-Src SH2 domain attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P; Shoelson, S E; Drew, J S; Miller, W T

    1994-12-02

    Phosphorylation of c-Src at carboxyl-terminal Tyr-527 suppresses tyrosine kinase activity and transforming potential, presumably by facilitating the intramolecular interaction of the C terminus of Src with its SH2 domain. In addition, it has been shown previously that occupancy of the c-Src SH2 domain with a phosphopeptide stimulates c-Src kinase catalytic activity. We have performed analogous studies with v-Src, the transforming protein from Rous sarcoma virus, which has extensive homology with c-Src. v-Src lacks an autoregulatory phosphorylation site, and its kinase domain is constitutively active. Phosphopeptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding c-Src Tyr-527 and a Tyr-Glu-Glu-Ile motif from the hamster polyoma virus middle T antigen inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of baculovirus-expressed v-Src 2- and 4-fold, respectively. To determine the mechanism of this regulation, the Tyr-527 phosphopeptide was substituted with the photoactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine at the adjacent positions (N- and C-terminal) to phosphotyrosine. These peptides photoinactivate the v-Src tyrosine kinase 5-fold in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the peptides cross-link an isolated Src SH2 domain with similar rates and specificity. These data indicate that occupancy of the v-Src SH2 domain induces a conformational change that is transmitted to the kinase domain and attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

  18. Escitalopram Ameliorates Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Spatial Memory Deficits Induced by Protein Kinase A Activation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Wang, Yan-Juan; Gong, Wei-Gang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of escitalopram pretreatment on protein kinase A (PKA)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in rats using western blot and behavioral tests, respectively. We demonstrated that escitalopram effectively ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation and the spatial memory deficits induced by PKA activation. We measured the total and activity-dependent Ser9-phosphorylated levels of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in hippocampal extracts. No significant change in the total level of GSK-3β was observed between the different groups. However, compared with forskolin injection alone, pretreatment with escitalopram increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. We also demonstrated that escitalopram increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (the active form of Akt). Furthermore, we identified other important kinases and phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and MAP kinase kinase-1/2, that have previously been reported to play a crucial role in tau phosphorylation; however, we did not detect any significant change in the activation of these kinases or phosphatases in our study. We unexpectedly demonstrated that forskolin caused anxiety-like behavior in rats, and pretreatment with escitalopram did not significantly ameliorate the anxiety-like behavior induced by forskolin. These data provide the first evidence that escitalopram ameliorates forskolin-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats; these effects do not occur via the anti-anxiety activity of escitalopram but may involve the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  19. SAM domain-dependent activity of PfTKL3, an essential tyrosine kinase-like kinase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Abdirahman; Eschenlauer, Sylvain; Reininger, Luc; Doerig, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, several protein kinases inhibitors have reached the market for cancer chemotherapy. The kinomes of pathogens represent potentially attractive targets in infectious diseases. The functions of the majority of protein kinases of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic protist responsible for the most virulent form of human malaria, remain unknown. Here we present a thorough characterisation of PfTKL3 (PF13_0258), an enzyme that belongs to the tyrosine kinase-like kinase (TKL) group. We demonstrate by reverse genetics that PfTKL3 is essential for asexual parasite proliferation in human erythrocytes. PfTKL3 is expressed in both asexual and gametocytes stages, and in the latter the protein co-localises with cytoskeleton microtubules. Recombinant PfTKL3 displays in vitro autophosphorylation activity and is able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates, and both activities are dramatically dependent on the presence of an N-terminal "sterile alpha-motif" domain. This study identifies PfTKL3 as a validated drug target amenable to high-throughput screening.

  20. Insulin resistance in uremia: Insulin receptor kinase activity in liver and muscle from chronic uremic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchin, F.; Ittoop, O.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the partially purified insulin receptors from liver and skeletal muscle in a rat model of severe chronic uremia. 125 I-insulin binding was higher in the liver from uremic rats when compared with ad libitum- and pair-fed controls. Furthermore, the ability of insulin to stimulate the autophosphorylation of the β-subunit and insulin receptor kinase activity using Glu 80 , Tyr 20 as exogenous phosphoacceptor was increased in the liver of the uremic animals. The structural characteristics of the receptors, as determined by electrophoretic mobilities of affinity labeled α-subunit and the phosphorylated β-subunit, were normal in uremia. 125 I-insulin binding and insulin receptor kinase activity were similar in the skeletal muscle from uremic and pair- and ad libitum-fed animals. Thus the data are supportive of the hypothesis that in liver and muscle of chronic uremic rats, insulin resistance is due to a defect(s) distal to the insulin receptor kinase

  1. Infralimbic cortex Rho-kinase inhibition causes antidepressant-like activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Salim Yalcin; Soner, Burak Cem; Sahin, Ayse Saide

    2015-03-03

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the world; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, a new signal-transduction pathway, namely Rho/Rho-kinase signalling, has been suggested to be involved in diverse cellular events in the central nervous system; such as epilepsy, anxiety-related behaviors, regulation of dendritic and axonal morphology, antinociception, subarachnoid haemorrhage, spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However there is no evidence showing the involvement of Rho-kinase pathway in depression. In addition, the infralimbic cortex, rodent equivalent to subgenual cingulate cortex has been shown to be responsible for emotional responses. Thus, in the present study, intracranial guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally into the infralimbic cortex, and the effects of repeated microinjections of a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (10 nmol) were investigated in rats. Y-27632 significantly decreased immobility time and increased swimming and climbing behaviors when compared to fluoxetine (10 μg) and saline groups in the forced swim test. In addition, Y-27632 treatment did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity and forelimb use in the open-field and cylinder tests respectively; but it enhanced limb placing accuracy in the ladder rung walking test. Our results suggest that Y-27632 could be a potentially active antidepressant agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activated Cdc42 kinase regulates Dock localization in male germ cells during Drosophila spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Abbas M; Zhou, Xin; Kim, Christine; Shah, Kushani K; Hogden, Christopher; Schoenherr, Jessica A; Clemens, James C; Chang, Henry C

    2013-06-15

    Deregulation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ACK1 (Activated Cdc42-associated kinase) correlates with poor prognosis in cancers and has been implicated in promoting metastasis. To further understand its in vivo function, we have characterized the developmental defects of a null mutation in Drosophila Ack, which bears a high degree of sequence similarity to mammalian ACK1 but lacks a CRIB domain. We show that Ack, while not essential for viability, is critical for sperm formation. This function depends on Ack tyrosine kinase activity and is required cell autonomously in differentiating male germ cells at or after the spermatocyte stage. Ack associates predominantly with endocytic clathrin sites in spermatocytes, but disruption of Ack function has no apparent effect on clathrin localization and receptor-mediated internalization of Boss (Bride of sevenless) protein in eye discs. Instead, Ack is required for the subcellular distribution of Dock (dreadlocks), the Drosophila homolog of the SH2- and SH3-containing adaptor protein Nck. Moreover, Dock forms a complex with Ack, and the localization of Dock in male germ cells depends on its SH2 domain. Together, our results suggest that Ack-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation recruits Dock to promote sperm differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway: role in immune evasion by trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carolina Soares-Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma cruzi are the causative agents of leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease, respectively, two neglected tropical diseases that affect about 25 million people worldwide. These parasites belong to the family Trypanosomatidae and are both obligate intracellular parasites that manipulate host signaling pathways to establish the infection, and also subvert the host innate immune system. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are serine and threonine protein kinases, highly conserved in eukaryotes, and are involved in signal transduction pathways that are related to modulation of physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. This mini-review highlights the current knowledge about the mechanisms that Leishmania spp and T. cruzi have evolved to target host MAPK signaling pathway, highjack immune response, and in this manner, promote parasite maintenance in the host.

  4. Receptor kinase-mediated control of primary active proton pumping at the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Kristensen, Astrid; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of the cell wall space outside the plasma membrane is required for plant growth and is the result of proton extrusion by the plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. Here we show that the major plasma membrane proton pumps in Arabidopsis, AHA1 and AHA2, interact directly in vitro...... and in planta with PSY1R, a receptor kinase of the plasma membrane that serves as a receptor for the peptide growth hormone PSY1. The intracellular protein kinase domain of PSY1R phosphorylates AHA2/AHA1 at Thr-881, situated in the autoinhibitory region I of the C-terminal domain. When expressed in a yeast...... heterologous expression system, the introduction of a negative charge at this position caused pump activation. Application of PSY1 to plant seedlings induced rapid in planta phosphorylation at Thr-881, concomitant with an instantaneous increase in proton efflux from roots. The direct interaction between AHA2...

  5. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  6. How to awaken your nanomachines: Site-specific activation of focal adhesion kinases through ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna W; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Arold, Stefan T

    2015-10-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the related protein-tyrosine kinase 2-beta (Pyk2) are highly versatile multidomain scaffolds central to cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Due to their key role in cancer metastasis, understanding and inhibiting their functions are important for the development of targeted therapy. Because FAK and Pyk2 are involved in many different cellular functions, designing drugs with partial and function-specific inhibitory effects would be desirable. Here, we summarise recent progress in understanding the structural mechanism of how the tug-of-war between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions allows these protein 'nanomachines' to become activated in a site-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The AMP-activated protein kinase beta 1 subunit modulates erythrocyte integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Emma L; McIntyre, Zoe; Clare, Simon; Arends, Mark J; Goulding, David; Isherwood, Christopher; Caetano, Susana S; Reviriego, Carmen Ballesteros; Swiatkowska, Agnieszka; Kane, Leanne; Harcourt, Katherine; Adams, David J; White, Jacqueline K; Speak, Anneliese O

    2017-01-01

    Failure to maintain a normal in vivo erythrocyte half-life results in the development of hemolytic anemia. Half-life is affected by numerous factors, including energy balance, electrolyte gradients, reactive oxygen species, and membrane plasticity. The heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that acts as a critical regulator of cellular energy balance. Previous roles for the alpha 1 and gamma 1 subunits in the control of erythrocyte survival have been reported. In the work described here, we studied the role of the beta 1 subunit in erythrocytes and observed microcytic anemia with compensatory extramedullary hematopoiesis together with splenomegaly and increased osmotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Substituted aminopyrimidine protein kinase B (PknB) inhibitors show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy M.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Buxton, Roger S.; Chugh, Jasveen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Osborne, Simon A.; Saxty, Barbara; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Taylor, Debra L.; Whalley, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-throughput screen against PknB, an essential serine–threonine protein kinase present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowed the identification of an aminoquinazoline inhibitor which was used as a starting point for SAR investigations. Although a significant improvement in enzyme affinity was achieved, the aminoquinazolines showed little or no cellular activity against M. tuberculosis. However, switching to an aminopyrimidine core scaffold and the introduction of a basic amine side chain afforded compounds with nanomolar enzyme binding affinity and micromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations against M. tuberculosis. Replacement of the pyrazole head group with pyridine then allowed equipotent compounds with improved selectivity against a human kinase panel to be obtained. PMID:22469702

  9. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  10. SAV1 promotes Hippo kinase activation through antagonizing the PP2A phosphatase STRIPAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jun [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Ni, Lisheng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Osinski, Adam [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Tomchick, Diana R. [Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Brautigam, Chad A. [Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Luo, Xuelian [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States

    2017-10-24

    The Hippo pathway controls tissue growth and homeostasis through a central MST-LATS kinase cascade. The scaffold protein SAV1 promotes the activation of this kinase cascade, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we discover SAV1-mediated inhibition of the PP2A complex STRIPAKSLMAP as a key mechanism of MST1/2 activation. SLMAP binding to autophosphorylated MST2 linker recruits STRIPAK and promotes PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of MST2 at the activation loop. Our structural and biochemical studies reveal that SAV1 and MST2 heterodimerize through their SARAH domains. Two SAV1–MST2 heterodimers further dimerize through SAV1 WW domains to form a heterotetramer, in which MST2 undergoes trans-autophosphorylation. SAV1 directly binds to STRIPAK and inhibits its phosphatase activity, protecting MST2 activation-loop phosphorylation. Genetic ablation of SLMAP in human cells leads to spontaneous activation of the Hippo pathway and alleviates the need for SAV1 in Hippo signaling. Thus, SAV1 promotes Hippo activation through counteracting the STRIPAKSLMAP PP2A phosphatase complex.

  11. Plant Rho-type (Rop) GTPase-dependent activation of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Jurca, Manuela E; Fodor-Dunai, Csilla; Szucs, Attila; Otvös, Krisztina; Klement, Eva; Bíró, Judit; Fehér, Attila

    2009-04-02

    Plants have evolved distinct mechanisms to link Rho-type (Rop) GTPases to downstream signaling pathways as compared to other eukaryotes. Here, experimental data are provided that members of the Medicago, as well as Arabidopsis, receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase family (RLCK Class VI) were strongly and specifically activated by GTP-bound Rop GTPases in vitro. Deletion analysis indicated that the residues implicated in the interaction might be distributed on various parts of the kinases. Using a chimaeric Rop GTPase protein, the importance of the Rho-insert region in kinase activation could also be verified. These data strengthen the possibility that RLCKs may serve as Rop GTPase effectors in planta.

  12. PTP1B Inhibition Causes Rac1 Activation by Enhancing Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tsuchiya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study investigated the signaling pathway underlying Rac1 activation induced by the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA. Methods: Activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B was assayed under cell-free conditions. Western blot was carried out to quantify phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and Akt in PC-12 cells. Rac1 activity was monitored in the föerster resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis using living and fixed PC-12 cells. Results: DCP-LA markedly suppressed PTP1B activity in a concentration (100 pM-100 µM-dependent manner. In the DCP-LA binding assay, fluorescein-conjugated DCP-LA produced a single fluorescent signal band at 60 kDa, corresponding to the molecule of PTP1B, and the signal was attenuated or abolished by co-treatment or pretreatment with non-conjugated DCP-LA. DCP-LA significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Tyr1222 and Akt1/2 at Thr308/309 and Ser473/474 in PC-12 cells. In the FRET analysis, DCP-LA significantly enhanced NGF-stimulated Rac1 activation, which is abrogated by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 inhibitor BX912, or the Akt inhibitor MK2206. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that DCP-LA-induced PTP1B inhibition, possibly through its direct binding, causes Rac1 activation by enhancing a pathway along a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 axis.

  13. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide for sensitive protein kinase activity and inhibitor sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Wei-Bin; Zhao, Hui-Fang; Xiang, Cai-Yun; Qiu, Jian-Ding, E-mail: jdqiu@ncu.edu.cn

    2016-01-21

    Herein, a novel electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) biosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donor and graphene oxide (GO) as acceptor for monitoring the activity of protein kinase was presented for the first time. Anti-phosphoserine antibody conjugated graphene oxide (Ab-GO) nonocomposite could be captured onto the phosphorylated peptide/GQDs modified electrode surface through antibody–antigen interaction in the presence of casein kinase II (CK2) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), resulting in ECL from the GQDs quenching by closely contacting GO. This ECL quenching degree was positively correlated with CK2 activity. Therefore, on the basis of ECL-RET between GQDs and GO, the activity of protein kinase can be detected sensitively. This biosensor can also be used for quantitative analysis CK2 activity in serum samples and qualitative screening kinase inhibition, indicating the potential application of the developed method in biochemical fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • We reported a novel ECL-RET biosensor for sensitive analysis of casein kinase II activity. • The successful ECL-RET between GQDs and GO could be established. • GQDs was employed for casein kinase II activity monitoring and inhibition assay. • Highly sensitive detection of CK2 activity and inhibition was achieved.

  14. Zn2+, not Ca2+, is the most effective cation for activation of dolichol kinase of mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakihara, Y; Volpe, J J

    1985-12-15

    The cation specificity of dolichol kinase of mammalian brain and the potential involvement of a Ca2+-calmodulin system in regulation of this enzyme have been studied. Among 10 divalent cations examined, Zn2+ was found to be most effective for the activation of dolichol kinase of rat and calf brain and cultured C-6 glial cells. The activations with Ca2+, Co2+, and Mg2+ were 53%, 32%, and 18% of the full activation with Zn2+, respectively. No combinations of the cations could activate the enzyme as much as Zn2+ alone. A role for a Ca2+-calmodulin system in the regulation of brain dolichol kinase was not supported by our data. First, the concentration of free Ca2+ required for the maximum activation of dolichol kinase was two to three orders of magnitude greater than the concentration required by typical calmodulin-dependent enzymes. Second, neither the depletion of calmodulin from the microsomal fraction nor the addition of exogenous calmodulin caused an alteration in the activation of dolichol kinase by Ca2+ (or Zn2+). Third, antagonists of calmodulin failed to suppress the activation of the enzyme by Ca2+ (or Zn2+). The data raise the possibility that Zn2+ is involved in the regulation of dolichol kinase in brain.

  15. DMPD: Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18353649 Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activa...e IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? PubmedID... 18353649 Title Are the IKKs and IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKK-epsilon similarly activated? Authors Chau

  16. Complexes between the LKB1 tumor suppressor, STRADα/β and MO25α/β are upstream kinases in the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessi Dario R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge that acts as a 'metabolic master switch' and inhibits cell proliferation. Activation requires phosphorylation of Thr172 of AMPK within the activation loop by upstream kinases (AMPKKs that have not been identified. Recently, we identified three related protein kinases acting upstream of the yeast homolog of AMPK. Although they do not have obvious mammalian homologs, they are related to LKB1, a tumor suppressor that is mutated in the human Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. We recently showed that LKB1 exists as a complex with two accessory subunits, STRADα/β and MO25α/β. Results We report the following observations. First, two AMPKK activities purified from rat liver contain LKB1, STRADα and MO25α, and can be immunoprecipitated using anti-LKB1 antibodies. Second, both endogenous and recombinant complexes of LKB1, STRADα/β and MO25α/β activate AMPK via phosphorylation of Thr172. Third, catalytically active LKB1, STRADα or STRADβ and MO25α or MO25β are required for full activity. Fourth, the AMPK-activating drugs AICA riboside and phenformin do not activate AMPK in HeLa cells (which lack LKB1, but activation can be restored by stably expressing wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, LKB1. Fifth, AICA riboside and phenformin fail to activate AMPK in immortalized fibroblasts from LKB1-knockout mouse embryos. Conclusions These results provide the first description of a physiological substrate for the LKB1 tumor suppressor and suggest that it functions as an upstream regulator of AMPK. Our findings indicate that the tumors in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome could result from deficient activation of AMPK as a consequence of LKB1 inactivation.

  17. Silibinin activates AMP-activated protein kinase to protect neuronal cells from oxygen and glucose deprivation-re-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi; Ding, Sheng-quan; Shen, Ya-fang

    2014-11-14

    In this study, we explored the cytoprotective potential of silibinin against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal cell damages, and studied underling mechanisms. In vitro model of ischemic stroke was created by keeping neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y cells and primary mouse cortical neurons) in an OGD condition followed by re-oxygenation. Pre-treatment of silibinin significantly inhibited OGD/re-oxygenation-induced necrosis and apoptosis of neuronal cells. OGD/re-oxygenation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction were also inhibited by silibinin. At the molecular level, silibinin treatment in SH-SY5Y cells and primary cortical neurons led to significant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling activation, detected by phosphorylations of AMPKα1, its upstream kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and the downstream target acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic depletion of AMPK alleviated the neuroprotective ability of silibinin against OGD/re-oxygenation. Further, ROS scavenging ability by silibinin was abolished with AMPK inhibition or silencing. While A-769662, the AMPK activator, mimicked silibinin actions and suppressed ROS production and neuronal cell death following OGD/re-oxygenation. Together, these results show that silibinin-mediated neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, J.A.; Pellegrini, M.; Filsuf, D.

    2012-01-01

    whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice......, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate...

  19. The effect of midazolam on neutrophil mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    Neutrophil p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a key enzyme in the intracellular signalling pathway that is responsible for many neutrophil functions, which are important in neutrophil-endothelial interaction. The imidazole compounds are inhibitors of this enzyme system. The objectives of this in-vitro investigation were to examine the effect of midazolam on neutrophil p38 MAPK activation (phosphorylation) following in-vitro ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b\\/CD18.

  20. The Insect Neuropeptide PTTH Activates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Torso to Initiate Metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; Gilbert, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo complete metamorphosis to become sexually mature adults. Metamorphosis is initiated by brain-derived prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), which stimulates the production of the molting hormone ecdysone via an incompletely defined signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate...... in the prothoracic gland (PG), and its loss phenocopies the removal of PTTH. The activation of Torso by PTTH stimulates extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and the loss of ERK in the PG phenocopies the loss of PTTH and Torso. We conclude that PTTH initiates metamorphosis by activation...

  1. Nitrate Activation of Cytosolic Protein Kinases Diverts Photosynthetic Carbon from Sucrose to Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champigny, Marie-Louise; Foyer, Christine

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of carbon partitioning between carbohydrates (principally sucrose) and amino acids has been only poorly characterized in higher plants. The hypothesis that the pathway of sucrose and amino acid biosynthesis compete for carbon skeletons and energy is widely accepted. In this review, we suggest a mechanism involving the regulation of cytosolic protein kinases whereby the flow of carbon is regulated at the level of partitioning between the pathways of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism via the covalent modulation of component enzymes. The addition of nitrate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum) grown in the absence of exogenous nitrogen has a dramatic, if transient, impact on sucrose formation and on the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (which is inactivated) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which is activated). The activities of these two enzymes are modulated by protein phosphorylation in response to the addition of nitrate, but they respond in an inverse fashion. Sucrose phosphate synthase in inactivated and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is activated. Nitrate functions as a signal metabolite activating the cytosolic protein kinase, thereby modulating the activities of at least two of the key enzymes in assimilate partitioning and redirecting the flow of carbon away from sucrose biosynthesis toward amino acid synthesis. PMID:16653003

  2. Purification of reversibly oxidized proteins (PROP reveals a redox switch controlling p38 MAP kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J Templeton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of cysteine residues of proteins is emerging as an important means of regulation of signal transduction, particularly of protein kinase function. Tools to detect and quantify cysteine oxidation of proteins have been a limiting factor in understanding the role of cysteine oxidation in signal transduction. As an example, the p38 MAP kinase is activated by several stress-related stimuli that are often accompanied by in vitro generation of hydrogen peroxide. We noted that hydrogen peroxide inhibited p38 activity despite paradoxically increasing the activating phosphorylation of p38. To address the possibility that cysteine oxidation may provide a negative regulatory effect on p38 activity, we developed a biochemical assay to detect reversible cysteine oxidation in intact cells. This procedure, PROP, demonstrated in vivo oxidation of p38 in response to hydrogen peroxide and also to the natural inflammatory lipid prostaglandin J2. Mutagenesis of the potential target cysteines showed that oxidation occurred preferentially on residues near the surface of the p38 molecule. Cysteine oxidation thus controls a functional redox switch regulating the intensity or duration of p38 activity that would not be revealed by immunodetection of phosphoprotein commonly interpreted as reflective of p38 activity.

  3. Evolutionary divergence in the catalytic activity of the CAM-1, ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Bainbridge

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR 1 and 2 are atypical members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family and have been associated with several human diseases. The vertebrate RORs contain an ATP binding domain that deviates from the consensus amino acid sequence, although the impact of this deviation on catalytic activity is not known and the kinase function of these receptors remains controversial. Recently, ROR2 was shown to signal through a Wnt responsive, β-catenin independent pathway and suppress a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal. In this work we demonstrate that both ROR1 and ROR2 kinase domains are catalytically deficient while CAM-1, the C. elegans homolog of ROR, has an active tyrosine kinase domain, suggesting a divergence in the signaling processes of the ROR family during evolution. In addition, we show that substitution of the non-consensus residues from ROR1 or ROR2 into CAM-1 and MuSK markedly reduce kinase activity, while restoration of the consensus residues in ROR does not restore robust kinase function. We further demonstrate that the membrane-bound extracellular domain alone of either ROR1 or ROR2 is sufficient for suppression of canonical Wnt3a signaling, and that this domain can also enhance Wnt5a suppression of Wnt3a signaling. Based on these data, we conclude that human ROR1 and ROR2 are RTK-like pseudokinases.

  4. Role of nongenomic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways in 1,25D3-mediated apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Kong, Rui-Xian; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2006-08-15

    Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that regulates calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. The active form of vitamin D [1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D3)] acts through both genomic and nongenomic pathways. 1,25D3 has antitumor effects in a variety of cancers, including colorectal, prostate, breast, ovarian, and skin cancers. 1,25D3 exerts growth-inhibitory effects in cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation. The mechanisms regulating 1,25D3-induced apoptosis remain unclear. We investigated the role of nongenomic signaling in 1,25D3-mediated apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. 1,25D3 induced rapid and sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathways in SCC cells. These effects were nongenomic: they occurred rapidly and were not inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. To examine whether the nongenomic activation of Akt and ERK1/2 plays a role in 1,25D3-mediated apoptosis, the expression of Akt or ERK1/2 was reduced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). siRNA-Akt significantly enhanced 1,25D3-induced apoptosis as indicated by increased levels of Annexin V-positive cells and increased sub-G(1) population and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, siRNA-ERK1/2 had no effects on 1,25D3-induced apoptosis. In addition, siRNA-Akt transfection followed by 1,25D3 treatment induced apoptosis much sooner than 1,25D3 alone. siRNA-Akt and 1,25D3 induced caspase-10 activation, suppressed the expression of c-IAP1 and XIAP, and promoted 1,25D3-induced caspase-3 activation. These results support a link between 1,25D3-induced nongenomic signaling and apoptosis. 1,25D3 induces the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, which suppresses 1,25D3-mediated apoptosis and prolongs the survival of SCC cells.

  5. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusiak, Matthew G.; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans was developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics of C. elegans in combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components in C. elegans. PMID:26907690

  6. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusiak, Matthew G; Jin, Yishi

    2016-04-08

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundwormCaenorhabditis eleganswas developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics ofC. elegansin combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components inC. elegans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Activation of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase D in Human Natural Killer Cells: Effects of Tributyltin, Dibutyltin, and Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Krupa; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the ability of target cells to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase D (PKD) (which is often a downstream target of PKC) has not been examined in natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. Here we examined whether exposure of human NK cells to lysis sensitive tumor cells activated PKC and PKD. The results of these studies show for the first time that activation of PKC and PKD occurs in response to target cell binding to NK cells. Exposure of NK cells to K562 tumor cells for 10 and 30 minutes increased phosphorylation/activation of both PKC and PKD by roughly 2 fold. Butyltins (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin (DBT)) and brominated compounds (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)) are environmental contaminants that are found in human blood. Exposures of NK cells to TBT, DBT or TBBPA decrease NK cell lytic function in part by activating the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are part of the NK lytic pathway. We established that PKC and PKD are part of the lytic pathway upstream of MAPKs and thus we investigated whether DBT, TBT, and TBBPA exposures activated PKC and PKD. TBT activated PKC by 2–3 fold at 10 min at concentrations ranging from 50–300 nM while DBT caused a 1.3 fold activation at 2.5 μM at 10 min. Both TBT and DBT caused an approximately 2 fold increase in phosphorylation/activation of PKC. Exposures to TBBPA caused no statistically significant changes in either PKC or PKD activation. PMID:26228090

  8. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  9. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T

    2012-02-01

    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  10. Mitogen activated protein kinases selectively regulate palytoxin-stimulated gene expression in mouse keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Warmka, Janel K.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2003-01-01

    We have been investigating how the novel skin tumor promoter palytoxin transmits signals through mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Palytoxin activates three major MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, in a keratinocyte cell line derived from initiated mouse skin (308). We previously showed that palytoxin requires ERK to increase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) gene expression, an enzyme implicated in carcinogenesis. Diverse stimuli require JNK and p38 to increase MMP-13 gene expression, however. We therefore used the JNK and p38 inhibitors SP 600125 and SB 202190, respectively, to investigate the role of these MAPKs in palytoxin-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Surprisingly, palytoxin does not require JNK and p38 to increase MMP-13 gene expression. Accordingly, ERK activation, independent of palytoxin and in the absence of JNK and p38 activation, is sufficient to induce MMP-13 gene expression in 308 keratinocytes. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that inhibits activator protein-1 (AP-1), blocked palytoxin-stimulated MMP-13 gene expression. Therefore, the AP-1 site present in the promoter of the MMP-13 gene appears to be functional and to play a key role in palytoxin-stimulated gene expression. Previous studies showed that palytoxin simulates an ERK-dependent selective increase in the c-Fos content of AP-1 complexes that bind to the promoter of the MMP-13 gene. JNK and p38 can also modulate c-Fos. Palytoxin does not require JNK or p38 to increase c-Fos binding, however. Altogether, these studies indicate that ERK plays a distinctly essential role in transmitting palytoxin-stimulated signals to specific nuclear targets in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin

  11. Elevated NF-κB activation is conserved in human myocytes cultured from obese type 2 diabetic patients and attenuated by AMP-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte Jane; Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the inflammatory phenotype found in obese and diabetic individuals is preserved in isolated, cultured myocytes and to assess the effectiveness of pharmacological AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation upon the attenuation of inflammation in these myocytes....

  12. Mechanism for activation of the growth factor-activated AGC kinases by turn motif phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Camilla; Antal, Torben L; Hirschberg, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    investigated the role of the third, so-called turn motif phosphate, also located in the tail, in the AGC kinases PKB, S6K, RSK, MSK, PRK and PKC. We report cooperative action of the HM phosphate and the turn motif phosphate, because it binds a phosphoSer/Thr-binding site above the glycine-rich loop within...

  13. Antibacterial and EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activities of Polyhydroxylated Xanthones from Garcinia succifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susawat Duangsrisai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6. All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1, as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  14. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Cooperation of imipramine blue and tyrosine kinase blockade demonstrates activity against chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Kamilla M.E.; Berhan, Samuel; Liu, Suhu; Silvestri, Giovannino; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Frank, David A.; Aggarwal, Bharat; Bonner, Michael Y.; Perrotti, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), including nilotinib, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However current unmet clinical needs include combating activation of additional survival signaling pathways in persistent leukemia stem cells after long-term TKI therapy. A ubiquitous signaling alteration in cancer, including CML, is activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling, which may potentiate stem cell activity and mediate resistance to both conventional chemotherapy and targeted inhibitors. We have developed a novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, imipramine blue (IB) that targets ROS generation. ROS levels are known to be elevated in CML with respect to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and not corrected by TKI. We demonstrate that IB has additive benefit with nilotinib in inhibiting proliferation, viability, and clonogenic function of TKI-insensitive quiescent CD34+ CML chronic phase (CP) cells while normal CD34+ cells retained their clonogenic capacity in response to this combination therapy in vitro. Mechanistically, the pro-apoptotic activity of IB likely resides in part through its dual ability to block NF-κB and re-activate the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Combining BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibition with NADPH oxidase blockade may be beneficial in eradication of CML and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27438151

  16. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  17. Functional characterization of a constitutively active kinase variant of Arabidopsis phototropin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jan; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kelly, Sharon M; Sullivan, Stuart; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Christie, John M

    2017-08-18

    Phototropins (phots) are plasma membrane-associated serine/threonine kinases that coordinate a range of processes linked to optimizing photosynthetic efficiency in plants. These photoreceptors contain two light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensing (LOV) domains within their N terminus, with each binding one molecule of flavin mononucleotide as a UV/blue light-absorbing chromophore. Although phots contain two LOV domains, light-induced activation of the C-terminal kinase domain and subsequent receptor autophosphorylation is controlled primarily by the A'α-LOV2-Jα photosensory module. Mutations that disrupt interactions between the LOV2 core and its flanking helical segments can uncouple this mode of light regulation. However, the impact of these mutations on phot function in Arabidopsis has not been explored. Here we report that histidine substitution of Arg-472 located within the A'α-helix of Arabidopsis phot1 constitutively activates phot1 kinase activity in vitro without affecting LOV2 photochemistry. Expression analysis of phot1 R472H in the phot-deficient mutant confirmed that it is autophosphorylated in darkness in vivo but unable to initiate phot1 signaling in the absence of light. Instead, we found that phot1 R472H is poorly functional under low-light conditions but can restore phototropism, chloroplast accumulation, stomatal opening, and leaf positioning and expansion at higher light intensities. Our findings suggest that Arabidopsis can adapt to the elevated phosphorylation status of the phot1 R472H mutant in part by reducing its stability, whereas the activity of the mutant under high-light conditions can be attributed to additional increases in LOV2-mediated photoreceptor autophosphorylation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Activated Fps/Fes tyrosine kinase regulates erythroid differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Bates, Barbara; Zirngibl, Ralph; Greer, Peter A

    2004-10-01

    A substantial body of evidence implicates the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase Fps/Fes in regulation of myeloid differentiation and survival. In this study we wished to determine if Fps/Fes also plays a role in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Mice tissue-specifically expressing a "gain-of-function" mutant fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) encoding an activated variant of Fps/Fes (MFps), were used to explore the in vivo biological role of Fps/Fes. Erythropoiesis in these mice was assessed by hematological analysis, lineage marker analysis, bone-marrow colony assays, and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) mice displayed reductions in peripheral red cell counts. However, there was an accumulation of immature erythroid precursors, which displayed increased survival. Fps/Fes and the related Fer kinase were both detected in early erythroid progenitors/blasts and in mature red cells. Fps/Fes was also activated in response to erythropoietin (EPO) and stem cell factor (SCF), two critical factors in erythroid development. In addition, increased Stat5A/B activation and reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation was observed in fps(MF) primary erythroid cells in response to EPO or SCF, respectively. These data support a role for Fps/Fes in regulating the survival and differentiation of erythroid cells through modulation of Stat5A/B and Erk kinase pathways induced by EPO and SCF. The increased numbers and survival of erythroid progenitors from fps(MF) mice, and their differential responsiveness to SCF and EPO, implicates Fps/Fes in the commitment of multilineage progenitors to the erythroid lineage. The anemic phenotype in fps(MF) mice suggests that downregulation of Fps/Fes activity might be required for terminal erythroid differentiation.

  19. Activated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor and Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in natural bovine urinary bladder carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corteggio, Annunziata; Di Geronimo, Ornella; Roperto, Sante; Roperto, Franco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Bovine papillomavirus types 1 or 2 (BPV-1/2) are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of bovine urinary bladder cancer. BPV-1/2 E5 activates the platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR). The aim of this study was to analyse the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in relation to activation of PDGFβR in natural bovine urinary bladder carcinomas. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis demonstrated that recruitment of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (GRB-2) and Sos-1 to the activated PDGFβR was increased in carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Higher grade bovine urinary bladder carcinomas were associated with activation of Ras, but not with activation of downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Mek 1/2) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NMDA receptor activation and PKC but not PKA lead to the modification of the long-term potentiation in the insular cortex induced by conditioned taste aversion: differential role of kinases in metaplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that training in behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner. This receptor leads to calcium entry into neuronal cells, promoting the activation of protein kinases as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which contribute significantly to the formation of different types of memories and play a pivotal role in the expression of LTP. Our previous studies involving the insular cortex (IC) have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA)-IC projection prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training enhances the retention of this task. Recently, we showed that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity on the BLA-IC pathway in a protein synthesis-dependent manner, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated whether the blockade of NMDAR, as well as the inhibition of PKC and PKA affects the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. Thus, CTA-trained rats received high frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTP 48 h after the aversion test. The NMDAR antagonist CPP and the specific inhibitors for PKC (chelerythrine) and PKA (KT-5720) were intracortically administered during the acquisition session. Our results show that the blockade of NMDAR and the inhibition of PKC activity prevent the CTA memory-formation as well as the IC-LTP impairment. Nevertheless, PKA inhibition prevents the memory formation of taste aversion but produces no interference with the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. These findings reveal the differential roles of protein kinases on CTA-dependent modification of IC-LTP enhancing our understanding of the effects of memory-related changes on synaptic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preoperative Serum Thymidine Kinase Activity as Novel Monitoring, Prognostic, and Predictive Biomarker in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Klaus; Hinz, Ulf; Dobiasch, Sophie; Hackert, Thilo; Bergmann, Frank; Neumüller, Magnus; Gronowitz, Simon; Bergqvist, Mattias; Strobel, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate serum thymidine kinase 1 (S-TK) activity as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Using the sensitive TK activity assay DiviTum, preoperative serum samples from 404 PDAC, 28 chronic pancreatitis, and 25 autoimmune pancreatitis patients and 83 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The preoperative S-TK activities of 54 PDAC patients who received neoadjuvant therapy (nTx) were also compared with those of 258 PDAC patients who did not receive nTx. The preoperative S-TK activities of PDAC patients were significantly higher and discriminatory from autoimmune and chronic pancreatitis patients and control groups. The S-TK activity in PDAC patients was associated with overall survival. Patients with S-TK activity of less than 80 Du (DiviTum units)/L demonstrated median survival of 20.3 months with an estimated 18.0% 5-year survival rate; for S-TK activity of 80 Du/L or greater, median survival was 15.1 months with a 6.8% 5-year survival rate. For early-stage PDAC, these differences were even more pronounced. The S-TK activity in the nTx group was significantly higher than that in the group not receiving nTx. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas reveal a significant increase in S-TK activity, which is associated with overall survival, especially in early tumor stages. Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity may be a useful parameter for monitoring nTx efficacy.

  2. Disruption of PH–kinase domain interactions leads to oncogenic activation of AKT in human cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chaitali; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wu, Wen-I; Foo, Catherine K.; Kljavin, Noelyn M.; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Stawiski, Eric; Lee, Brian; Lin, Jie; Li, Hong; Lorenzo, Maria N.; Yuan, Wenlin; Guillory, Joseph; Jackson, Marlena; Rondon, Jesus; Franke, Yvonne; Bowman, Krista K.; Sagolla, Meredith; Stinson, Jeremy; Wu, Thomas D.; Wu, Jiansheng; Stokoe, David; Stern, Howard M.; Brandhuber, Barbara J.; Lin, Kui; Skelton, Nicholas J.; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), a key regulator of cell survival and proliferation, is frequently hyperactivated in human cancers. Intramolecular pleckstrin homology (PH) domain–kinase domain (KD) interactions are important in maintaining AKT in an inactive state. AKT activation proceeds after a conformational change that dislodges the PH from the KD. To understand these autoinhibitory interactions, we generated mutations at the PH–KD interface and found that most of them lead to constitutive activation of AKT. Such mutations are likely another mechanism by which activation may occur in human cancers and other diseases. In support of this likelihood, we found somatic mutations in AKT1 at the PH–KD interface that have not been previously described in human cancers. Furthermore, we show that the AKT1 somatic mutants are constitutively active, leading to oncogenic signaling. Additionally, our studies show that the AKT1 mutants are not effectively inhibited by allosteric AKT inhibitors, consistent with the requirement for an intact PH–KD interface for allosteric inhibition. These results have important implications for therapeutic intervention in patients with AKT mutations at the PH–KD interface. PMID:23134728

  3. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  4. Functional characterization of autophosphorylation sites of the activated insulin receptor-tyrosine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Riveros, J.R.; Lane, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptor, solubilized from 3T3-L1 cellular membranes and then purified, was autophosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the absence or presence of insulin. Specific phosphopeptides generated by trypsin digestion of the 32 P-labeled β-subunit were identified and separated by reverse phase HPLC. In the absence of insulin, radioactivity of the phosphopeptides is evenly distributed among four major peaks designated as sites I, II, III and IV, according to their order of elution. This pattern is maintained for at least the first 30 min of autophosphorylation. When the reaction is carried out in the presence of insulin, > 50% of the total 32 P radioactivity is found in site I and the rate of 32 P incorporation into this site is markedly higher than into sites II, III and IV. Maximal activation of tyrosine kinase activity, as estimated by substrate phosphorylation, is coincident with the nearly complete phosphorylation of site I. Delayed activation of previously autophosphorylated receptor by insulin, but not by EGF or IGF-I, produced a similar pattern where phosphorylated site I predominates. These observations indicate that one major insulin-regulated autophosphorylation site in the β-subunit is responsible for activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. The isolation of this phosphopeptide on a preparative scale and its characterization are now in progress

  5. Domains of the growth hormone receptor required for association and activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has recently been shown to activate the GH receptor (GHR)-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. In the present study, regions of the GHR required for JAK2 association with GHR were identified. GH-dependent JAK2 association with GHR was detected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...... and RIN-5AH cells, the ability of JAK2 to associate with the mutated GHR was found to correlate with GH-dependent activation of JAK2, tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR (in the case of GHR1-638 and GHR1-454), and the ability of the GHR to copurify with tyrosine kinase activity. In CHO cells expressing mutated......, and that tyrosines in the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of the GHR are phosphorylated by JAK2. The finding that a specific interaction with the C-terminal half of GHR appears to be necessary for p97 phosphorylation indicates that while JAK2 activation may be necessary for a full biological response to GH...

  6. The dynamical mechanism of auto-inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We use a novel normal mode analysis of an elastic network model drawn from configurations generated during microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the mechanism of auto-inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. A recent X-ray and mutagenesis experiment (Chen, et al Nature 2009, 459, 1146 of the AMPK homolog S. Pombe sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1 has proposed a new conformational switch model involving the movement of the kinase domain (KD between an inactive unphosphorylated open state and an active or semi-active phosphorylated closed state, mediated by the autoinhibitory domain (AID, and a similar mutagenesis study showed that rat AMPK has the same auto-inhibition mechanism. However, there is no direct dynamical evidence to support this model and it is not clear whether other functionally important local structural components are equally inhibited. By using the same SNF1 KD-AID fragment as that used in experiment, we show that AID inhibits the catalytic function by restraining the KD into an unproductive open conformation, thereby limiting local structural rearrangements, while mutations that disrupt the interactions between the KD and AID allow for both the local structural rearrangement and global interlobe conformational transition. Our calculations further show that the AID also greatly impacts the structuring and mobility of the activation loop.

  7. The Influence of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase Level at Maximum Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo Sinaga, Fajar; Hotliber Purba, Pangondian

    2018-03-01

    Heavy physical activities can cause the oxidative stress which resulting in muscle damage with an indicator of elevated levels of Creatin Kinase (CK) enzyme. The oxidative stress can be prevented or reduced by antioxidant supplementation. One of natural resources which contain antioxidant is Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus) Oil (RFO). This study aims to see the effect of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase (CK) level at maximum physical activity. This study is an experimental research by using the design of randomized control group pretest-posttest. This study was using 24 male mice divided into four groups, the control group was given aquadest, the treatment groups P1, P2, and P3 were given the RFO orally of 0.15 ml/kgBW, 0.3 ml/kgBW, and 0.6 ml/kgBW, respectively, for a month. The level of CK was checked for all groups at the beginning of study and after the maximum physical activity. The obtained data were then tested statistically by using t-test and ANOVA. The result shows the RFO supplementation during exercise decreased the CK level in P1, P2, and P3 groups with p<0.05, and the higher RFO dosage resulted in decreased CK level at p<0.05. The conclusion of this study is the Red Fruit Oil could decrease the level of CK at maximum physical activity.

  8. Rheb Protein Binds CAD (Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, and Dihydroorotase) Protein in a GTP- and Effector Domain-dependent Manner and Influences Its Cellular Localization and Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase (CPSase) Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-01

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. PMID:25422319

  9. Rheb protein binds CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its cellular localization and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-09

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Alterations in brain Protein Kinase A activity and reversal of morphine tolerance by two fragments of native Protein Kinase A inhibitor peptide (PKI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, George D; Smith, Forrest L; Smith, Paul A; Dewey, William L

    2005-04-01

    Two peptide fragments of native Protein Kinase A inhibitor (PKI), PKI-(6-22)-amide and PKI-(Myr-14-22)-amide, significantly reversed low-level morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice. The inhibition of Protein Kinase A (PKA) activity by both peptide fragments was then measured in specific brain regions (thalamus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and medulla) and in lumbar spinal cord (LSC), which in previous studies have been shown to play a role in morphine-induced analgesia. In drug naive animals, cytosolic PKA activity was greater than particulate PKA activity in each region, while cytosolic and particulate PKA activities were greater in thalamus and PAG compared to medulla and LSC. The addition of both peptides to homogenates from each region completely abolished cytosolic and particulate PKA activities in vitro. Following injection into the lateral ventricle of the brain of drug naive mice and morphine-tolerant mice, both peptides inhibited PKA activity in the cytosolic, but not the particulate fraction of LSC. In addition, cytosolic and particulate PKA activities were inhibited by both peptides in thalamus. These results demonstrate that the inhibition of PKA reverses morphine tolerance. Moreover, the inhibition of PKA activity in specific brain regions and LSC from morphine-tolerant mice by PKI analogs administered i.c.v. is evidence that PKA plays a role in morphine tolerance.

  11. Inhibition of Src kinase activity attenuates amyloid associated microgliosis in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhawan Gunjan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial activation is an important histologic characteristic of the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. One hypothesis is that amyloid beta (Aβ peptide serves as a specific stimulus for tyrosine kinase-based microglial activation leading to pro-inflammatory changes that contribute to disease. Therefore, inhibiting Aβ stimulation of microglia may prove to be an important therapeutic strategy for AD. Methods Primary murine microglia cultures and the murine microglia cell line, BV2, were used for stimulation with fibrillar Aβ1-42. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, was used to treat the cells to determine whether Src family kinase activity was required for the Aβ stimulated signaling response and subsequent increase in TNFα secretion using Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. A histologic longitudinal analysis was performed using an AD transgenic mouse model, APP/PS1, to determine an age at which microglial protein tyrosine kinase levels increased in order to administer dasatinib via mini osmotic pump diffusion. Effects of dasatinib administration on microglial and astroglial activation, protein phosphotyrosine levels, active Src kinase levels, Aβ plaque deposition, and spatial working memory were assessed via immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and T maze analysis. Results Aβ fibrils stimulated primary murine microglia via a tyrosine kinase pathway involving Src kinase that was attenuated by dasatinib. Dasatinib administration to APP/PS1 mice decreased protein phosphotyrosine, active Src, reactive microglia, and TNFα levels in the hippocampus and temporal cortex. The drug had no effect on GFAP levels, Aβ plaque load, or the related tyrosine kinase, Lyn. These anti-inflammatory changes correlated with improved performance on the T maze test in dasatinib infused animals compared to control animals. Conclusions These data suggest that amyloid

  12. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn 2+ , while Fe 2+ and Mn 2+ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca 2+ , phorbol ester, or antigen

  13. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha activates Src-family kinases and controls integrin-mediated responses in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Muranjan, M; Sap, J

    1999-01-01

    of tyrosine kinases, the activity of which is tightly controlled by inhibitory phosphorylation of a carboxyterminal tyrosine residue (Tyr527 in chicken c-Src); this phosphorylation induces the kinases to form an inactive conformation. Whereas the identity of such inhibitory Tyr527 kinases has been well...... established, no corresponding phosphatases have been identified that, under physiological conditions, function as positive regulators of c-Src and Fyn in fibroblasts. RESULTS: Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) was inactivated by homologous recombination. Fibroblasts derived from...... these RPTPalpha-/- mice had impaired tyrosine kinase activity of both c-Src and Fyn, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in c-Src Tyr527 phosphorylation. RPTPalpha-/- fibroblasts also showed a reduction in the rate of spreading on fibronectin substrates, a trait that is a phenocopy of the effect...

  14. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-05-15

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn/sup 2 +/, while Fe/sup 2 +/ and Mn/sup 2 +/ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca/sup 2 +/, phorbol ester, or antigen.

  15. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38α is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38α, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38α null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38α gene locus, knockout of p38α (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38α (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38α. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38α is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38α null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have established cell lines that can be used in

  16. Role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2008-01-01

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is recognized as an important intracellular energy sensor, shutting down energy-consuming processes and turning on energy-generating processes. Discovery of target proteins of AMPK has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Historically, AMPK was first...... shown to regulate fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, but is now hypothesized to take part in the regulation of energy/fuel balance not only at the cellular level but also at the level of the whole organism. In this brief review we will discuss some of the roles of AMPK in skeletal muscle....

  17. Cerebellar Ataxia and Coenzyme Q Deficiency Through Loss of Unorthodox Kinase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stefely, Jonathan A.; Licitra, Floriana; Laredj, Leila; Reidenbach, Andrew G.; Kemmerer, Zachary A.; Grangeray, Anais; Jaeg-Ehret, Tiphaine; Minogue, Catherine E.; Ulbrich, Arne; Hutchins, Paul D.; Wilkerson, Emily M.; Ruan, Zheng; Aydin, Deniz; Hebert, Alexander S.; Guo, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The UbiB protein kinase-like (PKL) family is widespread—comprising one-quarter of microbial PKLs and five human homologs—yet its biochemical activities remain obscure. COQ8A (ADCK3) is a mammalian UbiB protein associated with ubiquinone (CoQ) biosynthesis and an ataxia (ARCA2) through unclear means. We show that mice lacking COQ8A develop a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia linked to Purkinje cell dysfunction and mild exercise intolerance, recapitulating ARCA2. Interspecies biochemical ana...

  18. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC 50 values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets

  19. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tajima, Shigeru [Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko [Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Aida, Yoko, E-mail: aida@riken.jp [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  20. Reciprocally coupled residues crucial for protein kinase Pak2 activity calculated by statistical coupling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of Pak2 activity involves at least two mechanisms: (i phosphorylation of the conserved Thr(402 in the activation loop and (ii interaction of the autoinhibitory domain (AID with the catalytic domain. We collected 482 human protein kinase sequences from the kinome database and globally mapped the evolutionary interactions of the residues in the catalytic domain with Thr(402 by sequence-based statistical coupling analysis (SCA. Perturbation of Thr(402 (34.6% suggests a communication pathway between Thr(402 in the activation loop, and Phe(387 (DeltaDeltaE(387F,402T = 2.80 in the magnesium positioning loop, Trp(427 (DeltaDeltaE(427W,402T = 3.12 in the F-helix, and Val(404 (DeltaDeltaE(404V,402T = 4.43 and Gly(405 (DeltaDeltaE(405G,402T = 2.95 in the peptide positioning loop. When compared to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA and Src, the perturbation pattern of threonine phosphorylation in the activation loop of Pak2 is similar to that of PKA, and different from the tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of Src. Reciprocal coupling analysis by SCA showed the residues perturbed by Thr(402 and the reciprocal coupling pairs formed a network centered at Trp(427 in the F-helix. Nine pairs of reciprocal coupling residues crucial for enzymatic activity and structural stabilization were identified. Pak2, PKA and Src share four pairs. Reciprocal coupling residues exposed to the solvent line up as an activation groove. This is the inhibitor (PKI binding region in PKA and the activation groove for Pak2. This indicates these evolutionary conserved residues are crucial for the catalytic activity of PKA and Pak2.

  1. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Exercise training protects against atherosclerotic risk factors through vascular NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase downregulation in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Montezano, Augusto C I; Meziri, Fayçal; Riva, Catherine; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex). Tissue levels of NADPH oxidase (activity and expression), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, Nox4, p47(phox) , superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the aorta. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) levels were also measured. Obesity was accompanied by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, p47(phox) translocation, Nox4 and VCAM-1 protein expression, MAPK (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Exercise training and switching from the HFD to CD reversed almost all these molecular changes. In addition, training increased aortic SOD-1 protein expression and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that protective effects of exercise training on atherosclerotic risk factors induced by obesity are associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activity and increased SOD-1 expression. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Impact of kinase activating and inactivating patient mutations on binary PKA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Ruth; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Bachmann, Verena; Stefan, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger molecule cAMP links extracellular signals to intracellular responses. The main cellular cAMP effector is the compartmentalized protein kinase A (PKA). Upon receptor initiated cAMP-mobilization, PKA regulatory subunits (R) bind cAMP thereby triggering dissociation and activation of bound PKA catalytic subunits (PKAc). Mutations in PKAc or RIa subunits manipulate PKA dynamics and activities which contribute to specific disease patterns. Mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling contribute to carcinogenesis or hormone excess, while inactivating mutations cause hormone deficiency or resistance. Here we extended the application spectrum of a Protein-fragment Complementation Assay based on the Renilla Luciferase to determine binary protein:protein interactions (PPIs) of the PKA network. We compared time- and dose-dependent influences of cAMP-elevation on mutually exclusive PPIs of PKAc with the phosphotransferase inhibiting RIIb and RIa subunits and the protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI). We analyzed PKA dynamics following integration of patient mutations into PKAc and RIa. We observed that oncogenic modifications of PKAc(L206R) and RIa(Δ184-236) as well as rare disease mutations in RIa(R368X) affect complex formation of PKA and its responsiveness to cAMP elevation. With the cell-based PKA PPI reporter platform we precisely quantified the mechanistic details how inhibitory PKA interactions and defined patient mutations contribute to PKA functions.

  5. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibits ATM kinase activity in DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Masutani, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Mizutani, Shuki; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2004-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) mobilize DNA-repair machinery and cell cycle checkpoint by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM). Here we show that ATM kinase activity is inhibited by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in vitro. It was shown by biochemical fractionation procedure that PARP-1 as well as ATM increases at chromatin level after induction of DSB with neocarzinostatin (NCS). Phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 and p53 on serine 15 in Parp-1 knockout (Parp-1 -/- ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) was significantly induced by NCS treatment compared with MEF derived from wild-type (Parp-1 +/+ ) mouse. NCS-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 in Parp-1 -/- embryonic stem cell (ES) clones was also higher than that in Parp-1 +/+ ES clone. Furthermore, in vitro, PARP-1 inhibited phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 and 32 P-incorporation into p53 by ATM in a DNA-dependent manner. These results suggest that PARP-1 negatively regulates ATM kinase activity in response to DSB

  6. An inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase delays the platelet storage lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Skripchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Platelets during storage undergo diverse alterations collectively known as the platelet storage lesion, including metabolic, morphological, functional and structural changes. Some changes correlate with activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK. Another MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK, is involved in PLT activation. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of platelets stored in plasma in the presence or absence of p38 and ERK MAPK inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single Trima apheresis platelet unit (n = 12 was aliquoted into five CLX storage bags. Two aliquots were continuously agitated with or without MAPK inhibitors. Two aliquots were subjected to 48 hours of interruption of agitation with or without MAPK inhibitors. One aliquot contained the same amount of solvent vehicle used to deliver the inhibitor. Platelets were stored at 20-24°C for 7 days and sampled on Days 1, 4, and 7 for 18 in vitro parameters. RESULTS: Inhibition of p38 MAPK by VX-702 leads to better maintenance of all platelet in vitro storage parameters including platelet mitochondrial function. Accelerated by interruption of agitation, the platelet storage lesion of units stored with VX-702 was diminished to that of platelets stored with continuous agitation. Inhibition of ERK MAPK did not ameliorate decrements in any in vitro platelet properties. CONCLUSION: Signaling through p38 MAPK, but not ERK, is associated with platelet deterioration during storage.

  7. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing ∼ 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise [ 125 I]. Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training

  8. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  9. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  10. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  11. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptors increases currents through inward rectifier K+ channels via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chung-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Lee, Sue-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Inward rectifier K+ channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Stimulation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both Gq/11, which decreases PIP2, and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP2. How membrane PIP2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and wheth...

  12. Soluble TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity and bone destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Hu, F; Zhu, H; Liu, X; Shi, L; Li, Y; Zhong, H; Su, Y

    2018-04-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (TAM RTK) are a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, the role of which in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus has been well explored, while their functions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of soluble TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (sAxl/sMer/sTyro3) in patients with RA. A total of 306 RA patients, 100 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 120 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled into this study. The serum concentrations of sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), then the associations between sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 levels and clinical features of RA patients were analysed. We also investigated whether sTyro3 could promote osteoclast differentiation in vitro in RA patients. The results showed that compared with healthy controls (HCs), sTyro3 levels in the serum of RA patients were elevated remarkably and sMer levels were decreased significantly, whereas there was no difference between HCs and RA patients on sAxl levels. The sTyro3 levels were correlated weakly but positively with white blood cells (WBC), immunoglobulin (Ig)M, rheumatoid factor (RF), swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, total sharp scores and joint erosion scores. Conversely, there were no significant correlations between sMer levels and the above indices. Moreover, RA patients with high disease activity also showed higher sTyro3 levels. In-vitro osteoclast differentiation assay showed further that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclasts were increased significantly in the presence of sTyro3. Collectively, our study indicated that serum sTyro3 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated positively with disease activity and bone destruction, which may serve as an important participant in RA pathogenesis. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Regulation of Schistosoma mansoni development and reproduction by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza Freire de; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Geraldo, Juliana Assis; Coelho, Fernanda Sales; Silva, Larissa Lopes; Neves, Renata Heisler; Volpini, Angela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Araujo, Neusa; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Caffrey, Conor R; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2014-06-01

    Protein kinases are proven targets for drug development with an increasing number of eukaryotic Protein Kinase (ePK) inhibitors now approved as drugs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members connect cell-surface receptors to regulatory targets within cells and influence a number of tissue-specific biological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the contributions of members of the MAPK pathway to schistosome development and survival are unclear. We employed RNA interference (RNAi) to elucidate the functional roles of five S. mansoni genes (SmCaMK2, SmJNK, SmERK1, SmERK2 and SmRas) involved in MAPK signaling pathway. Mice were injected with post-infective larvae (schistosomula) subsequent to RNAi and the development of adult worms observed. The data demonstrate that SmJNK participates in parasite maturation and survival of the parasites, whereas SmERK are involved in egg production as infected mice had significantly lower egg burdens with female worms presenting underdeveloped ovaries. Furthermore, it was shown that the c-fos transcription factor was overexpressed in parasites submitted to RNAi of SmERK1, SmJNK and SmCaMK2 indicating its putative involvement in gene regulation in this parasite's MAPK signaling cascade. We conclude that MAPKs proteins play important roles in the parasite in vivo survival, being essential for normal development and successful survival and reproduction of the schistosome parasite. Moreover SmERK and SmJNK are potential targets for drug development.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5017 - Aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartic acid. 582.5017 Section 582.5017 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5017 Aspartic acid. (a) Product. Aspartic acid (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use...

  15. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  16. Creatine Kinase Activity in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlija Jevrić-Čaušević

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  17. Phospho-specific binding of 14-3-3 proteins to phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta protects from dephosphorylation and stabilizes lipid kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausser, Angelika; Link, Gisela; Hoene, Miriam; Russo, Chiara; Selchow, Olaf; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2006-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-IIIbeta (PI4KIIIbeta) is activated at the Golgi compartment by PKD-mediated phosphorylation. Subsequent mechanisms responsible for continuous PtdIns(4)P production at Golgi membranes and potential interaction partners of activated PI4KIIIbeta are unknown. Here we identify phosphoserine/-threonine binding 14-3-3 proteins as novel regulators of PI4KIIIbeta activity downstream of this phosphorylation. The PI4KIIIbeta-14-3-3 interaction, evident from GST pulldowns, co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, was augmented by phosphatase inhibition with okadaic acid. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to PI4KIIIbeta involved the PKD phosphorylation site Ser294, evident from reduced 14-3-3 binding to a S294A PI4KIIIbeta mutant. Expression of dominant negative 14-3-3 proteins resulted in decreased PI4KIIIbeta Ser294 phosphorylation, whereas wildtype 14-3-3 proteins increased phospho-PI4KIIIbeta levels. This was because of protection of PI4KIIIbeta Ser294 phosphorylation from phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation. The functional significance of the PI4KIIIbeta-14-3-3 interaction was evident from a reduction of PI4KIIIbeta activity upon dominant negative 14-3-3 protein expression. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins function as positive regulators of PI4KIIIbeta activity by protecting the lipid kinase from active site dephosphorylation, thereby ensuring a continuous supply of PtdIns(4)P at the Golgi compartment.

  18. Inhibiting Src family tyrosine kinase activity blocks glutamate signalling to ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB but not JNK in cultured striatal neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossthwaite, Andrew J; Valli, Haseeb; Williams, Robert J

    2004-03-01

    Glutamate receptor activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling cascades has been implicated in diverse neuronal functions such as synaptic plasticity, development and excitotoxicity. We have previously shown that Ca2+-influx through NMDA receptors in cultured striatal neurones mediates the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent pathway. Exposing neurones to the Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, but not the inactive analogue PP3, inhibited NMDA receptor-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. To establish a link between Src family tyrosine kinase-mediated phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase signalling, affinity precipitation experiments were performed with the SH2 domains of the PI 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85. This revealed a Src-dependent phosphorylation of a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-p85 complex on glutamate stimulation. Demonstrating that PI3-kinase is not ubiquitously involved in NMDA receptor signal transduction, the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 did not prevent NMDA receptor Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2). Further, inhibiting Src family kinases increased NMDA receptor-dependent JNK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that Src family kinase-dependent cascades may physiologically limit signalling to JNK. These results demonstrate that Src family tyrosine kinases and PI3-kinase are pivotal regulators of NMDA receptor signalling to ERK/Akt and JNK in striatal neurones.

  19. Assay Methods for ACS Activity and ACS Phosphorylation by MAP Kinases In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Guojing; Zhang, Shuqun

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, has profound effects on plant growth, development, and adaptation to the environment. Ethylene-regulated processes begin with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. There are two key steps in ethylene biosynthesis. The first is the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM), a common precursor in many metabolic pathways, which is catalyzed by ACC synthase (ACS). The second is the oxidative cleavage of ACC to form ethylene under the action of ACC oxidase (ACO). ACC biosynthesis is the committing and generally the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. As a result, characterizing the cellular ACS activity and understanding its regulation are important. In this chapter, we detail the methods used to measure, (1) the enzymatic activity of both recombinant and native ACS proteins, and (2) the phosphorylation of ACS protein by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in vivo and in vitro.

  20. Functional role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F; Arad, Michael; Xing, Yanqiu; Fujii, Nobuharu; Pomerleau, Jason; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Berul, Charles I; Seidman, Jon G; Tian, Rong; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2005-04-11

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cardiac function during ischemia in the heart. However, the functional role of AMPK in the heart during exercise is unknown. We examined whether acute exercise increases AMPK activity in mouse hearts and determined the significance of these increases by studying transgenic (TG) mice expressing a cardiac-specific dominant-negative (inactivating) AMPKalpha2 subunit. Exercise increased cardiac AMPKalpha2 activity in the wild type mice but not in TG. We found that inactivation of AMPK did not result in abnormal ATP and glycogen consumption during exercise, cardiac function assessed by heart rhythm telemetry and stress echocardiography, or in maximal exercise capacity.

  1. Synaptic activity-related classical protein kinase C isoform localization in the adult rat neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalduch, Núria; Tomàs, Marta; Santafé, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Josep; Lanuza, Maria Angel

    2010-01-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is essential for signal transduction in a variety of cells, including neurons and myocytes, and is involved in both acetylcholine release and muscle fiber contraction. Here, we demonstrate that the increases in synaptic activity by nerve stimulation couple PKC to transmitter release in the rat neuromuscular junction and increase the level of alpha, betaI, and betaII isoforms in the membrane when muscle contraction follows the stimulation. The phosphorylation activity of these classical PKCs also increases. It seems that the muscle has to contract in order to maintain or increase classical PKCs in the membrane. We use immunohistochemistry to show that PKCalpha and PKCbetaI were located in the nerve terminals, whereas PKCalpha and PKCbetaII were located in the postsynaptic and the Schwann cells. Stimulation and contraction do not change these cellular distributions, but our results show that the localization of classical PKC isoforms in the membrane is affected by synaptic activity.

  2. Effects of acrylamide and acrylic acid on creatine kinase activity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohriyama, Kazuaki; Matsuoka, Masato; Igisu, Hideki

    1994-01-01

    In vitro, both acrylamide and acrylic acid inhibited creatine kinase (CK) activity in rat brain homogenates, and acrylic acid was more potent than acrylamide. In vivo, however, when given i.p. 50 mg/kg per day for 8 days to rats, only acrylamide inhibited CK activity in the brain and caused apparent neurological signs. 14 C in the brain 24 h after the injection of 14 C-labelled chemicals was more than 7 times greater with acrylamide than with acrylic acid. The inhibition of CK activity by acrylamide varied in eight regions of the brain; from 54% in hypothalamus to 27% in cerebellar vermis. The regional difference of CK inhibition, however, did not agree well with either 14 C distribution or with the distribution in regions which appear clinically or pathologically vulnerable to acrylamide. (orig.)

  3. Direct binding and activation of protein kinase C isoforms by steroid hormones.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2008-10-01

    The non-genomic action of steroid hormones regulates a wide variety of cellular responses including regulation of ion transport, cell proliferation, migration, death and differentiation. In order to achieve such plethora of effects steroid hormones utilize nearly all known signal transduction pathways. One of the key signalling molecules regulating the non-genomic action of steroid hormones is protein kinase C (PKC). It is thought that rapid action of steroids hormones results from the activation of plasma membrane receptors; however, their molecular identity remains elusive. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have pointed at the selective binding and activation of specific PKC isoforms by steroid hormones. This has led to the hypothesis that PKC could act as a receptor as well as a transducer of the non-genomic effects of these hormones. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the direct binding and activation of PKC by steroid hormones.

  4. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  5. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity renders cancer cells highly sensitive to mitoxantrone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Alpay

    Full Text Available Although c-Abl has increasingly emerged as a key player in the DNA damage response, its role in this context is far from clear. We studied the effect of inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by imatinib with chemotherapy drugs and found a striking difference in cell survival after combined mitoxantrone (MX and imatinib treatment compared to a panel of other chemotherapy drugs. The combinatory treatment induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and other cancer cell lines but not in primary fibroblasts. The difference in MX and doxorubicin was related to significant augmentation of DNA damage. Transcriptionally active p53 accumulated in cells in which human papillomavirus E6 normally degrades p53. The combination treatment resulted in caspase activation and apoptosis, but this effect did not depend on either p53 or p73 activity. Despite increased p53 activity, the cells arrested in G2 phase became defective in this checkpoint, allowing cell cycle progression. The effect after MX treatment depended partially on c-Abl: Short interfering RNA knockdown of c-Abl rendered HeLa cells less sensitive to MX. The effect of imatinib was decreased by c-Abl siRNA suggesting a role for catalytically inactive c-Abl in the death cascade. These findings indicate that MX has a unique cytotoxic effect when the kinase activity of c-Abl is inhibited. The treatment results in increased DNA damage and c-Abl-dependent apoptosis, which may offer new possibilities for potentiation of cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li 2 CO 3 did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P 3 production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li 2 CO 3 on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li 2 CO 3 significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li 2 CO 3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity

  8. Dioxin modulates expression of receptor for activated C kinase (RACK-1) in developing neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Kim, S.Y.; Lee, H.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Chae, W.G. [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Dept. of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Daegu (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    TCDD is sensitive to the central nerve system of the developing brain. The TCDD-induced neurodevelopmental deficits include the cognitive disability and motor dysfunction. While TCDD may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral deficit, it is not known which molecular substances are intracellular targets for TCDD. Since TCDD accumulates in brain and the brain contains the Ah receptor, it is possible that TCDD may act at the target site such as cerebellum, which is responsible for cognitive abilities and motor function. A recent in vitro studies using cerebellar granule cells demonstrated a translocation of PKC-{alpha} and {epsilon} following the TCDD or PCB exposure. One of the most pivotal second messenger molecules involved in neuronal function and development is protein kinase C (PKC). PKC signaling pathways have been implicated as an important factor in learning and memory processes. PKC signaling events are optimized by the adaptor proteins, which organize PKCs near their selective substrates and away from others. RACK-1(receptor for activated C-kinase) is one of adaptor proteins that anchor the activated PKC at the site of translocation 6. RACKs bind PKC only in the presence of PKC activators. RACKs are 30- and 36-kDa proteins located in cytoskeletal compartment and play a key role in PKC activation and in membrane amchoring. Since different PKC isoforms translocate to distinct subcellular sites on activation, it is suggested that isoform-specific RACK may be present. Activation of certain PKC isoforms (PKC-a and {beta}II) is preferentially associated with RACK-1. While TCDD modulates PKC signaling pathway, role of RACK-1 on TCDD-mediated signaling pathway is not known. To identify the intracellular target for TCDD and understand a mechanism of signaling pathway in the developing brain, the present study attempted to analyze effects of RACK-1 in the cerebellar granule cells following TCDD exposure.

  9. Attenuation of eph receptor kinase activation in cancer cells by coexpressed ephrin ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Falivelli

    Full Text Available The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases mediate juxtacrine signals by interacting "in trans" with ligands anchored to the surface of neighboring cells via a GPI-anchor (ephrin-As or a transmembrane segment (ephrin-Bs, which leads to receptor clustering and increased kinase activity. Additionally, soluble forms of the ephrin-A ligands released from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases can also activate EphA receptor signaling. Besides these trans interactions, recent studies have revealed that Eph receptors and ephrins coexpressed in neurons can also engage in lateral "cis" associations that attenuate receptor activation by ephrins in trans with critical functional consequences. Despite the importance of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Eph receptor-ephrin cis interactions have not been previously investigated in cancer cells. Here we show that in cancer cells, coexpressed ephrin-A3 can inhibit the ability of EphA2 and EphA3 to bind ephrins in trans and become activated, while ephrin-B2 can inhibit not only EphB4 but also EphA3. The cis inhibition of EphA3 by ephrin-B2 implies that in some cases ephrins that cannot activate a particular Eph receptor in trans can nevertheless inhibit its signaling ability through cis association. We also found that an EphA3 mutation identified in lung cancer enhances cis interaction with ephrin-A3. These results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to cancer pathogenesis by attenuating the tumor suppressing effects of Eph receptor signaling pathways activated by ephrins in trans.

  10. Activation of a Neospora caninum EGFR-Like Kinase Facilitates Intracellular Parasite Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan, causes serious diseases in a number of mammalian species, especially in cattle. Infection with N. caninum is associated with abortions in both dairy and beef cattle worldwide which have a major economic impact on the cattle industry. However, the mechanism by which N. caninum proliferates within host cells is poorly understood. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a protein kinase ubiquitously expressed, present on cell surfaces in numerous species, which has been confirmed to be essential in signal transduction involved in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and many other intracellular processes. However, the presence of EGFR in N. caninum and its role in N. caninum proliferation remain unclear. In the present study, we identified a putative EGFR-like kinase in N. caninum, which could be activated in tachyzoites by infection or treatment with rNcMIC3 [containing four epidermal growth factor (EGF domains] or human EGF. Blockade of EGFR-like in tachyzoites by AG1478 significantly reduced parasite proliferation in host cells. Our data suggested that the activation of tachyzoite EGFR-like might facilitate the intracellular proliferation of N. caninum.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion and cytotoxicity are independent events, both of which involve protein tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D J; Frank, D W; Finck-Barbançon, V; Wu, C; Fleiszig, S M

    1998-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exhibit invasive or cytotoxic phenotypes. Cytotoxic strains acquire some of the characteristics of invasive strains when a regulatory gene, exsA, that controls the expression of several extracellular proteins, is inactivated. exsA mutants are not cytotoxic and can be detected within epithelial cells by gentamicin survival assays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epithelial cell invasion precedes and/or is essential for cytotoxicity. This was tested by measuring invasion (gentamicin survival) and cytotoxicity (trypan blue staining) of PA103 mutants deficient in specific exsA-regulated proteins and by testing the effect of drugs that inhibit invasion for their effect on cytotoxicity. A transposon mutant in the exsA-regulated extracellular factor exoU was neither cytotoxic nor invasive. Furthermore, several of the drugs that inhibited invasion did not prevent cytotoxicity. These results show that invasion and cytotoxicity are mutually exclusive events, inversely regulated by an exsA-encoded invasion inhibitor(s). Both involve host cell protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity, but they differ in that invasion requires Src family tyrosine kinases and calcium-calmodulin activity. PTK inhibitor drugs such as genistein may have therapeutic potential through their ability to block both invasive and cytotoxicity pathways via an action on the host cell.

  12. The atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK3 is essential for establishment of epithelial architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chika; Miyatake, Koichi; Kusakabe, Morioh; Nishida, Eisuke

    2018-06-01

    Epithelia contribute to physical barriers that protect internal tissues from the external environment and also support organ structure. Accordingly, establishment and maintenance of epithelial architecture are essential for both embryonic development and adult physiology. Here, using gene knockout and knockdown techniques along with gene profiling, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), a poorly characterized atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulates the epithelial architecture in vertebrates. We found that in Xenopus embryonic epidermal epithelia, ERK3 knockdown impairs adherens and tight-junction protein distribution, as well as tight-junction barrier function, resulting in epidermal breakdown. Moreover, in human epithelial breast cancer cells, inhibition of ERK3 expression induced thickened epithelia with aberrant adherens and tight junctions. Results from microarray analyses suggested that transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A), a transcriptional regulator important for epithelial gene expression, is involved in ERK3-dependent changes in gene expression. Of note, TFAP2A knockdown phenocopied ERK3 knockdown in both Xenopus embryos and human cells, and ERK3 was required for full activation of TFAP2A-dependent transcription. Our findings reveal that ERK3 regulates epithelial architecture, possibly together with TFAP2A. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Mechanical unloading of the failing human heart fails to activate the protein kinase B/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta survival pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Peter; Bruckner, Brian A; Sharma, Saumya; Youker, Keith A; Frazier, O H; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support of the failing human heart improves myocyte function and increases cell survival. One potential mechanism underlying this phenomenon is activation of the protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) survival pathway. Left ventricular tissue was obtained both at the time of implantation and explantation of the LVAD (n = 11). Six patients were diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 4 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 1 patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The mean duration of LVAD support was 205 +/- 35 days. Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK were used as indices for reverse remodeling. Transcript levels of genes required for the activation of PKB/Akt (insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor substrate-1) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we measured the relative activity of PKB/Akt and GSK-3beta, and assayed for molecular and histological indices of PKB/Akt activation (cyclooxygenase mRNA levels and glycogen levels). Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK decreased with LVAD support. In contrast, none of the components of the PKB/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway changed significantly with mechanical unloading. The PKB/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway is not activated during LVAD support. Other signaling pathways must be responsible for the improvement of cellular function and cell survival during LVAD support. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Studies of ATM Kinase Activity Using Engineered ATM Sensitive to ATP Analogues (ATM-AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enari, Masato; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Otomo, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3-K)-related protein kinase (PIKK) family and is implicated in the initiation of signaling pathways following DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) elicited by exposure to ionizing irradiation (IR) or radiomimetic compounds. Loss of function of the ATM gene product results in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, genomic instability, and cancer predisposition. In response to DSBs, ATM is activated and phosphorylates Ser/Thr-Gln (S/T-Q) sequences on numerous proteins participating in DNA-damage responses. Among these proteins, phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p53 at Ser15 is known as a target for ATM, which leads to the dissociation of MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, from p53 to prevent MDM2-dependent p53 degradation. Ser46 on p53 is phosphorylated in response to DSBs and contributes to the preferential transactivation of pro-apoptotic genes, such as p53AIP1, Noxa, and PUMA, to prevent tumor formation. Our group have shown that not only ATM preferentially phosphorylates S/T-Q sequences, but also Ser46, which is a noncanonical site with an S-P sequence for ATM. Ser46 on p53 is directly phosphorylated by ATM in a p53 conformation-dependent manner using the ATP analogue-accepting ATM mutant (ATM-AS) system. This protocol summarizes an approach to identify direct numerous targets for ATM kinase and is used to elucidate ATM signaling pathways in the DNA damage responses.

  15. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  16. ACTIVATION OF G-PROTEINS BY RECEPTOR-STIMULATED NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE IN DICTYOSTELIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Molijn, Anco C.; Pestel, Martine; Veron, Michel; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase

  17. Dbf4-dependent kinase and the Rtt107 scaffold promote Mus81-Mms4 resolvase activation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Lissa N; Wild, Philipp; Bittmann, Julia; Aguado, F Javier; Blanco, Miguel G; Matos, Joao; Pfander, Boris

    2017-03-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is under stringent cell cycle control. This includes the last step of the reaction, disentanglement of DNA joint molecules (JMs). Previous work has established that JM resolving nucleases are activated specifically at the onset of mitosis. In case of budding yeast Mus81-Mms4, this cell cycle stage-specific activation is known to depend on phosphorylation by CDK and Cdc5 kinases. Here, we show that a third cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK), targets Mus81-Mms4 in conjunction with Cdc5-both kinases bind to as well as phosphorylate Mus81-Mms4 in an interdependent manner. Moreover, DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mms4 is strictly required for Mus81 activation in mitosis, establishing DDK as a novel regulator of homologous recombination. The scaffold protein Rtt107, which binds the Mus81-Mms4 complex, interacts with Cdc7 and thereby targets DDK and Cdc5 to the complex enabling full Mus81 activation. Therefore, Mus81 activation in mitosis involves at least three cell cycle kinases, CDK, Cdc5 and DDK Furthermore, tethering of the kinases in a stable complex with Mus81 is critical for efficient JM resolution. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. Activation of the LRR Receptor-Like Kinase PSY1R Requires Transphosphorylation of Residues in the Activation Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian B. Oehlenschlæger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PSY1R is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR receptor-like kinase (RLK previously shown to act as receptor for the plant peptide hormone PSY1 (peptide containing sulfated tyrosine 1 and to regulate cell expansion. PSY1R phosphorylates and thereby regulates the activity of plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. While this mechanism has been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R itself is activated. Here we studied the activation mechanism of PSY1R. We show that full-length PSY1R interacts with members of the SERK co-receptor family in planta. We identified seven in vitro autophosphorylation sites on serine and threonine residues within the kinase domain of PSY1R using mass spectrometry. We furthermore show that PSY1R autophosphorylation occurs in trans and that the initial transphosphorylation takes place within the activation loop at residues Ser951, Thr959, and Thr963. While Thr959 and Thr963 are conserved among other related plant LRR RLKs, Ser951 is unique to PSY1R. Based on homology modeling we propose that phosphorylation of Ser951 stabilize the inactive conformation of PSY1R.

  19. Phospholipase D1 mediates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling for glucose uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyun Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated.Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1 activation is required for (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under glucose deprivation conditions. PLD1 activity rather than PLD2 activity is significantly enhanced by glucose deprivation. AMPK-wild type (WT stimulates PLD activity, while AMPK-dominant negative (DN inhibits it. AMPK regulates PLD1 activity through phosphorylation of the Ser-505 and this phosphorylation is increased by the presence of AMP. Furthermore, PLD1-S505Q, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, shows no changes in activity in response to glucose deprivation and does not show a significant increase in (14C-glucose uptake when compared to PLD1-WT. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of PLD1 is important for the regulation of (14C-glucose uptake. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK is stimulated by AMPK-induced PLD1 activation through the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA, which is a product of PLD. An ERK pharmacological inhibitor, PD98059, and the PLD inhibitor, 1-BtOH, both attenuate (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells. Finally, the extracellular stresses caused by glucose deprivation or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; AMPK activator regulate (14C-glucose uptake and cell surface glucose transport (GLUT 4 through ERK stimulation by AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation.These results suggest that AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation is required for (14C

  20. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G; Myers, R; Li, Y; Chen, Y; Shen, X; Fenyk-Melody, J; Wu, M; Ventre, J; Doebber, T; Fujii, N; Musi, N; Hirshman, M F; Goodyear, L J; Moller, D E

    2001-10-01

    Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we report that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Activation of AMPK by metformin or an adenosine analogue suppresses expression of SREBP-1, a key lipogenic transcription factor. In metformin-treated rats, hepatic expression of SREBP-1 (and other lipogenic) mRNAs and protein is reduced; activity of the AMPK target, ACC, is also reduced. Using a novel AMPK inhibitor, we find that AMPK activation is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on glucose production by hepatocytes. In isolated rat skeletal muscles, metformin stimulates glucose uptake coincident with AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK provides a unified explanation for the pleiotropic beneficial effects of this drug; these results also suggest that alternative means of modulating AMPK should be useful for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  1. LRRK2 kinase activity is dependent on LRRK2 GTP binding capacity but independent of LRRK2 GTP binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Taymans

    Full Text Available Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is a Parkinson's disease (PD gene that encodes a large multidomain protein including both a GTPase and a kinase domain. GTPases often regulate kinases within signal transduction cascades, where GTPases act as molecular switches cycling between a GTP bound "on" state and a GDP bound "off" state. It has been proposed that LRRK2 kinase activity may be increased upon GTP binding at the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC GTPase domain. Here we extensively test this hypothesis by measuring LRRK2 phosphorylation activity under influence of GDP, GTP or non-hydrolyzable GTP analogues GTPγS or GMPPCP. We show that autophosphorylation and lrrktide phosphorylation activity of recombinant LRRK2 protein is unaltered by guanine nucleotides, when co-incubated with LRRK2 during phosphorylation reactions. Also phosphorylation activity of LRRK2 is unchanged when the LRRK2 guanine nucleotide binding pocket is previously saturated with various nucleotides, in contrast to the greatly reduced activity measured for the guanine nucleotide binding site mutant T1348N. Interestingly, when nucleotides were incubated with cell lysates prior to purification of LRRK2, kinase activity was slightly enhanced by GTPγS or GMPPCP compared to GDP, pointing to an upstream guanine nucleotide binding protein that may activate LRRK2 in a GTP-dependent manner. Using metabolic labeling, we also found that cellular phosphorylation of LRRK2 was not significantly modulated by nucleotides, although labeling is significantly reduced by guanine nucleotide binding site mutants. We conclude that while kinase activity of LRRK2 requires an intact ROC-GTPase domain, it is independent of GDP or GTP binding to ROC.

  2. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase activation controls synaptogenesis and spinogenesis in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesto, Germán; Enriquez-Barreto, Lilian; Caramés, Cristina; Cantarero, Marta; Gasull, Xavier; Sandi, Carmen; Ferrús, Alberto; Acebes, Ángel; Morales, Miguel

    2011-02-23

    The possibility of changing the number of synapses may be an important asset in the treatment of neurological diseases. In this context, the synaptogenic role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade has been previously demonstrated in Drosophila. This study shows that treatment with a PI3K-activating transduction peptide is able to promote synaptogenesis and spinogenesis in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, as well as in CA1 hippocampal neurons in vivo. In culture, the peptide increases synapse density independently of cell density, culture age, dendritic complexity, or synapse type. The induced synapses also increase neurotransmitter release from cultured neurons. The synaptogenic signaling pathway includes PI3K-Akt. Furthermore, the treatment is effective on adult neurons, where it induces spinogenesis and enhances the cognitive behavior of treated animals in a fear-conditioning assay. These findings demonstrate that functional synaptogenesis can be induced in mature mammalian brains through PI3K activation.

  3. Influence of noise and vibration upon creatine kinase activity in blood serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonderko, G; Gabryel, A; Jonderko, K; Konca, A; Marcisz, C; Olak, Z; Szramek-Urbaniak, A

    1982-02-01

    The investigations comprised part of the workers employed in a factory of prefabricated concrete elements. The creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined before and after a day's work in the following groups of workers: I - exposed to noise and vibration exceeding the allowed norm, II - exposed to noise, performing the same hard physical work as group I and exposed to vibration not exceeding 79 dB in particular octave bands, III - practising physical work as group I and II but in environment free from noise and vibration, and a control group of persons not exposed to any of the tested factors. The obtained results indicate that the determination of the CK activity may serve as a test of exposure to vibration and noise.

  4. Effects of combined irradiation and hyperthermia on creatine kinase activity in rat tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyushichev, V B; Taratukhin, V P; Shamratova, V G; Yuzhakova, G A [Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1977-09-01

    The effects of different doses of beta- and X-irradiations on creatine kinase activity (CKA) in cerebrum and liver of rats were investigated under hyperthermia conditions. Beta irradiation was carried out at 2.50, 3.05, 4.45 or 7.40 Krad doses under heat load. After withdrawal of the animals from the chamber they were exposed to 25,50,100,250 or 400 R X-ray doses (for beta irradiation 2.50,2.50,3.05,4.45 or 7.40 Krad, respectively). In 5,12,19 and 26 days after exposure the animals were decapitated and CKA of aqueous extracts of cerebral hemispheres and livers were determined. It has been established, that the thermal stress decreases the radiosensitivity of cerebral CKA, but intensifies the irradiation consequences in respect to liver activity.

  5. The influence of noise and vibration upon creatine kinase activity in blood serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonderko, G; Gabryel, A; Jonderko, K; Konca, A; Marcisz, C; Olak, Z; Szramek-Urbaniak, A

    1982-02-01

    The investigations comprised part of the workers employed in a factory of prefabricated concrete elements. The creatine kinase (CK) activity was determined before and after a day's work in the following groups of workers: These exposed to noise and vibration exceeding the allowed norm; those exposed to noise, performing the same hard physical work as group I and exposed to vibration not exceeding 79dB in particular octave bands, and those practising physical work a group I and II but in environment free from noise and vibration, and a control group of persons not exposed to any of the tested factors (vibration, noise, work). The obtained results indicate that the determination of the CK activity may serve as a test of exposure to vibration and noise.

  6. Isolation of a novel protein, P12-from adult Drosophila melanogaster that inhibits deoxyribonucleoside and protein kinase activities and activates 3'-5'-exonuclease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Zanten, Gabriella van; Berenstein, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    We have previously found that Drosophila melanogaster only has one deoxyribonucleoside kinase, Dm-dNK, however, capable to phosphorylate all four natural deoxyribonucleosides. Dm-dNK was originally isolated from an embryonic cell line. We wanted to study the expression of Dm-dNK during development......-dNK, also inhibited the two protein kinases to the same degree. Furthermore, testing P12 in a DNA polymerase based assay we found that the 3'-5'-exonuclease part of the DNA polymerase (Klenow polymerase) was activated....

  7. LRRK2 Kinase Activity and Biology are Not Uniformly Predicted by its Autophosphorylation and Cellular Phosphorylation Site Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eReynolds

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Missense mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat protein Kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are the most common genetic predisposition to develop Parkinson’s disease (PD LRRK2 is a large multi-domain phosphoprotein with a GTPase domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase domain whose activity is implicated in neuronal toxicity; however the precise mechanism is unknown. LRRK2 autophosphorylates on several serine/threonine residues across the enzyme and is found constitutively phosphorylated on Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973, which are proposed to be regulated by upstream kinases. Here we investigate the phosphoregulation at these sites by analyzing the effects of disease-associated mutations Arg1441Cys, Arg1441Gly, Ala1442Pro, Tyr1699Cys, Ile2012Thr, Gly2019Ser, and Ile2020Thr. We also studied alanine substitutions of phosphosite serines 910, 935, 955 and 973 and specific LRRK2 inhibition on autophosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser1292, Thr1491, Thr2483 and phosphorylation at the cellular sites. We found that mutants in the Roc-COR domains, including Arg1441Cys, Arg1441His, Ala1442Pro and Tyr1699Cys, can positively enhance LRRK2 kinase activity while concomitantly inducing the dephosphorylation of the cellular sites. Mutation of the cellular sites individually did not affect LRRK2 intrinsic kinase activity; however, Ser910/935/955/973Ala mutations trended toward increased kinase activity of LRRK2. Increased cAMP levels did not lead to increased LRRK2 cellular site phosphorylation, 14-3-3 binding or kinase activity. In cells, inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity leads to dephosphorylation of Ser1292 by Calyculin A and okadaic acid sensitive phosphatases, while the cellular sites are dephosphorylated by Calyculin A sensitive phosphatases. These findings indicate that comparative analysis of both Ser1292 and Ser910/935/955/973 phosphorylation sites will provide important and distinct measures of LRRK2 kinase and biological activity in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Magnolol Alleviates Inflammatory Responses and Lipid Accumulation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnolol (MG is a kind of lignin isolated from Magnolia officinalis, which serves several different biological functions, such as antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective functions. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of MG against oleic acid (OA-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammatory damage in HepG2 cells and in a tyloxapol (Ty-induced hyperlipidemia mouse model. Our findings indicated that MG can effectively inhibit OA-stimulated tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α secretion, reactive oxygen species generation, and triglyceride (TG accumulation. Further study manifested that MG significantly suppressed OA-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways and that these inflammatory responses can be negated by pretreatment with inhibitors of extracellular regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (U0126 and SP600125, respectively. In addition, MG dramatically upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα translocation and reduced sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c protein synthesis and excretion, both of which are dependent upon the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and AKT kinase (AKT. However, MG suspended the activation of PPARα expression and was thus blocked by pretreatment with LY294002 and compound c (specific inhibitors of AKT and AMPK. Furthermore, MG clearly alleviated serum TG and total cholesterol release; upregulated AKT, AMPK, and PPARα expression; suppressed SREBP-1c generation; and alleviated hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia in Ty-induced hyperlipidemia mice. Taken together, these results suggest that MG exerts protective effects against steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and the underlying mechanism, which may be closely associated with AKT/AMPK/PPARα activation and MAPK/NF-κB/SREBP-1c inhibition.

  9. Oral glucose ingestion attenuates exercise-induced activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard

    2006-01-01

    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a 'metabolic master switch' regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK...... activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo...... drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P

  10. PPARβ/δ modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects by decreasing pyridoxal kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Koga, Takayuki; Khozoie, Combiz; Mak, Tytus D.; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Jr, Albert J. Fornace; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the significant morbidity and lethality caused by alcoholic liver disease (ALD), there remains a need to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that can be targeted to prevent and treat ALD. Toward this goal, minimally invasive biomarker discovery represents an outstanding approach for these purposes. The mechanisms underlying ALD include hepatic lipid accumulation. As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been shown to inhibit steatosis, the present study examined the role of PPARβ/δ in ALD coupling metabolomic, biochemical and molecular biological analyses. Wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice were fed either a control or 4% ethanol diet and examined after 4–7 months of treatment. Ethanol fed Pparβ/δ-null mice exhibited steatosis after short-term treatment compared to controls, the latter effect appeared to be due to increased activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). The wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice fed the control diet showed clear differences in their urinary metabolomic profiles. In particular, metabolites associated with arginine and proline metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism, were markedly different between genotypes suggesting a constitutive role for PPARβ/δ in the metabolism of these amino acids. Interestingly, urinary excretion of taurine was present in ethanol-fed wild-type mice but markedly lower in similarly treated Pparβ/δ-null mice. Evidence suggests that PPARβ/δ modulates pyridoxal kinase activity by altering K m , consistent with the observed decreased in urinary taurine excretion. These data collectively suggest that PPARβ/δ prevents ethanol-induced hepatic effects by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis, modulation of amino acid metabolism, and altering pyridoxal kinase activity

  11. Decreased activity of neutrophils in the presence of diferuloylmethane (curcumin) involves protein kinase C inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancinová, Viera; Perecko, Tomás; Nosál, Radomír; Kostálová, Daniela; Bauerová, Katarína; Drábiková, Katarína

    2009-06-10

    Diferuloylmethane (curcumin) has been shown to act beneficially in arthritis, particularly through downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and collagenase as well as through the modulated activities of T lymphocytes and macrophages. In this study its impact on activated neutrophils was investigated both in vitro and in experimental arthritis.