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Sample records for aspartame

  1. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; van Eerd, A.R.T.; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few

  2. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  4. Aspartame, a bittersweet pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Moreno; Vivarelli, Fabio; Sapone, Andrea; Canistro, Donatella

    2017-12-07

    For the first time, the aspartame case shows how a corporation decided to ban an artificial ingredient in the wake of public opinion notwithstanding the regulatory assurance claims that it is safe. PepsiCo Inc. made an unprecedented decision most likely based on life-span carcinogenicity bioassay studies from the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the Ramazzini Institute (CMCRC/RI), which provide consistent evidence of aspartame's carcinogenicity in rodents. Although CMCRC/RI experiments have been criticized for not complying with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines, the newly launched aspartame-free soft drink may not be an isolated case. In the light of vinyl chloride-, formaldehyde- or benzene-associated carcinogenicity discovered for the first time by CMCRC/RI in the same way, it seems the guidelines need to be re-evaluated to avoid the credibility of international regulatory agencies being compromised by consumer opinion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of Aspartame on alcohol fermentation in Aspartame-added bread processing

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 浜岡, 瑠美; 竹野, 智美; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Rumi, Hamaoka; Tomomi, Takeno; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    2001-01-01

    The addition of aspartame to white bread dough affected the gas production due to baker's yeast. After 3 hours of incubation, the total gas production of 3% aspartame-added dough decreased about 0.4 times that of standard dough. Gas production decreased with increasing concentrations of aspartame. On the other hand, the expansion of aspartame-added dough increased with increasing concentration of aspartame. The dough containing 3% aspartame expanded the same as standard dough. The ratio of in...

  6. Revisiting the safety of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2017-09-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends. Data on the safe aspartame dosage are controversial, and the literature suggests there are potential side effects associated with aspartame consumption. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise, the safety of this sweetener should be revisited. Most of the literature available on the safety of aspartame is included in this review. Safety studies are based primarily on animal models, as data from human studies are limited. The existing animal studies and the limited human studies suggest that aspartame and its metabolites, whether consumed in quantities significantly higher than the recommended safe dosage or within recommended safe levels, may disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance, induce oxidative stress, and damage cell membrane integrity, potentially affecting a variety of cells and tissues and causing a deregulation of cellular function, ultimately leading to systemic inflammation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aspartame. 172.804 Section 172.804 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in food in... conditions: (a) Aspartame is the chemical 1-methyl N- l-α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine (C14H18N2O5). (b) The...

  9. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  10. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    AlSuhaibani, Entissar S.

    2010-01-01

    Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight)....

  11. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand

    OpenAIRE

    Gawande, H. M.; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6–8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened k...

  12. Enzymatic spectrophotometric reaction rate determination of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Kata T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener of low caloric value (approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Aspartame is currently permitted for use in food and beverage production in more than 90 countries. The application of aspartame in food products requires development of rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for its determination. The new assay for determination of aspartame was based on set of reactions that are catalyzed by three different enzymes: α-chymotrypsin, alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Optimization of the proposed method was carried out for: (i α-chymotrypsin activity; (ii time allowed for α-chymotrypsin action, (iii temperature. Evaluation of the developed method was done by determining aspartame content in “diet” drinks, as well as in artificial sweetener pills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  13. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-induc...

  14. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  17. Characterization of aspartame-cyclodextrin complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohajda, Tamás; Béni, Szabolcs; Varga, Erzsébet; Iványi, Róbert; Rácz, Akos; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

    2009-12-05

    The inclusion complex formation of aspartame (guest) and various cyclodextrins (host) were examined using 1H NMR titration and capillary electrophoresis. Initially the protonation constants of aspartame were determined by NMR-pH titration with in situ pH measurement to yield log K1=7.83 and log K2=2.96. Based on these values the stability of the complexes formed by aspartame and 21 different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied at pH 2.5, pH 5.2 and pH 9.0 values where aspartame exists predominantly in monocationic, zwitterionic and monoanionic form, respectively. The host cyclodextrin derivatives differed in various sidechains, degree of substitution, charge and purity so that the effect of these properties could be examined systematically. Concerning size, the seven-membered beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives have been found to be the most suitable host molecules for complexation. Highest stability was observed for the acetylated derivative with a degree of substitution of 7. The purity of the CD enhanced the complexation while the degree of substitution did not provide obvious consequences. Finally, geometric aspects of the inclusion complex were assessed by 2D ROESY NMR and molecular modelling which proved that the guest's aromatic ring enters the wider end of the host cavity.

  18. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight indivi...

  19. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

  20. Neurophysiological symptoms and aspartame: What is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2018-06-01

    Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity. Aspartame acts as a chemical stressor by elevating plasma cortisol levels and causing the production of excess free radicals. High cortisol levels and excess free radicals may increase the brains vulnerability to oxidative stress which may have adverse effects on neurobehavioral health. We reviewed studies linking neurophysiological symptoms to aspartame usage and conclude that aspartame may be responsible for adverse neurobehavioral health outcomes. Aspartame consumption needs to be approached with caution due to the possible effects on neurobehavioral health. Whether aspartame and its metabolites are safe for general consumption is still debatable due to a lack of consistent data. More research evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of aspartame are required.

  1. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation.This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics.Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008 and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04, reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects.Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that

  2. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S; Courts, Fraser L; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of

  3. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  4. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  6. Aspartame: should individuals with Type II Diabetes be taking it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar

    2017-05-31

    Individuals with type II diabetes (T2D) have to manage blood glucose levels to sustain health and longevity. Artificial sweeteners (including aspartame) are suggested sugar alternatives for these individuals. The safety of aspartame in particular, has long been the centre of debate. Although it is such a controversial product, many clinicians recommend its use to T2D patients, during a controlled diet and as part of an intervention strategy. Aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sugar and has a negligible effect on blood glucose levels, and it is suggested for use so that T2D can control carbohydrate intake and blood glucose levels. However, research suggests that aspartame intake may lead to an increased risk of weight gain rather than weight loss, and cause impaired blood glucose tolerance in T2D. This review consolidates knowledge gained from studies that link aspartame consumption to the various mechanisms associated with T2D. We review literature that provides evidence that raise concerns that aspartame may exacerbate T2D and add to the global burden of disease. Aspartame may act as a chemical stressor by increasing cortisol levels, and may induce systemic oxidative stress by producing excess free radicals, and it may also alter gut microbial activity and interfere with the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, resulting in insulin deficiency or resistance. Aspartame and its metabolites are safe for T2D is still debatable due to a lack of consistent data. More research is required that provides evidence and raise concerns that aspartame may exacerbate prevalence of pathological physiology in the already stressed physiology of T2D. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... food, such as meat, milk, fruits and vegetables (Butchko et al. 2002). Aspartame .... performed using the Griess method (Green et al. 1982). The .... to formation of nitrogen dioxide and copper-bound hydroxyl radical species ...

  8. Evaluation and comparison of antinociceptive activity of aspartame with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Seema; Gupta, Mahesh C

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie substances used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. At present they are used increasingly not only by diabetics, but also by the general public as a mean of controlling the weight. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare antinociceptive activity of the artificial sweeteners, aspartame and sucrose and to study the mechanisms involved in this analgesic activity. Forty eight white albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 24 rats each. Group 1 received sucrose and group 2 received aspartame solution ad libitum for 14 days as their only source of liquid. On 14(th) day, both groups of rats were divided into 3 subgroups having 8 rats each. Group Ia and IIa served as control. Group Ib and IIb were given naloxone and Ic and IIc received ketanserin, the opioid and serotonergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Tail withdrawal latencies (tail flick analgesiometer) and paw licking/jumping latencies (Eddy's hot plate method) were increased significantly in both aspartame and sucrose group. The analgesia produced by aspartame was comparable with sucrose. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptor antagonist ketanserin partly reversed the antinociceptive effect of these sweeteners. Thus, the artificial sweetening agent aspartame showed antinociceptive activity like sucrose in rats. Reduction in antinociceptive activity of aspartame and sucrose by opioid and serotoninergic antagonists demonstrate the involvement of both opioid and serotonergic system.

  9. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  10. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-07-01

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycerz, Karol; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame, a widespread sweetener used in many food products, is considered as a highly hazardous compound. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 and raises a lot of controversy up to date. Astrocytes are glial cells, the presence and functions of which are closely connected with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the direct and indirect role of astrocytes participating in the harmful effects of aspartame metabolites on neurons. The artificial sweetener is broken down into phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) during metabolism in the body. The excess of phenylalanine blocks the transport of important amino acids to the brain contributing to reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin. Astrocytes directly affect the transport of this amino acid and also indirectly by modulation of carriers in the endothelium. Aspartic acid at high concentrations is a toxin that causes hyperexcitability of neurons and is also a precursor of other excitatory amino acid - glutamates. Their excess in quantity and lack of astrocytic uptake induces excitotoxicity and leads to the degeneration of astrocytes and neurons. The methanol metabolites cause CNS depression, vision disorders and other symptoms leading ultimately to metabolic acidosis and coma. Astrocytes do not play a significant role in methanol poisoning due to a permanent consumption of large amounts of aspartame. Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite - diketopiperazine - is cancirogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain. On the one hand the action of astrocytes during aspartame poisoning may be advantageous for neuro-protection while on the other it may intensify the destruction of neurons. The role of the glia in

  12. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  13. Impact of aspartame consumption on neurotransmitters in rat brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aspartame (APM), a common artificial sweetener, has been used for diabetic subjects and body weight control for a long time. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the impact of APM consumption on neurotransmitters and oxidative stress in rat's brain. Materials and Methods: Four groups of male ...

  14. Metabolism of aspartame by human and pig intestinal microvillar peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, N M; Hesp, R J; Tieku, S

    1994-01-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine-1-methyl ester; Nutrasweet), its decomposition product alpha Asp-Phe and the related peptide alpha Asp-PheNH2 were rapidly hydrolysed by microvillar membranes prepared from human duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and from pig duodenum and kidney. The metabolism of aspartame by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations was inhibited significantly (> 78%) by amastatin or 1,10-phenanthroline, and partially (> 38%) by actinonin or bestatin, and was activated 2.9-4.5-fold by CaCl2. The inhibition by amastatin and 1,10-phenanthroline, and the activation by CaCl2 are characteristic of the cell-surface ectoenzyme aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7) and a purified preparation of this enzyme hydrolysed aspartame with a Km of 0.25 mM and a Vmax of 126 mumol/min per mg. A purified preparation of aminopeptidase W (EC 3.4.11.16) also hydrolysed aspartame but with a Km of 4.96 mM and a Vmax of 110 mumol/min per mg. However, rentiapril, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase W, caused only slight inhibition (maximally 19%) of the hydrolysis of aspartame by the microvillar membrane preparations. Similar patterns of inhibition and kinetic parameters were observed for alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2. Two other decomposition products of aspartame, beta Asp-PheMe and cyclo-Asp-Phe, were essentially resistant to hydrolysis by both the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations and the purified preparations of aminopeptidases A and W. Although the relatively selective inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), actinonin, partially inhibited the metabolism of aspartame, alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2 by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations, these peptides were not hydrolysed by a purified preparation of aminopeptidase N. Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) only hydrolysed the unblocked dipeptide, alpha Asp-Phe, but the selective inhibitor of this enzyme, cilastatin

  15. Crystal structure of aspartame anhydrate from powder diffraction data. Structural aspects of the dehydration process of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guguta, C.; Meekes, H.L.M.; Gelder, R. de

    2006-01-01

    Aspartame has three pseudo-polymorphic forms, two hydrates and a hemi-hydrate, for which crystal structures were determined from single-crystal diffraction data. This paper presents the crystal structure of the anhydrate, which was obtained by dehydrating the hemi-hydrate. The crystal structure of

  16. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):847-857, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Resonant electron capture by aspartame and aspartic acid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftakhov, M V; Shchukin, P V

    2016-12-30

    The processes for dissociative electron capture are the key mechanisms for decomposition of biomolecules, proteins in particular, under interaction with low-energy electrons. Molecules of aspartic acid and aspartame, i.e. modified dipeptides, were studied herein to define the impact of the side functional groups on peptide chain decomposition in resonant electron-molecular reactions. The processes of formation and decomposition of negative ions of both aspartame and aspartic acid were studied by mass spectrometry of negative ions under resonant electron capture. The obtained mass spectra were interpreted under thermochemical analysis by quantum chemical calculations. Main channels of negative molecular ions fragmentation were found and characteristic fragment ions were identified. The СООН fragment of the side chain in aspartic acid is shown to play a key role like the carboxyl group in amino acids and aliphatic oligopeptides. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the... acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce an...

  19. Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kohn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006. To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea was measured in deionized water (control, ethanol, aspartame, and five different mixtures of ethanol and aspartame. The heart rate was chosen as a representative measure since it is controlled by the nervous system and the heart rate of D.magna can easily be measured. The results were statistically evaluated by student’s t-test. A significant increase in heart rate was observed for all mixed assays compared to both control and ethanol, but not to aspartame. The data suggests that the aspartame and alcohol mixture have a greater effect on D. magna heart rate than water or ethanol, but not aspartame alone. We propose that alcohol in combination with aspartame has potentially detrimental consequences for the nervous system.

  20. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Pandurangan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01–0.05 mg/ml of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells.

  1. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study ...

  2. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Collison

    Full Text Available Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (P<0.05. Females were less affected, but had significantly raised fasting glucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training, the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (P<0.05. Spatial learning of female aspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime

  4. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  5. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Saleh, Soad M; Andres, Bernard; Inglis, Angela; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM) testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (Pdifferent from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, may affect spatial cognition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice, particularly in males.

  6. Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system.

  7. Aspartame and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31 December 2012. The search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents.

  8. Aspartame-induced fibromyalgia, an unusual but curable cause of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappuccini, R; Ansemant, T; Maillefert, J-F; Tavernier, C; Ornetti, P

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an unusual musculoskeletal adverse effect of aspartame in two patients. A 50-year-old woman had been suffering from widespread pain and fatigue for more than 10 years leading to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. During a vacation in a foreign country, she did not suffer from painful symptoms since she had forgotten to take her aspartame. All of the symptoms reappeared in the days following her return when she reintroduced aspartame into her daily diet. Thus, aspartame was definitively excluded from her diet, resulting in a complete regression of the fibromyalgia symptoms. A 43-year-old man consulted for a 3-year history of bilateral forearm, wrist, and hand and cervical pain with various unsuccessful treatments. A detailed questioning allowed to find out that he had been taking aspartame for three years. The removal of aspartame was followed by a complete regression of pain, without recurrence. We believe that these patients' chronic pain was due to the ingestion of aspartame, a potent flavouring agent, widely used in food as a calorie-saver. The benefit/ risk ratio of considering the diagnosis of aspartame-induced chronic pain is obvious: the potential benefit is to cure a disabling chronic disease, to spare numerous laboratory and imaging investigations, and to avoid potentially harmful therapies; the potential risk is to temporarily change the patient's diet. Thus, practitioners should ask patients suffering from fibromyalgia about their intake of aspartame. In some cases, this simple question might lead to the resolution of a disabling chronic disease.

  9. Studies on the effects of aspartame on memory and oxidative stress in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, O M E; Salem, N A; El-Shamarka, M E S; Hussein, J S; Ahmed, N A S; El-Nagar, M E S

    2012-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-Lphenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of aspartame in the working memory version of Morris water maze test, on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in brain of mice. Aspartame (0.625, 1.875 or 5.625 mg/kg) was administered once daily subcutaneously for 2 weeks and mice were examined four times a week for their ability to locate a submerged plate. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide levels (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) and glucose were determined in brain. Only at the highest dose of 5.625 mg/kg, did aspartame significantly impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) over 2 weeks was significantly delayed by aspartame 5.625 mg/kg, compared with the saline-treated control group. Significant differences occurred only on the first trial to find the escape platform. Significant increase in brain MDA by 16.5% and nitric oxide by 16.2% and a decrease in GSH by 25.1% and glucose by 22.5% occurred after treatment with aspartame at 1.875 mg/kg. Aspartame administered at 5.625 mg/kg significantly increased brain MDA by 43.8%, nitric oxide by 18.6% and decreased GSH by 32.7% and glucose by 25.8%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. These findings suggest impaired memory performance and increased brain oxidative stress by repeated aspartame administration. The impaired memory performance is likely to involve increased oxidative stress as well as decreased brain glucose availability.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  11. Neurobehavioral changes and activation of neurodegenerative apoptosis on long-term consumption of aspartame in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Though several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, there are scanty data on whether aspartame exposure administration could release formate, a methanol metabolite thereby inducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in brain discrete region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, the methotrexate (MTX treated folate deficient rats were used. Aspartame was administered orally to the MTX treated animals and was studied along with controls and MTX treated controls. Oral intubations of FDA approved 40 mg/kg b.wt aspartame were given daily for 90 days. The loco–motor activity and emotionality behavior in the aspartame treated animals showed a marked increase in the immobilization, fecal bolus with a marked decrease in ambulation, rearing, grooming. The anxiety behavior in the aspartame treated animals showed a marked decrease in percentage of open arm entry, percentage of time spent in open arm and number of head dips. It is appropriate to point out, formaldehyde and formate could have led to an increased formation of free radical in the aspartame treated animals resulting in altered neurobehavioral changes owing to neuronal oxidative damage. Aspartame induced ROS may be also linked to increased neuronal apoptosis. In this study the aspartame treated animals showed an up regulation in the apoptotic gene expression along with protein expression in the respective brain region indicating the enhancement of neuronal cell death. This study intends to corroborate that chronic aspartame consumption can alter the behavior and neurodegeneration in brain discrete regions.

  12. Possible health risks due to the consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Guerrero Villegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and FDA set the Acceptable Daily Intake at 40 and 50 mg / kg bw / day, respectively. The sweetener and its degradation products have been evaluated for over 30 years with the involvement of numerous international organizations. However, there is still controversy over its use because there are researches whose results attribute to it neuropsychiatric side effects, brain tumors, carcinogenic properties for different organs, damage to the fetus during pregnancy, development of lymphomas and leukemia, while other researchers say their use is harmless to humans if consumption is less than the Acceptable Daily Intake. It is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria and pregnant women.

  13. Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI.

  14. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  16. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Sundareswaran, Lognatahan; Sheela Devi, Rathinasamy

    2016-01-01

    Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of a...

  17. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of aspartame on the electrophysiological response are still unclear; therefore, this study was designed to clarify whether longer-term aspartame consumption has any effect on the electrophysiological response in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of aspartame in a safe dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day (as recommended by EFSA, 2012 was tested in Wistar albino rats for a longer period (90 days. Electrophysiological responses, including heart rate variability (HRV and electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, were assessed in a folate-deficient animal model along with control animals using BIOPAC and EEG equipment (model RMS EEG–24 brain new-plus: RMS – Recorder and Medicare systems. In this study, the folate-deficient animal model was used to mimic human methanol metabolism in rats. After 90 days of aspartame treatment, a significant alteration was observable in the time domain [Mean RR (ms SDNN (ms RMSSD (ms PNN50 (%] and the frequency domain [LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio] with significantly impaired frequency and amplitude of the fronto-parietal and occipital EEG waves at p ≤ 0.05. The results of this study clearly indicate that the oral consumption of aspartame reduced HRV, with sympathetic dominance and loss of vagal tone, and altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of learning and memory, showing an additional effect on health within this study duration. The aspartame metabolites methanol and formaldehyde may be the causative factors

  18. Aspartame Intake Relates to Coronary Plaque Burden and Inflammatory Indices in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leangelo N; Sanchez, Laura R; Hubbard, Jane; Lee, Hang; Looby, Sara E; Srinivasa, Suman; Zanni, Markella V; Stanley, Takara L; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K; Fitch, Kathleen V

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sweeteners may contribute to metabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this has not been assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One hundred twenty-four HIV-infected and 56 non-HIV-infected participants, without history of known coronary artery disease were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a 4-day food record. Coronary plaque was determined using cardiac computed tomography angiography. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants had significantly greater intake of dietary sweeteners, including total sugar ( P = .03) and added sugar ( P = .009); intake of aspartame (artificial sweetener) was greater among aspartame consumers with HIV versus non-HIV consumers ( P = .03). Among HIV-infected participants, aspartame intake was significantly associated with coronary plaque ( P = .002) and noncalcified plaque ( P = .007) segments, as well as markers of inflammation/immune activation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 ), which may contribute to increased atherogenesis. In multivariable regression modeling, aspartame remained an independent predictor of plaque in HIV. In contrast, among non-HIV-infected participants, no sweetener type was shown to relate to plaque characteristics. We demonstrate increased intake of dietary sweeteners and a potential novel association between aspartame intake, plaque burden, and inflammation in HIV. Our data suggest that aspartame may contribute to CVD risk in HIV. Further studies should address potential mechanisms by which aspartame may contribute to increased plaque burden and cardiovascular benefits of dietary strategies targeting aspartame intake in HIV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Oxidative stress evoked damages on rat sperm and attenuated antioxidant status on consumption of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, I; Poornima, P S; Wankhar, D; Ravindran, R; Sheeladevi, R

    2017-07-01

    Although several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, controversial reports over the use of aspartame owing to the fact that it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism exist. This present study is proposed to investigate whether aspartame (40 mg kg -1 b.wt) administration for 90 days could induce oxidative stress and alter antioxidant status of epididymal sperm in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the effects of aspartame. Oral intubations of FDA approved 40 mg kg -1 b.wt aspartame were given daily for 90 days to Wistar strain male albino rats and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Sperm count, viability, morphology, morphometry and motility were assessed. A significant decrease in sperm function of aspartame treated animals was observed when compared with the control and MTX control. The free radical generation were observed in epididymal sperm by assessing the scavenging enzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Result suggest that there was a significant increase glutathione-s-transferase (GST), with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione reductase concentration. The increase in free radicals generation could have ultimately caused the lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the testis. Aspartame treated animals also revealed the reduced space in seminiferous tubules, which resulted in reduced Leydig cells when compared with control in histopathology. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for development of oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm.

  20. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

    1984-01-01

    The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. PMID:6591191

  1. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  2. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  3. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

    2013-11-28

    The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  5. Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Jain, N K; Kulkarni, S K

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs. Similarly when morphine (1 mg/kg, po) or pentazocine (1 mg/kg, po) was co-administered with aspartame it reduced the number of writhes as compared to their effects per se. Aspartame (4,8,16 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased carrageenan-induced increase in paw volume and also reversed the hyperalgesic effects in rats in combination with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po). The study indicated that aspartame exerted analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on its own and have a synergistic analgesic response with conventional analgesics of opioid and non-opioid type, respectively.

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 20 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol negatif (KN, kontrol positif (KP, perlakuan 1 (P1, perlakuan 2 (P2. Aloksan 150 mg/kgBB diinduksikan pada kelompok KP dan P2, aspartam 315 mg/kgBB diberikan pada kelompok P1 dan P2 selama 4 minggu. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur setelah 4 minggu menggunakan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata kadar glukosa darah puasa kelompok KN (88,39 mg/dL, KP (134,11 mg/dL, P1 (93,95 mg/dL, dan P2 (66,66 mg/dL. Analisis data dengan Uji ANOVA nilai p= 0,000 (p<0,05, terdapat perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Keimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah puasa tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan.Kata kunci: aspartam, kadar glukosa darah, diabetes melitus, aloksanAbstractAspartame is a low-calorie sugar substitute that is often consumed by people with diabetes, but the safety of aspartame is still controversial. The high intensity of aspartame sweetness could be expected to lower blood glucose levels. Other study said the results of the metabolism of aspartame such aspartic acids and phenylalanine which can be a precursor of glucose through gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on blood

  7. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  8. Alterations in behaviour, cerebral cortical morphology and cerebral oxidative stress markers following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Nwoha, Polycarp U

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame. Sections of the cerebral cortex were processed and stained for general histology, and also examined for neuritic plaques using the Bielschwosky's protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed using appropriate antibodies. Aspartate and antioxidant levels were also assayed from cerebral cortex homogenates. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Body weight and food consumption decreased significantly with aspartame consumption. Locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly after first dose, and with repeated administration of aspartame. Histological changes consistent with neuronal damage were seen at 40, 80 and 160mg/kg. Neuritic plaque formation was not evident; while GFAP-reactive astrocytes and NSE-reactive neurons increased at 40 and 80mg/kg but decreased at 160mg/kg. Superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide increased with increasing doses of aspartame, while aspartate levels showed no significant difference. The study showed morphological alterations consistent with neuronal injury and biochemical changes of oxidative stress. These data therefore supports the need for caution in the indiscriminate use of aspartame as a non-nutritive sweetener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum), Juice in Rats Consuming Aspartame Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M.M.; Osman, N.N.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) has been traditionally used as medicine in many countries due to its high antioxidant activity, which has been related to beneficial health properties. Aspartame (ASP) is a widely used artificial sweetener that may be harmful at abuse levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) in protecting tissues from the possible damage induced by aspartame. ASP treated rats were given ASP, by gavages, at a dose of 250 mg/kg /day for 28 days. PJ-ASP treated rats were given PI at a dose of 1ml /kg body weight/day along with ASP. The data obtained indicate that ASP administration results in no significant change in the concentration of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Tc), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and glucose while significant decreases have been recorded for insulin. The results demonstrated also that aspartame promotes lipid peroxidation and decreases the level of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in serum and liver tissues. Significant elevations in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (AL T) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also observed. Administration of PI in parallel with aspartame protected rats from aspartame-induced oxidative injury and ameliorated liver function

  10. Carbon-deuterium rotational-echo double-resonance NMR spectroscopy of lyophilized aspartame formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Utz, Marcel; Gorman, Eric M; Pikal, Michael J; Munson, Eric J; Lubach, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, changes in the local conformation of aspartame were observed in annealed lyophilized glasses by monitoring changes in the distance between two labeled sites using C-(2)H rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Confirmation that the REDOR experiments were producing accurate distance measurement was ensured by measuring the (13)C-(15)N distance in glycine. The experiment was further verified by measuring the REDOR dephasing curve on (13)C-(2)H methionine. (13)C-(2)H REDOR dephasing curves were then measured on lyophilized aspartame-disaccharide formulations. In aspartame-sucrose formulation, the internuclear distances increased upon annealing, which correlated with decreased chemical reactivity. By contrast, annealing had only a minimal effect on the dephasing curve in aspartame-trehalose formulation. The results show that stability is a function of both mobility and local structure (conformation), even in a small molecule system such as lyophilized aspartame-sucrose. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

    1999-03-01

    Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

  12. Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

    2013-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented.

  13. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  14. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Finamor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC, and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH. Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  15. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  16. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela; Pérez, Salvador; Bressan, Caroline A; Brenner, Carlos E; Rius-Pérez, Sergio; Brittes, Patricia C; Cheiran, Gabriele; Rocha, Maria I; da Veiga, Marcelo; Sastre, Juan; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC), and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH). Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, S.H. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: shs_barc@yahoo.com; Mukherjee, T. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-02-15

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10{sup -4}moldm{sup -3} and xylenol orange with 2.5x10{sup -1}moldm{sup -3} of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%.

  18. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX, carboxyl esterase (CaE and bovine serum albumin (BSA were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC. The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  19. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.H.; Mukherjee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10 -4 moldm -3 and xylenol orange with 2.5x10 -1 moldm -3 of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%

  20. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  1. Longer period of oral administration of aspartame on cytokine response in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Sheela Devi, Rathinasamy

    2015-03-01

    Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener particularly used in 'diet' and 'low calorie' products and also in a variety of foods, drugs and hygiene products. Aspartame is metabolized by gut esterases and peptidases to three common chemicals: the amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and small amounts of methanol. The aim of the present study was to assess potential changes in molecular mediators of aspartame as a chemical stressor in rats. The effects of long-term administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight/day) were tested in Wistar Albino rats. The treatment effects were assessed in different conditions, including control groups. After 90 days of treatment, circulating concentrations of different parameters were assessed: corticosterone, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and cytokines (interleukin 2, interleukin 4, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ). The results show that there was a significant increase in plasma corticosterone, serum lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level along with a decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant as well as significant decrease in interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. There was also a significant increase in interleukin 4 irrespective of whether the animals were immunized or not. The findings clearly point out that aspartame acts as a chemical stressor because of increased corticosterone level and increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide level induce generation of free radicals in serum which may be the reason for variation of cytokine level and finally results in alteration of immune function. Aspartame metabolite methanol or formaldehyde may be the causative factors behind the changes observed. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose and time dependent ototoxicity of aspartame in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturan, Orhan; Dogan, Remzi; Tugrul, Selahattin; Gedik, Ozge; Sjostrand, Alev Pektas; Yildirim, Yavuz Selim

    2017-04-01

    Low-dose administration of Aspartame (Ap) did not produce a significant ototoxic effect at the end of the 6th month. However, duration of the ototoxic effect is shortened and severity of the effect is increased as dose and duration of Ap administration is increased. While Ap toxicity has been studied in short- and long-term studies, its effects on hearing have not been investigated. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of Ap administered in various doses on hearing status of rats. The study included 54 female Wistar Albino rats. Ap was given for 6 months to the rats. The groups were assigned according to levels of Ap dosage. DPOAE and ABR tests were utilized for serial hearing evaluations. Serial hearing measurement times were designed as baseline, 1st week, 2nd week, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 6th months. While audiological parameters deteriorated with 100 mg/kg/day dose after the 3rd month, ABR thresholds were elevated and DPOAE values were significantly decreased in 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day applications after the 2nd month. In 2000 mg/kg/day and 4000 mg/kg/day applications, deteriorations in audiological parameters were detected as early as the first and second months; respectively.

  4. Efficient Extracellular Expression of Metalloprotease for Z-Aspartame Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fucheng; Liu, Feng; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2016-12-28

    Metalloprotease PT121 and its mutant Y114S (Tyr114 was substituted to Ser) are effective catalysts for the synthesis of Z-aspartame (Z-APM). This study presents the selection of a suitable signal peptide for improving expression and extracellular secretion of proteases PT121 and Y114S by Escherichia coli. Co-inducers containing IPTG and arabinose were used to promote protease production and cell growth. Under optimal conditions, the expression levels of PT121 and Y114S reached >500 mg/L, and the extracellular activity of PT121/Y114S accounted for 87/82% of the total activity of proteases. Surprisingly, purer protein was obtained in the supernatant, because arabinose reduced cell membrane permeability, avoiding cell lysis. Comparison of Z-APM synthesis and caseinolysis between proteases PT121 and Y114S showed that mutant Y114S presented remarkably higher activity of Z-APM synthesis and considerably lower activity of caseinolysis. The significant difference in substrate specificity renders these enzymes promising biocatalysts.

  5. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  6. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Ryoichiro; Kubo, Satoru; Otabe, Akira; Oobayashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Shoko; Yoshida, Mika; Yoshida, Mitsuya; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM) and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM) are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM). The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM.

  7. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohtsuki

    Full Text Available α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM.

  8. Disruption of redox homeostasis in liver function and activation of apoptosis on consumption of aspartame in folate deficient rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Iyaswamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effect of long-term intake of aspartame on liver function and apoptosis signaling pathway in the Wistar albino rats. Several reports have suggested that methanol is one of the major metabolites of Aspartame. Non-primate animals are usually resistant to methanol-induced metabolic acidosis due to high levels of hepatic folate content; hence a folate deficiency model was induced by treating animals with methotrexate (MTX prior to aspartame exposure. The aspartame treated MTX animals exhibited a marked significant increase in hepatic alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH activity compared to controls. Aspartame treated MTX animals additionally exhibited down-regulation of genes namely B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2 expression and up-regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD and Caspase 3, 9 genes and apoptotic protein expression, indicating the augmentation of hepatic apoptosis. Nuclear condensation, micro vacuole formation in the cytoplasm and necrosis were observed in the liver of the aspartame treated animals on histopathology evaluation. Additionally, Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in positive cells expressing Fas, FADD, Bax and Caspase 9 protein, indicating an increase in apoptotic protein expression in the liver. Thus, Aspartame may act as a chemical stressor which alters the functional status of liver, leading to hepatotoxicity.

  9. Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; de Carvalho, Adriana Evaristo; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2008-07-30

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400 mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the presence of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) cyclamate was 4.7x10(-7) mol L(-1), and the detection limit for cyclamate in the presence of 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame was 4.2x10(-6) mol L(-1). When simultaneously changing the concentration of both aspartame and cyclamate in a 0.5 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution, the corresponding detection limits were 3.5x10(-7) and 4.5x10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained was 1.3% for the 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame solution (n=5) and 1.1% for the 3.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) cyclamate solution. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of aspartame in several dietary products with results similar to those obtained using an HPLC method at 95% confidence level.

  10. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes. PMID:27845306

  11. Use of aspartame-based sweetener tablets in emergency dosimetry using EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.

    2010-01-01

    Accident dosimetry aims to evaluate the unplanned radiation doses delivered to individuals through one of the objects exist in the area of the accident. The gamma dose response of free radicals generated in irradiated aspartame tablets and its usability for emergency dosimetry was studied. EPR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated aspartame-based sweetener were recorded. Two signals arise after irradiating, S 1 at g (S 1 ) = 2.00229 ± 0.00097 and S 2 at g (S 2 ) = 2.00262 ± 0.00088. Some EPR parameters were studied for radiation-induced radicals in aspartame sweeteners tablets, such as the microwave saturation behaviour, the effect of magnetic field modulation amplitude on the peak-to-peak height and peak-to-peak line width for both of S 1 and S 2 . Responses of S 1 and S 2 to different radiation doses were studied and resulted in linear relationships, radicals persistence curves were plotted over a 49-d storage period. It was found that Aspartame sweeteners tablets are useful in the range from 0.96 to 39.96 Gy. Radiation-induced radicals possess reasonable stability. (authors)

  12. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... Aspartame; blood methanol; oxidative stress; rat folate-deficient model; free radical. Published online: 3 ... other chemicals were of analytical grade obtained from .... 0.5 mL of homogenate was mixed with 0.5 mL of ethanol.

  13. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  14. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  15. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, P.; Smith, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2015), s. 047107 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28882S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile metabolities * aspartame * methanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2015

  16. Use of aspartame-based sweetener tablets in emergency dosimetry using EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A; Salama, E

    2010-06-01

    Accident dosimetry aims to evaluate the unplanned radiation doses delivered to individuals through one of the objects exist in the area of the accident. The gamma dose response of free radicals generated in irradiated aspartame tablets and its usability for emergency dosimetry was studied. EPR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated aspartame-based sweetener were recorded. Two signals arise after irradiating, S(1) at g (S(1)) = 2.00229 +/- 0.00097 and S(2) at g (S(2)) = 2.00262 +/- 0.00088. Some EPR parameters were studied for radiation-induced radicals in aspartame sweeteners tablets, such as the microwave saturation behaviour, the effect of magnetic field modulation amplitude on the peak-to-peak height and peak-to-peak line width for both of S(1) and S(2). Responses of S(1) and S(2) to different radiation doses were studied and resulted in linear relationships, radicals persistence curves were plotted over a 49-d storage period. It was found that Aspartame sweeteners tablets are useful in the range from 0.96 to 39.96 Gy. Radiation-induced radicals possess reasonable stability.

  17. Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-23

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  18. [Simultaneous determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dingguo; Fang, Congrong; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits. Aspartame and alitame in jellies were extracted with 80% methanol at 70 degrees C. Preserved fruits were homogenized with water and then were extracted with 50% methanol. A chromatographic column Zorbax SB-C18 was used; the mobile phase was methanol/water (40 + 60, volume ratio), and a diode array detector was used for the detection at wavelength 200 nm. The limits of quantification of aspartame and alitame were both 8 mg/kg for jellies and both 20 mg/kg for preserved fruits; the calibration curves were linear in the range of tested concentration. The correlation coefficients were better than 0.9996. The average recovery rates were in the range of 98.1% -101.2%, the relative standard deviations were 2.21% - 4.10%. The method is simple, practical, accurate, reliable and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits from various brands on markets.

  19. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

  2. Rheological and sensory performance of a protein-based sweetener (MNEI), sucrose, and aspartame in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Nicoletta A; Cabisidan, Erliza K; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Leone, Serena; Masi, Paolo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana

    2017-12-01

    Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar. We studied the gelation and cooling kinetics of 4 yogurt samples (unsweetened or sweetened with MNEI, aspartame, or sucrose) by using a rheometer. Furthermore, the 4 yogurts, with and without addition of a flavoring agent, were characterized from a sensory perspective using a combination of 2 rapid sensory methods, ultra flash profile and flash profile. Rheological results showed that, when added at typical usage levels, aspartame, sucrose, and MNEI did not generally affect the yogurt fermentation process or its rheological properties. Sensory results demonstrated that texture attributes of yogurts with aspartame and sucrose were strongly linked to sweetness and flavor perception, but this was not true for MNEI-sweetened yogurts. In contrast to results obtained from samples sweetened with sucrose and aspartame, MNEI protein did not sweeten the yogurt when added before fermentation. This study highlights the enhancing effect of flavor on sweetness perception, supporting previous reports that noted synergistic effects between sucrose or aspartame and flavors. Hence, future studies should be conducted to determine how sweet proteins behave in yogurt when added after fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  4. A novel strategy for selection of allosteric ribozymes yields RiboReporter™ sensors for caffeine and aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alicia; Boomer, Ryan M.; Kurz, Markus; Keene, Sara C.; Diener, John L.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Wilson, Charles; Cload, Sharon T.

    2004-01-01

    We have utilized in vitro selection technology to develop allosteric ribozyme sensors that are specific for the small molecule analytes caffeine or aspartame. Caffeine- or aspartame-responsive ribozymes were converted into fluorescence-based RiboReporter™ sensor systems that were able to detect caffeine or aspartame in solution over a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 mM. With read-times as short as 5 min, these caffeine- or aspartame-dependent ribozymes function as highly specific and facile molecular sensors. Interestingly, successful isolation of allosteric ribozymes for the analytes described here was enabled by a novel selection strategy that incorporated elements of both modular design and activity-based selection methods typically used for generation of catalytic nucleic acids. PMID:15026535

  5. Differential effects of early-life NMDA receptor antagonism on aspartame-impaired insulin tolerance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Inglis, Angela; Shibin, Sherin; Andres, Bernard; Ubungen, Rosario; Thiam, Jennifer; Mata, Princess; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2016-12-01

    We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior. Since the gut-brain axis can be modulated by fetal programming, we hypothesized that early-life NMDAR antagonism may affect aspartame-induced glucose deregulation in adulthood, and may alter the aspartame behavioral phenotype. Accordingly, C57Bl/6J mice were chronically exposed to aspartame commencing in utero, in the presence and absence of maternal administration of the competitive NMDAR antagonist CGP 39551, from conception until weaning. Drug/diet interactions in adulthood glucocentric and behavioral parameters were assessed. Aspartame exposure elevated blood glucose and impaired insulin-induced glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test, which could be normalized by NMDAR antagonism. The same effects were not observed in control diet mice, suggesting an early-life drug/diet interaction. Behavioral analysis of adult offspring indicated that NMDAR antagonism of control diet mice caused hyperlocomotion and impaired spatial navigation. Conversely hypolocomotion, reduced exploratory activity and increased anxiety-related behavior were apparent in aspartame diet mice with early-life NMDAR antagonism. significant drug/diet interactions in glucocentric and behavioral parameters were identified in aspartame-exposed mice with early-life NMDAR antagonism. This suggests a possible involvement of early NMDAR interactions in aspartame-impaired glucose homeostasis and behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspartame Attenuates 2, 4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Clinical Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Jeong-Je; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common multifactorial chronic skin disease that has a multiple and complex pathogenesis. AD is gradually increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive applications of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evoke AD-like clinical symptoms similar to human AD. Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester) is a methyl ester of a dipeptide, which is used as an artificial non-nutritive sweetener. Aspartame has analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions that are similar to the function of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. We investigated whether aspartame can relieve AD-like clinical symptoms induced by DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Sucrose did not relieve AD-like symptoms, whereas aspartame at doses of 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.5 mg kg(-1) inhibited ear swelling and relieved AD-like clinical symptoms. Aspartame inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells, and CD4(+) T cells, and suppressed the expression of cytokines including IL-4 and IFN-γ, and total serum IgE levels. Aspartame may have therapeutic value in the treatment of AD.

  7. Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2008-02-13

    Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector.

  8. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; Dooley, J M; Gordon, K; Jollymore, S; Weaver, D F

    1992-05-01

    There are anecdotal reports of increased seizures in humans after ingestion of aspartame. We studied 10 children with newly diagnosed but untreated generalized absence seizures. Ambulatory cassette recording of EEG allowed quantification of numbers and length of spike-wave discharges in a double-blind study on two consecutive days. On one day the children received 40 mg/kg aspartame and on the other day, a sucrose-sweetened drink. Baseline EEG was the same before aspartame and sucrose. Following aspartame compared with sucrose, the number of spike-wave discharges per hour and mean length of spike-wave discharges increased but not to a statistically significant degree. However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge. Aspartame appears to exacerbate the amount of EEG spike wave in children with absence seizures. Further studies are needed to establish if this effect occurs at lower doses and in other seizure types.

  9. Interaction study of amino acids and the peptide aspartame with lanthanide (III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carubelli, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The interactions between the Nd(III) ion with the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-histidine and the peptide aspartame in aqueous solution were studied. The study was conducted by means of electronic spectroscopy with the Judd-Ofelt formalism for transition intensity parameters calculations. Several coordination compounds involving Nd(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) and the ligands L-histidine and aspartame were synthesized and characterized in the solid state. Mixed compounds involving Eu(III) and Tb(III) with the same ligands were synthesized and characterized also. The characterization were achieved by chemical analysis, melting points, vibrational spectroscopy (IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  10. Exploring the biological consequences of conformational changes in aspartame models containing constrained analogues of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Adriano; Mirzaie, Sako; Costante, Roberto; Carradori, Simone; Macedonio, Giorgia; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Dvoracsko, Szabolcs; Novellino, Ettore

    2016-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (Asp-Phe-OMe) is a sweetener widely used in replacement of sucrose by food industry. 2',6'-Dimethyltyrosine (DMT) and 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (DMP) are two synthetic phenylalanine-constrained analogues, with a limited freedom in χ-space due to the presence of methyl groups in position 2',6' of the aromatic ring. These residues have shown to increase the activity of opioid peptides, such as endomorphins improving the binding to the opioid receptors. In this work, DMT and DMP have been synthesized following a diketopiperazine-mediated route and the corresponding aspartame derivatives (Asp-DMT-OMe and Asp-DMP-OMe) have been evaluated in vivo and in silico for their activity as synthetic sweeteners.

  11. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels on long term consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS, c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNFα, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener.

  12. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI,40 mg/kg bwt administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  14. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  15. Spectroscopic and mechanistic investigations into oxidation of aspartame by diperiodatocuprate(III in aqueous alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant I. Gowda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of aspartame (ASP by diperiodatocuprate(III (DPC in aqueous alkaline medium at 298 K and a constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm−3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between aspartame and diperiodatocuprate(III in alkaline medium exhibits 1:6 stoichiometry in the reaction. The order of the reaction with respect to [diperiodatocuprate(III] was unity, while the apparent order with respect to [aspartame] was less than unity over the concentration range studied. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in [OH−] whereas the rate decreased with increase in [$ {\\text{IO}}^-_4 $]. Increasing the ionic strength of the medium increased the rate. The main products were identified by FT-IR, NMR, and LC-MS spectral studies. The probable mechanism was proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities were also calculated. Kinetic studies suggest that [Cu(H2IO6(H2O2] is the reactive species of Cu(III.

  16. Serum biochemical responses under oxidative stress of aspartame in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study whether the oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight for 15 d, 30 d and 90 d have any effect on marker enzymes, some selective liver and kidney function parameter, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in serum. To mimic human methanol metabolism, folate deficient animals were used. Method: Animal weight, complete hemogram, marker enzyme in serum, some selected serum profile reflect liver and kidney function, plasma corticosterone level, and in serum, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level was measured . Result: After 15 d of aspartame administration animals showed a significant change in marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. However, after repeated long term administration (30 d and 90 d showed a significant change in some selected serum profile reflects liver and kidney function, along with marker enzymes, and antioxidant level. Conclusions: This study concludes that oral administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight causes oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats by altering their oxidant/antioxidant balance.

  17. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, paspartame=330kcal, paspartame and sucrose preloads (paspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin E can improve behavioral tests impairment, cell loss, and dendrite changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by acceptable daily dose of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Jahangir, Mahboubeh; Hosseini, Leila; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2018-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks. Behavioral tests were recorded and the brain was prepared for stereological assessments. Novel objects test and eight-arm radial maze showed impairmentoflong- and short-termmemoriesin aspartame groups. Besides, mPFC volume, infralimbic volume, neurons number, glial cells number, dendrites length per neuron,and number of spines per dendrite length were decreased by 7-61% in the rats treated with aspartame. However, neurons' number, glial cells number, and rats' performance in eight-arm radial mazes were improved by concomitant consumption of vitamin E and aspartame. Yet, the mPFC volume and infralimbic cortex were protected only in the rats receiving the low dose of aspartame+vitamin E. On the other hand, dendrites length, spines number,and novel object recognition were not protected by treatment with vitamin E+aspartame. The acceptable daily dose or higher doses of aspartame could induce memory impairments and cortical cells loss in mPFC. However, vitamin E could ameliorate some of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspartame and the hippocampus: Revealing a bi-directional, dose/time-dependent behavioural and morphological shift in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Nwoha, Polycarp U

    2017-03-01

    Changes, in behaviour, oxidative markers of stress and hippocampal morphology were evaluated following aspartame administration. Mice, (20-22g each) were given vehicle (10ml/kg) or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg) daily for 28days. They were tested in the Y-maze, radial-arm maze and elevated plus-maze (EPM) after the first and last dose of vehicle or aspartame; and then sacrificed. Hippocampal slices were analysed for aspartic acid, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and processed for general histology and neuritic plaques. Glial fibrillary-acid protein (GFAP) expression and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) activities were determined. Radial-arm maze scores increased significantly after acute administration at 80 and 160mg/kg. Repeated administration at 20 and 40mg/kg (Y-maze) and at 40mg/kg (radial-arm maze) was also associated with increased scores, however, performance decreased at higher doses. EPM tests revealed anxiogenic responses following both acute and repeated administration. Significant increase in SOD and NO activities were observed at 40, 80 and 160mg/kg. Neuron counts reduced at higher doses of aspartame. At 40, 80 and 160mg/kg, fewer GFAP-reactive astrocytes were observed in the cornus ammonis, but increased GFAP-reactivity was observed in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. NSE-positive neurons were readily identifiable within the dentate gyrus at the lower doses of aspartame; but at 160mg/kg, there was marked neuron loss and reduction in NSE-positive neurons. Oral aspartame significantly altered behaviour, anti-oxidant status and morphology of the hippocampus in mice; also, it may probably trigger hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  2. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  3. Metabolic effects of aspartame in adulthood: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Natalia Cardoso; de Araujo, Laiza Magalhaes; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Coelho, Michella Soares; Borin, Maria de Fatima

    2017-04-10

    Data about harms or benefits associated with the consumption of aspartame, a nonnutritive sweetener worldwide consumed, are still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to assess the effect of aspartame consumption on metabolic parameters related to diabetes and obesity. The search was performed on Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science databases, and on a gray literature using Open Grey, Google Scholar, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Searches across all databases were conducted from the earliest available date up to April 13, 2016, without date and language restrictions. Pooled mean differences were calculated using a random or fixed-effects model for heterogeneous and homogenous studies, respectively. Twenty-nine articles were included in qualitative synthesis and twelve, presenting numeric results, were used in meta-analysis. Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L), insulin levels (μU/mL), total cholesterol (mmol/L), triglycerides concentrations (mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L), body weight (kg), and energy intake (MJ) were considered as the main outcomes in subjects that consumed aspartame, and results were presented as mean difference; % confidence interval, range. Aspartame consumption was not associated with alterations on blood glucose levels compared to control (-0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.14) or to sucrose (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.67) and on insulin levels compared to control (0.13 μU/mL; 95% CI, -0.69 to 0.95) or to sucrose (2.54 μU/mL; 95% CI, -6.29 to 11.37). Total cholesterol was not affected by aspartame consumption compared to control (-0.02 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.31 to 0.27) or to sucrose (-0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.89 to 0.42). Triglycerides concentrations were not affected by aspartame consumption compared to control (0.00 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.05) or to sucrose (0.00 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.09). High-density lipoprotein

  4. Tablet Effervescent Ekstrak Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L. Dengan Variasi Kadar Pemanis Aspartam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmala Dewi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi is a fruit with many benefits but its usage is not optimal. The aim of the research was to get formulation of effervescent granule and tablet containing dry Averrhoa bilimbi extract with modified concentration of aspartame as sweetening agent for commercial healthy drink. Granules and tablets were produced with dry method granulation with relative humidity (RH of 40% and temperature of 25ºC. Three formulations were made and qualified as effervescent granules and tablets. Favorite tests showed that there was no significant differences of appearances and tastes for those three effervescent granules and tablets.

  5. Aspartame-stabilized gold-silver bimetallic biocompatible nanostructures with plasmonic photothermal properties, antibacterial activity, and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciani, Chiara; Silvero, M Jazmin; Anghel, Maria Alexandra; Argüello, Gerardo A; Becerra, Maria Cecilia; Scaiano, Juan C

    2014-12-17

    Gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles stabilized with a common sweetener, aspartame (AuNP@Ag@Asm), combine the antimicrobial properties of silver with the photoinduced plasmon-mediated photothermal effects of gold. The particles were tested with several bacterial strains, while biocompatibility was verified with human dermal fibroblasts.

  6. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  8. Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Wen-Rui; Wu, Zhai; Wang, Ren-Hai; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2014-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of Aspartame in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-L) and sodium alginate (SA) revealed that only CMC-L showed a suppression effect, while SA did not. By using an artificial taste receptor model, we found that the presence of SA or CMC-L resulted in a decrease in association constants. Further investigation of CMC-L solution revealed that the decrease in water mobility and diffusion also contribute to the suppression effect. In the case of SA, the decreased viscosity and comparatively higher amount of free water facilitated the diffusion of sweetener, which might compensate for the decreased binding constant between Aspartame and receptor. This may suppress the impact of SA on sweetness intensity. The results suggest that exploring the binding affinity of taste molecules with the receptor, along with water mobility and diffusion in hydrocolloidal structures, provide sufficient information for understanding the mechanism behind the effect of macromolecular hydrocolloids on taste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-07-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  11. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05. The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05.

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam telah disetujui oleh FDA untuk dikonsumsi. Konsumsi pemanis buatan ini menggunakan dosis ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake yaitu 50 mg/kgBB. Individu dengan diabetes melitus kemungkinan menjadi antusias terhadap adanya aspartam. Aspartam dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme profil lipid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan randomized post test only control group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 15 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif, kelompok kontrol positif, dan kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima (5 ekor tikus. Pemberian aspartam (dosis 315 mg/kgBB tikus diberikan kepada kelompok perlakuan selama empat (4 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL. Kadar LDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 30 ± 2 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 24 ± 2 mg/dl. Sedangkan kadar HDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 19 ± 1 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 22 ± 1 mg/dl. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada kadar LDL dan HDL antara kelompok kontrol positif dengan kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini adalah pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL.Kata kunci: aspartam, diabetes melitus, LDL, HDLAbstractAspartame has been approved by the FDA for consumption. Consumption of artificial sweeteners is using ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake dose which is 50 mg/kg. Individuals with diabetes mellitus would likely be enthusiastic consumers of aspartame. Aspartame can influence the metabolism of lipid profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on levels of LDL

  13. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  14. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early maternal separation induces preference for sucrose and aspartame associated with increased blood glucose and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya-Ramos, L; Contreras-Vargas, C; Rico, J L; Dueñas, Z

    2017-07-19

    Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7:00 h) with ad libitum access to water and food. In the MS protocol, MS pups were separated from the dam for 6 h per day in two periods of 180 minutes (7:00-10:00 and 13:00-16:00 h) during the dark phase of postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21. Non-separated (NS) pups served as controls. On PND 22 rats were grouped by sex and treatment. From PND 26 to PND 50 sucrose and aspartame were provided to rats, and sweetener intake, body weight and blood glucose-related measures were scored. On PND 50, both male and female rats were exposed to the open field test to obtain locomotion and anxiety-related measures. Results showed that both early maternal separation and sweetener intake during adolescence resulted in increased blood glucose and hyperactivity in male rats but not in female rats. Data suggest that the combination of early stress and exposure to sucrose and aspartame could be a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, as well as for behavioral alterations.

  16. No Effect of Dietary Aspartame or Stevia on Pancreatic Acinar Carcinoma Development, Growth, or Induced Mortality in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James; Lagou, Vasiliki; Dresselaers, Tom; van Dongen, Katinka A.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Liston, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, largely due to a poor record for early detection. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include obesity, diet, and diabetes, implicating glucose consumption and regulation as a key player. The role of artificial sweeteners may therefore be pertinent to disease kinetics. The oncogenic impact of artificial sweeteners is a highly controversial area. Aspartame, one of the most studied food additives, is widely recognized as being generally safe, although there are still specific areas where research is incomplete due to study limitations. Stevia, by contrast, has been the subject of relatively few studies, and the potential health benefits are based on extrapolation rather than direct testing. Here, we used longitudinal tracking of pancreatic acinar carcinoma development, growth, and lethality in a sensitized mouse model. Despite exposure to aspartame and stevia from the in utero stage onward, we found no disease modification activity, in either direction. These results contribute to the data on aspartame and stevia safety, while also reducing confidence in several of the purported health benefits. PMID:28232906

  17. Oxidative stress evoked damages leading to attenuated memory and inhibition of NMDAR–CaMKII–ERK/CREB signalling on consumption of aspartame in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Iyaswamy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposes to investigate whether long term (90 days aspartame (40 mg/kg b.wt administration could induce oxidative stress and alter the memory in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX-treated rats were included as a model to study the effects of aspartame. Wistar strain albino rats were administered with aspartame (40 mg/kg b.wt orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame interfered in the body weight and corticosterone levels in the rats. A marked increase in the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which resulted in the increased nitric oxide radical's level indicating that aspartame is a stressor. These reactive nitrogen species could be responsible for the altered cell membrane integrity and even cause death of neurons by necrosis or apoptosis. The animals showed a marked decrease in learning, spatial working and spatial recognition memory deficit in the Morris water maze and Y-maze performance task which could have resulted due to reduced hippocampal acetylcholine esterase (AChE activity. The animal brain homogenate also revealed the decrease in the phosphorylation of NMDAR1–CaMKII–ERK/CREB signalling pathway, which well documents the inhibition of phosphorylation leads to the excitotoxicity of the neurons and memory decline. This effect may be due to methanol which may also activate the NOS levels, microglia and astrocytes, inducing neurodegeneration in brain. Neuronal shrinkage of hippocampal layer due to degeneration of pyramidal cells revealed the abnormal neuronal morphology of pyramidal cell layers in the aspartame treated animals. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for the

  18. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  19. Effect of aspartame on biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Marko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (ASP is one of the most widely used nonnutritive sweeteners. This study investigates the chronic effects of ASP on hematological and biochemical parameters, and its effects on the oxidative/antioxidative status in the red blood cells of Wistar albino rats. Rats were provided with ASP (40 mg/kg/daily for six weeks in drinking water. Increased food and fluid intake was observed in the ASP-treated rats. Total body mass was significantly decreased in the ASP-treated rats. Treatment with ASP caused an increase in the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, as well as a decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. A significant decline in the number of white blood cells (WBC was observed after ASP uptake. Based on the results we conclude that ASP induces oxidative stress, observed as an alteration of the glutathione redox status, which leads to increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO and lipid peroxides (LPO in the red blood cells. Changes in biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, as well as changes in the levels of oxidative stress markers and the appearance of signs of liver damage indicate that chronic use of ASP can lead to the development of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and associated diseases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  20. Engymatic synthesis of aspartame precursor in organic solvent; Yuki yobaichu deno asuparutemu zenkutai no koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-11-05

    Taking up the synthetic reaction of the precursor of artificial sweetener aspartame for which thermolysin is used as the catalyst, the features and problems of enzymatic reaction in organic solvent are discussed. It is found that immobilized enzyme which has high activity and stability can be prepared by adsorbing high concentration thermolysin in Amberlite XAD7 followed by bridge immobilization. The initial rate of the synthesis and the stability of immobilized enzyme depend on the types of solvents. Continuous reaction is attempted using a columnar ferment reactor (PFR) in ethyl acetate at the beginning, but the yield decreases in a short period because the immobilized enzyme lose its activity gradually from the upper area of the column where Z-Asp concentration is high. When CSTR (complete mixed type reactor) is used, deactivation of immobilized enzyme can be restricted because low Z-Asp concentration in the reactor can be maintained. It is demonstrated that continuous reaction of longer than 200 hours is possible although the reaction rate is as low as 90%. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  2. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  4. Oxidative stress evoked damages leading to attenuated memory and inhibition of NMDAR-CaMKII-ERK/CREB signalling on consumption of aspartame in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaswamy, Ashok; Kammella, Ananth Kumar; Thavasimuthu, Citarasu; Wankupar, Wankhar; Dapkupar, Wankhar; Shanmugam, Sambantham; Rajan, Ravindran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2018-04-01

    Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposes to investigate whether long term (90 days) aspartame (40 mg/kg b.wt) administration could induce oxidative stress and alter the memory in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included as a model to study the effects of aspartame. Wistar strain albino rats were administered with aspartame (40 mg/kg b.wt) orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame interfered in the body weight and corticosterone levels in the rats. A marked increase in the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which resulted in the increased nitric oxide radical's level indicating that aspartame is a stressor. These reactive nitrogen species could be responsible for the altered cell membrane integrity and even cause death of neurons by necrosis or apoptosis. The animals showed a marked decrease in learning, spatial working and spatial recognition memory deficit in the Morris water maze and Y-maze performance task which could have resulted due to reduced hippocampal acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. The animal brain homogenate also revealed the decrease in the phosphorylation of NMDAR1-CaMKII-ERK/CREB signalling pathway, which well documents the inhibition of phosphorylation leads to the excitotoxicity of the neurons and memory decline. This effect may be due to methanol which may also activate the NOS levels, microglia and astrocytes, inducing neurodegeneration in brain. Neuronal shrinkage of hippocampal layer due to degeneration of pyramidal cells revealed the abnormal neuronal morphology of pyramidal cell layers in the aspartame treated animals. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for the development of oxidative

  5. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  6. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neuroprotective and Ameliorating Impacts of Omega-3 Against Aspartame-induced Neuronal and Astrocytic Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eyad M T; Sonpol, Hany M A

    2017-07-01

    Aspartame (ASP) is one of the commonest artificial sweetener used all over the world and considered as an extremely risky compound and raises a lot of controversy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate cellular damage of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord of albino male rats and the possibility of hindering these changes by using omega-3 (OM3).Thirty seven adult male albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, ASP-treated and ASP + OM3-treated groups. Spinal cord sections were prepared and stained with Hx&E, caspase-3 and GFAP immunostaining. All data were morphometrically and statistically analyzed. In ASP-treated group, the cell body of some degenerated neurons was swollen and its cytoplasm was vacuolated. Their nuclei were eccentric and pyknotic. Moreover, other neurons were of a heterogeneous pattern in the form of cell body shrinkage, loss of Nissl substance, intensely stained eosinophilic cytoplasm and a small darkly stained nucleus that may eventually fragment. However, the cells were apparently normal in ASP+ OM3-treated group. Strong +ve caspase-3 stained neurons were detected in ASP-treated group. Furthermore, the immunoreaction was faint on treating the rats with both ASP and OM3. Few number of +ve GFAP- stained astrocytes were observed in ASP-treated rats. On the other hand, the immunoreactivity for GFAP was found to be intense in the ASP + OM3-treated group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the surface area percentage of the +ve GFAP-stained astrocytes of the ASP-treated group compared to the control and the ASP + OM3-treated groups. Anat Rec, 300:1290-1298, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Hossam G; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated. Subchronic intake of soft drink or aspartame substantially induced hyperglycemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia, as represented by increased serum glucose, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with obvious visceral fatty deposition. These metabolic syndromes were associated with the up-regulation of leptin and down-regulation of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression. Moreover, alterations in serum transaminases accompanied by hepatic oxidative stress involving induction of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels are indicative of oxidative hepatic damage. Several cytoarchitecture alterations were detected in the liver, including degeneration, infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis, predominantly with aspartame. These data suggest that long-term intake of soft drink or aspartame-induced hepatic damage may be mediated by the induction of hyperglycemia, lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress with the involvement of adipocytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  10. Aspartame Administration and Insulin Treatment Altered Brain Levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosti-Palacios, Rosario; Gómez-Garduño, Josefina; Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Calzada-León, Raúl; Dorado-González, Víctor Manuel; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-07-01

    This study demonstrates that aspartame consumption and insulin treatment in a juvenile diabetic rat model leads to increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and CYP3A2 isozymes in brain. Diabetes mellitus was induced in postweaned 21-day-old Wistar male rat by streptozotocin. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: untreated control, diabetic (D), D-insulin, D-aspartame, or the D-insulin + aspartame-treated group. Brain and liver tissue samples were used to analyze the activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 and protein levels. Our results indicate that combined treatment with insulin and aspartame in juvenile diabetic rats significantly induced CYP2E1 in the cerebrum and cerebellum without modifying it in the liver, while CYP3A2 protein activity increased both in the brain and in the liver. The induction of CYP2E1 in the brain could have important in situ toxicological effects, given that this CYP isoform is capable of bioactivating various toxic substances. Additionally, CYP3A2 induction in the liver and brain could be considered a decisive factor in the variation of drug response and toxicity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  12. Non-isothermal dehydration kinetic study of aspartame hemihydrate using DSC, TGA and DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hsien Hsieh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Three thermal analytical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA using five heating rates, and DSC-Fourier Transform Infrared (DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy using one heating rate, were used to determine the thermal characteristics and the dehydration process of aspartame (APM hemihydrate in the solid state. The intramolecular cyclization process of APM anhydrate was also examined. One exothermic and four endothermic peaks were observed in the DSC thermogram of APM hemihydrate, in which the exothermic peak was due to the crystallization of some amorphous APM caused by dehydration process from hemihydrate to anhydride. While four endothermic peaks were corresponded to the evaporation of absorbed water, the dehydration of hemihydrate, the diketopiperazines (DKP formation via intramolecular cyclization, and the melting of DKP, respectively. The weight loss measured in TGA curve of APM hemihydrate was associated with these endothermic peaks in the DSC thermogram. According to the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO model, the activation energy of dehydration process within 100–150 °C was about 218 ± 11 kJ/mol determined by TGA technique. Both the dehydration and DKP formation processes for solid-state APM hemihydrate were markedly evidenced from the thermal-responsive changes in several specific FTIR bands by a single-step DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy. Keywords: Aspartame (APM hemihydrate, DSC/TGA, DSC-FTIR, Dehydration, Activation energy, DKP formation

  13. A material-sparing method for simultaneous determination of true density and powder compaction properties--aspartame as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2006-12-01

    True density results for a batch of commercial aspartame are highly variable when helium pycnometry is used. Alternatively, the true density of the problematic aspartame lot was obtained by fitting tablet density versus pressure data. The fitted true density was in excellent agreement with that predicted from single crystal structure. Tablet porosity was calculated from the true density and tablet apparent density. After making the necessary measurements for calculating tablet apparent density, the breaking force of each intact tablet was measured and tensile strength was calculated. With the knowledge of compaction pressure, tablet porosity and tensile strength, powder compaction properties were characterized using tabletability (tensile strength versus pressure), compactibility (tensile strength versus porosity), compressibility (porosity versus pressure) and Heckel analysis. Thus, a wealth of additional information on the compaction properties of the powder was obtained through little added work. A total of approximately 4 g of powder was used in this study. Depending on the size of tablet tooling, tablet thickness and true density, 2-10 g of powder would be sufficient for characterizing most pharmaceutical powders.

  14. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  15. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  16. Determinação espectrofotométrica de aspartame em adoçantes por injeção em fluxo usando um reator em fase sólida contendo fosfato de zinco imobilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Airton Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for determining aspartame in sweeteners. Sample was dissolved in water and 250 µL of the solution was injected into a carrier stream of 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 sodium borate solution. The sample flowed through a column (14 cm x 2.0 mm packed with Zn3(PO42 immobilized in a polymeric matrix of polyester resin and Zn(II ions were released from the solid-phase reactor by formation of the Zn(II-aspartame complex. The mixture merged with a stream of borate buffer solution (pH 9.0 containing 0.030 % (m/v alizarin red S and the Zn(II-alizarin red complex formed was measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. The calibration graph for aspartame was linear in the concentration range from 10 to 80 µg mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 µg mL-1 of aspartame. The RSD was 0.3 % for a solution containing 40 µg mL-1 aspartame (n = 10 and seventy results were obtained per hour. The proposed method was applied for determining aspartame in commercial sweeteners.

  17. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Anti-neuroinflammatory and antioxidant effects of N-acetyl cysteine in long-term consumption of artificial sweetener aspartame in the rat cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

    2015-10-01

    Long term consumption of the artificial sweetener aspartame (ASP induced large increments in cortical inflammation and oxidative stress. Daily oral NAC administration can significantly reverse brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels, blocked the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production with selective attenuation in expression of proinflammatory cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the rat cerebral cortex. Also, NAC can significantly replenish and correct intracellular glutathione (GSH levels, modulate the elevated levels of total nitric oxide (TNO and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Conclusions: The present results amply support the concept that the brain oxidative stress and inflammation coexist in experimental animals chronically treated with aspartame and they represent two distinct therapeutic targets in ASP toxicity. The present data propose that NAC attenuated ASP neurotoxicity and improved neurological functions, suppressed brain inflammation, and oxidative stress responses and may be a useful strategy for treating ASP-induced neurotoxicity.

  19. Effects of long-term administration of aspartame on biochemical indices, lipid profile and redox status of cellular system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Akanni, Olubukola O

    2016-01-01

    Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) (ASP) is a synthetic sweetener used in foods and its safety remains controversial. The study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term administration of aspartame on redox status, lipid profile and biochemical indices in tissues of male Wistar rats. Rats were assigned into four groups and given distilled water (control), aspartame at doses of 15 mg/kg (ASP 1), 35 mg/kg (ASP 2) and 70 mg/kg (ASP 3) daily by oral gavage for consecutive 9 weeks. Administration of ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the weight of liver and brain, and relative weight of liver of rats. Lipid peroxidation products significantly increased in the kidney, liver and brain of rats at all doses of ASP with concomitant depletion of antioxidant parameters, viz. glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Furthermore, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of gamma glutamyl transferase by 70% and 85%; alanine aminotransferase by 66% and 117%; aspartate aminotransferase by 21% and 48%; urea by 72% and 58% and conjugated bilirubin by 63% and 64%, respectively. Also, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the rats. Histological findings showed that ASP 2 and ASP 3 caused cyto-architectural changes such as degeneration, monocytes infiltration and necrotic lesions in brain, kidney and liver of rats. Aspartame may induce redox and lipid imbalance in rats via mechanism that involves oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione-dependent system.

  20. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  1. Effects of aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S L; Salleh, N B; Henry, J; Forde, C G

    2017-03-01

    Substituting sweeteners with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) may aid in glycaemic control and body weight management. Limited studies have investigated energy compensation, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to artificial and natural NNS. This study compared the effects of consuming NNS (artificial versus natural) and sucrose (65 g) on energy intake, blood glucose and insulin responses. Thirty healthy male subjects took part in this randomised, crossover study with four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages. On each test day, participants were asked to consume a standardised breakfast in the morning, and they were provided with test beverage as a preload in mid-morning and ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after test beverage consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured every 15 min within the first hour of preload consumption and every 30 min for the subsequent 2 h. Participants left the study site 3 h after preload consumption and completed a food diary for the rest of the day. Ad libitum lunch intake was significantly higher for the NNS treatments compared with sucrose (P=0.010). The energy 'saved' from replacing sucrose with NNS was fully compensated for at subsequent meals; hence, no difference in total daily energy intake was found between the treatments (P=0.831). The sucrose-sweetened beverage led to large spikes in blood glucose and insulin responses within the first hour, whereas these responses were higher for all three NNS beverages following the test lunch. Thus, there were no differences in total area under the curve (AUC) for glucose (P=0.960) and insulin (P=0.216) over 3 h between the four test beverages. The consumption of calorie-free beverages sweetened with artificial and natural NNS have minimal influences on total daily energy intake, postprandial glucose and insulin compared with a sucrose-sweetened beverage.

  2. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  4. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  5. Inhibition of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase may explain how aspartame promotes glucose intolerance and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sarah S; Hamilton, A Rebecca L; Munoz, Alexander R; Phupitakphol, Tanit; Liu, Wei; Hyoju, Sanjiv K; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Morrison, Sara; Hu, Dong; Zhang, Weifeng; Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Huo, Haizhong; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured. For the acute model, a closed bowel loop was created in mice. ASP or water was instilled into it and IAP activity was measured. For the chronic model, mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without ASP in the drinking water for 18 weeks. The results were that for the in vitro study, IAP activity was lower (p < 0.05) in solutions containing ASP compared with controls. For the acute model, endogenous IAP activity was reduced by 50% in the ASP group compared with controls (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.4 ± 0.24) (p = 0.02). For the chronic model, mice in the HFD + ASP group gained more weight compared with the HFD + water group (48.1 ± 1.6 vs 42.4 ± 3.1, p = 0.0001). Significant difference in glucose intolerance between the HFD ± ASP groups (53 913 ± 4000.58 (mg·min)/dL vs 42 003.75 ± 5331.61 (mg·min)/dL, respectively, p = 0.02). Fasting glucose and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly higher in the HFD + ASP group (1.23- and 0.87-fold increases, respectively, p = 0.006 and p = 0.01). In conclusion, endogenous IAP's protective effects in regard to the metabolic syndrome may be inhibited by PHE, a metabolite of ASP, perhaps explaining the lack of expected weight loss and metabolic improvements associated with diet drinks.

  6. Simultaneous formation and detection of the reaction product of solid-state aspartame sweetener by FT-IR/DSC microscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S Y; Cheng, Y D

    2000-10-01

    The solid-state stability of aspartame hemihydrate (APM) sweetener during thermal treatment is important information for the food industry. The present study uses the novel technique of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy equipped with differential scanning calorimetry (FT-IR/DSC microscopic system) to accelerate and determine simultaneously the thermal-dependent impurity formation of solid-state APM. The results indicate a dramatic change in IR spectra from 50, 110 or 153 degrees C, which was respectively attributed to the onset temperature of water evaporation, dehydration and cyclization processes. It is suggested that the processes of dehydration and intramolecular cyclization occurred in the solid-state APM during the heating process. As an impurity, 3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) degraded from solid state APM via intramolecular cyclization and liberation of methanol. This was evidenced by this novel FT-IR/DSC microscopic system in a one-step procedure.

  7. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame, amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effect of artificial edulcorant l-aspartil-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame, widely used in hypocaloric and low-glucose diets. Such effect may reflect cell response to genetic damage, induced by artificial edulcorant in the cell cycle G2 period and shows its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes, previously present in heterozygosis

  8. Avaliação dos efeitos do aspartame sobre a ingestão alimentar, os parâmetros físicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado um aumento no consumo de alimentos diet e light por adolescentes ou por aqueles que estão à procura de uma alimentação com baixo teor calórico, surgindo, assim, diversos edulcorantes, como o aspartame. Porém, seu consumo ainda gera polêmica, devido a muitos dados contraditórios e inconclusivos. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de aspartame sobre ingestão alimentar, parâmetros físicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos em 18 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, com cinco semanas de vida (ratos jovens, tratados durante 21 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC - tratados com água destilada por gavagem, e o grupo aspartame (GA - tratados diariamente com 2mL/100g/dia de aspartame. Todos os animais receberam ração comercial (Essence(r e água ad libitum. O controle da ingestão alimentar foi registrado semanalmente. Foram aferidos os parâmetros físicos por meio da análise do peso corporal, da circunferência toráxica, da circunferência abdominal, do comprimento vértice-cóccix, da gordura abdominal total e do cálculo do índice de massa corporal; os parâmetros bioquímicos foram analisados por meio da glicemia, da lipoproteína de alta densidade e dos triglicerídeos; além de tais análises, foi realizado o estudo histopatológico do fígado. Durante todo o experimento, os ratos tratados com aspartame apresentaram um aumento significativo no peso corpóreo e na ingestão alimentar quando comparados ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença nas demais análises tanto físicas, quanto bioquímicas e histopatológicas comparando-se o GA com o GC (P<0,05. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível inferir uma maior chance de desenvolvimento da obesidade, oriunda do consumo regular desse tipo de adoçante, já que ele comprovou ser capaz de estimular o consumo de alimentos e, consequentemente, o ganho de peso corpóreo.

  9. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose in food consumed in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsun; Do, Byungkyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-05-01

    Four artificial sweeteners, i.e., sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose, are permitted for use in Korea, and recent regulatory changes have expanded the number of food categories in which they may be used. Four artificial sweeteners were determined simultaneously in more than 900 food items from 30 food categories that are commercially available in Korean markets, including both domestic and imported products, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). A new procedure using 75% acetone to remove fat was applied for sample preparation. The levels detected in all samples were below the maximum permitted use levels established in Korea. Despite the increased number of categories, the only one in which sodium saccharin was newly found was takju, an alcoholic beverage. Sodium saccharin was not found in other beverages in the food analysis or in the food label survey, even though its use was reported in a previous study, suggesting that consumer preference outweighs regulatory decisions. When the analytical results were combined with food-consumption data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-14, the estimated daily intakes of all the sweeteners were considered safe.

  11. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  12. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.

  13. Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... Department of Basic Sciences, College of Education, Dammam University, P. O. Box ... hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count platelets count and ... between 20 and 22°C. Food (Pilsbury's Diet) and water were.

  14. Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... scientific researches to investigate their effect on other parameters. ..... pointed the overlapping imbalance in neurotransmitters ... research works show anxiety disorders change serotonin, which is ..... lesions inhibit the N-Methyl-Daspartate - induced growth hormone but not Prolactin release in rats. Life Sci.

  15. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  16. An equiratio mixture model for non-additive components : a case study for aspartame/acesulfame-K mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Equiratio Mixture Model predicts the psychophysical function for an equiratio mixture type on the basis of the psychophysical functions for the unmixed components. The model reliably estimates the sweetness of mixtures of sugars and sugar-alchohols, but is unable to predict intensity for

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats ... whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  18. ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS OF FORMATION OF Z-ASPARTAME IN IONIC LIQUID: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS. (R828131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1 are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05 by the panelists.

  20. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  1. Migraines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may trigger migraines: Aged, canned, cured or processed meat, including bologna, game, ham, herring, hot dogs, pepperoni and sausage Aged cheese Alcoholic beverages, especially red wine Aspartame Avocados Beans, ... Lentils Meat tenderizer Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Nuts and peanut butter ...

  2. Sensory profile and acceptability for pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) nectar with different sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose. Consumers' most accepted samples were prepared with sucrose, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame. The sweeteners that have the greatest potential to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar are sucralose and aspartame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks. Products that contain aspartame include yogurt, frozen desserts, pudding, dry dessert mixes, chewing gum, and soft drinks. It is ... foods and drinks, including baked goods, candy, frozen desserts, and soft drinks. It can also be used ...

  4. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sucralose as a general-purpose sweetener for food. In 2016, the same laboratory that conducted the aspartame studies discussed above reported an increased incidence of blood cell tumors in male mice fed high doses ...

  5. PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF Vigna unguiculata IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANK

    Aspartame and Sucrose are food additives widely used ... additives and their toxic potential in humans. Thus ..... GPCRs) that activated the enzyme, leading to the .... class with maternal diet and the dimension of ... Biological Psychiatry, 28.

  6. The effect of sugar and artificial sweetener on molecular markers of metabolic syndrome: a mice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subali, D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of aspartame, as one of the most widely used sweetener, has been approved in many types of food products. Moreover, many studies have proven that replacing sugar with aspartame would contribute favorable effects on several health parameters; such as, body weight, blood glucose level, and inflammatory status. In this experiment, we examined the effects of aspartame consumption on some biomarkers; which potentially acted as early signals for a personal metabolic status. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aspartame on the expression of a number of molecular markers related with appetite regulation (fto, fat accumulation markers (fabp4 and alt2 and inflammation marker (tnf-α in Sprague Dawley rats. The population of Clostridium coccoides was also observed to give an insight about the effect of sweetener consumption on gut microbiota profiles. 15 healthy, male, eight-weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet and divided into 3 groups (n=5 for each: water only, sucrose (30% b/v, and aspartame (0.15% b/v. Body weight was measured weekly and blood glucose measurement was carried out on day 1 and 40. At the end of the experiment, all rats were euthanized and blood was collected from the vein. The liver, brain, and visceral adipose tissue were excised, weighed, and grinded with liquid nitrogen. Feces samples were collected on day 0 and 40. At the end of our experimental period; the body weight, liver weight, and blood glucose level of sucrose-treated rats were significantly higher (p <0.05 than aspartame and control group. Sucrose showed the lowest level of fto gene expression; yet, the fto gene expression in aspartame group was still lower than the control group. Expression of several genes considered as metabolic syndrome-related biomarkers were measured (fabp4, alt2, and tnf-α; and our data demonstrated that sucrose treatment gave the highest increase in expression level of those genes; while aspartame treatment

  7. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P passion fruit juice.

  8. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The esti......In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2009) - Articles Effect Of Aspartame And Sucrose On Some Biochemical And Haematological Parameters In Wistar Albino Rats Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 2 (2009) - Articles Effect Of Ginger Extract On Gasoline Associated Immunitoxicities In Wistar Rats Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 2 (2009) - Articles

  10. The effect of sweeteners and milk type on the rheological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was, to determine effects of sweeteners and milk type on the rheological and sensorial properties of reduced calorie salep drink. In addition to sugar, three different sweeteners; aspartame, saccharine and cyclamate as well as three different milk types; full-fat, low-fat and non-fat; were used for sample ...

  11. Development and Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... crospovidone and magnesium stearate as key excipients, and with cherry flavor and aspartame as flavor and sweetener, respectively. These formulations were then evaluated using pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial physical and chemical tests. Dissolution and assay tests were performed using USP apparatus II ...

  12. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  13. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    are treated with potentially harmful excipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on chart-audit on multi-medicated patients ≤ 5 years of age treated at the Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Preparations with ethanol, propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, parabens, acesulfame p, aspartame, glycerol...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Al-Shehri, Sharifah H. Vol 14, No 5 (2017) - Articles Impact of aspartame consumption on neurotransmitters in rat brain. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  15. Rehydration beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous study suggested that high doses of aspartame or its individual metabolites particularly methanol exert toxic effect on ..... this is due to methanol metabolism depends upon glutathione (Parthasarathy et al., 2006). ... European journal of clinical nutrition, 62, 451-462. 10. Johns, D.R. (1986). ... Annals of Oncology, 15,.

  17. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of a number of sweeteners and modified polydextroses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch; G.J.van

    1984-01-01

    Toxicologische evaluaties zijn gemaakt van een negental stoffen, die als zoetstof in de voeding worden gebruikt. Het betreft: Aspartame, Acesulfam-K, Gemodificeerd Polydextrose, Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol, Lycasin 80/55, Mannitol, Maltitol. Als resultaat wordt in dit rapport een acceptable

  19. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  20. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  1. The influence of parental food preference and neophobia on children with phenylketonuria (PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Evans

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: In PKU, parental food choices and their food neophobia have limited influence on their children's eating habits. Food neophobia in children with PKU may be associated with fear of eating unfamiliar foods potentially containing a source of protein or aspartame. Their preference for sweet foods may be influenced by limited food choices and habitual consumption of artificially sweetened L-amino acid supplements.

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hnRNP A1 homolog Hrp36 is essential for normal development, female ... Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats ... no significant differences for number of males and females in this population ... yellowness and redness/greenness for comparison of leaf spectral profiles in ...

  3. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...

  4. Pesquisa de adocantes não calóricos sintéticos em adoçante natural de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela T. Auricchio

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 19 amostras de "Adoçantes Natu rais de Stevia", tendo por objetivo verificar-se a presença de outros adoçantes nao calóricos sintéticos que não são declarados no rótulo do produto. Constatou-se que em 18 amostras,além de componentes do extrato de Stevia reubadiana (Bert. Bertoni, a sacarina estava presente e que só uma delas declarava tal fato no rótulo. Em três dessas amostras foi encontrado tanbém aspartame e em uma, ciclamato. Fimalmente, em uma amostra não foi encontrado nenhum componente do extrato de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni, mas sim uma mistuna de manitol e aspartame.

  5. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  6. Vascular Uptake of Six Rehydration Drinks at Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Geelen, G.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Saumet, J.-L.; Juhos, L. T.; Keil, L. C.; Fegan-Meyer, D.; Dearborn, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Whittam, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    A report presents data on the effectiveness of each of six rehydration fluids in restoring total body water and plasma volume in human subjects during rest and exercise. One of the six fluids was water sweetened with aspartame: the others were water containing various amounts of sodium chloride and/or sodium citrate, plus various amounts of aspartame and/or other carbohydrates. In one experiment, five men who had previously dehydrated themselves for 24 hours drank one of the rehydration fluids, then sat for 70 minutes. Pretest plasma volumes were measured and changes in plasma volumes were calculated. This procedure was repeated at weekly intervals until all six rehydration fluids had been tested. Another similar experiment involved four men who exercised on a cycle ergometer for 70 minutes in the supine position after drinking the fluids.

  7. Desenvolvimento de métodos eletroanalíticos empregando o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro para a determinação simultânea de edulcorantes e corantes em produtos alimentícios

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Batista Deroco

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se métodos eletroanalíticos para a determinação simultânea dos pares: amarelo crepúsculo (AC) e aspartame (AS), azul indigotina (AI) e vermelho 40 (V40)), bem como aspartame (AS) e acesulfame-K (AK) em produtos alimentícios utilizando-se o eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro (BDD). O par AS e AC foi determinado, sem a necessidade de separação prévia em H2SO4 0,30 mol L-1 com o eletrodo de BDD pré-tratado anodicamente e utilizando amperometria de múltiplos pulsos (...

  8. Excessive Sugar Consumption May Be a Difficult Habit to Break: A View From the Brain and Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Matthew S; Stanhope, Kimber L; Epel, Elissa S; Mason, Ashley E; Brown, Rashida; Medici, Valentina; Havel, Peter J; Laugero, Kevin D

    2015-06-01

    Sugar overconsumption and chronic stress are growing health concerns because they both may increase the risk for obesity and its related diseases. Rodent studies suggest that sugar consumption may activate a glucocorticoid-metabolic-brain-negative feedback pathway, which may turn off the stress response and thereby reinforce habitual sugar overconsumption. The objective of the study was to test our hypothesized glucocorticoid-metabolic-brain model in women consuming beverages sweetened with either aspartame of sucrose. This was a parallel-arm, double-masked diet intervention study. The study was conducted at the University of California, Davis, Clinical and Translational Science Center's Clinical Research Center and the University of California, Davis, Medical Center Imaging Research Center. Nineteen women (age range 18-40 y) with a body mass index (range 20-34 kg/m(2)) who were a subgroup from a National Institutes of Health-funded investigation of 188 participants assigned to eight experimental groups. The intervention consisted of sucrose- or aspartame-sweetened beverage consumption three times per day for 2 weeks. Salivary cortisol and regional brain responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task were measured. Compared with aspartame, sucrose consumption was associated with significantly higher activity in the left hippocampus (P = .001). Sucrose, but not aspartame, consumption associated with reduced (P = .024) stress-induced cortisol. The sucrose group also had a lower reactivity to naltrexone, significantly (P = .041) lower nausea, and a trend (P = .080) toward lower cortisol. These experimental findings support a metabolic-brain-negative feedback pathway that is affected by sugar and may make some people under stress more hooked on sugar and possibly more vulnerable to obesity and its related conditions.

  9. Placebo expectancy effects in the relationship between glucose and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W; Taylor, M A; Elliman, N A; Rhodes, O

    2001-08-01

    The present study investigated the extent of expectancy in the ability of glucose to affect cognitive performance. Using a within-subjects design, subjects (n 26) completed four experimental sessions (in counterbalanced order and after an initial practice session) during which they were given a 500 ml drink 30 min prior to completing a cognitive assessment battery. In addition, all subjects completed a baseline practice session during which they were given no drink. During two of the sessions, subjects were given a drink containing 50 g glucose and on the other two they were given a drink containing aspartame. A balanced placebo design was used, such that for half the sessions subjects were accurately informed as to the content of the drink (glucose or aspartame), whereas in the other two sessions they were misinformed as to the content of the drink. The task battery comprised a 6 min visual analogue of the Bakan vigilance task, an immediate verbal free-recall task, an immediate verbal recognition memory task and a measure of motor speed (two-finger tapping). Blood glucose and self-reported mood were also recorded at several time points during each session. Glucose administration was found to improve recognition memory times, in direct contrast to previous findings in the literature. Glucose administration also improved performance on the Bakan task (relative to the control drink), but only in sessions where subjects were informed that they would receive glucose and not when they were told that they would receive aspartame. There were no effects either of the nature of the drink or expectancy on the other measures. These results are interpreted in terms of there being some contribution of expectancy concerning the positive effects of glucose on cognition in studies which have not used an equi-sweet dose of aspartame as a control drink.

  10. Development of new peptide synthetic method of enzyme using the extraction reactivity; Chushutsu hanno wo mochiita shiki pepuchido koso goseiho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Makoto [Oita University, Oita (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    Recently, taste and bioactivation of large number of oligopeptide become clear, and the development of the efficient synthetic method becomes the urgency. In the production process by conventional enzyme reaction which combined the crystallization, because the solubility of the product to the water which is reaction solvent is low, the yield remained at about 60%, and the problem of reaction inhibition of the product by the crystal had also been indicated. In the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame in which he is the representative oligopeptide, it aimed at the establishment of the new synthesis method which can improve yield and reaction rate, while the segregation enzyme was continuously utilized. In this synthetic method, supply of organic solvent which dissolved the substrate, extraction of the substrate from organic solvent to water phase, synthesis reaction by the segregation enzyme in water phase, extraction of the aspartame which is a product from water phase to organic solvent progress, and they continuously progress by one complete mixing reactor. The process which controlled these speeds and yields was quantitatively analyzed, and material balance style considering substrate, enzyme and mass transfer of the product and enzyme reaction speed was deduced. The optimum operating condition for improving yield and productivity of the purpose product using this solution was examined, and optimum supply concentration and agitation speed of aspartic acid which was a substrate were started, and the optimum operating condition which realizes the improvement in high yield and productivity over 90% of the aspartame was clarified. Like this, it is that this research adopts features of liquid Citrus nobilis two-phase partition for the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame, and it is considered that there is a value, because it is the creative research which verified that the productivity can be greatly improved by the utilization of the chemical-engineering technique, and

  11. Evaluation of Brazilian light ketchups II: quantitative descriptive and physicochemical analysis Avaliação de catchups light do mercado brasileiro II: análise descritiva quantitativa e avaliação físico-química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Maziero de Campos Bannwart

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of ketchup available on the Brazilian market, one traditional (sweetened with sucrose and three light versions (sweetened with aspartame, acesulfame-K and a blend of cyclamate, saccharin and stevia were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Four main groups of attributes were generated: appearance, oral texture, aroma and flavor. The samples presented significant differences in all attributes, except for syneresis and overripe tomato flavor. The highest means for sweetener and bitter tastes and aftertastes were observed for the samples sweetened with acesulfame-K and the blend of sweeteners. Although different characteristics were observed among the products evaluated and, despite the differences in the formulations, the light ketchup sweetened with aspartame was the one that presented properties most similar to those of the traditional ketchup.Amostras de catchup disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, uma tradicional (adoçada com sacarose e três light (adoçadas com aspartame, acessulfame-K e uma combinação de ciclamato, sacarina e estévia foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e ao perfil sensorial (Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Quatro grandes grupos de atributos foram gerados: aparência, textura bucal, aroma e sabor. As amostras apresentaram diferença significativa em todos os atributos, exceto sinerese e tomate passado. As maiores médias para os atributos relacionados a sabor e sabor residual amargo e de adoçante foram obtidas para as amostras adoçadas com acessulfame-K e com a combinação de edulcorantes. Apesar das diferentes características observadas entre os produtos avaliados e das diferenças entre as formulações, o catchup light adoçado com aspartame foi o que apresentou propriedades mais próximas ao produto tradicional.

  12. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty, of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates, thaumatin, D- tagatose, estevia and alitame.

  13. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada León Raúl; Altamirano Bustamante Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty), of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates,...

  14. Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wenjau; Wang, Yun-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these fou...

  15. Influencia de distintos polioles en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de mermelada de fresa.

    OpenAIRE

    BAIXAULI MARÍN, ELENA ASCENSIÓN

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The purpose of this dissertation was to assess the effect of different polyols (maltitol, isomalt, and erythritol) and intensive sweeteners (acesulfame potassium, aspartame, stevia, and sucralose) on physico-chemical and sensorial properties of strawberry jam. Five different formulations were developed and their compositional properties (Brix degrees, humidity, pH and water activity) and physico-chemical (optical and rheological) were evaluated during 6 months of storage a...

  16. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel D; Patel M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 ...

  17. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, S; Deyneli, O; Yasar, M; Arpa, M; Gunes, M; Yazici, D; Sirikci, O; Haklar, G; Imeryuz, N; Yavuz, D G

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners were thought to be metabolically inactive, but after demonstrating that the gustatory mechanism was also localized in the small intestine, suspicions about the metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners have emerged. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of artificial sweeteners (aspartame and sucralose) on blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Eight newly diagnosed drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 51.5±9.2 years; F/M: 4/4) and eight healthy subjects (mean age 45.0±4.1 years; F/M: 4/4) underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were measured at 15- min intervals for 120 min. The OGTTs were performed at three settings on different days, where subjects were given 72 mg of aspartame and 24 mg of sucralose in 200 ml of water or 200 ml of water alone 15 min before OGTT in a single-blinded randomized order. In healthy subjects, the total area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was statistically significantly lower in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.002). There was no difference between the aspartame setting and the water setting (P=0.53). Total AUC of insulin and c-peptide was similar in aspartame, sucralose and water settings. Total AUC of GLP-1 was significantly higher in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.04). Total AUC values of glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were not statistically different in three settings in type 2 diabetic patients. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Branka I Ognjanović. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 5 December 2014 pp 859-866 Articles. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats · Marko D Prokić Milica G Paunović Miloš M Matić Nataša Z Djordjević ...

  19. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Lamb, Evan; Shoemaker, Sarah; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate gut microbiome in relation to recent high-intensity sweetener consumption in healthy adults. Thirty-one adults completed a four-day food record and provided a fecal sample on the fifth day. Bacterial community in the samples was analyzed using multitag pyrosequencing. Across consumers and nonconsumers of aspartame and acesulfame-K, bacterial abundance was compared using nonparametric statistics, and bacterial diversity was compared using UniFrac analysis. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) was used to predict mean relative abundance of gene function. There were seven aspartame consumers and seven acesulfame-K consumers. Three individuals overlapped groups, consuming both sweeteners. There were no differences in median bacterial abundance (class or order) across consumers and nonconsumers of either sweetener. Overall bacterial diversity was different across nonconsumers and consumers of aspartame (P Bacterial abundance profiles and predicted gene function were not associated with recent dietary high-intensity sweetener consumption. However, bacterial diversity differed across consumers and nonconsumers. Given the increasing consumption of sweeteners and the role that the microbiome may have in chronic disease outcomes, work in further studies is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  1. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  2. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  3. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE MANGA ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E COM SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C.U. CAVALLINI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Um edulcorante deve apresentar características de sabor e aroma semelhantes às da sacarose. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades sensoriais do suco de manga adoçado com sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame, sucralose e estévia, a 8% de equivalência de doçura, através da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Foram avaliados doze atributos (cor, aroma de manga, aroma doce, aroma ácido, sabor de manga, doçura, doçura residual, amargor, amargor residual, acidez, adstringência e corpo, utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de médias de Tukey e análise de componentes principais. Não observou-se diferença significativa entre as amostras em relação à cor e o suco adoçado com sacarose apresentou média significativamente superior para o atributo corpo. As amostras com sacarose e aspartame exibiram as maiores intensidades de sabor de manga e doçura e as menores de amargor e amargor residual, quando comparadas com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina. O suco adoçado com estévia caracterizou-se por apresentar maior intensidade para doçura residual, amargor e amargor residual. De acordo com os resultados da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa o aspartame foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se assemelhou ao da sacarose em suco de manga. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Manga; edulcorantes; análise descritiva quantitativa.

  4. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    1998-10-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  6. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Torloni; Mary Uschiyama Nakamura; Alexandre Megale; Victor Hugo Saucedo Sanchez; Claudia Mano; Annunziata Sônia Fusaro; Rosiane Mattar

    2007-01-01

    Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C). O aspartame tem sido extensivamen...

  7. The Reproducibility and Comparative Validity of a Non-Nutritive Sweetener Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Myers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to better assess non-nutritive sweetener (NNS consumption, measurement tools with greater utility are needed. The objective of this investigation is to determine the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed NNS food frequency questionnaire (NNS-FFQ that measures five types of NNS (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose and erythritol. Adult participants (n = 123, 56% female, 75% Caucasian, mean age = 36.8 ± 16.6 completed the NNS-FFQ twice and had 24-h dietary recalls three times over a two-week study period. Reproducibility between two administrations of the NNS-FFQ was assessed via Bland–Altman plots, Spearman’s correlations (rs and paired samples t-tests. Bland–Altman plots, Cohen’s κ, Spearman’s correlations (rs, and paired samples t-tests compared NNS intake between the two methods for validity. For reproducibility analyses, Bland–Altman analyses revealed agreement levels above the 95% acceptance level for total NNS (99.2%, erythritol (99.2%, and aspartame (96.7%. Agreement levels for acesulfame potassium (94.3%, saccharin (94.3%, and sucralose (94.3% were slightly below the acceptable level. For validity analyses, Bland–Altman analyses revealed agreement levels above the 95% acceptance level for total NNS (95.1%, sucralose (95.9%, saccharin (95.9%, and erythritol (95.1%. Agreement levels for aspartame (94.3% and acesulfame potassium (92.7% were slightly below the acceptable level. Although less than desirable agreement was found between the methods for aspartame and acesulfame potassium, some variance was expected due to the habitual nature of the NNS-FFQ as compared to the recent intake reported by recalls. Within the context of this constraint, the NNS-FFQ demonstrates acceptable reproducibility and validity. The NNS-FFQ is a brief questionnaire that could be administered among diverse participants at the individual and population levels to measure habitual NNS intake.

  8. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration...... are treated with potentially harmful excipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on chart-audit on multi-medicated patients ≤ 5 years of age treated at the Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Preparations with ethanol, propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, parabens, acesulfame p, aspartame, glycerol...

  9. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd+3 with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A.; Malta, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd 3+ ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame TM in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  10. Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

    2014-01-01

    With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  12. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  13. Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Food Colorants and Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for simultaneous determination of two colorants (Indigotin and Brilliant Blue and two sweeteners (Acesulfame-K and Aspartame in synthetic mixtures and chewing gums without any prior separation or purification. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry (ZCDS, is based on recording the first derivative curves (for Indigotin, Brillant Blue, and Acesulfame-K and third-derivative curve (for Aspartame and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The other method, ratio derivative spectrophotometry (RDS, depends on application ratio spectra of first- and third-derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to spectral overlapping. Both colorants and sweeteners showed good linearity, with regression coefficients of 0.9992–0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.05 to 0.33 μgmL−1 and from 0.06 to 0.47 μgmL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision tests produced good RSD% values (<0.81%; recoveries ranged from 99.78% to 100.67% for all two methods. The accuracy and precision of the methods have been determined, and the methods have been validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing colorants and sweeteners. Two methods were applied for the above combination, and satisfactory results were obtained. The results obtained by applying the ZCDS method were statistically compared with those obtained by the RDS method.

  14. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. PENGARUH MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL MENGANDUNG TEPUNG KEDELAI KAYA ISOFLAVON DAN SERAT PANGAN LARUT TERHADAP KADAR TOTAL KOLESTEROL DAN TRIGLISERIDA SERUM TIKUS PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of functional drink that containe soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber, and other ingredients on the level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigliseride in rat blood serum.  The formulation of functional drink consisted of soybean flour rich in isoflavone (0,115 g, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum (3 g, vitamine C (0,06 g; sucrosa (6,605 g; aspartam (0,02 g; and flavour (orange (0,2 g in 200 ml functional drink.  The total concentration of soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum, and vitamine C was based on optimation of human need.  Whereas the concentration of sucrosa, aspartam, and flavour (orange based on organoleptic evaluation.  The result showed that functional drink caused a decrease the level of total blood serum rat colesterol after 1 and 2 month.  The HDL level of serum rat fed with standard ransum contain cholesterol was lower than the rat fed with sandard ransum only after 1 and 2 month because this was probably due to regulation feedback colesterol making in heart by enzim reductase HMG CoA. The functional drink caused decrease HDL level after 2 month . The functional drink also caused decrease the level of LDL and trigliseride after 2 month Keyword: functional drink, soy flour, isoflavon, soluble fiber, cholesterol, triglyseride

  16. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Jaydip; Elliott, Ruth A.; Doshani, Angie; Tincello, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with α,β methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10 -7 M to 10 -2 M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p -6 M, aspartame 10 -7 M and sodium saccharin 10 -7 M. Acesulfame K 10 -6 M increased the maximum contractile response to α,β methylene ATP by 35% (± 9.6%) (p -6 M increased the log EC 5 from -2.79 (± 0.037) to -3.03 (± 0.048, p -7 M from -2.74 (± 0.03) to 2.86 (± 0.031, p +2 channels

  17. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.; EL-KHADRAGY, M.F.; ABDEL-AZIZ, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  19. POTÊNCIA EDULCORANTE, DOÇURA EQUIVALENTE E ACEITAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES EM BEBIDA PREPARADA COM ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis ST. HIL. EM PÓ SOLÚVEL, QUANDO SERVIDA QUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA MARIA PORTO CARDOSO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A bebida preparada pela infusão da erva-mate torrada, mais conhecida como chá-mate, é amplamente conhecida e consumida por diferentes faixas etárias e sócio-econômicas por todo o Brasil. É habitualmente consumida quente em diferentes regiões, adoçada com sacarose ou adoçante dietético de mesa. Uma vez que a literatura cita que a potência de um edulcorante pode variar em função da temperatura, entre outros fatores, foi objetivo do presente estudo determinar a doçura equivalente e potência edulcorante de diferentes edulcorantes em relação à sacarose em chá-mate em pó solúvel, preparado e servido quente (45±2o C aplicando-se estimação de magnitude, e avaliar a aceitação da bebida quando adoçada com os mesmos edulcorantes na concentração determinada como ideal. Entre os edulcorantes estudados (aspartame, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e sucralose, a sucralose apresentou o maior poder edulcorante em chá-mate quente, sendo 679 vezes mais doce que a sacarose em doçura equivalente a 8,15%. As amostras adoçadas com sacarose, sucralose, aspartame e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 não diferiram entre si na aceitação em relação ao sabor, enquanto a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve aceitação significativamente inferior (p 0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Infusão de erva- mate; estimação de magnitude; estévia, aspartame, sucralose.

  20. Detection and Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in Cola by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yosuke; Ding, Yuqi; Umezawa, Taichi; Akimoto, Takafumi; Xu, Jiawei; Uchida, Takashi; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    Food additives generally used in carbonated drinks, such as 4-methylimidazole (4MI), caffeine (Caf?), citric acid (CA), and aspartame (Apm), were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) using nanometer-sized particles of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 NPs). The quantification of 4MI in Coca Cola (C-cola) was carried out. In order to improve the reproducibility of the peak intensities, Fe 2 O 3 NPs loaded on ZSM5 zeolite were used as the matrix for quantification. By using 2-ethylimidazole (2EI) as the internal standard, the amount of 4MI in C-cola was determined to range from 88 to 65 μg/355 mL. The results agree with the published value (approx. 72 μg/355 mL). It was found that MALDI using Fe 2 O 3 was applicable to the quantification of 4MI in C-cola.

  1. Effects of glucose administration on category exclusion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has produced discrepant findings as to whether glucose administration effects lead to enhanced recollection or arise only under dual-task conditions. The aim of the present research was to address these issues by firstly employing an alternative cognitively demanding paradigm that has been linked to hippocampal function, i.e. the Process Dissociation Procedure (PDP). A second aim was to use this paradigm to explore whether glucose affects qualitative aspects of memory function. To achieve these aims, the PDP task was administered to participants who had either consumed a glucose (25 g) or aspartame-sweetened control drink. Results demonstrated glucose facilitation effects only under difficult task conditions and with no such effect emerging for the process of recollection. The present results support the contention that the beneficial effects of glucose arise under hippocampally driven, cognitively demanding task conditions, and that this effect enhances quantitative but not qualitative aspects of recognition memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  3. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Avaliação sensorial de bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes Sensory evaluation of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente procura por bebidas à base de frutas tropicais e à expansão do segmento de produtos com valores calóricos reduzidos, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o grau de doçura, sabor, impressão global e a intenção de compra das bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes através de frequência de notas, teste de médias e Mapa de Preferência Interno (MPI. Utilizaram-se polpa de goiaba, água potável e diferentes agentes adoçantes (sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina, aspartame, acesulfame-K, estévia e mistura sacarina/ciclamato sódico/acesulfame-K. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada com 100 provadores não treinados em teste laboratorial através do delineamento de blocos completos balanceados. Objetivando a avaliação das respostas individuais de cada provador, as respostas sensoriais foram avaliadas pela metodologia do MPI, empregando-se a técnica de Análise de Componentes Principais. As bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com sacarose e aspartame apresentaram avaliação sensorial semelhante por parte dos consumidores, apresentando os maiores valores médios no teste de aceitação, enquanto as adoçadas com estévia, com a mistura de três agentes adoçantes e a mistura ciclamato/sacarina apresentaram os valores mais baixos na avaliação sensorial. A utilização do MPI confirmou os resultados obtidos através de frequência de notas e teste de médias.Due to a constant search for tropical fruit drinks and calorie reduced products, this work aimed to evaluate the degree of sweetness, flavor, overall global impression, and purchase intention of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents through the response rank frequency and average test, and internal preference mapping (IPM. Guava pulp, drinking water, and sweetening agents (sucrose, mixture cyclamate/saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame K, stevia and mixture saccharine/sodium cyclamate/acesulfame K were used. The sensory evaluation was

  5. Headaches: a Review of the Role of Dietary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeem, Zoya; Zhou, Lily; Dilli, Esma

    2016-11-01

    Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past. This review focuses the evidence linking these compounds to headache and examines the prevalence of these triggers from prior population-based studies. Recent literature surrounding headache related to fasting and weight loss as well as elimination diets based on serum food antibody testing will also be summarized to help physicians recommend low-risk, non-pharmacological adjunctive therapies for patients with debilitating headaches.

  6. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  7. Avaliação do efeito carcinogênico de edulcorantes por meio do teste para detecção de clones de tumores epiteliais (warts) em Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Mirley Alves

    2016-01-01

    Os adoçantes podem ser nutritivos e não nutritivos, naturais ou sintéticos, sendo os últimos mais doces em relação ao açúcar de mesa. Estes compostos naturais possuem uso crescente por serem mais seguros, embora esta segurança não possa ser considerada total. Os adoçantes mais consumidos são os não calóricos, dentre eles o aspartame, a sucralose, a sacarina sódica e o glicosídeo de esteviol. Tais substâncias sempre foram alvo de estudos relacionados à genotoxicidade, porém, ...

  8. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame

  9. Rhodotorula glutinis-potential source of lipids, carotenoids, and enzymes for use in industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Anna M; Błażejak, Stanisław; Kurcz, Agnieszka; Gientka, Iwona; Kieliszek, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of synthesizing numerous valuable compounds with a wide industrial usage. Biomass of this yeast constitutes sources of microbiological oils, and the whole pool of fatty acids is dominated by oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. Due to its composition, the lipids may be useful as a source for the production of the so-called third-generation biodiesel. These yeasts are also capable of synthesizing carotenoids such as β-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin. Due to their health-promoting characteristics, carotenoids are commonly used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They are also used as additives in fodders for livestock, fish, and crustaceans. A significant characteristic of R. glutinis is its capability to produce numerous enzymes, in particular, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). This enzyme is used in the food industry in the production of L-phenylalanine that constitutes the substrate for the synthesis of aspartame-a sweetener commonly used in the food industry.

  10. Caracterização sensorial, percepção de doçura e estudos de consumidor de néctares de uva analisados por equipes de avaliadores tabagistas e não tabagistas

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Ramos Voorpostel

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi realizar a determinação da diluição e doçura ideal do néctar de uva, doçura equivalente de diferentes edulcorantes, análise descritiva quantitativa (ADQ), análise tempo-intensidade e análise de aceitação de néctares de uva adoçados com sacarose e diferentes edulcorantes: aspartame, ciclamato/sacarina blend 2:1, neotame, estévia e sucralose. Com exceção da ADQ todos os testes foram realizados com duas equipes de avaliadores, uma com indivíduos tabagi...

  11. Personal Variation in Preference for Sweetness: Effects of Age and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowski, Nuala; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-10-01

    Use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs), which provide sweet taste with few to no calories, has increased, but data on whether children's hedonic responses to NNSs differ from nutritive sugars or from adults' hedonic responses are limited. Most preferred levels of sucrose and the NNS sucralose were determined via a forced-choice tracking procedure in 48 children, 7-14 years (mean = 10 years), and 34 adults. Each participant also rated the liking of these taste stimuli, as well as varying concentrations of aspartame on 3- and 5-point facial hedonic scales. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and motives for palatable food intake were assessed with the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS, adults) and Kids PEMS. While use of the 3-point scale showed no age-related differences in liking of sweeteners, the 5-point scale showed that more children than adults liked higher concentrations of sucrose, sucralose, and aspartame, and the tracking procedure showed that children most preferred higher concentrations of sucrose and sucralose than adults. Regardless of age, sweet preference did not differ between obese and nonobese participants and showed no association with motives for eating palatable foods. Children's body mass index z-scores were positively associated with social and conformity motive scores for eating palatable foods. Research should move beyond measures of variation in sweet taste hedonics to include identifying motives, and the physiological and psychological consequences of eating sweets, to shed light on what children are more vulnerable to develop unfavorable eating habits, increasing risk for obesity, and other diseases.

  12. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  13. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  14. [Development of an optimized formulation of damask marmalade with low energy level using Taguchi methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Castro, Ruth; Junod, Julio

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this present study was the development of an optimized formula of damask marmalade low in calories applying Taguchi methodology to improve the quality of this product. The selection of this methodology lies on the fact that in real life conditions the result of an experiment frequently depends on the influence of several variables, therefore, one expedite way to solve this problem is utilizing factorial desings. The influence of acid, thickener, sweetener and aroma additives, as well as time of cooking, and possible interactions among some of them, were studied trying to get the best combination of these factors to optimize the sensorial quality of an experimental formulation of dietetic damask marmalade. An orthogonal array L8 (2(7)) was applied in this experience, as well as level average analysis was carried out according Taguchi methodology to determine the suitable working levels of the design factors previously choiced, to achieve a desirable product quality. A sensory trained panel was utilized to analyze the marmalade samples using a composite scoring test with a descriptive acuantitative scale ranging from 1 = Bad, 5 = Good. It was demonstrated that the design factors sugar/aspartame, pectin and damask aroma had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sensory quality of the marmalade with 82% of contribution on the response. The optimal combination result to be: citric acid 0.2%; pectin 1%; 30 g sugar/16 mg aspartame/100 g, damask aroma 0.5 ml/100 g, time of cooking 5 minutes. Regarding chemical composition, the most important results turned out to be the decrease in carbohydrate content compaired with traditional marmalade with a reduction of 56% in coloric value and also the amount of dietary fiber greater than similar commercial products. Assays of storage stability were carried out on marmalade samples submitted to different temperatures held in plastic bags of different density. Non percetible sensorial, microbiological and chemical changes

  15. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE EDULCORANTES EM NÉCTAR DE GOIABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Koguishi de BRITO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    As indústrias estão investindo cada vez mais no desenvolvimento de alimentos com baixas calorias, devido à mudança do mercado consumidor na busca por alimentos de menor aporte calórico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento sensorial de diferentes edulcorantes em néctar de goiaba: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e acessulfame-K. Pela Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ foram escolhidos 19 termos descritores para néctar de goiaba: cor vermelho-alaranjado, brilho, opacidade, aroma de goiaba, goiabada, doce, ácido e erva, gosto doce, ácido e amargo, sabor de goiaba, goiabada e erva, doçura residual, amargor residual, adstringência, arenosidade e corpo. O comportamento das características temporais dos estímulos doce, amargo e sabor de fruta foi avaliado pelo método Tempo- Intensidade (TI e a amostra adoçada com sucralose foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se aproximou ao da sacarose. Os resultados da ANOVA do teste afetivo mostraram que amostras adoçadas com sacarose, ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame e sucralose apresentaram aceitação signifi cativamente superior (p0,05. O mapa interno de preferência confi rmou os resultados da ANOVA. Os atributos mais desejáveis em néctar de goiaba foram o aroma de goiabada, sabor de goiabada e sabor de goiaba e estes contribuíram signifi cativamente (p0,05 de forma positiva na aceitabilidade pelos consumidores.

  16. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  17. IMPACTO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES NA ACEITABILIDADE DE IOGURTE “LIGHT” SABOR MORANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONIELLI CARDOSO REIS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O consumo de alimentos de baixa caloria e de adoçantes tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos. A indústria de produtos lácteos, na tentativa de atender a este público, vem introduzindo no mercado iogurtes de baixa caloria, os denominados “light”, que tem como substitutos da sacarose vários tipos de edulcorantes. Para a escolha de qual é o melhor edulcorante, ou o mais adequado são necessários vários testes uma vez que estes devem ser seguros, compatíveis com o alimento e ao mesmo tempo agradáveis ao paladar. A única forma de se avaliar a aceitação de um edulcorante é por meio de testes sensoriais afetivos. No presente estudo, diferentes formulações de iogurtes sabor morango (cinco adoçadas com edulcorantes e um contendo sacarose foram avaliadas por 101 consumidores potenciais do produto utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos. Os resultados foram analisados pela análise de variância (ANOVA e pelo mapa de preferência interno. Os consumidores separaram as amostras em três grupos distintos. As amostras de iogurte adoçadas com os edulcorantes aspartame (APM, aspartame/acessulfame-K (APM/ACK, sucralose (SUC e sacarose (SAC foram consideradas semelhantes, havendo maior preferência pelas amostras adoçadas com sacarose e sucralose. O mesmo foi observado pelo teste de Tukey, em que os iogurtes adoçados com a sucralose e com a sacarose apresentaram a mesma aceitação (p>0,05, sendo classifi - cados entre os termos hedônicos gostei moderadamente e gostei muito.

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE ABACAXI CONCENTRADO, RECONSTITUÍDO E ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. MARCELLINI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As frutas tropicais por seu aroma e sabor característicos são apreciadas no mundo inteiro. Entre as frutas de maior destaque encontra-se o abacaxi, com qualidade sensorial diferenciada e potencial de exportação em expansão. O Brasil, quarto maior produtor mundial, exportou em 2004 uma quantidade de suco de abacaxi cerca de 5 vezes maior em comparação à 2002. Os edulcorantes são uma alternativa para adoçar sucos e alimentos. O interesse no estudo do comportamento desses compostos deve-se à preocupação com a saúde e os padrões estéticos vinculados ao baixo peso corpóreo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o Perfil Livre de suco de abacaxi industrializado, reconstituído e adoçado com sucralose, aspartame, estévia, ciclamato/sacarina e sacarose. Os dados obtidos pelo Perfil Livre foram analisados através da Análise Procrustes Generalizada. O Perfil Livre levantou 16 atributos nas amostras estudadas, porém os únicos com 100% de alta correlação no componente principal 1 foram: o gosto amargo e o gosto amargo residual. O Perfil Livre também demostrou que as amostras com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina e com estévia se caracterizaram principalmente pelos gostos amargo e amargo residual, enquanto as amostras com sucralose, aspartame e sacarose se caracterizaram pelo sabor de abacaxi, aroma de abacaxi e acidez, atributos comuns do suco "in natura".

  19. Análise exploratória de adoçantes de mesa via espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e análise por componentes principais (ACP Exploratory analysis of commercial sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tozetto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos vinte anos, o consumo de alimentos diet e light tem aumentado sistematicamente, o que tem propiciado o constante desenvolvimento de produtos desse gênero. Grande ênfase tem sido dada àqueles produtos que substituem sacarose por edulcorantes de baixos conteúdos calóricos ou não calóricos. Seguindo esta tendência, adoçantes de mesa têm sido desenvolvidos variando-se amplamente o veículo e o tipo de edulcorante empregado. Neste trabalho, a análise de componentes principais associada à espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio foi utilizada com sucesso para diferenciar os veículos empregados na produção destes adoçantes, sendo que esta metodologia quimiométrica reduziu o espaço dimensional para dois fatores, explicando cerca de 82-% da variância total dos dados. As variáveis responsáveis por esta discriminação estão localizadas na região da impressão digital do espectro de infravermelho (752,2 a 1284,5 cm-1. A análise exploratória mostrou-se útil para a visualização destes dados, gerando informações semiquantitativas para os adoçantes constituídos por lactose/aspartame, observações que seriam dificilmente visualizadas sem o recurso quimiométrico aplicado.In the last twenty years, the consumption of diet and light foods has grown steadily, leading to the constant development of such products. Much emphasis has been placed on products that replace sucrose with sweeteners of low or zero calorie content. The development of new commercial sweeteners illustrates this tendency. In this work, principal component analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to successfully differentiate the vehicles (mediums employed in the production of sweeteners. This chemometric methodology reduced the dimensional space to two factors, accounting for 82% of the total variance of the data. The variables responsible for this discrimination were localized in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (752.2 to

  20. Ameliorating treatment-refractory depression with intranasal ketamine: potential NMDA receptor actions in the pain circuitry representing mental anguish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Lewis A; Opler, Mark G A; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the antidepressant actions of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartame glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, and offers a potential neural mechanism for intranasal ketamine's ultra-rapid actions based on the key role of NMDAR in the nonhuman primate prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although intravenous ketamine infusions can lift mood within hours, the current review describes how intranasal ketamine administration can have ultra-rapid antidepressant effects, beginning within minutes (5-40 minutes) and lasting hours, but with repeated treatments needed for sustained antidepressant actions. Research in rodents suggests that increased synaptogenesis in PFC may contribute to the prolonged benefit of ketamine administration, beginning hours after administration. However, these data cannot explain the relief that occurs within minutes of intranasal ketamine delivery. We hypothesize that the ultra-rapid effects of intranasal administration in humans may be due to ketamine blocking the NMDAR circuits that generate the emotional representations of pain (eg, Brodmann Areas 24 and 25, insular cortex), cortical areas that can be overactive in depression and which sit above the nasal epithelium. In contrast, NMDAR blockade in the dorsolateral PFC following systemic administration of ketamine may contribute to cognitive deficits. This novel view may help to explain how intravenous ketamine can treat the symptoms of depression yet worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  1. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential facilitative effects of glucose administration on Stroop task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gibson, E Leigh; Rackie, James M

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration improves memory performance. These glucose facilitation effects have been most reliably demonstrated in medial temporal lobe tasks with the greatest effects found for cognitively demanding tasks. The aim of the proposed research was to first explore whether such effects might be demonstrated in a frontal lobe task. A second aim was to investigate whether any beneficial effects of glucose may arise more prominently under tasks of increasing cognitive demand. To achieve these aims, the Stroop Task was administered to participants and effects of a drink of glucose (25 g) were compared with an aspartame-sweetened control drink on performance in young adults. Results demonstrated that glucose ingestion significantly reduced RTs in the congruent and incongruent conditions. No effect on error rates was observed. Of most importance was the finding that this glucose facilitative effect was significantly greatest in the most cognitively demanding task, that is, the incongruent condition. The present results support the contention that the glucose facilitation effect is most robust under conditions of enhanced task difficulty and demonstrate that such benefits extend to frontal lobe function.

  3. Pathways and mechanisms linking dietary components to cardiometabolic disease: thinking beyond calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, K L; Goran, M I; Bosy-Westphal, A; King, J C; Schmidt, L A; Schwarz, J-M; Stice, E; Sylvetsky, A C; Turnbaugh, P J; Bray, G A; Gardner, C D; Havel, P J; Malik, V; Mason, A E; Ravussin, E; Rosenbaum, M; Welsh, J A; Allister-Price, C; Sigala, D M; Greenwood, M R C; Astrup, A; Krauss, R M

    2018-05-14

    Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions. Regarding the health effects of dietary fat, sugar and non-nutritive sweeteners, it is concluded that food-specific saturated fatty acids and sugar-sweetened beverages promote cardiometabolic diseases by mechanisms that are additional to their contribution of calories to positive energy balance and that aspartame does not promote weight gain. The challenges involved in conducting and interpreting clinical nutritional research, which preclude more extensive conclusions, are detailed. Emerging research is presented exploring the possibility that responses to certain dietary components/patterns are influenced by the metabolic status, developmental period or genotype of the individual; by the responsiveness of brain regions associated with reward to food cues; or by the microbiome. More research regarding these potential 'beyond calories' mechanisms may lead to new strategies for attenuating the obesity crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  4. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2003-01-01

    Diet can play an important role in the precipitation of headaches in children and adolescents with migraine. The diet factor in pediatric migraine is frequently neglected in favor of preventive drug therapy. The list of foods, beverages, and additives that trigger migraine includes cheese, chocolate, citrus fruits, hot dogs, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, fatty foods, ice cream, caffeine withdrawal, and alcoholic drinks, especially red wine and beer. Underage drinking is a significant potential cause of recurrent headache in today's adolescent patients. Tyramine, phenylethylamine, histamine, nitrites, and sulfites are involved in the mechanism of food intolerance headache. Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy is an infrequent cause. Dietary triggers affect phases of the migraine process by influencing release of serotonin and norepinephrine, causing vasoconstriction or vasodilatation, or by direct stimulation of trigeminal ganglia, brainstem, and cortical neuronal pathways. Treatment begins with a headache and diet diary and the selective avoidance of foods presumed to trigger attacks. A universal migraine diet with simultaneous elimination of all potential food triggers is generally not advised in practice. A well-balanced diet is encouraged, with avoidance of fasting or skipped meals. Long-term prophylactic drug therapy is appropriate only after exclusion of headache-precipitating trigger factors, including dietary factors.

  5. Antiglycating potential of acesulfame potassium: an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad; More, Tejashree Anil; Hoonjan, Amaritpal Kaur; Sivakami, Subramanian

    2017-10-01

    Sweeteners have replaced the natural sugars in the food and beverage industry because of many reasons, such as hyperglycemia and cost. Saccharin, sucralose, aspartame and acesulfame-K are the most commonly used sweeteners. In the present study, the abovementioned artificial sweeteners were used to assess their glycating properties by established methods such as browning, fructosamine assay, determination of carbonyl content, protein aggregation, and measurement of fluorescence. Amadori and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as a result of the interaction between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins and other macromolecules during glycation. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of artificial sweeteners on the formation of AGEs and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of glucose-mediated protein glycation. The results indicated that the abovementioned artificial sweeteners do not enhance the process of glycation. On the other hand, acesulfame-K was found to have antiglycating potential as it caused decreased formation of Amadori products and AGEs. Further studies are essential in the characterization of Amadori products and AGEs produced as a result of interaction between sweeteners and proteins, which are interfered with by sweeteners. This study is significant in understanding the probable role of artificial sweeteners in the process of glycation and the subsequent effect on macromolecular alteration.

  6. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  7. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  8. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  9. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  11. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO ADDED SUGARS RED STRAWBERRY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum Sabine JELLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA NIEMEYER REISSIG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to prepare jellies of conventional type of red strawberry guava (with added sucrose and no added sugar and evaluate the physical and chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds in them. Four jellies formulations were prepared: conventional with addition of sucrose (F1, aspartame (F2, saccharin and cyclamate (F3, acesulfame and sucralose (F4. Physicochemical analysis of pH were carried out, as well as analysis of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ashes, proteins, lipids, moisture, carbohydrates, calories, lightness, color tone, total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, by the capture of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Conventional and no added sugars jellies did not differ for total phenols, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. However, processing exerted significant influence (p=0.05 on total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. It is feasible to use red strawberry guava for the preparation of conventional and no added sugar jellies. The products, however, show a significant difference in carotenoids content, with the highest content of these and higher antioxidant activity in processed jellies without sugars addition.

  12. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  13. Effects of Consuming a Low Dose of Alcohol with Mixers Containing Carbohydrate or Artificial Sweetener on Simulated Driving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Brickley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC devised gender-based drinking recommendations to ensure blood or equivalized breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC remain <0.050%. However, these may be inappropriate for individuals consuming alcohol without carbohydrate (CHO, which results in higher BrACs. This study investigated the effects of ingesting alcohol with and without CHO on BrACs and simulated driving performance. Thirty-two participants (16 males; age: 23 ± 6 years completed two randomized single-blinded trials. Participants performed a baseline drive (Drive 1, then an experimental drive (Drive 2, following alcohol consumption (males: 20 g; females: 10 g. Alcoholic beverages contained either 25 g sucrose or aspartame (AS. Driving performance was assessed using lateral control (standard deviation of lane position [SDLP] and number of lane departures and risk-taking (number of overtaking maneuvers and maximum overtaking speed. BrAC and subjective ratings (e.g., intoxication were also assessed. BrAC was significantly lower as Drive 2 commenced with CHO compared to AS (0.022 ± 0.008% vs. 0.030 ± 0.011%. Two males provided BrACs >0.050% with AS. Neither beverage influenced changes to simulated driving performance. Ingesting alcohol in quantities advised by the NDARC results in no detectable simulated driving impairment. However, the likelihood of exceeding the legal drink-driving BrAC is increased when alcohol is consumed with artificially-sweetened mixers.

  14. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-04

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation 0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Laster, L J; Summerfelt, A

    1989-10-01

    Although high-intensity sweeteners are widely used to decrease the energy density of foods, little is known about how this affects hunger and food intake. We have studied the effects of consumption of commercially available foods sweetened with either sucrose or aspartame on subjective appetite ratings and food intake. When normal-weight non-dieting males and females were given large portions of either a high- or low-calorie pudding or jello and instructed to eat as much as they liked, they ate similar weights of the different caloric versions of each food. Despite the resulting difference in caloric intake (up to 206 kcal), subjects showed only a non-significant trend towards caloric compensation when presented with a variety of foods 2 h later. Total caloric intake (preload plus test meal) did not differ between conditions. Ratings of hunger, desire to eat, the amount subjects wanted to eat, and the pleasantness of the taste of the eaten food were similarly decreased and fullness similarly increased by consumption of the different caloric versions of the foods. Awareness of the caloric content of the foods did not influence intake or appetite in that both informed and uniformed subjects responded similarly in the tests. Thus reduced calorie foods suppressed ratings of hunger for several hours after consumption, but were not associated with a significant reduction in total energy intake.

  16. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  17. Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A Review of Global Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Martyn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses.

  18. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way.

  19. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Parvazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p<0.001. The metabolites were identified as succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. The main metabolic cycles detected were alanine and aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets.

  20. Analysis of a variety of inorganic and organic additives in food products by ion-pairing liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Widmer, Mirjam; Maden, Kathryn; Butcher, Patrick; Walker, Stephan

    2018-03-05

    A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions. Yet, unlike quaternary amines, it can be de-charged in the electrospray to prevent the formation of neutral analyte ion-pairing agent adducts. This process is significantly facilitated by the added hexafluoro-2-propanol. This approach permits the sensitive detection and quantification of additives like nitrate and mono-, di-, and triphosphate as well as citric acid, a number of artificial sweeteners like cyclamate and aspartame, flavor enhancers like glutamate, and preservatives like sorbic acid. This is a major advantage, since the currently used analytical methods as utilized in food safety laboratories are only capable in monitoring a few compounds or a particular category of food additives. Graphical abstract Deptotonation of ion pair agent in the electrospray interface.

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: aspartame; cassia gum; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (CITREM); modified starches; octanoic acid; starch sodium octenyl succinate; and total colouring matters. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee’s recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives, including flavouring agents, considered at this meeting.

  2. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  3. The role of artificial and natural sweeteners in reducing the consumption of table sugar: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Smith, Meridith; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Commonly used non-caloric artificial sweeteners may have unfavorable effect on health including glucose intolerance and failure to cause weight reduction. The nutritive sweeteners include sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, xylitol, lactitol, mannitol, erythritol, trehalose and maltitol. Naturally occurring rare sugars have recently emerged as an alternative category of sweeteners. These monosaccharides and their derivatives are found in nature in small quantities and lack significant calories. This category includes d-allulose (d-psicose), d-tagatose, d-sorbose and d-allose. Limiting consumption of any sweetener may well be the best health advice. Identifying natural sweeteners that have favorable effects on body weight and metabolism may help achieving the current recommendations of restricting simple sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara

    2005-01-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  5. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  6. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  7. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Noncaloric Sweeteners in Children: A Controversial Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán Agüero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncaloric sweeteners (NCS are food additives used to provide sweetness without adding calories. Their consumption has become more widespread around the world in all age groups, including children. The aim of this study is to show the state of the art about the intake of noncaloric sweeteners in children, as well as their benefits and consumption risk. Scientific searchers were used (PUBMED, Scopus, and Scielo to analyze articles that included keywords (noncaloric sweeteners/saccharin/cyclamate/acesulfame potassium/aspartame/sucralose/stevia/children in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Authors conclude that it is imperative that health professionals judiciously and individually evaluate the overall benefits and risks of NCS use in consumers before recommending their use. Different subgroups of the population incorporate products containing NCS in their diet with different objectives, which should be considered when recommending a diet plan for the consumer. In childhood, in earlier age groups, this type of additives should be used as a dietary alternative when other forms of prevention in obesity are not sufficient.

  9. Excipientes de medicamentos e as informações da bula Pharmaceutical excipients and the information on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes em 73 apresentações farmacêuticas de 35 medicamentos para uso oral, e as informações da bula sobre excipientes. MÉTODOS: Selecionamos 35 medicamentos, de venda livre ou sob prescrição médica, comercializados no Brasil. A amostra incluiu: analgésicos/antitérmicos, antimicrobianos, mucolíticos, antitussígenos, descongestionantes, anti-histamínicos, broncodilatadores, corticosteróides, antiinflamatórios e suplementos vitamínicos. Foram analisadas 73 apresentações desses fármacos, anotando-se as informações da bula sobre conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes. RESULTADOS: A bula de um medicamento (1,3% não mencionava os ingredientes inativos. Os conservantes mais encontrados nos medicamentos foram metilparabeno e propilparabeno (43% e 35,6% respectivamente. Os adoçantes mais usados foram: sacarose (açúcar (53,4%, sacarina sódica (38,3% e sorbitol (36,9%. Vinte e um produtos (28,7% continham dois adoçantes. Predominaram os medicamentos sem corante (43,8%, seguidos pelos coloridos por amarelo crepúsculo (amarelo FD&C no. 6 (15%. Cinco produtos (6,8% continham mais de um corante. A tartrazina (amarelo FD&C no. 5 foi encontrada em sete formulações (9,5%. Os aromatizantes mais usados foram os de frutas (83%. Constatamos a freqüente omissão das bulas sobre o teor exato de açúcar dos produtos (77%. Duas das quatro bulas de medicamentos contendo aspartame não mencionavam as precauções no uso por fenilcetonúricos. CONCLUSÕES: A omissão e a imprecisão das informações da bula sobre os excipientes farmacêuticos expõem os indivíduos suscetíveis ao risco de reações adversas dos conservantes e corantes. Também podem ocorrer complicações do uso inadvertido de medicamentos contendo açúcar pelos pacientes diabéticos, ou de fármacos adoçados com aspartame pelos fenilcetonúricos.AIM: to evaluate the presence of

  10. AMELIORATING TREATMENT-REFRACTORY DEPRESSION WITH INTRANASAL KETAMINE: POTENTIAL NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIONS IN THE PAIN CIRCUITRY REPRESENTING MENTAL ANGUISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Lewis A.; Opler, Mark G.; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the anti-depressant actions of the N-methyl-D-aspartame glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, ketamine, and offers a potential neural mechanism for intranasal ketamine’s ultra-rapid actions based on the key role of NMDAR in the nonhuman primate prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although intravenous ketamine infusions can lift mood within hours, the current review describes how intranasal ketamine administration can have ultra-rapid antidepressant effects, beginning within minutes (5–40 minutes) and lasting hours, but with repeated treatments needed for sustained antidepressant actions. Research in rodents suggests that increased synaptogenesis in PFC may contribute to the prolonged benefit of ketamine administration, beginning hours after administration. However, these data cannot explain the relief that occurs within minutes of intranasal ketamine delivery. We hypothesize that the ultra-rapid effects of intranasal administration in humans may be due to ketamine blocking the NMDAR circuits that generate the emotional representations of pain (e.g. Brodmann Areas 24 and 25, insular cortex), cortical areas that can be overactive in depression and which sit above the nasal epithelium. In contrast, NMDAR blockade in the dorsolateral PFC following systemic administration of ketamine may contribute to cognitive deficits. This novel view may help to explain how intravenous ketamine can treat the symptoms of depression yet worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25619798

  11. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jodi E; Reimer, Raylene A; Shearer, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  13. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Zeb, A.; Ullah, J.

    2005-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  14. Sensory Profile, Drivers of Liking, and Influence of Information on the Acceptance of Low-Calorie Synbiotic and Probiotic Chocolate Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Juliana; Esmerino, Erick; da Silva, Alessandra Lins; Racowski, Ilana; Bolini, Helena

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile and the influence of the information on the acceptance of the symbiotic chocolate ice cream made with sucrose and different sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, neotame, Stevia with 60%, 85%, 95%, and 97% of rebaudioside A) through analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's test, and partial least of square (PLS) regression. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was carried out by 18 assessors, who evaluated the samples in relation to the raised descriptors. Additionally, two acceptance tests (blind/informed) were performed with 120 consumers. The samples sweetened with sucralose and rebaudioside 97% presented similar profile to the control sample, thus having a better potential to replace sucrose in chocolate ice cream. The acceptance test carried out with information had higher scores for the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression. The correlation between data from the acceptance tests and QDA showed that the descriptors "low-energy" and "natural sweetener" claims interfered negatively in the drivers of liking of chocolate ice cream. Therefore, we can conclude that some characteristics unnoticed by consumers were highlighted after providing the information about the product's characteristics. This research is important and contributes to the manufacture and development of low-calorie chocolate ice cream with functional properties, guiding, through suitable sensory and statistical tools, the application of stevia and other artificial sweeteners in products with reduction or total absence of sucrose and highlighting the impact of the labeling of these products on consumer perception. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Radiation-thermal transformation of degraded oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, N.G.; Aliyeva, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text :In order to elucidate the role of radiation in the process of oil degradation in the environment, and to identify opportunities for application of radiation-chemical technology to clean oil-contaminated soil were studied some regularities of radiation-chemical transformations of oil samples taken from wells, as well as after long-term presence on the surface of the water and soil. The most high radiation resistances of oil are samples taken from surface water. This is due to structural changes in the process of oil degradation, namely an increase in their part of the radiation-resistant resins and aspartames. This is due to evaporation of light hydrocarbons and heavy destructive transformations under the influence of oxygen, microorganisms, as well as components of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon is explained by the specificity of action of the beam of accelerated electrons, namely the possible heating of the reaction zone due to inhibition of the electron. In this case the acceleration of diffusion processes results in an increase in the yield of gases.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Six Food Additives in drinks by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 6 synthetic food additives (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine and sunset yellow) was developed. A EclipseXDB-C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.; 5 micro m) was used and the mobile phase contained methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) (30:70, v/v) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at room temperature. Successful separation conditions were obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 10 min. The diode array detector was used to monitor the food additives at 230 nm. The method was thoroughly validated, detection limits for all substances varied between 0.03 and 1.35 micro g/mg, the intra-day precision (as RSD) ranged from 1.57% to 4.72 %, the inter-day precision (as RSD) was between 2.05 % and 4.18 %. Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 90.00 % to 109.87 %, were obtained. The proposed system was applied to drink samples. (author)

  17. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  18. The influence of parental food preference and neophobia on children with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Chahal, Satnam; Ashmore, Catherine; MacDonald, John; MacDonald, Anita

    2018-03-01

    In a previous case-control study, we demonstrated that children with PKU and non-PKU controls preferred sweet foods. Additionally, children with PKU exhibited food neophobia, with no preference for bitter tasting foods associated with the taste of phenylalanine (Phe)-free L-amino acid supplements. In an observational extension study, we evaluated the influence of parental food choice and neophobia on their children's taste preferences and food neophobia. Male and female parents/caregivers of 35 children with PKU and 35 control parents, completed a neophobia and food frequency questionnaire for comparison using the same questionnaires that they completed for their children. Both groups of children (PKU and non PKU control) were rated as more food neophobic and exhibited more neophobic behaviour than parents, although children with PKU more so than non-PKU controls (PKU food neophobia p foods such as bread and pasta, and more sweet snacks such as biscuits than their parents. Non-PKU control children's food choices were closer to their parent's choices. In PKU, parental food choices and their food neophobia have limited influence on their children's eating habits. Food neophobia in children with PKU may be associated with fear of eating unfamiliar foods potentially containing a source of protein or aspartame. Their preference for sweet foods may be influenced by limited food choices and habitual consumption of artificially sweetened L-amino acid supplements.

  19. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  20. Advances in simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid solid-state chemical stability studies: some dipeptide drugs as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Wang, Shun-Li

    2012-04-01

    The solid-state chemistry of drugs has seen growing importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of useful API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) of drugs and stable dosage forms. The stability of drugs in various solid dosage forms is an important issue because solid dosage forms are the most common pharmaceutical formulation in clinical use. In solid-state stability studies of drugs, an ideal accelerated method must not only be selected by different complicated methods, but must also detect the formation of degraded product. In this review article, an analytical technique combining differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy simulates the accelerated stability test, and simultaneously detects the decomposed products in real time. The pharmaceutical dipeptides aspartame hemihydrate, lisinopril dihydrate, and enalapril maleate either with or without Eudragit E were used as testing examples. This one-step simultaneous DSC-FTIR technique for real-time detection of diketopiperazine (DKP) directly evidenced the dehydration process and DKP formation as an impurity common in pharmaceutical dipeptides. DKP formation in various dipeptides determined by different analytical methods had been collected and compiled. Although many analytical methods have been applied, the combined DSC-FTIR technique is an easy and fast analytical method which not only can simulate the accelerated drug stability testing but also at the same time enable to explore phase transformation as well as degradation due to thermal-related reactions. This technique offers quick and proper interpretations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  2. Equivalência de dulçor e poder edulcorante de edulcorantes em função da temperatura de consumo em bebidas preparadas com chá-mate em pó solúvel Equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents in differents temperatures of consumption of tea drink in soluble power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Porto Cardoso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de consumo na equivalência de doçura e no poder edulcorante de diferentes agentes adoçantes em bebida de chá-mate em pó solúvel. Foram avaliados: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, Stevia e acessulfame-K, tendo como referência a sacarose. Todos os estudos foram realizados a 6±2ºC e a 45±2ºC. Primeiramente foi determinada a doçura ideal, utillizando-se escala do ideal com 30 provadores consumidores da bebida. Em seguida, foi determinada a doçura equivalente à sacarose (na doçura considerada ideal para cada edulcorante estudado, e seu poder edulcorante nas duas temperaturas de estudo. Para tal foi aplicado o método de estimação de magnitude, utilizando-se uma equipe de 10 provadores selecionados e treinados. A doçura ideal de sacarose foi de 8,3% para a bebida de chá-mate solúvel, sem diferença significativa entre as temperaturas de estudo. Ocorreram diferenças sensoriais importantes em função da temperatura, pois, enquanto para alguns edulcorantes o aumento de temperatura provocou diminuição na potência edulcorante, para outros foi observado aumento do poder edulcorante. Portanto, não se deve generalizar as alterações no poder edulcorante em função da temperatura, pois ela pode variar em função da classe química envolvida e do meio de dispersão em que se encontra.In this work the effect of temperature of consumption in the equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents was verified in tea drink in soluble powder. The panelists had evaluated: aspartame, sucralose, mixture of cyclamate/saccharin (2:1, Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni] and acesulfame-K as sweeteners, having sucrose as reference. All sensory tests were carried-out at 6±2ºC and 45±2ºC. Firstly the ideal sweetness was determined by just-about-right scale with 30 consumers of tea drink. After the ideal sweetness of sucrose determination, the

  3. Terapia nutricional no diabetes gestacional Nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Padilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura científica sobre a terapia nutricional no Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, sem restrição de data e com fontes primárias indexadas nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed, Medline. Os resultados desta revisão apontam a intervenção nutricional como uma importante aliada no controle do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, trazendo potenciais benefícios à saúde materno-fetal. Na avaliação do estado nutricional materno devem ser empregados os indicadores antropométricos, dietéticos, bioquímicos, clínicos e funcional. Neste sentido, a avaliação dietética deve ser detalhada, com atenção para o fracionamento e composição das refeições, e grupos de alimentos presentes. No planejamento nutricional a distribuição de macronutrientes em relação ao consumo energético diário deve ser 45-65% de carboidratos, 15-20% de proteínas e 20-35% de lipídeos. Quanto a recomendação dos edulcorantes, são liberados para gestantes acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, sacarina e sucralose. A atividade física também deve fazer parte da estratégia de tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, embora o impacto do exercício nas complicações neonatais ainda mereça ser rigorosamente testado. Ademais, estudos associam a habilidade de aconselhamento nutricional com a melhorara na adesão ao cuidado nutricional. Diante desses achados, para sucesso no controle do DMG são necessários: a participação da equipe inter e multidisciplinar, o cuidado pré-natal precoce, com assistência nutricional oportuna e a garantia da assistência de qualidade ao longo da gestação.This is a scientific literature review about nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus, without date restriction and using the SciELO, PubMed and Medline databases. The results of this review show that nutritional intervention is an important tool for managing gestational diabetes mellitus, and potentially benefits the mother's and fetal health

  4. Severe selective magnesium malabsorption: tests of tolerance of oral magnesium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettey, R; Guillard, O; Merle, P; Maillet-Picker, F

    1990-12-01

    Since his birth, we have been monitoring a 12-year-old boy suffering from selective severe magnesium malabsorption. Our essential problem is to prepare a form of galena with acceptable taste, tolerated by the digestive tract and well absorbed; also, the carrier compound must not cause short- or long-term side effects. An additional factor is the steadily increasing need for magnesium from 1 mmol/kg.d at 1 year to 14 mmol/kg.d at present age (345 mg/kg.d). The galena forms currently on sale were, with the exception of lactate and pyrollidone carboxylate, immediately rejected since they contain insufficient Mg2+. Following short trials resulting in diarrhoea, the other two preparations were also rejected. We then constituted - and also abandoned - our own galena compounds: aspartate (bitterness), aspartate + glycerophosphate (GLP) (bitterness), glutamate + GLP ('Chinese restaurant syndrome' and fear of the long term toxic effect of the glutamate), gluconate (excessive volume: 11/1 proportion with Mg2+). A recent test featuring GLP of Mg 40 g + cocoa butter 40 g + cocoa 10 g, brought about vomiting and diarrhoea, and was not adequately absorbed. The best tolerated formula is: Mg GLP 21.33 g; saccharose 6 g; aspartam 1 g; gelatin 0.5 g; citric acid, conserving agent, fruity aroma; water: qs 100 g. Such composition yields a caramel cream absorbed in five small portions, at a daily quantity of 375 g (80 g GLP Mg, 10 g Mg2+). Vitamin B6, which promotes intestinal absorption of magnesium, must be given separately in tablet form at a dose of 1 g/d, since it causes nausea if it is included in the Mg preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofiber was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique on the surface of a stainless steel bar. The manufactured tool was applied for on-line selective solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination of acesulfame (ACF) as an artificial sweetener with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The selective ability of method for the extraction of ACF was investigated in the presence of some selected sweeteners such as saccharine (SCH), aspartame (ASP) and caffeine (CAF). Electrospinning of MIP sol-gel solution on the stainless steel bar provided an unbreakable sorbent with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. Moreover, application of the MIP-SPME tool revealed a unique approach for the selective microextraction of the analyte in beverage samples. In this work, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine (TMSPA) was chosen as a precursor due to its ability to imprint the analyte by hydrogen bonding, Van der Walls, and dipole-dipole interactions. Nylon 6 was also added as a backbone and support for the precursor in which sol could greatly growth during the sol-gel process and makes the solution electrospinable. Various effective parameters in the extraction efficiency of the MIP-SPME tool such as loading time, flow rate, desorption time, selectivity, and the sample volume were evaluated. The linearity for the ACF in beverage sample was in the range of 0.78-100.5 ng mL(-1). Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.78 ng mL(-1) respectively. The RSD values (n=5) were all below 3.5%at the 20 ng mL(-1) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  7. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  8. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  9. PARÂMETROS DE CURVAS TEMPO-INTENSIDADE DOS ESTÍMULOS DOCE E AMARGO DE EDULCORANTES: SELEÇÃO POR ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE POR PASSO E ANÁLISE DE CORRELAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria André Bolini CARDELLO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A análise tempo-intensidade é uma técnica que permite estudar as variações de intensidade de estímulos sensoriais com o decorrer do tempo. Para este estudo, são coletados os valores de parâmetros das curvas obtidas, os quais são submetidos a análises estatísticas, que fornecem informações sobre o estimulo sensorial gerado pela amostra avaliada. Esse processo é trabalhoso, uma vez que são analisadas várias curvas, em razão do número de amostras, provadores e repetições. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade de diminuir o número de parâmetros que devem ser obtidos de cada curva. Para isso, foram realizadas análises de correlação entre os parâmetros e análise discriminante por passos. Os edulcorantes estudados foram: aspartame, extrato de folhas de estévia e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, em doçura equivalente à sacarose em solução a 3%, 10%,20% e 30%. Os parâmetros obtidos foram: tempo para atingir a intensidade máxima (TImáx, tempo onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de duração da intensidade máxima (Platô, área total sob a curva (Área, tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot e intensidade máxima percebida (Imáx Concluiu-se que, para os gostos doce e amargo, para os edulcorantes estudados, o parâmetro Área poderia ser eliminado .

  10. Análise descritiva quantitativa de edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDELLO Helena Maria André Bolini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Edulcorantes em solução, com a mesma equivalência de doçura, podem apresentar características sensoriais que os tornam diferentes entre si. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar Análise Descritiva Quantitativa de soluções de aspartame (APM, extrato de folhas de estévia (SrB e mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 (C/S em diferentes níveis de doçura, ou seja, em equivalência de doçura a uma solução aquosa de sacarose a 3, 10, 20 e 30%. Onze provadores, pré-selecionados através de análise seqüencial, tendo como critério suas habilidades de discriminação, foram treinados após o levantamento da terminologia descritiva. Após o treinamento, os provadores foram selecionados através de seu poder de discriminação, reproducibilidade e concordância com a equipe no uso de escalas. Os termos descritivos dos edulcorantes, para todos os níveis de doçura, gerados através do método rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method foram: doçura inicial, doçura residual, amargo inicial, amargo residual, residual de alcaçuz, corpo e acidez. Os resultados obtidos para cada nível de doçura foram analisados através de análise de variância, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. A análise descritiva foi efetiva em caracterizar o perfil sensorial dos edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações, evidenciando as mudanças no perfil com o aumento de suas concentrações.

  11. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses-aspartame, cadmium, and toluene-suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

  12. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.

  14. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  15. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

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    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  16. Sweetener Intake by Rats Selectively Bred for Differential Saccharin Intake: Sucralose, Stevia, and Acesulfame Potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Nancy K; Dobson, Kiana; Roberts, Brandon T; Chapman, Clinton D

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear. The present study extends prior work by examining intake of custom mixtures of sucralose, maltodextrin, and sugars and Splenda by LoS and HiS rats (Experiment 1A-1D), stevia and a constituent compound (rebaudioside A; Experiment 2A-2E), and acesulfame potassium tested at several concentrations or with 4 other sweeteners at one concentration each (Experiment 3A-3B). Results indicate that aversive side tastes limit intake of Splenda, stevia, and acesulfame potassium, more so among LoS rats than among HiS rats. In addition, regression analyses involving 5 sweeteners support the idea that both sweetness and bitterness are needed to account for intake of nonnutritive sweeteners, more so among LoS rats. These findings contribute to well developed and emerging literatures on sweetness and domain-general processes related to gustation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  18. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkalla Salwa W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers. Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group. Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts. The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose

  19. Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 μg/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products.

  20. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  1. Acute Cholecystitis as a Cause of Fever in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    Na Rae Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a very common complication that has been related to poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. The incidence of acalculous cholecystitis is reportedly 0.5%–5% in critically ill patients, and cerebrovascular disease is a risk factor for acute cholecystitis (AC. However, abdominal evaluations are not typically performed for febrile patients who have recently undergone aSAH surgeries. In this study, we discuss our experiences with febrile aSAH patients who were eventually diagnosed with AC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 192 consecutive patients who underwent aSAH from January 2009 to December 2012. We evaluated their characteristics, vital signs, laboratory findings, radiologic images, and pathological data from hospitalization. We defined fever as a body temperature of >38.3°C, according to the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines. We categorized the causes of fever and compared them between patients with and without AC. Results Of the 192 enrolled patients, two had a history of cholecystectomy, and eight (4.2% were eventually diagnosed with AC. Among them, six patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In their pathological findings, two patients showed findings consistent with coexistent chronic cholecystitis, and two showed necrotic changes to the gall bladder. Patients with AC tended to have higher white blood cell counts, aspartame aminotransferase levels, and C-reactive protein levels than patients with fevers from other causes. Predictors of AC in the aSAH group were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 8.758; P = 0.033 and the initial consecutive fasting time (OR, 1.325; P = 0.024. Conclusions AC may cause fever in patients with aSAH. When patients with aSAH have a fever, diabetes mellitus and a long fasting time, AC should be suspected. A high degree of suspicion and a thorough abdominal examination of febrile aSAH patients allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment of this

  2. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  3. Rate of atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice long after discontinuation of cola beverage drinking.

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    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of cola beverages drinking on atherosclerosisand test the hypothesis whether cola beverages consumption at early life stages might affect the development and progression of atherosclerosis later in life. ApoE-/- C57BL/6J mice (8 week-old were randomized in 3 groups (n = 20 each according to free accessto water (W, sucrose sweetened carbonated cola drink(C or aspartame-acesulfame K sweetened carbonated 'light' cola drink (Lfor the next 8 weeks. Drinking treatment was ended by switching C and L groups to drinking water. Four mice per group and time were sequentially euthanized: before treatment (8 weeks-old, at the end of treatment (16 weeks-old and after treatment discontinuation (20 weeks-old, 24 weeks-old, 30 week-old mice. Aortic roots and livers were harvested, processed for histology and serial cross-sections were stained. Aortic plaque area was analyzed and plaque/media-ratio was calculated. Early consumption of cola drinks accelerated atherosclerotic plaque progression favoring the interaction between macrophages and myofibroblasts, without the participation of either T lymphocytes or proliferative activity. Plaque/media-ratio varied according to drink treatment (F2,54 = 3.433, p<0.04 and mice age (F4,54 = 5.009, p<0.03 and was higher in C and L groups compared with age-matched W group (p<0.05 at 16 weeks and 20 weeks, p<0.01 at 24 weeks and 30 weeks. Natural evolution of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice (W group evidenced atherosclerosis acceleration in parallel with a rapid increase in liver inflammation around the 20 weeks of age. Cola drinking within the 8-16 weeks of age accelerated atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice favoring aortic plaque enlargement (inward remodeling over media thinning all over the study time. Data suggest that cola drinking at early life stages may predispose to atherosclerosis progression later in life in ApoE-/- mice.

  4. DOÇURA IDEAL E ANÁLISE DE ACEITAÇÃO DE SUCO DE ABACAXI CONCENTRADO RECONSTITUÍDOADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E SACAROSE

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    P. S. MARCELLINI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Em razão da necessidade de substituição da sacarose por adoçantes não calóricos vem crescendo o interesse no estudo dessas substâncias. Há um grande número de substâncias definidas como adoçantes não calóricos, os fatores individuais destes adoçantes, tais como a intensidade e persistência do gosto doce e a presença ou não do gosto residual, são fundamentais para a aceitação, preferência dos consumidores. O abacaxi, fruta tropical bastante apreciada por seu sabor característico, tem no seu suco reconstituído um alto potencial econômico do mercado nacional e internacional. Foram objetivos do trabalho: Realizar determinação de doçura equivalente, análise de aceitação, determinação da doçura ideal de suco de abacaxi industrializado reconstituído, adoçado com diferentes edulcorantes (ciclamato/sacarina, sucralose, aspartame puro, estévia e sacarose. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que o método de determinação de equivalência de doçura e o da doçura ideal dos edulcorantes proporcionaram a obtenção de valores diferentes no suco de abacaxi. Observando-se a análise de aceitação vê-se que o suco de abacaxi adoçado com o edulcorante sucralose foi mais aceito que todos os outros edulcorantes e que a própria sacarose. Apenas a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve médias de aceitação na região negativa da escala (abaixo de 4,5.

  5. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor

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    Kratochwil Nicole A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Results By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. Conclusion From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor

  6. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  7. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

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    Chui-Shiang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K, aspartame (ASP, cyclamate (CYC, dulcin (DUL, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, neotame (NEO, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC, saccharin (SAC, sucralose (SCL, and stevioside (STV] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC–MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits. Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners.

  8. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  9. SZTUCZNE SUBSTANCJE SŁODZĄCE – WYSTĘPOWANIE W ŚRODOWISKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr REZKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono zagadnienie występowania sztucznych substancji słodzących w ściekach oraz ich obecności w środowisku wodnym. Ze względu na zastosowanie w produkcji żywności i napojów o zmniejszonej wartości kalorycznej, związki te pojawiają się w ściekach w coraz większych ilościach. Najczęściej stosowanymi substytutami cukru jest acesulfam K, aspartam, cyklaminian sodu, sacharyna i sukraloza. Każda z tych substancji jest kilkadziesiąt razy bardziej słodka niż standardowy cukier (sacharoza, jednakże praktycznie nie podnoszą one wartości kalorycznej produktu. Dokonano przeglądu literatury, skupiając się na zawartościach rozpatrywanych substancji w ściekach surowych i oczyszczonych. Wykazano, że skuteczność eliminacji tych związków ze ścieków jest niewystarczająca i na skutek tego dochodzi do zanieczyszczenia środowiska wodnego. Przedstawiono w tabeli potwierdzone doniesienia dotyczące obecności tych związków w rzekach, jeziorach i wodach podziemnych. W przypadku gdy w wodzie ujmowanej przez stacje uzdatniania wody obecne są wyżej wymienione związki, w szczególności acesulfam i sukraloza, istnieje ryzyko przedostania się ich do wody przeznaczonej do spożycia, co znalazło potwierdzenie w literaturze. Mimo dostępnych wyników badań nie wykazujących wpływu na ekosystem i zdrowie człowieka, konieczne wydaje się przeprowadzenie badań nad wpływem długotrwałego narażenia organizmów wodnych i organizmu człowieka na działanie sztucznych substytutów cukru.

  10. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    targets. Some are effective in slowing formation of glucose in intestines by inhibiting α-glucosidases (e.g., salacia/saptarangi). Knowledge gained from French lilac on active guanidine group helped developing Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) one of the popular drugs in use. One strategy of keeping sugar content in diets in check is to use artificial sweeteners with no calories, no glucose or fructose and no effect on blood glucose (e.g., steviol, erythrytol). However, the three commonly used non-caloric artificial sweeteners, saccharin, sucralose and aspartame later developed glucose intolerance, the very condition they are expected to evade. Ideal way of keeping blood glucose under 6 mM and HbA1c, the glycation marker of hemoglobin, under 7% in blood is to correct the defects in signals that allow glucose flow into glycogen, still a difficult task with drugs and diets.

  11. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L.

    2016-01-01

    containing up to 30% Ereq sucrose or HFCS, and the conclusions from several meta-analyses suggest that fructose has no specific adverse effects relative to any other carbohydrate. Consumption of excess sugar may also promote the development the development of CVD and T2DM indirectly by causing increased body weight and fat gain, but this is also a topic of controversy. Mechanistically, it is plausible that fructose consumption causes increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure due to its failure to stimulate leptin production. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrates that the brain responds differently to fructose or fructose-containing sugars compared with glucose or aspartame. There are epidemiological studies which show sugar consumption is associated with body weight gain, and there are intervention studies in which consumption of ad libitum high sugar diets promoted increased body weight gain compared with consumption of ad libitum low sugar diets. However, there are no studies in which energy intake and weight gain were compared in subjects consuming high or low sugar, blinded, ad libitum diets formulated to ensure both groups consumed a comparable macronutrient distribution and the same amounts of fiber. There is also little data to determine whether the form in which added sugar is consumed, as beverage or as solid food, affects its potential to promote weight gain. It will be very challenging to obtain the funding to conduct the clinical diet studies needed to address these evidence gaps, especially at the levels of added sugar that are commonly consumed. Yet, filling these evidence gaps may be necessary for supporting the policy changes that will help to turn the food environment into one that does not promote the development of obesity and metabolic disease. PMID:26376619