WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspartame

  1. Aspartame intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, M M; Metcalfe, D D

    1988-12-01

    Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Aspartame-Triggered Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with known aspartame-triggered and rizatriptan-responsive migraine had their headaches worsened following use of an aspartame-containing formulation of rizatriptan (Maxalt-MLT), in a report from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

  3. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  4. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  5. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. Effects of Aspartame on alcohol fermentation in Aspartame-added bread processing

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Tokumitsu; Hamaoka, Rumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Okuda, Nobuko; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    The addition of aspartame to white bread dough affected the gas production due to baker's yeast. After 3 hours of incubation, the total gas production of 3% aspartame-added dough decreased about 0.4 times that of standard dough. Gas production decreased with increasing concentrations of aspartame. On the other hand, the expansion of aspartame-added dough increased with increasing concentration of aspartame. The dough containing 3% aspartame expanded the same as standard dough. The ratio of in...

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health.

  8. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aspartame. 172.804 Section 172.804 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in food in... conditions: (a) Aspartame is the chemical 1-methyl N- l-α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine (C14H18N2O5). (b)...

  9. Formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines: a possible connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Stechschulte, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener that has been linked to pediatric and adolescent migraines. Upon ingestion, aspartame is broken, converted, and oxidized into formaldehyde in various tissues. We present the first case series of aspartame-associated migraines related to clinically relevant positive reactions to formaldehyde on patch testing.

  10. Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; LaDou, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should reevaluate its position on aspartame as being safe under all conditions. Animal bioassay results predict human cancer risks, and a recent animal study confirms that there is a potential aspartame risk to humans. Aspartame is produced and packaged in China for domestic use and global distribution. Japan, France, and the United States are also major producers. No study of long-term adverse occupational health effects on aspartame workers have been conducted. The FDA should consider sponsoring a prospective epidemiologic study of aspartame workers.

  11. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, H M; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, B K

    2015-04-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6-8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened kalakand was observed during storage. However, only a slight drop in pH was observed in all samples on storage. The titratable acidity was higher in aspartame sweetened products than the corresponding control samples. Lightness (L*) was less in control samples with sucrose than the aspartame sweetened kalakand during storage. Total plate counts were higher in aspartame sweetened kalakand than its corresponding control throughout the storage period. Total plate counts increased linearly for both aspartame sweetened kalakand and control. A solid phase extraction method was standardized for the isolation of aspartame in kalakand. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized for separation of aspartame and its degradation products diketopiperazine and L-phenylalanine. HPLC analysis revealed that aspartame did not degrade in kalakand during storage establishing its stability in these products.

  12. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  13. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6–8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened k...

  14. Enzymatic spectrophotometric reaction rate determination of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Kata T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener of low caloric value (approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Aspartame is currently permitted for use in food and beverage production in more than 90 countries. The application of aspartame in food products requires development of rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for its determination. The new assay for determination of aspartame was based on set of reactions that are catalyzed by three different enzymes: α-chymotrypsin, alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Optimization of the proposed method was carried out for: (i α-chymotrypsin activity; (ii time allowed for α-chymotrypsin action, (iii temperature. Evaluation of the developed method was done by determining aspartame content in “diet” drinks, as well as in artificial sweetener pills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  15. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic.

  16. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases.

  17. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity.

  18. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  19. STUDY OF ASPARTAME ON BIOFILM PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an odourless white crystalline powder 160 - 200 times sweeter than sucrose used in beverages. The present study has been planned to observe the biofilm production of Streptococcus mutans over a biosurface and to assess the influence of aspartame on biofilm production ov er that surface. The lyophilic standard Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (Hi media lab was reactivated in Trypiticase Soy Broth incubated at37 0 C with 10% CO 2 for 18 hrs. 2.5 ml of this liquid culture was added in two 5ml of Brain Heart Infusion Broths with sucrose, congo red and sterile human tooth one with 0.3% aspartame and other without as partame and incubated at 37 0 C with 10% CO 2 for 18 hrs. Biofilm production was evidenced by blackeni n g of tooth along with black deposits .Blackening appeared less in the broth containing aspartame which was further proved by subculturing from both over Brain Heart Infusion (BHI agar with sucrose and Congo red.

  20. Characterization of aspartame-cyclodextrin complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohajda, Tamás; Béni, Szabolcs; Varga, Erzsébet; Iványi, Róbert; Rácz, Akos; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

    2009-12-05

    The inclusion complex formation of aspartame (guest) and various cyclodextrins (host) were examined using 1H NMR titration and capillary electrophoresis. Initially the protonation constants of aspartame were determined by NMR-pH titration with in situ pH measurement to yield log K1=7.83 and log K2=2.96. Based on these values the stability of the complexes formed by aspartame and 21 different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied at pH 2.5, pH 5.2 and pH 9.0 values where aspartame exists predominantly in monocationic, zwitterionic and monoanionic form, respectively. The host cyclodextrin derivatives differed in various sidechains, degree of substitution, charge and purity so that the effect of these properties could be examined systematically. Concerning size, the seven-membered beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives have been found to be the most suitable host molecules for complexation. Highest stability was observed for the acetylated derivative with a degree of substitution of 7. The purity of the CD enhanced the complexation while the degree of substitution did not provide obvious consequences. Finally, geometric aspects of the inclusion complex were assessed by 2D ROESY NMR and molecular modelling which proved that the guest's aromatic ring enters the wider end of the host cavity.

  1. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

  2. Neurophysiological symptoms and aspartame: What is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2017-02-15

    Aspartame (α-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-o-methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, has been linked to behavioral and cognitive problems. Possible neurophysiological symptoms include learning problems, headache, seizure, migraines, irritable moods, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The consumption of aspartame, unlike dietary protein, can elevate the levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid in the brain. These compounds can inhibit the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are known regulators of neurophysiological activity. Aspartame acts as a chemical stressor by elevating plasma cortisol levels and causing the production of excess free radicals. High cortisol levels and excess free radicals may increase the brains vulnerability to oxidative stress which may have adverse effects on neurobehavioral health. We reviewed studies linking neurophysiological symptoms to aspartame usage and conclude that aspartame may be responsible for adverse neurobehavioral health outcomes. Aspartame consumption needs to be approached with caution due to the possible effects on neurobehavioral health. Whether aspartame and its metabolites are safe for general consumption is still debatable due to a lack of consistent data. More research evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of aspartame are required.

  3. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation.This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics.Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008 and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04, reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects.Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that

  4. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  5. Sweetening ruthenium and osmium: organometallic arene complexes containing aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Winnig, Marcel; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Sadler, Peter J

    2008-09-01

    The novel organometallic sandwich complexes [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Ru(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (1) (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)Os(eta(6)-aspartame)](OTf)(2) (2) incorporating the artificial sweetener aspartame have been synthesised and characterised. A number of properties of aspartame were found to be altered on binding to either metal. The pK(a) values of both the carboxyl and the amino groups of aspartame are lowered by between 0.35 and 0.57 pH units, causing partial deprotonation of the amino group at pH 7.4 (physiological pH). The rate of degradation of aspartame to 3,6-dioxo-5-phenylmethylpiperazine acetic acid (diketopiperazine) increased over threefold from 0.12 to 0.36 h(-1) for 1, and to 0.43 h(-1) for 2. Furthermore, the reduction potential of the ligand shifted from -1.133 to -0.619 V for 2. For the ruthenium complex 1 the process occurred in two steps, the first (at -0.38 V) within a biologically accessible range. This facilitates reactions with biological reductants such as ascorbate. Binding to and activation of the sweet taste receptor was not observed for these metal complexes up to concentrations of 1 mM. The factors which affect the ability of metal-bound aspartame to interact with the receptor site are discussed.

  6. The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guguta, C; Meekes, H; de Gelder, R

    2008-03-13

    Aspartame, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, has two hydrates (IA and IB), a hemi-hydrate (IIA) and an anhydrate (IIB). The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame was investigated using hot-humidity stage X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and molecular mechanics modeling in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of this study are compared to earlier studies on aspartame as described in literature. It is shown that earlier transition studies were hampered by incomplete conversions and wrong assignment of the forms. The combination of the techniques applied in this study now shows consistent results for aspartame and yields a clear conversion scheme for the hydration/dehydration behavior of the four forms.

  7. Ultrastructural changes to rabbit fibrin and platelets due to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E; Humphries, P

    2007-01-01

    The coagulation process, including thrombin, fibrin, as well as platelets, plays an important role in hemostasis, contributing to the general well-being of humans. Fibrin formation and platelet activation are delicate processes that are under the control of many small physiological events. Any one of these many processes may be influenced or changed by external factors, including pharmaceutical or nutritional products, e.g., the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester). It is known that phenylalanine is present at position P(9) and aspartate at position P(10) of the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen, and plays an important role in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by the catalyst alpha-thrombin. The authors investigate the effect of aspartame on platelet and fibrin ultrastructure, by using the rabbit animal model and the scanning electron microscope. Animals were exposed to 34 mg/kg of aspartame 26x during a 2-month period. Aspartame-exposed fibrin networks appeared denser, with a thick matted fine fiber network covering thick major fibers. Also, the platelet aggregates appeared more granular than the globular control platelet aggregates. The authors conclude by suggesting that aspartame usage may interfere with the coagulation process and might cause delayed fibrin breakup after clot formation. They suggest this, as the fibrin networks from aspartame-exposed rabbits are more complex and dense, due to the netlike appearance of the minor, thin fibers. Aspartame usage should possibly be limited by people on anti-clotting medicine or those with prone to clot formation.

  8. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, P; Pretorius, E; Naudé, H

    2008-04-01

    The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor, aspartic acid. Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formate, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives. Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals. Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.

  9. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  10. Comparison of thermochemistry of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Fattahi, Alireza

    2009-01-05

    We have compared the gas phase thermochemical properties of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and alpha- and beta-glucose. These parameters include metal ion affinities with Li(+)-, Na(+)-, K(+)-, Mg(+2)-, Ca(+2)-, Fe(+2)-, Zn(+2)-ions, and chloride ion affinity by using DFT calculations. For example, for aspartame, the affinity values for the above described metal ions are, respectively, 86.5, 63.2, 44.2, 255.4, 178.4, 235.4, and 300.4, and for beta-glucose are 65.2, 47.3 32.9, 212.9, 140.2, 190.1, and 250.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The study shows differences between the intrinsic chemistry of aspartame and glucose.

  11. Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

    1990-03-01

    Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

  12. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  13. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-05-28

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions.

  14. Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycerz, Karol; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame, a widespread sweetener used in many food products, is considered as a highly hazardous compound. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 and raises a lot of controversy up to date. Astrocytes are glial cells, the presence and functions of which are closely connected with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the direct and indirect role of astrocytes participating in the harmful effects of aspartame metabolites on neurons. The artificial sweetener is broken down into phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) during metabolism in the body. The excess of phenylalanine blocks the transport of important amino acids to the brain contributing to reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin. Astrocytes directly affect the transport of this amino acid and also indirectly by modulation of carriers in the endothelium. Aspartic acid at high concentrations is a toxin that causes hyperexcitability of neurons and is also a precursor of other excitatory amino acid - glutamates. Their excess in quantity and lack of astrocytic uptake induces excitotoxicity and leads to the degeneration of astrocytes and neurons. The methanol metabolites cause CNS depression, vision disorders and other symptoms leading ultimately to metabolic acidosis and coma. Astrocytes do not play a significant role in methanol poisoning due to a permanent consumption of large amounts of aspartame. Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite - diketopiperazine - is cancirogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain. On the one hand the action of astrocytes during aspartame poisoning may be advantageous for neuro-protection while on the other it may intensify the destruction of neurons. The role of the glia in

  15. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  16. MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT ASPARTAME AND SUCRALOSE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maganti Brahmini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, a clinical research gave a clean chit to the artificial sweeteners, dismissing allegations that these sweeteners induce certain ailments. Aspartame has been found to be safe for human consumption by more than ninety countries worldwide, with FDA officials describing aspartame as “one of the most thoroughly tested and studied food additives the agency have ever approved” and its safety as “clearcut”. The dangers of aspartame are now widely known, but the risks of using sucralose are not documented-until now. When deciding between sucralose and aspartame, it is important to remember that studies conclude that both are safe when consumed with in reasonable limits.However, some consumers reported symptoms which were believed to be associated with these sweeteners. When FDA probed in to the matter, it came with the conclusion that there is no enough medical evidence that suggests a link between these sweeteners and alleged illnesses. Thus, it can be deduced that artificial sweeteners can be safely consumed in moderate doses.

  17. Crystal structure of aspartame anhydrate from powder diffraction data. Structural aspects of the dehydration process of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guguta, C.; Meekes, H.L.M.; Gelder, R. de

    2006-01-01

    Aspartame has three pseudo-polymorphic forms, two hydrates and a hemi-hydrate, for which crystal structures were determined from single-crystal diffraction data. This paper presents the crystal structure of the anhydrate, which was obtained by dehydrating the hemi-hydrate. The crystal structure of a

  18. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the... acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  19. Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kohn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006. To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea was measured in deionized water (control, ethanol, aspartame, and five different mixtures of ethanol and aspartame. The heart rate was chosen as a representative measure since it is controlled by the nervous system and the heart rate of D.magna can easily be measured. The results were statistically evaluated by student’s t-test. A significant increase in heart rate was observed for all mixed assays compared to both control and ethanol, but not to aspartame. The data suggests that the aspartame and alcohol mixture have a greater effect on D. magna heart rate than water or ethanol, but not aspartame alone. We propose that alcohol in combination with aspartame has potentially detrimental consequences for the nervous system.

  20. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells

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    Muthuraman Pandurangan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01–0.05 mg/ml of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells.

  1. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells -->.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Mistry, Bhupendra; Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Noorzai, Rafi; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01-0.05 mg/ml) of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells.

  2. Carbon-deuterium rotational-echo double-resonance NMR spectroscopy of lyophilized aspartame formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Utz, Marcel; Gorman, Eric M; Pikal, Michael J; Munson, Eric J; Lubach, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, changes in the local conformation of aspartame were observed in annealed lyophilized glasses by monitoring changes in the distance between two labeled sites using C-(2)H rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Confirmation that the REDOR experiments were producing accurate distance measurement was ensured by measuring the (13)C-(15)N distance in glycine. The experiment was further verified by measuring the REDOR dephasing curve on (13)C-(2)H methionine. (13)C-(2)H REDOR dephasing curves were then measured on lyophilized aspartame-disaccharide formulations. In aspartame-sucrose formulation, the internuclear distances increased upon annealing, which correlated with decreased chemical reactivity. By contrast, annealing had only a minimal effect on the dephasing curve in aspartame-trehalose formulation. The results show that stability is a function of both mobility and local structure (conformation), even in a small molecule system such as lyophilized aspartame-sucrose.

  3. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

  4. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Collison

    Full Text Available Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (P<0.05. Females were less affected, but had significantly raised fasting glucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training, the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (P<0.05. Spatial learning of female aspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime

  5. Aspartame and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31 December 2012. The search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents.

  6. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  7. Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951. Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. Chronic and developmental toxicities were relevant endpoints in the animal database. From chronic toxicity studies in animals, a NOAEL of 4000 mg/kg bw/day was identified. The possibility of developmental toxicity occurring at lower doses than 4000 mg/kg in animals could not be excluded. Based on MoA and weight-of-evidence analysis, the Panel concluded that developmental toxicity in animals was attributable to phenylalanine. Phenylalanine at high plasma levels is known to cause developmental toxicity in humans. The Panel concluded that human data on developmental toxicity were more appropriate for the risk assessment. Concentration-response modelling was used to determine the effects of aspartame administration on plasma phenylalanine using human data after phenylalanine administration to normal, PKU heterozygote or PKU homozygote individuals. In normal and PKU heterozygotes, aspartame intakes up to the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day, in addition to dietary phenylalanine, would not lead to peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations above the current clinical guideline for the prevention of adverse effects in fetuses. The Panel concluded that aspartame was not of safety concern at the current aspartame exposure estimates or at the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore, there was no reason to revise the ADI of aspartame. Current exposures to aspartame - and its degradation product DKP - were below their respective ADIs. The ADI is not applicable

  9. Aspartame-induced fibromyalgia, an unusual but curable cause of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappuccini, R; Ansemant, T; Maillefert, J-F; Tavernier, C; Ornetti, P

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an unusual musculoskeletal adverse effect of aspartame in two patients. A 50-year-old woman had been suffering from widespread pain and fatigue for more than 10 years leading to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. During a vacation in a foreign country, she did not suffer from painful symptoms since she had forgotten to take her aspartame. All of the symptoms reappeared in the days following her return when she reintroduced aspartame into her daily diet. Thus, aspartame was definitively excluded from her diet, resulting in a complete regression of the fibromyalgia symptoms. A 43-year-old man consulted for a 3-year history of bilateral forearm, wrist, and hand and cervical pain with various unsuccessful treatments. A detailed questioning allowed to find out that he had been taking aspartame for three years. The removal of aspartame was followed by a complete regression of pain, without recurrence. We believe that these patients' chronic pain was due to the ingestion of aspartame, a potent flavouring agent, widely used in food as a calorie-saver. The benefit/ risk ratio of considering the diagnosis of aspartame-induced chronic pain is obvious: the potential benefit is to cure a disabling chronic disease, to spare numerous laboratory and imaging investigations, and to avoid potentially harmful therapies; the potential risk is to temporarily change the patient's diet. Thus, practitioners should ask patients suffering from fibromyalgia about their intake of aspartame. In some cases, this simple question might lead to the resolution of a disabling chronic disease.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  11. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

  12. Possible health risks due to the consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Guerrero Villegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and FDA set the Acceptable Daily Intake at 40 and 50 mg / kg bw / day, respectively. The sweetener and its degradation products have been evaluated for over 30 years with the involvement of numerous international organizations. However, there is still controversy over its use because there are researches whose results attribute to it neuropsychiatric side effects, brain tumors, carcinogenic properties for different organs, damage to the fetus during pregnancy, development of lymphomas and leukemia, while other researchers say their use is harmless to humans if consumption is less than the Acceptable Daily Intake. It is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria and pregnant women.

  13. Intestinal hydrolysis of aspartylphenylalanine--the metabolic product of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, N A; Heizer, W D

    1986-10-01

    Aspartame [Nutrasweet, Equal (Searle Consumer Products, Chicago, Ill.)] is the methyl ester of the dipeptide aspartylphenylalanine (Asp-Phe). After hydrolysis of the ester bond in the intestinal lumen, the dipeptide is apparently absorbed and digested in the same manner as dipeptides derived from protein digestion. We observed that Asp-Phe is hydrolyzed approximately equally well by three previously reported brush border dipeptidases. However, these enzymes have very low affinity for Asp-Phe, and a substantial amount of the dipeptide may be transported intact and hydrolyzed in the cytosol. Starch gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography of the cytosol of intestinal mucosa and of red blood cell lysate revealed only one peak with Asp-Phe hydrolase activity. This activity was distinct from the seven cytosolic peptidases that have been described previously. The reduction in Asp-Phe hydrolase activity in the brush border and cytosol of diseased intestinal mucosa was similar to the reduction in levels of other brush border and cytosol enzyme activities. If double-blind studies confirm that some people have symptoms caused by aspartame ingestion, it would be appropriate to test such individuals for deficiency of cytosolic Asp-Phe hydrolase activity.

  14. PANJANG SIKLUS ESTRUS MENCIT (Mus musculus L. YANG DIBERI PEMANIS BUATAN ASPARTAM SECARA ORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulastri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap panjang siklus estrus mencit betina dewasa. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan P0 sebagai kontrol diberi aquades dan perlakuan P1, P2 dan P3 diberi aspartam dosis10 mg/kg bb; 15 mg/kg bb dan20 mg/kg bb. Aspartam diberikan setiap hari secara oral (gavage selama 14 hari sebanyak 0,3 ml. Setelah 14 hari, apusan vagina dibuat setiap 8 jam dalam sehari selama dua kali siklus estrus. Variabel yang diamati adalah panjang waktu tiap fase dalam siklus estrus. Hasil analisis menggunakan Uji One Way Anova dan Uji Kruskal Wallis menunjukkan bahwa aspartam secara nyata (P<0,05 memperpanjang siklus estrus dengan peningkatan dosis yang diberikan.

  15. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness.

  16. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

  17. Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI.

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  19. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  20. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

    1984-01-01

    The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. PMID:6591191

  1. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Saleh, Soad M; Andres, Bernard; Inglis, Angela; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM) testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (Paspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (Paspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, may affect spatial cognition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice, particularly in males.

  2. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  3. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  5. Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Jain, N K; Kulkarni, S K

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs. Similarly when morphine (1 mg/kg, po) or pentazocine (1 mg/kg, po) was co-administered with aspartame it reduced the number of writhes as compared to their effects per se. Aspartame (4,8,16 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased carrageenan-induced increase in paw volume and also reversed the hyperalgesic effects in rats in combination with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po). The study indicated that aspartame exerted analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on its own and have a synergistic analgesic response with conventional analgesics of opioid and non-opioid type, respectively.

  6. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system.

  7. Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

    2013-11-28

    The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  8. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 20 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol negatif (KN, kontrol positif (KP, perlakuan 1 (P1, perlakuan 2 (P2. Aloksan 150 mg/kgBB diinduksikan pada kelompok KP dan P2, aspartam 315 mg/kgBB diberikan pada kelompok P1 dan P2 selama 4 minggu. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur setelah 4 minggu menggunakan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata kadar glukosa darah puasa kelompok KN (88,39 mg/dL, KP (134,11 mg/dL, P1 (93,95 mg/dL, dan P2 (66,66 mg/dL. Analisis data dengan Uji ANOVA nilai p= 0,000 (p<0,05, terdapat perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Keimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah puasa tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan.Kata kunci: aspartam, kadar glukosa darah, diabetes melitus, aloksanAbstractAspartame is a low-calorie sugar substitute that is often consumed by people with diabetes, but the safety of aspartame is still controversial. The high intensity of aspartame sweetness could be expected to lower blood glucose levels. Other study said the results of the metabolism of aspartame such aspartic acids and phenylalanine which can be a precursor of glucose through gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on blood

  10. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  11. First European conference on aspartame: putting safety and benefits into perspective. Synopsis of presentations and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, A G; Nordmann, H

    2007-07-01

    A Conference was held in Paris in 2006 to review the safety and benefits arising from the replacement of sucrose with the intense sweetener aspartame. The intakes of aspartame are only about 10% of the acceptable daily intake, even by high consumers, so that the safety margin is about 3 orders of magnitude. The safety of aspartame was confirmed in the EFSA Opinion of a recent controversial rodent cancer bioassay. There is increasing evidence that even modest reductions in the intake of calories can reduce the risk factors associated with a number of diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key issue addressed at the conference was whether the replacement of sucrose with aspartame could result in a prolonged decrease in calorie intake that was of similar magnitude to that necessary to produce a health benefit. A recent meta-analysis of published data showed that an adequate, prolonged weight reduction could be achieved with aspartame. It was recognised that risk assessment alone gave an unbalanced impression to regulators and consumers, and that in the future quantitative risk-benefit analyses should be able to provide more comprehensive advice.

  12. Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

    1999-03-01

    Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

  13. Aspartame demand in rhesus monkeys: effects of volume and concentration manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade-Galuska, Tammy; Galuska, Chad M; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H

    2007-01-10

    Three rhesus monkeys' lever presses produced aspartame-sweetened water according to a fixed-ratio schedule. The response requirement was increased across sessions and a demand-function analysis was used to assess the reinforcing effectiveness of different magnitudes of aspartame by manipulating reinforcer duration (1 and 3s) in Phase 1 and concentration (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0mg/ml) in Phase 2. When duration was manipulated, the number of aspartame deliveries was mainly a function of the response requirement rather than unit price (responses/duration), suggesting that changes in duration did not significantly affect the reinforcing effectiveness of aspartame. When concentration was manipulated and the lowest concentration excluded, consumption was best described by unit price (responses/concentration) in two monkeys and by the response requirement in the third. Although results from the concentration manipulation provide some evidence that consumption was modulated by unit price, the results overall suggest that scalar equivalence does not exist between the components of unit price; specifically, the response requirement exerted a larger influence than duration or concentration on total consumption. Finally, a normalized demand analysis revealed that aspartame is a more elastic commodity than food and drug reinforcers.

  14. Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

    2013-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented.

  15. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  16. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Finamor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC, and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH. Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  17. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  18. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela; Pérez, Salvador; Bressan, Caroline A; Brenner, Carlos E; Rius-Pérez, Sergio; Brittes, Patricia C; Cheiran, Gabriele; Rocha, Maria I; da Veiga, Marcelo; Sastre, Juan; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC), and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH). Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  19. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, S.H. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: shs_barc@yahoo.com; Mukherjee, T. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-02-15

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10{sup -4}moldm{sup -3} and xylenol orange with 2.5x10{sup -1}moldm{sup -3} of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%.

  20. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX, carboxyl esterase (CaE and bovine serum albumin (BSA were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC. The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  1. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  2. In vitro effect of aspartame in angiogenesis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Borghi, Battista; Santarelli, Lory; Strafella, Elisabetta; Carbonari, Damiano; Bracci, Massimo; Tomasetti, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Aspartame (APM) is the most widely used artificial sweetener and is added to a wide variety of foods, beverages, drugs, and hygiene products. In vitro and in vivo tests have reported contradictory data about APM genotoxicity. We evaluated the angiogenic effect of APM in an in vitro model using blood vessel development assay (Angio-Kit), cultured endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The release of IL-6, VEGF-A, and their soluble receptors sIL-R6 and sVEGFR-2 were determined over time in the conditioned medium of the Angio-Kit system, endothelial cells and cell lines with fibroblast properties after APM treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cell viability, and stimulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erk1/2) and protein p38 were also evaluated. Exposure to APM induced blood vessel formation. ROS production was observed in endothelial cells after APM treatment, which was associated with a slight cell cytotoxicity. Neither intracellular ROS formation nor cell death was observed in fibroblasts. APM increases the levels of inflammatory mediator IL-6, VEGF and their soluble receptors released from endothelial cells into the medium. APM treatment induces VEGF-pathway activation by erk1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. APM at low doses is an angiogenic agent that induces regenerative cytokine production leading to the activation of MAPKs and resulting in the formation of new blood vessels.

  3. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1).

  4. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

  5. Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Y; Chatton, A; Claeys, F; Ribordy, F; Khan, R; Zullino, D

    2009-12-01

    The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight.

  6. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohtsuki

    Full Text Available α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM.

  7. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Ryoichiro; Kubo, Satoru; Otabe, Akira; Oobayashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Shoko; Yoshida, Mika; Yoshida, Mitsuya; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM) and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM) are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM). The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM.

  8. Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; de Carvalho, Adriana Evaristo; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2008-07-30

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400 mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the presence of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) cyclamate was 4.7x10(-7) mol L(-1), and the detection limit for cyclamate in the presence of 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame was 4.2x10(-6) mol L(-1). When simultaneously changing the concentration of both aspartame and cyclamate in a 0.5 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution, the corresponding detection limits were 3.5x10(-7) and 4.5x10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained was 1.3% for the 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame solution (n=5) and 1.1% for the 3.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) cyclamate solution. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of aspartame in several dietary products with results similar to those obtained using an HPLC method at 95% confidence level.

  9. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-09-01

    Aspartame, a "first generation sweetener", is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  10. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  11. Nutritional and biochemical effects of aspartame intake in rats under an experimental diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martinez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of aspartame intake in rats under a diet mimicking the trends of fat consumption in the society. The composition of the experimental diet was within the recommended human limits except the saturated fat amount supplying from coconut fat. Rats under the experimental diet showed an increase in the body weight, transitory increase in the blood pressure and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides alongside a transitory reduction in plasma urea versus the standard group. Rats under the experimental diet plus aspartame intake (54.8 ± 7.3 mg/kg bw/day did not show any increase of body weight and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides while showed an improvement in the plasma value of urea with respect the group under only the experimental diet. However, the aspartame group showed a more maintained increase of blood pressure. In conclusion, experimental diet produces negative effects on cardiovascular risk factors of the rats while the aspartame intake under the experimental feeding had mixed effects on the cardiometabolic factors of the animals.

  12. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  13. Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-23

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  14. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste.

  15. A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

  16. Use of aspartame-based sweetener tablets in emergency dosimetry using EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A; Salama, E

    2010-06-01

    Accident dosimetry aims to evaluate the unplanned radiation doses delivered to individuals through one of the objects exist in the area of the accident. The gamma dose response of free radicals generated in irradiated aspartame tablets and its usability for emergency dosimetry was studied. EPR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated aspartame-based sweetener were recorded. Two signals arise after irradiating, S(1) at g (S(1)) = 2.00229 +/- 0.00097 and S(2) at g (S(2)) = 2.00262 +/- 0.00088. Some EPR parameters were studied for radiation-induced radicals in aspartame sweeteners tablets, such as the microwave saturation behaviour, the effect of magnetic field modulation amplitude on the peak-to-peak height and peak-to-peak line width for both of S(1) and S(2). Responses of S(1) and S(2) to different radiation doses were studied and resulted in linear relationships, radicals persistence curves were plotted over a 49-d storage period. It was found that Aspartame sweeteners tablets are useful in the range from 0.96 to 39.96 Gy. Radiation-induced radicals possess reasonable stability.

  17. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  18. Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2008-02-13

    Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector.

  19. Aspartame Attenuates 2, 4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Clinical Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Jeong-Je; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common multifactorial chronic skin disease that has a multiple and complex pathogenesis. AD is gradually increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive applications of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evoke AD-like clinical symptoms similar to human AD. Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester) is a methyl ester of a dipeptide, which is used as an artificial non-nutritive sweetener. Aspartame has analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions that are similar to the function of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. We investigated whether aspartame can relieve AD-like clinical symptoms induced by DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Sucrose did not relieve AD-like symptoms, whereas aspartame at doses of 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.5 mg kg(-1) inhibited ear swelling and relieved AD-like clinical symptoms. Aspartame inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells, and CD4(+) T cells, and suppressed the expression of cytokines including IL-4 and IFN-γ, and total serum IgE levels. Aspartame may have therapeutic value in the treatment of AD.

  20. Differential effects of early-life NMDA receptor antagonism on aspartame-impaired insulin tolerance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Inglis, Angela; Shibin, Sherin; Andres, Bernard; Ubungen, Rosario; Thiam, Jennifer; Mata, Princess; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2016-12-01

    We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior. Since the gut-brain axis can be modulated by fetal programming, we hypothesized that early-life NMDAR antagonism may affect aspartame-induced glucose deregulation in adulthood, and may alter the aspartame behavioral phenotype. Accordingly, C57Bl/6J mice were chronically exposed to aspartame commencing in utero, in the presence and absence of maternal administration of the competitive NMDAR antagonist CGP 39551, from conception until weaning. Drug/diet interactions in adulthood glucocentric and behavioral parameters were assessed. Aspartame exposure elevated blood glucose and impaired insulin-induced glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test, which could be normalized by NMDAR antagonism. The same effects were not observed in control diet mice, suggesting an early-life drug/diet interaction. Behavioral analysis of adult offspring indicated that NMDAR antagonism of control diet mice caused hyperlocomotion and impaired spatial navigation. Conversely hypolocomotion, reduced exploratory activity and increased anxiety-related behavior were apparent in aspartame diet mice with early-life NMDAR antagonism.

  1. 酶法合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame%Catalytic Synthesis of Aspartame by Thermolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶国良; 陈震华; 卓仁禧

    1989-01-01

    @@1969年,Mazur等[1]发现L-天门冬氨酰L-苯丙氨酸甲酯(商品名为Aspartame)具有很强的甜味。此后,人们在Aspartame的合成上做了大量的研究工作。起初,Aspartame的合成主要是通过化学法[2,3]。在化学法合成中,由于天门冬氨酸二个羧基的反应择向性不够高,使得合成反应具有步骤多、产率低、产物需分离提纯等不足。因此,人们也尝试了通过其他途径来合成Aspartame。七十年代后期和八十年代,有一些文献报道了用酶、固定化酶以及微生物法来合成Aspartame。1979年,Isowa等[4]用嗜热蛋白酶作催化剂,高产率地合成了Aspartame前体,其高度的反应专一性使之成为合成Aspartame的一种有效途径。 以前的酶法合成文献中,对反应的研究不够系统,有些文献对于合成条件没有详细的描述,且都没有完整合成Aspartame的报道。本工作以嗜热蛋白酶为催化剂,合成了Aspartame前体,进一步通过酸化脱盐、氢化脱保护基,得到了Aspartame,并且对影响酶促反应产率的各种因素进行了研究。

  2. Exploring the biological consequences of conformational changes in aspartame models containing constrained analogues of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Adriano; Mirzaie, Sako; Costante, Roberto; Carradori, Simone; Macedonio, Giorgia; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Dvoracsko, Szabolcs; Novellino, Ettore

    2016-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (Asp-Phe-OMe) is a sweetener widely used in replacement of sucrose by food industry. 2',6'-Dimethyltyrosine (DMT) and 2',6'-dimethylphenylalanine (DMP) are two synthetic phenylalanine-constrained analogues, with a limited freedom in χ-space due to the presence of methyl groups in position 2',6' of the aromatic ring. These residues have shown to increase the activity of opioid peptides, such as endomorphins improving the binding to the opioid receptors. In this work, DMT and DMP have been synthesized following a diketopiperazine-mediated route and the corresponding aspartame derivatives (Asp-DMT-OMe and Asp-DMP-OMe) have been evaluated in vivo and in silico for their activity as synthetic sweeteners.

  3. Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Wen-Rui; Wu, Zhai; Wang, Ren-Hai; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2014-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of Aspartame in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-L) and sodium alginate (SA) revealed that only CMC-L showed a suppression effect, while SA did not. By using an artificial taste receptor model, we found that the presence of SA or CMC-L resulted in a decrease in association constants. Further investigation of CMC-L solution revealed that the decrease in water mobility and diffusion also contribute to the suppression effect. In the case of SA, the decreased viscosity and comparatively higher amount of free water facilitated the diffusion of sweetener, which might compensate for the decreased binding constant between Aspartame and receptor. This may suppress the impact of SA on sweetness intensity. The results suggest that exploring the binding affinity of taste molecules with the receptor, along with water mobility and diffusion in hydrocolloidal structures, provide sufficient information for understanding the mechanism behind the effect of macromolecular hydrocolloids on taste.

  4. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  5. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels on long term consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS, c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNFα, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener.

  6. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI,40 mg/kg bwt administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  7. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  8. Regional tongue sensitivity for sweetness and pungency of ethanol-aspartame mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, A M

    1998-02-01

    Binary mixtures of aspartame prepared at three levels of concentration and dissolved in four ethanolic dilutions were perceptually evaluated. Sweet-pungent combinations were presented in solution or in disks of filter paper (paper) soaked in the solutions. Variations in sweetness and pungency were examined at two oral loci including the tip and the back plus the front of the tongue in the liquid condition or the tip and the back of the tongue in the paper condition. A similar behavior was observed in liquid and paper conditions; as the concentration of aspartame and ethanol increased so did the intensity for sweet and pungent qualities. Whereas sweetness was not influenced by ethanol addition (2-8% V/V), a suppressive effect of aspartame (1-4 mM) on pungency was noted for liquid but not for the paper condition. Sweetness was enhanced when the back plus the front of the tongue was stimulated by solutions. Finally, there was a complex pattern of regional effects on the perceived pungency of alcoholic-sweet solutions that was not replicated in the paper condition.

  9. Aspartame prevents the karyomegaly induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrimont, I; Sostaric, B; Yenot, C; Betbeder, A M; Dano-Djedje, S; Sanni, A; Steyn, P S; Creppy, E E

    2001-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus as well as other moulds. This mycotoxin contaminates animal feed and food. OTA is immunosuppressive, genotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic and is nephrotoxic in all animal species studied so far. OTA inhibits protein synthesis and induces lipid peroxidation. Since it seems impossible to avoid completely contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, it is necessary to investigate the possible ways of limiting such toxicity. An attempt to prevent OTA-induced nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects, mainly the karyomegaly, has been made in vivo using aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester), a structural analogue of both OTA and phenylalanine. Aspartame (25 mg/kg body weight) prevented most of the nephrotoxic effects induced by OTA (289 microg/kg body weight). It also showed some utility in preventing morphological and histological damage, mainly the karyomegaly. The protective effects of aspartame on OTA-induced nephrotoxicity could be based on several mechanisms related to competitive binding to plasma proteins, to transport or tissue distribution in the kidney or to the elimination of the toxin in the urine.

  10. Spectroscopic and mechanistic investigations into oxidation of aspartame by diperiodatocuprate(III in aqueous alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant I. Gowda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of aspartame (ASP by diperiodatocuprate(III (DPC in aqueous alkaline medium at 298 K and a constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm−3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between aspartame and diperiodatocuprate(III in alkaline medium exhibits 1:6 stoichiometry in the reaction. The order of the reaction with respect to [diperiodatocuprate(III] was unity, while the apparent order with respect to [aspartame] was less than unity over the concentration range studied. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in [OH−] whereas the rate decreased with increase in [$ {\\text{IO}}^-_4 $]. Increasing the ionic strength of the medium increased the rate. The main products were identified by FT-IR, NMR, and LC-MS spectral studies. The probable mechanism was proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities were also calculated. Kinetic studies suggest that [Cu(H2IO6(H2O2] is the reactive species of Cu(III.

  11. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries.

  12. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  13. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  14. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  15. Aspartame-stabilized gold-silver bimetallic biocompatible nanostructures with plasmonic photothermal properties, antibacterial activity, and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciani, Chiara; Silvero, M Jazmin; Anghel, Maria Alexandra; Argüello, Gerardo A; Becerra, Maria Cecilia; Scaiano, Juan C

    2014-12-17

    Gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles stabilized with a common sweetener, aspartame (AuNP@Ag@Asm), combine the antimicrobial properties of silver with the photoinduced plasmon-mediated photothermal effects of gold. The particles were tested with several bacterial strains, while biocompatibility was verified with human dermal fibroblasts.

  16. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  17. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently.

  18. Enhancement of the aspartame precursor synthetic activity of an organic solvent-stable protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiroyasu; Tsuchiyama, Shotaro; Yasuda, Masahiro; Doukyu, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    The PST-01 protease is highly stable and catalyzes the synthesis of the aspartame precursor with high reaction yields in the presence of organic solvents. However, the synthesis rate using the PST-01 protease was slower than that observed when thermolysin was used. Structural comparison of both enzymes showed particular amino acid differences near the active center. These few residue differences in the PST-01 protease were mutated to match those amino acid types found in thermolysin. The mutated PST-01 proteases at the 114th residue from tyrosine to phenylalanine showed enhancement of synthetic activity. This activity was found to be similar to thermolysin. In addition, mutating the residue in the PST-01 protease with arginine and serine showed more improvement of the activity. The mutant PST-01 protease should be more useful than thermolysin for the synthesis of the aspartame precursor, because this enzyme has higher stability and activity in the presence of organic solvents. The results show the potential of organic solvent-stable enzymes as industrial catalysts.

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam telah disetujui oleh FDA untuk dikonsumsi. Konsumsi pemanis buatan ini menggunakan dosis ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake yaitu 50 mg/kgBB. Individu dengan diabetes melitus kemungkinan menjadi antusias terhadap adanya aspartam. Aspartam dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme profil lipid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan randomized post test only control group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 15 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif, kelompok kontrol positif, dan kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima (5 ekor tikus. Pemberian aspartam (dosis 315 mg/kgBB tikus diberikan kepada kelompok perlakuan selama empat (4 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL. Kadar LDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 30 ± 2 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 24 ± 2 mg/dl. Sedangkan kadar HDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 19 ± 1 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 22 ± 1 mg/dl. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada kadar LDL dan HDL antara kelompok kontrol positif dengan kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini adalah pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL.Kata kunci: aspartam, diabetes melitus, LDL, HDLAbstractAspartame has been approved by the FDA for consumption. Consumption of artificial sweeteners is using ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake dose which is 50 mg/kg. Individuals with diabetes mellitus would likely be enthusiastic consumers of aspartame. Aspartame can influence the metabolism of lipid profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on levels of LDL

  20. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity.

  1. Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

    1993-10-01

    An artificial sweetener, aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation σ, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of σ by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 σ 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 μm or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimycobacterial activity of Ag(I)-aspartame, Ag(I)-saccharin and Ag(I)-cyclamate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Maurício; Leite, Clarice Q F; Sato, Daisy N; Massabni, Antonio C

    2007-10-01

    The present work describes the synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of three Ag(I)-complexes with the sweeteners aspartame, saccharin, and cyclamate as ligands, with the aim of finding new candidate substances for fighting tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these three complexes was investigated in order to determine their in-vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium malmoense, and Mycobacterium kansasii. The MIC values were determined using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The best MIC values found for the complexes were 9.75 microM for Ag(I)-aspartame against M. kansasii and 15.7 microM for Ag(I)-cyclamate against M. tuberculosis.

  3. No Effect of Dietary Aspartame or Stevia on Pancreatic Acinar Carcinoma Development, Growth, or Induced Mortality in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James; Lagou, Vasiliki; Dresselaers, Tom; van Dongen, Katinka A.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Liston, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, largely due to a poor record for early detection. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include obesity, diet, and diabetes, implicating glucose consumption and regulation as a key player. The role of artificial sweeteners may therefore be pertinent to disease kinetics. The oncogenic impact of artificial sweeteners is a highly controversial area. Aspartame, one of the most studied food additives, is widely recognized as being generally safe, although there are still specific areas where research is incomplete due to study limitations. Stevia, by contrast, has been the subject of relatively few studies, and the potential health benefits are based on extrapolation rather than direct testing. Here, we used longitudinal tracking of pancreatic acinar carcinoma development, growth, and lethality in a sensitized mouse model. Despite exposure to aspartame and stevia from the in utero stage onward, we found no disease modification activity, in either direction. These results contribute to the data on aspartame and stevia safety, while also reducing confidence in several of the purported health benefits. PMID:28232906

  4. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  5. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  6. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marko D Prokić; Milica G Paunović; Miloš M Matić; Nataša Z Djordjević; Branka I Ognjanović; Andraš Š Štajn; Zorica S Saičić

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ОNОО−) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  7. Effect of aspartame on biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Marko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (ASP is one of the most widely used nonnutritive sweeteners. This study investigates the chronic effects of ASP on hematological and biochemical parameters, and its effects on the oxidative/antioxidative status in the red blood cells of Wistar albino rats. Rats were provided with ASP (40 mg/kg/daily for six weeks in drinking water. Increased food and fluid intake was observed in the ASP-treated rats. Total body mass was significantly decreased in the ASP-treated rats. Treatment with ASP caused an increase in the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, as well as a decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. A significant decline in the number of white blood cells (WBC was observed after ASP uptake. Based on the results we conclude that ASP induces oxidative stress, observed as an alteration of the glutathione redox status, which leads to increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO and lipid peroxides (LPO in the red blood cells. Changes in biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, as well as changes in the levels of oxidative stress markers and the appearance of signs of liver damage indicate that chronic use of ASP can lead to the development of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and associated diseases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  8. Engymatic synthesis of aspartame precursor in organic solvent; Yuki yobaichu deno asuparutemu zenkutai no koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-11-05

    Taking up the synthetic reaction of the precursor of artificial sweetener aspartame for which thermolysin is used as the catalyst, the features and problems of enzymatic reaction in organic solvent are discussed. It is found that immobilized enzyme which has high activity and stability can be prepared by adsorbing high concentration thermolysin in Amberlite XAD7 followed by bridge immobilization. The initial rate of the synthesis and the stability of immobilized enzyme depend on the types of solvents. Continuous reaction is attempted using a columnar ferment reactor (PFR) in ethyl acetate at the beginning, but the yield decreases in a short period because the immobilized enzyme lose its activity gradually from the upper area of the column where Z-Asp concentration is high. When CSTR (complete mixed type reactor) is used, deactivation of immobilized enzyme can be restricted because low Z-Asp concentration in the reactor can be maintained. It is demonstrated that continuous reaction of longer than 200 hours is possible although the reaction rate is as low as 90%. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  10. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution.

  11. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  12. A hydro/organo/hybrid gelator: a peptide lipid with turning aspartame head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Masaru; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Kogiso, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a novel bola-type peptide lipid which can gelate water, organic solvents, and water/organic-solvent mixtures. In its molecular structure, an amphiphilic dipeptide aspartame (L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is connected at both ends of an alkylene linker. The different morphologies in the hydrogel (helical nanotapes) and the organogel (tape-like nanostructures) were visualized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and energy-filtering scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the molecular arrangement was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Possessing a hydrophilic aspartic acid group and a (relatively) hydrophobic phenylalanine methyl ester group, the dipeptide head group can turn about in response to solvent polarity. As a consequence, the solvent condition changed the molecular packing of the gelator and affected the overall supramolecular structure of the gel. It is noted that the peptide lipid gelated mixed solvents of water and organic solvents such as dichloromethane, liquid-paraffin, olive-oil, silicone-oils, and so on. The present hybrid gel can simultaneously hold hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional materials.

  13. Removal of artificial sweetener aspartame from aqueous media by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng; Oturan, Nihal; Wu, Jie; Sharma, Virender K; Zhang, Hui; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-01

    The degradation and mineralization of aspartame (ASP) in aqueous solution were investigated, for the first time, by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in which hydroxyl radicals were formed concomitantly in the bulk from Fenton reaction via in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent and at the anode surface from the water oxidation. Experiments were performed in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of Fe(2+) concentration and applied current on the degradation and mineralization kinetics of ASP was evaluated. The absolute rate constant for the reaction between ASP and OH was determined as (5.23 ± 0.02) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) by using the competition kinetic method. Almost complete mineralization of ASP was achieved with BDD anode at 200 mA constant current electrolysis. The formation and generation of the formed carboxylic acids (as ultimate end products before complete mineralization) and released inorganic ion were monitored by ion-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography techniques, respectively. The global toxicity of the treated ASP solution during treatment was assessed by the Microtox(®) method using V. fischeri bacteria luminescence inhibition.

  14. The Study of Aspartame in Fruit%水果中阿斯巴甜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建秀; 刘东华; 石杰; 杜平

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the contents of phenylalanine,aspartic acid and aspartame in 8 kinds of fruits were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS).The content of methanol in these fruits was determined by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC).In addition,the simulation synthesis reaction of aspartame was carried out to further explore the existence of aspartame,phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol in the fruits and the concentration relationship between them.The results indicated that,aspartsme,phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol existed in all eight kinds of fruits.The contents of aspartame,aspartic acid,phenylalanine and methanol were 23.4-117 μg/kg,8.72-186mg/kg,1.84-84.2 mg/kg and 1.81-248 mg/kg,respectively.No obvious difference of the contents of aspartame was detected among the eight kinds of fruits.However,the contents of phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol had obvious differences among the investigated fruits.Hence,it was concluded that there was no significant correlation between aspartame contents and the other three's.%采用高效液相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱(HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS)对橙等8种水果中的苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和阿斯巴甜进行测定,采用气相顶空(HS-GC)对水果中的甲醇进行测定,并进行阿斯巴甜的模拟合成实验,研究在水果中是否存在阿斯巴甜及合成阿斯巴甜所必须的苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇以及它们之间的浓度关系.实验结果表明:8种水果中均含有阿斯巴甜、苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇.其中阿斯巴甜的含量为23.4~117 μg/kg,天冬氨酸含量为8.72~186 mg/kg,苯丙氨酸含量为1.84~84.2 mg/kg,甲醇含量为1.81~248mg/kg.不同水果中阿斯巴甜含量差异不大,而苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇的含量差异较大.阿斯巴甜的含量与苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇的含量无明显相关性.

  15. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  16. The effect of aspartame metabolites on human erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Stylianos; Giannoulia-Karantana, Aglaia; Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H

    2006-01-01

    Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) with neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in human erythrocyte membranes after incubation with the sum of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (met) and aspartic acid (aspt), or with each one separately. Erythrocyte membranes were obtained from 12 healthy individuals and were incubated with ASP hydrolysis products for 1 h at 37 degrees C. AChE was measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of membranes with ASP metabolites corresponding with 34 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of ASP consumption resulted in an enzyme activity reduction by -33%, -41%, and -57%, respectively. Met concentrations 0.14 mM, 0.60 mM, and 0.80 mM decreased the enzyme activity by -20%, -32% or -40%, respectively. Aspt concentrations 2.80 mM, 7.60 mM or 10.0 mM inhibited membrane AChE activity by -20%, -35%, and -47%, respectively. Phe concentrations 0.14 mM, 0.35 mM or 0.50mM reduced the enzyme activity by -11%, -33%, and -35%, respectively. Aspt or Phe concentrations 0.82 mM or 0.07 mM, respectively, did not alter the membrane AChE activity. It is concluded that low concentrations of ASP metabolites had no effect on the membrane enzyme activity, whereas high or toxic concentrations partially or remarkably decreased the membrane AChE activity, respectively. Additionally, neurological symptoms, including learning and memory processes, may be related to the high or toxic concentrations of the sweetener metabolites.

  17. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents.

  18. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  19. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development.

  20. Study on the thermalstability of aspartame%阿斯巴甜的热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 于淑娟

    2011-01-01

    Effects of high temperature on the content of aspartame and phenylalanine were examined through analyzing pH,reactive time and temperature.Method:through single-factor experiment including pH,reactive time and temperature,sample were produced in the high-pressure reactor.Then using the HPLC to detect the sample at 210nm.The results indicated that aspartame and phenylalanine were influenced by pH, reactive time and temperature,especially by pH and temperature.%研究分析了加热时间、温度和pH对于阿斯巴甜热稳定性的影响以及产物苯丙氨酸的产生与阿斯巴甜减少之间的对应关系.方法:通过单因素实验(包括反应时间、温度和pH),在高压反应釜中进行反应来制备样品;HPLC在210nm波长处进行检测.结果表明:阿斯巴甜和苯丙氨酸受反应温度、pH和反应时间的影响,其中温度和pH影响较大.

  1. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  2. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  3. Determinação espectrofotométrica de aspartame em adoçantes por injeção em fluxo usando um reator em fase sólida contendo fosfato de zinco imobilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Airton Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for determining aspartame in sweeteners. Sample was dissolved in water and 250 µL of the solution was injected into a carrier stream of 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 sodium borate solution. The sample flowed through a column (14 cm x 2.0 mm packed with Zn3(PO42 immobilized in a polymeric matrix of polyester resin and Zn(II ions were released from the solid-phase reactor by formation of the Zn(II-aspartame complex. The mixture merged with a stream of borate buffer solution (pH 9.0 containing 0.030 % (m/v alizarin red S and the Zn(II-alizarin red complex formed was measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. The calibration graph for aspartame was linear in the concentration range from 10 to 80 µg mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 µg mL-1 of aspartame. The RSD was 0.3 % for a solution containing 40 µg mL-1 aspartame (n = 10 and seventy results were obtained per hour. The proposed method was applied for determining aspartame in commercial sweeteners.

  4. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

    2003-02-01

    Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate

  5. Anti-neuroinflammatory and antioxidant effects of N-acetyl cysteine in long-term consumption of artificial sweetener aspartame in the rat cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

    2015-10-01

    Long term consumption of the artificial sweetener aspartame (ASP induced large increments in cortical inflammation and oxidative stress. Daily oral NAC administration can significantly reverse brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels, blocked the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production with selective attenuation in expression of proinflammatory cytokines of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the rat cerebral cortex. Also, NAC can significantly replenish and correct intracellular glutathione (GSH levels, modulate the elevated levels of total nitric oxide (TNO and lipid peroxidation (LPO. Conclusions: The present results amply support the concept that the brain oxidative stress and inflammation coexist in experimental animals chronically treated with aspartame and they represent two distinct therapeutic targets in ASP toxicity. The present data propose that NAC attenuated ASP neurotoxicity and improved neurological functions, suppressed brain inflammation, and oxidative stress responses and may be a useful strategy for treating ASP-induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Simultaneous determination of saccharin and aspartame in commercial noncaloric sweeteners using the PLS-2 multivariate calibration method and validation by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarelli, Miguel A; Pellerano, Roberto G; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Camiña, José M

    2008-10-22

    A new method to determine a mixture for sweetener sodium saccharin and aspartame in commercial noncaloric sweeteners is proposed. A classical full factorial design for standards was used in the calibration step to build the partial least-squares (PLS-2) model. Instrumental data were obtained by means of UV-visible spectrophotometry. Salicylic acid was used as an internal standard to evaluate the adjustment of the real samples to the PLS model. The concentration of analytes in the commercial samples was evaluated using the obtained model by UV spectral data. The PLS-2 method was validated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), finding in all cases a relative error of less than 11% between the PLS-2 and the CZE methods. The proposed procedure was applied successfully to the determination of saccharin and aspartame in noncaloric commercial sweeteners.

  7. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine.

  8. Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive. After the end of the public consultation on the draft opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951 (15th February 2013, the cut-off date for the inclusion of new literature in the assessment, two papers were brought to the attention of EFSA as relevant for the evaluation of aspartame. One was the evaluation by Gift et al. (2013 of several studies carried out by the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF and the second was the Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer by the US-EPA. The Panel noted that the Gift et al. (2013 review of the ERF studies is consistent with EFSA’s conclusions on the lack of carcinogenic activity of aspartame. The Panel also analysed US-EPA’s Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer in the context of the safety assessment of aspartame. The Panel noted that the combination of the endpoint used, a benchmark dose response (BMR of 5% and the uncertainty factors applied, resulted in a Reference Dose (RfD for exogenous methanol of 2 mg/kg bw/day that was overly conservative. This RfD was by definition in addition to dietary intakes of methanol which were included in the background exposure estimates used by the US EPA. Taking all these factors into consideration, the Panel concluded that the toxicological review of methanol by US-EPA and the review by Gift et al. (2013 do not alter the conclusions on the risk assessment of aspartame performed by EFSA. EFSA confirmed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg bw/day.

  9. Effects of long-term ingestion of aspartame on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, plasma leptin and body weight gain and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard; Burlet, Arlette; Max, Jean Pierre; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the chronic ingestion of aspartame (ASP) on brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentrations, plasma hormones, food intake and body fat. Two groups of male Long-Evans rats, fed on a control (C) well-balanced diet, had to drink either a 0.1% ASP solution or water for a period of 14 weeks starting at weaning. Food intake and body weight were weekly recorded. At the end of the experiment, fat pads were sampled, leptin and insulin were measured in the plasma and NPY in several microdissected brain areas. Substituting ASP for water led to lower body weight (-8%; Pplasma insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced by 34% (Pcomposition could be related to the decreased effects of NPY on lipid and energy metabolism, independently of insulin. The reasons for the NPY decrease (regulatory or toxicological) are not obvious. The constitutive amino acids of the ASP molecule might participate in the NPY regulation.

  10. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  11. HPLC法同时测定口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜%Determination of aspartame and alitame in Chewing gums by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋定国; 方从容; 杨大进

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To establish the determination method of aspartame and alitame in the chewing gums. Methods: To dissolve gum with n - hexane and to extract aspartame and alitame with water, the chromatographic column was Zorbax SB - Clg and the mobile phase was methanol/water (45 +55, volume ratio), the detection wavelength was at 208 nm from the diode array detector. Results: Limit of quantification of aspartame and alitame were 12 mg/kg and 13 mg/kg, respectively, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range were linear, the correlation coefficients were better than 0. 9997, the average rate of recovery were between 98. 9% and 100. 3% , the relative standard deviations were less than 3.8%. Conclusion; The method is simple, practical and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in chewing gum from various brands on the market.%目的:建立口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检测方法.方法:采用正己烷溶解胶基和水提取阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,以Zorbax SB-C18为色谱柱和以甲醇/水(45 +55,体积比)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器在200 nm处进行检测.结果:阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的定量限分别为12 mg/kg和13 mg/kg,标准曲线线性良好,相关系数大于0.9997,平均回收率为在98.9%~100.3%之间,相对标准偏差小于3.8%.结论:该方法简单实用,而且适用于市场上各品牌的口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的测定.

  12. Measuring the Reward Value of Aspartame-Sweetened Yogurt Shake via Continuous and Progressive Ratio Schedules in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Gondek-Brown

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for measuring the reward value of food. Potentially, this methodology may help determine why people tend to regain weight after stopping a diet program. Human subjects were given aspartame-sweetened yogurt shake and non-sweet yogurt shake on continuous, or uninhibited, and progressive ratio, or inhibited for increasing intervals, schedules. It was expected that subjects would consume more of the sweet than non-sweet shake on each schedule, and that the progressive ratio schedule would amplify the difference between intake of sweet and non-sweet shake. For males and females together, intake measured reward value only on the continuous schedule. Also, males consumed significantly higher quantities of both sweet and non-sweet shake than females on the continuous schedule, indicating that males may consume markedly more than females only when the food is easily obtained. A second variable, post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale, measured reward value for both sexes together on the continuous schedule, and for females, also on the progressive ratio schedule. This variable predicted intake in females, suggesting that females place more emphasis on taste in determining intake than do males. On the continuous schedule, a one-point increase on the nine-point palatability scale corresponded to a 100 gram intake increase. Ultimately, the study showed that when there is no obstacle to obtaining the reinforcer, intake and post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale predict reward value, and that males and females stress different factors in deciding how much to consume.

  13. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  14. Neurotropic effects of aspartame, stevia and sucralose on memory retention and on the histology of the hippocampus of the ICR mice(Mus musculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lejan Miguel Alabastro Villareal; Rachelle Anne Montes Cruz; Michael Bagui Ples; Rodel Jonathan Santos Vitor Ⅱ

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the effects of the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners on memory retention and on the histology of the hippocampus.Methods: In this study, 20 mice were used to determine if there is an effect of consuming the maximum allowable dose of the non-nutritive sweeteners on the memory retention and on the histology of the hippocampus. The mice were distributed into four groups and the treatments were given via oral gavage: Group 1(water), Group 2(aspartame: 1 000 mg/kg), Group 3(stevia: 1 000 mg/kg) and Group 4(sucralose:16 000 mg/kg). Treatments were administered to the different experimental groups for 32 days, after which memory retention was tested using the two-day water maze protocol.After the tests, the mice were sacrificed and the brain was analyzed histologically for neurotrophic effects.Results: Based on the results of the two-day water maze protocol, there were no differences between the non-nutritive sweeteners and the control group. However, stevia showed high cellular apoptosis followed by aspartame, sucralose and control group.Conclusions: There was no significant effect on the memory of the mice. It showed histologically however, that stevia had a significant neurotropic effect compared to the other sweeteners.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  16. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  17. Inhibition of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase may explain how aspartame promotes glucose intolerance and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sarah S; Hamilton, A Rebecca L; Munoz, Alexander R; Phupitakphol, Tanit; Liu, Wei; Hyoju, Sanjiv K; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Morrison, Sara; Hu, Dong; Zhang, Weifeng; Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Huo, Haizhong; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Diet soda consumption has not been associated with tangible weight loss. Aspartame (ASP) commonly substitutes sugar and one of its breakdown products is phenylalanine (PHE), a known inhibitor of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut enzyme shown to prevent metabolic syndrome in mice. We hypothesized that ASP consumption might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome based on PHE's inhibition of endogenous IAP. The design of the study was such that for the in vitro model, IAP was added to diet and regular soda, and IAP activity was measured. For the acute model, a closed bowel loop was created in mice. ASP or water was instilled into it and IAP activity was measured. For the chronic model, mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without ASP in the drinking water for 18 weeks. The results were that for the in vitro study, IAP activity was lower (p < 0.05) in solutions containing ASP compared with controls. For the acute model, endogenous IAP activity was reduced by 50% in the ASP group compared with controls (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.4 ± 0.24) (p = 0.02). For the chronic model, mice in the HFD + ASP group gained more weight compared with the HFD + water group (48.1 ± 1.6 vs 42.4 ± 3.1, p = 0.0001). Significant difference in glucose intolerance between the HFD ± ASP groups (53 913 ± 4000.58 (mg·min)/dL vs 42 003.75 ± 5331.61 (mg·min)/dL, respectively, p = 0.02). Fasting glucose and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly higher in the HFD + ASP group (1.23- and 0.87-fold increases, respectively, p = 0.006 and p = 0.01). In conclusion, endogenous IAP's protective effects in regard to the metabolic syndrome may be inhibited by PHE, a metabolite of ASP, perhaps explaining the lack of expected weight loss and metabolic improvements associated with diet drinks.

  18. Stability considerations of aspartame in the direct analysis of artificial sweeteners in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berset, Jean-Daniel; Ochsenbein, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS method is presented for the simultaneous determination of frequently used artificial sweeteners (ASs) and the main metabolite of aspartame (ASP), diketopiperazine (DKP), in environmental water samples using the direct-injection (DI) technique, thereby achieving limits of quantification (LOQ) of 10 ng L(-1). For a reliable quantification of ASP pH should be adjusted to 4.3 to prevent formation of the metabolite. Acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC) and sucralose (SUC) were ubiquitously found in water samples. Highest concentrations up to 61 μg L(-1) of ACE were found in wastewater effluents, followed by surface water with concentrations up to 7 μg L(-1), lakes up to 600 ng L(-1) and groundwater and tap water up to 70 ng L(-1). The metabolite DKP was only detected in wastewater up to 200 ng L(-1) and at low detection frequencies.

  19. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame, amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effect of artificial edulcorant l-aspartil-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame, widely used in hypocaloric and low-glucose diets. Such effect may reflect cell response to genetic damage, induced by artificial edulcorant in the cell cycle G2 period and shows its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes, previously present in heterozygosis

  20. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame) em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame) in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    OpenAIRE

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado; Munif Gebara; Carmem Boto Querol; Josil Santos Gebara

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame), amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effe...

  1. Avaliação dos efeitos do aspartame sobre a ingestão alimentar, os parâmetros físicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado um aumento no consumo de alimentos diet e light por adolescentes ou por aqueles que estão à procura de uma alimentação com baixo teor calórico, surgindo, assim, diversos edulcorantes, como o aspartame. Porém, seu consumo ainda gera polêmica, devido a muitos dados contraditórios e inconclusivos. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de aspartame sobre ingestão alimentar, parâmetros físicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos em 18 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, com cinco semanas de vida (ratos jovens, tratados durante 21 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC - tratados com água destilada por gavagem, e o grupo aspartame (GA - tratados diariamente com 2mL/100g/dia de aspartame. Todos os animais receberam ração comercial (Essence(r e água ad libitum. O controle da ingestão alimentar foi registrado semanalmente. Foram aferidos os parâmetros físicos por meio da análise do peso corporal, da circunferência toráxica, da circunferência abdominal, do comprimento vértice-cóccix, da gordura abdominal total e do cálculo do índice de massa corporal; os parâmetros bioquímicos foram analisados por meio da glicemia, da lipoproteína de alta densidade e dos triglicerídeos; além de tais análises, foi realizado o estudo histopatológico do fígado. Durante todo o experimento, os ratos tratados com aspartame apresentaram um aumento significativo no peso corpóreo e na ingestão alimentar quando comparados ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença nas demais análises tanto físicas, quanto bioquímicas e histopatológicas comparando-se o GA com o GC (P<0,05. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível inferir uma maior chance de desenvolvimento da obesidade, oriunda do consumo regular desse tipo de adoçante, já que ele comprovou ser capaz de estimular o consumo de alimentos e, consequentemente, o ganho de peso corpóreo.

  2. 如何完善阿斯巴甜检验标准的检验方法%How to improve the detecting method of aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小根; 丁敖星; 叶爱英; 蒋龙

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0 前言 阿斯巴甜,英文名为ASPARTAME,化学名为天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(简称APM),是当前用途较为广泛的食品添加剂.在食品中的使用功能为:增甜剂、糖类替代物、调味剂,甜度为糖的200倍.阿斯巴甜为白色结晶性粉末,无异味,能溶解于水,微溶于酒精,无副作用,其水溶液在40℃以上易分解而失去甜味.目前在食品加工行业主要用于软饮料如"可乐”等各种液体饮料、口香糖、咖啡、药用糖衣等,起调味与增甜作用,可作为较理想的蔗糖替代物,适合糖尿病患者食用.

  3. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%.

  4. 高效液相色谱法测定茶饮料中的阿斯巴甜含量%Determination of Content of Aspartame in Tea Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘郁; 刘连新; 燕传勇; 李德峰

    2012-01-01

    To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination content of Aspartame in tea beverages ,20 μL samples were tested on a thermo C18 column using 0.01 mol-L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (40:60) as mobile phase was with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 210nm.The results showed that Aspartame concentration had good liner relationship within the range of 0~50 ug/mL (Y=52139X (0~50 μg/mL, R=0.9994). The average recovery was 100.3% with RSD of 0.33%.The method was simple, fast, accurate, and precise, which could be used to determine content of aspartame in tea beverages.%本文建立了HPLC测定茶饮料中阿斯巴甜含量的方法,采用色谱柱:THERMO C18(4.6×250 mm,5μm),检测波长:210nm,流量:1.0 mL/min,进样量:20μL,流动相:0.01 mol/L磷酸二氢钾-乙腈为85:15.结果表明:阿斯巴甜在0~50 μg/mL范围内呈现良好的线性关系,Y=52139X(0~50 μg/mL)(R=0.9994).平均回收率100.3%,RSD=0.33%.本方法简单,快速、准确、重现性好,可以用作茶饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量测定.

  5. Simultaneous determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋定国; 方从容; 杨大进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a determination method for aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits. Methods Aspartame and alitame in jellies were extracted with 80% methanol at 70℃. Preserved fruits were homogenized with water and then were extracted with 50% methanol. A chromatographic column Zorbax SB-C18 was used; the mobile phase was methanol/water (40 +60, volume ratio) , and a diode array detector was used for the detection at wavelength 200nm. Results The limits of quantification of aspartame and alitame were both 8mg/kg for jellies and both 20mg/kg for preserved fruits; the calibration curves were linear in the range of tested concentration. The correlation coefficients were better than 0. 9996. The average recovery rates were in the range of 98. 1 % -101. 2% , the relative standard deviations were 2. 21% -4. 10% Conclusion The method is simple, practical, accurate, reliable and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits from various brands on markets.%目的 建立果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检测方法.方法 在70℃下用80%甲醇水提取果冻中的阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,蜜饯类食品经过加水匀浆后用50%甲醇水提取阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,并以Zorbax SB-C18为色谱柱和以甲醇/水(体积比:40+ 60)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器在200nm处进行检测.结果 果冻中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检出限均为8mg/kg,蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检出限均为20mg/kg,方法的标准曲线线性良好,相关系数大于0.9996,平均回收率在98.1%~101.2%之间,相对标准偏差在2.21% ~4.10%之间.结论 该方法简单实用和准确可靠,适用于常见的果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的测定.

  6. A facile HPLC method for optical purity and quantitative measurements of phenylalanine from the hydrolyzed aspartame under different pH and temperature after its derivatization with a fluorescent reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsien, T-J; Chen, S

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the artificial sweetener aspartame is deliberately hydrolyzed under different pH and temperature in the matrix, and time period for the hydrolysis. The HPLC analysis is then performed to quantitatively measure the amount and the optical purity of phenylalanine produced as a result of hydrolysis in the matrix after its functionalization with a fluorescent reagent. The results show that the amount of phenylalanine in the matrix is affected by the pH variation during the hydrolysis and found increased in low pH conditions. High temperature or long time periods for the decomposition also increases the amount, which indicates that beverages and foods containing aspartame as a sweetener may not be safe for phenylketonuria patients to consume if they are stored under these conditions. Conversely, the optical purity of phenylalanine, expressed as the percentage of D: -enantiomer, is not affected by pH variations. However, it decreases as the length of time elapsed is increased or surrounding temperature is elevated during the decomposition.

  7. HPLC法测定饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜%Determination of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳; 刘赐敏; 周金森; 刘钰钗

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for detecting acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks by HPLC.Methods: After pretreatment, the separation was performed on VP - ODS C18 column with 0.02 mol/L ( NH4 )2SO4/CH3OH/CH3CN/10% H2SO4 ( 800∶150∶ 49∶ 1, v/v) as the mobile phase and detected at the wavelength of 214 nm.Results:The linear range was 0.004 mg/ml ~ 0.020 mg/ml for acesulfame potassium and adsaccharin sodium, respectively (r > 0.999),while aspartame was 0.004 mg/ml ~ 0.025 mg/ml ( r > 0.999 ).The detection limits of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame were 0.4 mg/kg, 0.6 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively.The recoveries of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame were 98.0% ~ 101.7%, 99.7% ~ 100.8% and 100.1% ~ 102.8%, respectively, and the RSD of the method was less than 1.0%.Conclusion: The proposed method was simple, reliable and sensitive for the determination of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks.%目的:建立HPLC法测定饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜的方法.方法:样品经前处理后,以0.02 moL/L硫酸铵:甲醇:乙腈:10%硫酸(800:150:49:1)为流动相,经VP-ODS柱分离,于214nm检测.结果:安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜分别在在0.004 mg/ml~0.020 mg/ml时相关系数均0.999,糖精钠在0.004 mg/ml~0.025 mg/ml相关系数大于0.999,安赛蜜,糖精钠,阿斯巴甜最低检出浓度分别为0.4 mg/kg,0.6 mg/kg,0.5 mg/kg,实际样品的方法回收率分别为98.0%~101.2%,93.2%~96.8%,98.8%~102.2%;相对标准偏差小于1%.结论:此法简便、准确、灵敏,可用于饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜的同时测定.

  8. HPLC 法测定小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒中阿斯帕坦的含量%Determination of Aspartame in Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin Granule by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菲

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒中阿斯帕坦的高效液相色谱测定方法。方法:采用 AgiLent Zorbax SB-C18(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.05 mol·L -1磷酸(20∶80)为流动相,流速为1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为204 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为10μl。结果:阿斯帕坦在21.72~868.67μg·ml -1浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系(r =1.0000),平均回收率为99.36%(RSD =0.3%,n =6)。结论:该方法稳定性和重复性均较好,可用于测定小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒的质量控制。%Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of aspartame in Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin granule. Methods:An Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm)was used with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0. 05 mol·L -1 H3 PO4(20 ∶80). The flow rate was 1. 0 ml ·min -1 and the detection wavelength was 204 nm. The column temperature was 25℃ and the injection volume was 10 μl. Results:Aspartame had a good linear relationship within the range of 21. 72- 868. 67 μg · ml -1(r = 1. 000 0). The average recovery of aspartame was 99. 36% and RSD was 0. 3% (n = 6). Conclusion:The method has good stability and repeatability,and is suitable for the quality control of Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin granule.

  9. Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Arana Nicolás, E; García-Jiménez, J F

    2006-05-01

    An integrated solid-phase spectrophotometry-FIA method is proposed for simultaneous determination of the mixture of saccharin (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide; E-954) (SA) and aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; E-951) (AS). The procedure is based on on-line preconcentration of AS on a C18 silica gel minicolumn and separation from SA, followed by measurement, at lambda = 210 nm, of the absorbance of SA which is transiently retained on the adsorbent Sephadex G-25 placed in the flow-through cell of a monochannel FIA setup using pH 3.0 orthophosphoric acid-dihydrogen phosphate buffer, 3.75x10(-3) mol L(-1), as carrier. Subsequent desorption of AS with methanol enables its determination at lambda = 205 nm. With a sampling frequency of 10 h(-1), the applicable concentration range, the detection limit, and the relative standard deviation were from 1.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 0.30 microg mL(-1), and 1.0% (80 microg mL(-1), n = 10), respectively, for SA and from 10.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 1.4 microg mL(-1), and 1.6% (100 microg mL(-1), n = 10) for AS. The method was used to determine the amounts of aspartame and saccharin in sweets and drinks. Recovery was always between 99 and 101%. The method enabled satisfactory determination of blends of SA and AS in low-calorie and dietary products and the results were compared with those from an HPLC reference method.

  10. 高效液相色谱法检测饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量的不确定度评估%Evaluation on Uncertainty of Determining Aspartame in Beverage by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩霞; 舒勇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]评估高效液相色谱法检测饮料中阿斯巴甜含量的不确定度.[方法]用高效液相色谱法测定饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量,对整个测量过程的不确定度来源进行分析,并对不确定度各分量进行了评估和合成.[结果]用GB/T 22254-2008方法重复6次测定饮料中阿斯巴甜平均含量为(0.806±0.038)g/kg,k=2.影响过程不确定度的主要来源为样品称量过程、样品定容体积所引入标准溶液的配制过程、拟合标准曲线所引入的不确定度.①标准工作液的不确定度.标准工作液的合成不确定度为0.013 9,包括标准样品纯度引入的不确定度0.005 8、标准物质称量引入的标准不确定度1.49×10-4、阿斯巴甜标准储备液配制过程中玻璃器具校准产生的相对不确定度0.007 88、标准工作溶液配制过程中玻璃器具校准产生的不确定度0.009 9.②样品试样制备过程引入的不确定度.包括样品称量过程的相对标准不确定度0.009和样品定容过程引入的不确定度0.000 78.③标准曲线拟合过程不确定度.曲线拟合的相对不确定度为0.002 46.阿斯巴甜测定结果的不确定度为0.017 0,合成总的相对标准不确定度为0.023 9,扩展标准不确定度为0.019.[结论]标准溶液、标准曲线和重复性的不确定度分量是不确定度的主要来源,待测样品的称量和定容的不确定度分量占的比例不大.%[Objective] The aim was to evaluate the uncertainty of determining aspartame in beverage by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [Method] The content of aspartame in beverage was determined by HPLC, then the source of uncertainty in the whole determination process was analyzed, and each component of uncertainty was evaluated and combined. [Result] Through 6 repeated determinations by the method in GB/T 22254-2008 "Determination of Aspartame in Food", the average content of aspartame in beverage was (0.806±0.038) g/kg, and k=2. The main

  11. 阿斯巴甜及其组分对小鼠餐后血糖的影响%Effect of aspartame and its compositions on postprandial glucose metabolism in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆; 王觐; 刘英华; 张永; 张新胜; 薛长勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of aspartame and its compositions on postprandial glucose metabolism in Kunming and KKAy mice. Methods Kunming and KKAy mice were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, 12 in each group. Mice in intervention group received intra-gastric aspartame or its composition(aspartic acid or phenylalanine at the dose of 2mg/(g · kg) plus glucose or starch, while those in control group received only glucose or starch at the dose of 2mg/(g · kg). Blood samples were collected from vena caudalis of the mice and blood glucose level was measured in mice 0.5,1 and 2h after intra-gastric intervention with drugs. Blood glucose level and AUC at different intervention time points were compared between two groups. Results Glucose tolerance test and starch tolerance test showed that the blood glucose level and AUC at different intervention time points were significantly lower in intervention group than in control group. Conclusion Aspartame and its compositions(aspartic acid and phenylalanine) can decrease the postprandial glucose level and AUC in Kunming or KKAy mice.%目的 观察甜味剂阿斯巴甜及其组分天冬氨酸和苯丙氨酸对昆明(km)小鼠和KKAy糖尿病小鼠糖代谢的影响.方法 将km小鼠和KKAy糖尿病小鼠分别按空腹血糖随机分为2组,每组12只;干预组灌胃给予2mg/g阿斯巴甜或天冬氨酸或苯丙氨酸+2mg/g葡萄糖或淀粉,对照组灌胃给予2mg/g葡萄糖或淀粉.尾静脉采血检测灌胃后0.5h、1h和2h血糖,比较各个时间点血糖和血糖曲线下面积(AUC).结果 与对照组比较,阿斯巴甜组km鼠葡萄糖耐量实验餐后0.5h血糖及淀粉耐量实验餐后1h血糖均有明显下降,KKAy鼠在葡萄糖耐量和淀粉耐量实验中餐后0.5h、1h血糖和AUC均有显著下降;与对照组比较,天冬氨酸组在km鼠葡萄糖耐量和淀粉耐量实验中餐后0.5h、1h血糖和AUC均有显著下降,KKAy鼠淀粉耐量实验餐后0.5h、1h、2h血

  12. Determination of Aspartame in Diet Coke Samples by RP-HPLC on Titania%钛胶柱反相高效液相色谱法测定饮料中的阿斯巴甜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包荣; 李荣; 谭津; 姜子涛

    2012-01-01

    建立基于钛胶柱对无糖可乐中甜味剂阿斯巴甜的高效液相色谱快速测定方法。色谱条件:分离柱为TitaniaSachtopore-RP柱(250mm×4.6m,5μm),柱温70℃,流动相为V[15mmol/L磷酸铵缓冲溶液,(NH4)2HPO4:NH4H2PO4=6:4;10mmol/L氟化铵]-V(甲醇)=70:30,流速1mL/min,检测波长217nm。线性范围为10~2500μg/mL,最低检出限为0.08μg/mL,回收率为92.5%~97.4%,相对标准偏差(n=8)小于0.72%。本法准确度和精密度均可满足饮料中阿斯巴甜的测定要求。%A method to determine aspartame in diet coke by high performance liquid chromatography on a titania column was described in this paper.The samples were separated on a titania Sachtopore-RP column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm at 70 ℃ using 15 mmol/L ammonium phosphate buffer((NH4)2HPO4:NH4H2PO4=6:4) added with 10 mmol/L ammonium fluoride and methanol in the ratio of 70 to 30 as mobile phase.The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 217 nm.The linear range of the method was 10-2500 μg/mL with a Detection limit of 0.08μg/mL.The recoveries of the method were between 92.5% and 97.4%.The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 0.72%.The method is simple,fast,accurate and precise and may be used in the determination of aspartame in drinks.

  13. Aspartame affects the electrical activity of projection neurons in central nervous system by inhibiting the calcium channel current in Drosophila%阿斯巴甜抑制钙通道电流影响果蝇中枢投射神经元电活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 齐旻悦; 吴诗哲; 顾怀宇

    2016-01-01

    目的:从突触水平检验不同浓度的阿斯巴甜对果蝇中枢神经元影响及作用机制,为进一步探究阿斯巴甜生物安全性提供支持。方法采用膜片钳全细胞记录的方法,通过离子通道的阻断与分离,分别记录给药前后果蝇投射神经元(PN)的胆碱能突触微小兴奋性电流(mEPSC)、钙离子通道电流和钙通道瞬时电流密度,统计并分析mEPSC幅值和频率,以及钙通道电流峰值和瞬时电流密度。结果与给药前相比,8μg/ml阿斯巴甜会降低果蝇PN的mEPSC频率(t=22.05,P<0.01)、钙电流峰值(t=5.01,P<0.01)和瞬时电流密度(t=2.68,P<0.05);2μg/ml阿斯巴甜会降低果蝇PN的mEPSC频率(t=3.15,P<0.05),其他实验指标差异则无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论一定浓度的阿斯巴甜可影响果蝇中枢投射神经元的电活动,并且该作用可能是通过影响钙电流而实现的。%Objective To study the effect of different concentrations of aspartame in Drosophila central nervous system , especially to the electrical activity of projection neuron (PN), and evaluate the biological security of aspartame and neural mechanism. Methods The whole-cell electrophysiological signals of projection neurons in Drosophila was detected by patch clamp. The recordings of mini excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) and calcium currents were performed in both pre-and post-of aspartame treatment. Results Aspartame treatments with 8 μg/ml could reduce the frequency of mEPSC (t=22.05, P0.05) at the same time. In addition, there have no statistically significant in aspartame treatments with 2μg/ml experimental groups except for the frequency of mEPSC (t=3.15, P<0.05). Conclusion There has a range of aspartame concentration can significantly affect the electrical activity of projection neurons in Drosophila central nervous system, which could be effective via the calcium

  14. 纳滤膜法处理阿斯巴甜高含盐有机废水试验%Experiment of treating aspartame hypersaline amino acids wastewater using nanofiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 蒋枫; 魏雅宁; 崔磊; 姚洪齐; 徐晨; 许伟刚

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain the appropriate operating parameters in treating aspartame hypersaline amino acids wastewater using nanofiltration membrane, the experimental device was built. Experimental investigation was carried out to explore the separation performance of average permeate flux, the volume concentration ratio,amino acid retention, sodium chloride removal rate and amino acid recovery rate under different experimental conditions. Experimental parameter conditions were as follows:when inlet pressure was 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8, 3.2 MPa, pH value was 6.8~7.5, temperature was 40℃and feed flow rate was 0.1m/s;when temperature was 30, 35, 40, 45, 50℃, inlet pressure was 2.4 MPa, pH value was 6.8~7.5 and feed flow rate was 0.1 m/s;when pH value was 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, inlet pressure was 2.4 MPa, temperature was 40℃and feed flow rate was 0.1m/s;when feed flow rate was 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 m/s, pressure was 2.4 MPa, temperature was 40℃, pH value was 6.8~7.5. The results show that the inlet pressure, temperature, pH and feed flow rate have different effects on nanofiltration membrane separation performance. When inlet pressure increases, the average permeate flux, volume concentration ratio, sodium chloride removal rate and amino acid retention increase, while amino acid recovery rate decreases slightly. When temperature increases, average permeate flux, volume concentration ratio and sodium chloride removal rate increase, while amino acid retention and amino acid recovery rate decrease. When pH value increases, average permeate flux, volume concentration ratio and sodium chloride removal rate increase, and there is a peak in pH value of 6. Then with the increase of pH value, average permeate flux, volume concentration ratio and sodium chloride removal rate decrease, while amino acid retention and amino acid recovery rate increase. When feed flow rate increases, average permeate flux, volume concentration ratio,sodium chloride removal rate increase. But when feed

  15. 高效液相色谱法测定果冻中阿斯巴甜含量的不确定度评定%Assessment of the uncertainties in the determination of aspartame content in fruit jelly by UPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠一; 李燕; 吴帅

    2016-01-01

    按照JJF 1059.1—2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的方法,建立高效液相色谱法测定果冻中阿斯巴甜含量的数学模型,分析其中各不确定度分量的来源,并对其分别进行量化,最终合成果冻中阿斯巴甜含量测定结果的不确定度。通过分析得出,引入不确定度的主要分量有标准溶液的配制操作、标准曲线的拟合过程、试样前处理操作等。果冻中阿斯巴甜含量测定结果可表示为(0.58±0.01) g/kg, k=2。%According to the approach in Measurement Uncertainty and Results Indication (JJF 1059.1—2012) , a mathematical model had been set up to assess the uncertainties in the determination of aspartame content in fruit jelly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The source of each uncertainty in the mathematical model was analyzed, quantified and synthesized. Results indicated that main influence factors of the uncertainties in the determination were the preparation of standard solution, standard curve fitting process and sample pretreatment. The content of aspartame in fruit jelly could be shown as (0.58±0.01) g/kg, k=2.

  16. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  17. 徐淑臻韩雪田俊楠吴寨陈忠秀%Mechanism behind the Inhibition of Sweetness Intensity of Aspartame by Guar Gum and Locust Bean Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑臻; 韩雪; 田俊楠; 吴寨; 陈忠秀

    2014-01-01

    s: Current research on the effects of macromolecular hydrocol oids on sweetness is mainly focused on the properties of hydrocol oids and their texture-taste interactions. In this paper, the influence of two kinds of nonionic food hydrocol oids, Guar gum (GG) and Locust bean gum (LBG) on the taste of aspartame (APM) was studied. Sensory evaluation revealed high concentrations of GG and LBG significantly inhibited the sweetness intensity of APM, especial y when their concentrations were higher than C* (coil overlap concentration). The mechanism of this phenomenon was investigated using an artificial taste receptor model and isothermal titration calorimetry. The association constant for APM, determined by the artificial taste receptor model, decreased in the presence of GG and LBG. More bound water was found in GG and LBG with an increase in the hydrocol oid concentration, especial y at higher than C*. Additionally, water diffusion was hampered and this contributed to the lower sweetness intensity. We thus determined the influence of the hydrocol oid on the binding of sweeteners with the receptor, its water mobility as wel as its diffusion behavior in the hydrocol oidal texture. The information obtained enables an understanding of the mechanism behind the effects of macromolecular hydrocol oids on taste.%目前大分子水溶胶对于味觉物质的影响机制研究主要集中于胶体自身的性质以及胶体结构与味物质的相互作用。本文选择了食品中常用的瓜儿豆胶(GG)和刺槐豆胶(LBG),研究了这两种非离子水溶胶对甜味剂阿斯巴甜(APM)感官甜度的影响,并探索了其中的物理化学机制。感官实验结果表明,高浓度的瓜儿豆胶和刺槐豆胶对阿斯巴甜的甜度有抑制作用,且随着水溶胶浓度的增高,达到高分子临界交叠浓度C*后,抑制作用更明显。基于人工受体模型,利用等温滴定量热(ITC)技术发现,两种水溶胶存在条件下阿斯巴甜与

  18. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.

  19. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  20. 分光光度法测定酶促合成产物Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许激扬; 孙亚欣

    1997-01-01

    一种简便的分光光度法测定Aspartame,以茚三酮试验为显色剂,在575nm波长处比色,在4 ̄20μg/ml浓度范围内,Aspartame标准曲线呈线性关系,相关系数r=0.9992。本文方法用于测定嗜热菌蛋白酶酶促合成产物Aspartame,并将结果与滴定法作了比较。

  1. 短小杆菌酶促合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时海

    1998-01-01

    研究多种因素对短小杆菌酶催化L-天冬氨酸(L-Asp)和L-苯丙氨酸甲酯(L-PheOMe)合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame能力的影响。结果表明,反应最适pH为6.0,最适温度为40℃,反应10h,催化能力为0.475g APM/g菌体,产率80.5%,收率81.05%。

  2. 天冬天精的合成%Synthesis of Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金石; 徐浙龙; 黄金花

    2004-01-01

    本文通过全新的合成路线,以L-苯丙氨酸为起始化合物,经过甲酯化、游离、成内酐、缩合、水解、精制等6步反应得到天冬天精,总收率达到45.85%,较文献收率提高了8%,质量符合标准.

  3. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the warning label requirement for products containing saccharin. Aspartame Aspartame, distributed under several trade names (e.g., NutraSweet® ... in laboratory animals. Questions regarding the safety of aspartame were renewed by a 1996 report suggesting that ...

  4. An equiratio mixture model for non-additive components : a case study for aspartame/acesulfame-K mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Equiratio Mixture Model predicts the psychophysical function for an equiratio mixture type on the basis of the psychophysical functions for the unmixed components. The model reliably estimates the sweetness of mixtures of sugars and sugar-alchohols, but is unable to predict intensity for asparta

  5. Optimization for the Synthesis of Aspartame Intermediate%天冬甜精中间体的合成优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓君; 陈志荣; 鲁波

    2002-01-01

    用均匀设计法优化了天冬甜精中间体--N-乙氧硫羰基天冬氨酸的合成反应条件.优化工艺条件为:反应温度72 ℃,n(甲基乙基黄原酸酯)∶ n(天冬氨酸)=1.50∶ 1.00,m(天冬氨酸)∶ m(氢氧化钠)=0.50∶ 1.00,m(水)∶ m(天冬氨酸)=4.00∶ 1.00,m(甲醇)∶ m(水)=0.15∶ 1.00.N-乙氧硫羰基天冬氨酸的收率为88.92%.

  6. 阿斯巴甜工艺制作过程分析%Analysis of the Production Process of Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德金; 张凯; 唐根生

    2010-01-01

    根据生产实践经验,本文介绍了使用L-苯丙氨酸和L-天门冬氨酸作为原料制造阿斯巴甜的工艺过程,分析制作过程中仍然存在的关键问题和需要改进的事项,提出了仍有待进一步攻关的科研目标.

  7. 阿斯巴甜的安全性研究进展%Research advancement of security of aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱科; 阚建全; 陈景旺; 凡哪哪

    2008-01-01

    阿斯巴甜作为一种食品甜味剂,现在在食品工业中比较常见.然而自从其进入市场以来,对它的评价一直都是褒贬不一.本文针对阿斯巴甜安全性研究的情况加以综述,以便人们更加全面的认识阿斯巴甜.

  8. Mycophenolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aspartame or sorbitol. Ask your pharmacist for a list ... retardation), you should know that mycophenolate suspension contains aspartame, a source of phenylalanine.

  9. Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debate about the safety of artificial sweeteners, especially aspartame and saccharin, but most health care professionals believe ... that is clear is that you should avoid aspartame if you have the hereditary disease phenylketonuria, or ...

  10. 离子交换树脂回收L-苯丙氨酸%RECOVERY OF L-PHENYLALANINE BY ION EXCHANGE RESIN FROM ASPARTAME FILTRATED STOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊可可; 韦萍; 吴锡军

    1999-01-01

    为降低Aspartame生产成本,建立了1套水解二肽母液,并用离子交换树脂分离L-苯丙氨酸的回收工艺.该工艺可使L-苯丙氨酸回收率达72%以上,且其质量完全达到生产Aspartame的要求.

  11. HPLC法测定对羟基苯甲酸甲(丙)酯、阿斯巴甜%HPLC Determination of n - propyl - 4 - hydroxybenzoate and Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙边成; 张艳; 吴昊

    2006-01-01

    目的同时测定液态食品和可溶性固态食品中的对羟基苯甲酸甲(丙)酯、阿斯巴甜的含量.方法高效液相色谱法.结果样品加标回收率为91%~104.3%,RSD<3%.结论该法操作简单、方便,令人满意.

  12. 阿斯巴甜的合成和应用研究进展%Research progress of Aspartame on application and synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璞强; 赵桂霞; 张亚楠; 崔建东

    2010-01-01

    阿斯巴甜是一种新型安全的甜味剂,在食品工业中被广泛的使用,文章就目前阿斯巴甜的合成和应用研究进展做了综述,重点介绍了阿斯巴甜的合成方法.旨在为改进和创建新的阿斯巴甜合成方法提供参考依据.

  13. Determination of Aspartame in Food by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定食品中阿斯巴甜的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪梅林; 谢东华; 房科腾; 曹苏仙

    2009-01-01

    样品经水提取后,在ODS-3色谱柱上以磷酸二氢钾水溶液(10mmol/L,pH=3.5)和乙腈以85:15的比例作为流动相进行色谱分离,用HPLC法VWD210nm处检测食品中阿斯巴甜的含量.本方法在标准浓度1.0-50.0μg/mL范围内,相关系数大于0.999.该方法适合日常检测.

  14. 反相离子对液相色谱法分析天冬二肽%Analysis of Aspartame by RP- ionic Pair Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于慧娟

    2003-01-01

    提出了一种反相离子对液相色谱法分析天冬二肽的分析技术; 采用 C18为分析柱, 以三氟乙酸为离子对试剂, 乙腈-磷酸二氢钾水溶液为流动相; 方法不仅适用于天冬二肽产品的纯度分析, 而且适用于天冬二肽合成过程中的中间体及副产物的分析; 方法具有分析速度快、准确度高、操作简单、实用性强等优点.

  15. Aspartame生产废液作为农业氮肥资源的评估研究%Evaluation of Aspartame Byproducts As Potential Nitrogen Sources for Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海啸; MalcolmE.Sumner

    2002-01-01

    以美国佐治亚州广为分布的红壤和沙质灰土以及棉花和玉米为试验材料,进行Aspartame生产废液(BST,下同)与传统氮肥尿素、硫酸铵的温室盆栽和恒温土培对比试验.结果表明,BST是很好的氮肥资源,等同于或某种程度上优于尿素和硫酸铵.对土壤的理化性质、氨态氮、硝态氮含量以及对作物吸收Ca,Mg,K等养分和生长发育的影响与常规氮肥相似.但废液中有机态氮的水解以及向硝态氮的转化比尿素要快一些.尿素和BST比硫酸铵更适于在红壤和沙质灰土上施用.

  16. Study on Synthesis of Neotame from Aspartame%由阿斯巴甜合成甜味剂纽甜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国廷; 沈彬; 陈亚芹; 张亮; 顾昕

    2009-01-01

    本实验通过阿斯巴甜直接合成纽甜.在钯(Pd/C)氢化催化剂存在的情况下,阿斯巴甜与3,3-二甲基丁醛在甲醇溶液中经催化氢化合成、结晶、干燥,制得白色结晶纽甜.此方法条件温和,产品纯度高,收率可达到61%.

  17. ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS OF FORMATION OF Z-ASPARTAME IN IONIC LIQUID: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS. (R828131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... sweeteners (e.g., aspartame) that are not expressly listed in Sec. Sec. 150.141 and 150.161 in the... similar jelly sweetened with aspartame may be named as ``reduced sugar jelly'' (in accordance with Sec..., do not permit the use of newer, safe and suitable artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame....

  19. Determination of Saccharin and Aspartame in food by High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC)%高效液相色谱法测定食品中糖精钠和天冬糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 谭慧

    2000-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱测定食品和复合甜味剂蛋白糖中人工合成甜味剂-糖精钠和天冬糖,采用国产C18不锈钢柱(Superisorb C18 5μm,70mm×4.6mmi.d)以甲醇-O.02mol/L磷酸缓冲液pH4.5(30/70)为流动相,于210nm波长下进行检测,采用该方法糖精钠和天冬糖的回收率分别为96.2%~102.7%和99.2%~105.1%:最小检出限分别为0.6ng和1.4ng.

  20. 甜味素对复合法制备大鼠肝硬化模型的影响%Effect of aspartame on the liver cirrhosis model induced by the complex factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁向春; 马丽娜; 陈学新

    2009-01-01

    肝硬化动物模型是肝硬化的研究基础,研究肝硬化的发生机制及其防治必须建立良好的动物模型。目前,国内外制备肝硬化模型方法虽较多,但死亡率较高,成模率较低。本研究对目前最常用的复合法制备肝硬化模型的方法进行了改良,提高了肝硬化成模率、降低了大鼠死亡率。

  1. 甜味化合物天冬氨酰苯丙氨酰甲酯及其类似物的量子化学研究%A Quantum Chemistry Study for Sweet Compounds:Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士国

    2003-01-01

    用量子化学计算从头算的Hartree Fock方法,在6-31G基组水平上,对甜味剂天冬氨酰苯丙氨酰甲酯Aspartame及其类似物H-(S)-Asp(1R,2R)-c6Phe-OMe进行了研究.经几何优化得到了它们的稳定构象.用Fukui指数分析了分子中原子的反应性.根据分子的结构特征对甜味剂与受体的作用模式进行了分析.

  2. A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

  3. Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

    2014-05-25

    Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance.

  4. Influence of artificial sweeteners on the kinetic and metabolic behavior of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca de Nadra, M C; Anduni, G J; Farías, M E

    2007-10-01

    The addition of artificial sweeteners to a LAPT (yeast extract, peptone, and tryptone) medium without supplemented sugar increased the growth rate and final biomass of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus YOP 12 isolated from commercial yogurt. Saccharin and cyclamate were consumed during microorganism growth, while the uptake of aspartame began once the medium was glucose depleted. The pH of the media increased as a consequence of the ammonia released into the media supplemented with the sweeteners. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain was able to grow in the presence of saccharin, cyclamate, or aspartame, and at low sweetener concentrations, the microorganism could utilize cyclamate and aspartame as an energy and carbon source.

  5. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sweet One) Erythritol Stevia extracts (Pure Via, Truvia) Agave nectar Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet) Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate Tagatose ( ... natural sweeteners often undergo processing and refining, including agave nectar. Among the natural sweeteners that the FDA ...

  6. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  7. 以Cu-L-Proline-Aspartame三元配合物为手性选择剂毛细管电泳拆分氨基酸对映体%ENANTIOSEPARATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS USING Cu(Ⅱ)-L-PROLINE-ASPARTAME TERNARY COMPLEX AS THE CHIRAL SELECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书林; 李舒婷

    2003-01-01

    @@ 近年来,一些痕量D-氨基酸已经发现存在于人和动物体内[1,2],并已证明部分D-氨基酸是在细胞中直接生物合成[3],且生物体内的D-氨基酸具有某种重要的生理功能[4].因此,氨基酸的手性拆分和检测在生命的起源、发育、病变及衰老研究中,具有重要意义.毛细管电泳(CE)手性拆分,具有高效、快速、低耗等优点,近年来已得到了快速发展[5].由于CE分离所需样品少(nL级),特别适合于质量有限的生物样品的分离和测定.CE手性分离,一般是在电解质溶液中加入手性选择剂,如:环糊精及其衍生物、手性冠醚、手性金属配合物、手性表面活性剂及大环抗生素等.Zare[6]研究组最先报道在CE中应用配位交换原理,以Cu-L-histidine二元配合物为手性选择剂,分离丹酰化氨基酸对映体.我们曾采用三元配合物Cu-(s)-3-aminopyrrolidine-L-histidine为手性选择剂,直接拆分了天然氨基酸对映体[7].在本工作中,以Cu-L-Proline Aspartame三元配合物为手性选择剂,对5种含有芳环结构的天然氨基酸对映体,进行了手性拆分研究.

  8. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P fruit juice.

  9. 15 CFR 2011.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty... glucose), ti light sugar (99.2% sugar with the residual comprised of the artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame K), caster sugar, golden syrup, ferdiana granella grossa, golden granulated...

  10. Taste Perception with Age: Generic or Specific Losses in Supra-threshold Intensities of Five Taste Qualities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of ageing on supra-threshold intensity perception of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dissolved in water and in `regular' product was studied in 21 young (19¿33 years) and 21 el

  11. Toxicological evaluation of a number of sweeteners and modified polydextroses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch; G.J.van

    1984-01-01

    Toxicologische evaluaties zijn gemaakt van een negental stoffen, die als zoetstof in de voeding worden gebruikt. Het betreft: Aspartame, Acesulfam-K, Gemodificeerd Polydextrose, Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol, Lycasin 80/55, Mannitol, Maltitol. Als resultaat wordt in dit rapport een acceptable dail

  12. Determinations in the Production of Baijiu(Liquor)(XXⅢ):Baijiu(Liquor) Safety Detection(ContinueⅡ)%白酒生产检验(二十三):白酒食品安全检测(续二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大和; 王超凯; 李国红; 彭奎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the detection methods of Baijiu(liquor) safety indicators such as acesulfame potassium, aspartame, and phthalate were introduced.(Trans. by YUE Yang)%介绍白酒食品安全指标中安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、邻苯二甲酸酯(塑化剂)的检测方法.

  13. OF MICE, MEN, MONKEYS AND METABOLISM: AN UPDATE ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a world production ca. 30 million tons per year, methanol is a solvent, is used to produce formaldehyde, MTBE, and acetic acid, is a component of aspartame, and has been proposed as an alternate vehicle fuel. Methanol occurs naturally in plants and animals. It is sequentiall...

  14. Kids' Use of Artificial Sweeteners Spiked in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163047.html Kids' Use of Artificial Sweeteners Spiked in Recent Years Some studies suggest a ... FRIDAY, Jan. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Use of artificial sugar by American ... low-calorie sweeteners such as aspartame, sucralose and saccharin rose 200 ...

  15. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame) as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.   

  16. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young sub

  17. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks...

  18. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...

  19. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  20. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  1. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are some of the most thoroughly tested and evaluated of all food additives. Products including aspartame and saccharin, have undergone several rounds of risk assessment by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in relation to a number of potential safety concerns, including carcinogenicity and more recently, effects on body weight gain, glycemic control and effects on the gut microbiome. The majority of the modern day sweeteners; acesulfame K, advantame, aspartame, neotame and sucralose have been approved in the United States through the food additive process, whereas the most recent sweetener approvals for steviol glycosides and lo han guo have occurred through the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) system, based on scientific procedures. While the regulatory process and review time of these two types of sweetener evaluations by the FDA differ, the same level of scientific evidence is required to support safety, so as to ensure a reasonable certainty of no harm.

  2. Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages and special nutritional products using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Maja; Knežević, Zorka

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods used for the separation and determination of artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulphame K, sodium saccharin, and sodium cyclamate in beverages and special nutritional products (special food intended for specific population groups). All four compounds are soluble in aqueous solutions and can easily be separated and determined by HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD). The first method involved separation of aspartame, acesulphame K, and sodium saccharin on a C18 column with an isocratic elution of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The second method was used to separate sodium cyclamate on a C18 column with methanol and water as mobile phase. Under optimum conditions, both methods showed good analytical performance, such as linearity, precision, and recovery. The methods were successfully applied for the analysis of real samples of soft drinks and special nutritional products.

  3. Pesquisa de adocantes não calóricos sintéticos em adoçante natural de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela T. Auricchio

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 19 amostras de "Adoçantes Natu rais de Stevia", tendo por objetivo verificar-se a presença de outros adoçantes nao calóricos sintéticos que não são declarados no rótulo do produto. Constatou-se que em 18 amostras,além de componentes do extrato de Stevia reubadiana (Bert. Bertoni, a sacarina estava presente e que só uma delas declarava tal fato no rótulo. Em três dessas amostras foi encontrado tanbém aspartame e em uma, ciclamato. Fimalmente, em uma amostra não foi encontrado nenhum componente do extrato de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni, mas sim uma mistuna de manitol e aspartame.

  4. [The use of low-calorie sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research.

  5. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  6. Tyrosine Pretreatment Alleviates Suppression of Schedule-Controlled Responding Produced by Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    specific interaction with tyrosine hydroxylase . Thus, (3,13,14). alleviation of CRF with tyrosine may result from an affect of The 200 mg/kg dose of tyrosine...G., Dana, R.; Risch, S. C.; Koob, G. F. Activating aspartame, phenylalanine , and tyrosine. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 16: and anxiogenic effects of...Onali, P. Corticotropin-releasing factor activates ty- Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 32:967-970: 1989. rosine hydroxylase in rat and mouse striatal

  7. Development of new peptide synthetic method of enzyme using the extraction reactivity; Chushutsu hanno wo mochiita shiki pepuchido koso goseiho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Makoto [Oita University, Oita (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    Recently, taste and bioactivation of large number of oligopeptide become clear, and the development of the efficient synthetic method becomes the urgency. In the production process by conventional enzyme reaction which combined the crystallization, because the solubility of the product to the water which is reaction solvent is low, the yield remained at about 60%, and the problem of reaction inhibition of the product by the crystal had also been indicated. In the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame in which he is the representative oligopeptide, it aimed at the establishment of the new synthesis method which can improve yield and reaction rate, while the segregation enzyme was continuously utilized. In this synthetic method, supply of organic solvent which dissolved the substrate, extraction of the substrate from organic solvent to water phase, synthesis reaction by the segregation enzyme in water phase, extraction of the aspartame which is a product from water phase to organic solvent progress, and they continuously progress by one complete mixing reactor. The process which controlled these speeds and yields was quantitatively analyzed, and material balance style considering substrate, enzyme and mass transfer of the product and enzyme reaction speed was deduced. The optimum operating condition for improving yield and productivity of the purpose product using this solution was examined, and optimum supply concentration and agitation speed of aspartic acid which was a substrate were started, and the optimum operating condition which realizes the improvement in high yield and productivity over 90% of the aspartame was clarified. Like this, it is that this research adopts features of liquid Citrus nobilis two-phase partition for the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame, and it is considered that there is a value, because it is the creative research which verified that the productivity can be greatly improved by the utilization of the chemical-engineering technique, and

  8. Endogenous formaldehyde turnover in humans compared with exogenous contribution from food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The FEEDAP Panel received a request to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of formaldehyde used in feed for all animal species based on dossiers submitted by applicants. In parallel, the ANS Panel evaluated the safety of formaldehyde formed from endogenous production and from dietary sources of methanol, including aspartame. In order to support both evaluations, assistance was requested to the SCER unit to evaluate the oral internal dose of formaldehyde in humans from endogenous production, food-derived from target animals exposed to formaldehyde-treated feed and formaldehyde generated from dietary sources of methanol, including from food additives such as aspartame. Endogenous turnover of formaldehyde was estimated to be approximately 0.61-0.91 mg/kg bw per minute and 878-1310 mg/kg bw per day assuming a half life of 1 1.5 min. Compared with formaldehyde turnover and the background levels of formaldehyde from food sources (1.7-1.4 mg/kg b. w per day for a 60-70 kg person, including from dietary methanol, the relative contribution of exogenous formaldehyde from consumption of animal products (milk, meat from target animals exposed to formaldehyde-treated feed was negligible (<0.001 %. Oral exposure to formaldehyde from aspartame involves metabolism to methanol and further oxidation to formaldehyde. At the current ADI of 40 mg/kg bw per day for aspartame, formaldehyde would be approximately 4 mg/kg bw per day and represent only 0.3-0.4 % of the endogenous turnover of formaldehyde.

  9. Evaluation of Brazilian light ketchups II: quantitative descriptive and physicochemical analysis Avaliação de catchups light do mercado brasileiro II: análise descritiva quantitativa e avaliação físico-química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Maziero de Campos Bannwart

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of ketchup available on the Brazilian market, one traditional (sweetened with sucrose and three light versions (sweetened with aspartame, acesulfame-K and a blend of cyclamate, saccharin and stevia were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Four main groups of attributes were generated: appearance, oral texture, aroma and flavor. The samples presented significant differences in all attributes, except for syneresis and overripe tomato flavor. The highest means for sweetener and bitter tastes and aftertastes were observed for the samples sweetened with acesulfame-K and the blend of sweeteners. Although different characteristics were observed among the products evaluated and, despite the differences in the formulations, the light ketchup sweetened with aspartame was the one that presented properties most similar to those of the traditional ketchup.Amostras de catchup disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, uma tradicional (adoçada com sacarose e três light (adoçadas com aspartame, acessulfame-K e uma combinação de ciclamato, sacarina e estévia foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e ao perfil sensorial (Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Quatro grandes grupos de atributos foram gerados: aparência, textura bucal, aroma e sabor. As amostras apresentaram diferença significativa em todos os atributos, exceto sinerese e tomate passado. As maiores médias para os atributos relacionados a sabor e sabor residual amargo e de adoçante foram obtidas para as amostras adoçadas com acessulfame-K e com a combinação de edulcorantes. Apesar das diferentes características observadas entre os produtos avaliados e das diferenças entre as formulações, o catchup light adoçado com aspartame foi o que apresentou propriedades mais próximas ao produto tradicional.

  10. Characteristics of non caloric dulcorants and their use in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive review of the elaboration routes, the physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and clearance, sweetener level, residual flavor, maximal recommended ingestion, security levels and the assessment of growth and development problems in children (from newborns, including prematures, to the end of puberty, of the main no caloric edulcorants used in Mexico. The no caloric edulcorants included in this review are: aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, sacarin, ciclamates, thaumatin, D- tagatose, estevia and alitame.

  11. Comparative inflammatory effect of antiseptic irrigating solutions against conventional irrigation with sodium chloride in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alfaro, Miguel; Profesor Asociado del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Chumpitaz Cerrate, Víctor; Profesor Auxiliar del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Burga Sánchez, Jonny; Profesor Auxiliar del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la UCSUR.; Arroyo Acevedo, Jorge; Profesor Principal del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNMSM.; Ramón Rosales, Jorge; Profesor Auxiliar del departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Estomatología de la UCSUR.; Aguirre Siancas, Elías; Profesor Auxiliar del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Cabrejos Álvarez, José; Profesor de la Catedra de Cirugia Bucal y Máxilofacial de la Facultad de Estomatología de la UIGV.; Zegarra Cuya, Juan; Ex-Profesor del Departamento Académico de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the use of irrigating solutions in surgical procedures does not alter both inflammation processes and tissue repair. Four (04) groups were formed containing 15 rats each. After being dosed with general anaesthesia, they underwent osteotomy in the tibia with tungsten carbide burs and irrigation for 15 seconds, using the following solutions in each group: A) 0,12 % chlorhexidine with cetylpyridinium 0,05 %, B) 0,12 % chlorhexidine with aspartame; C)...

  12. FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL DISSOLVING FILMS OF BUMETANIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.A.Yasodha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Formulation and Development of oral dissolving Films of Bumetanide. Materials and methods: BUMETANIDE, HPMC E-50, HPMC E-5, HPMC E-3, PE, 4000 (Flakes) and Aspartame. Citric Acid could be formulated with low viscosity film formers viz. HPMC E50 in combination with HPMC E5, E15. Bumetanide could be successfully incorporated in FDFs with of the above polymers and polyethylene glycol 4000 is used as a plasticizer. PEG 4000 itself has a solubulizing affect and result in faster dissolut...

  13. Potential Intake Of Intense Sweeteners In Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities...

  14. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. ...

  15. The intake of intense sweeteners ? an update review

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Andrew Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author?s previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant ADI values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available...

  16. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

  17. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations.

  18. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  19. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sweeteners.

  20. Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-07-27

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds.

  1. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  2. One-step Real-time Food Quality Analysis by Simultaneous DSC-FTIR Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses an analytical technique that combines differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy, which simulates the accelerated stability test and detects decomposition products simultaneously in real time. We show that the DSC-FTIR technique is a fast, simple and powerful analytical tool with applications in food sciences. This technique has been applied successfully to the simultaneous investigation of: encapsulated squid oil stability; the dehydration and intramolecular condensation of sweetener (aspartame); the dehydration, rehydration and solidification of trehalose; and online monitoring of the Maillard reaction for glucose (Glc)/asparagine (Asn) in the solid state. This technique delivers rapid and appropriate interpretations with food science applications.

  3. Development, validation and application of methodology for determination of sweeteners by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela de Queiroz Pane

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Foi desenvolvido um novo método, eficiente e econômico, para a análise simultânea de cinco edulcorantes em alimentos (acessulfame-k, sacarina, ciclamato, aspartame e neotame) pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). O método foi validado e aplicado em diferentes produtos da categoria "light¿, "diet¿ e "zero¿, sendo esses refrigerantes, néctares, pós para preparo de refresco, pudins, cappuccinos, achocolatados, geléias, gelatina, molho tipo "...

  4. 贮藏加工知识与信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文生

    2004-01-01

    @@ (1)蛋白糖(Aspartame)包括:蛋白糖APM、蛋白糖FT、蛋白糖US,均以APM为基料辅以多种食品添加剂精制而成的复方甜味剂.其中FT-100适用于白酒(100表示相当于蔗糖甜度的100倍),参考使用量为万分之三到万分之四.

  5. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    1998-10-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  6. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Pecore, S D; Warwick, Z S

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners including fructose, sucrose, and lactitol tended to become less bitter with increasing concentration.

  8. Mauna Kea III: Metabolic Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Supplementation During Exercise at 4100 M Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    AidR, General Foods Corp., White Plains, N.Y. and Carnation Hot Cocoa Mix, Carnation , Los Angeles, CA). Each beverage serving was further stipplemented...beverages sweetened with aspartame (Sugar Free Kool- 3 AidR, General Foods Corp., White Plains, N.Y. and Carnaiton Sugar Free Hot Cocoa Mix, Carnation , Los...all Fruitcake .................... . ........ 1/4 1/2 3/4 all Maple nut cake ........... ... 1/4 1/2 3/4 all Orange nut cake ............... ........ 1

  9. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1.

  10. Advantame--an overview of the toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, A; Fujieda, T; Masuyama, T; Ubukata, K; Lee, C

    2011-11-01

    Advantame is an N-substituted (aspartic acid portion) derivative of aspartame that is similar in structure to neotame, another N-substituted aspartame. An extensive series of studies, were conducted on advantame to define the pharmacokinetics and metabolism in various species, subchronic and chronic toxicity in the rat and dog, carcinogenicity in the rat and mouse, genotoxicity, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, and human tolerability studies. The results of these studies, presented in overview in the present publication, and in greater detail in the accompanying publications, show that advantame is well tolerated by both animals and humans and does not possess systemic toxicity. The metabolic data demonstrate that the animal species used in the toxicity testing are relevant to the evaluation of human safety. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) identified in the animal studies in which advantame was administered in the diet were generally the highest doses tested. Under the anticipated conditions of use, the predicted intakes of advantame are about 20,000- to 70,000-fold lower than the identified animal study NOAEL values. The results of the animal toxicology and human trial data support the safety of use of advantame in food.

  11. Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

    2014-01-01

    With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch.

  12. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  13. Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Food Colorants and Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for simultaneous determination of two colorants (Indigotin and Brilliant Blue and two sweeteners (Acesulfame-K and Aspartame in synthetic mixtures and chewing gums without any prior separation or purification. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry (ZCDS, is based on recording the first derivative curves (for Indigotin, Brillant Blue, and Acesulfame-K and third-derivative curve (for Aspartame and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The other method, ratio derivative spectrophotometry (RDS, depends on application ratio spectra of first- and third-derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to spectral overlapping. Both colorants and sweeteners showed good linearity, with regression coefficients of 0.9992–0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.05 to 0.33 μgmL−1 and from 0.06 to 0.47 μgmL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision tests produced good RSD% values (<0.81%; recoveries ranged from 99.78% to 100.67% for all two methods. The accuracy and precision of the methods have been determined, and the methods have been validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing colorants and sweeteners. Two methods were applied for the above combination, and satisfactory results were obtained. The results obtained by applying the ZCDS method were statistically compared with those obtained by the RDS method.

  14. 无糖冰淇淋的研制%Study on the Producing of Sugar-Free Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳淑珍

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the process of sugar-free ice cream by using maltitol,acesulfame potassium,sucralose, aspartame and the other materials. The optimal formula of sweetening agents is obtained through orthogonal test. The optimal formula is: sucralose 0.003%, maltitol 8%, aspartame 0.018%, acesulfame potassium 0.007%. Application of the sweetener made ice cream recipe organization delicate, smooth and taste delicious, sweet pure mild.%以麦芽糖醇、乙酰磺胺酸钾(安赛蜜)、三氯蔗糖(蔗糖素)、天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(阿斯巴甜)配以其他原料研制无糖冰淇淋.通过正交试验,确定添加上述四种甜味剂制成的无糖冰淇淋的最佳搭配配方为:三氯蔗糖0.003%、麦芽糖醇8%、阿斯巴甜0.018%、安赛蜜0.007%.应用该甜味剂配方制作的无糖冰淇淋组织细腻幼滑,滋味协调,甜味纯正温和.

  15. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  16. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were evaluated for hydration study, folding endurance and in vitro drug dissolution in the distilled water. The films containing both Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films showed neutral surface pH when prepared using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Glycerol played a critical role in imparting flexibility to the film and improving the drug release from film. The bitter taste of the drug was masked by using aspartame and menthol accompanied by the synergistic effect of Eudragit and glycerol. Water uptake by films was found to be dependant both on the amount of Eudragit EPO and glycerol. The films containing the higher proportion of glycerol showed higher water uptake and faster drug release at all the sampling time in the in vitro dissolution test. Optimum plasticity was obtained using the required concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and glycerol. The study revealed that taste masked valdecoxib films can be developed by the selection of appropriate film former and by the use of auxiliary excipients.

  17. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  18. 复合甜味剂在植物蛋白饮料中的应用研究%Compound sweetener in plant protein drinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯治平; 刘玲

    2012-01-01

    A high quality compound sweetener in plant protein drinks, made up of high intensity sweeteners (aspartame, cesulfame potassium) and sucrose, was studied by using orthogonal experiment design. The results show that the optimum direction (mass concentration) is the following, aspartame 0.0236%, cesulfame potassium 0.0129% and sucrose 0.5%. The compound sweetener has high sweetness and good taste profile resulting from the high coordinate-improving effect, and can be extensively used in beverage industry to reduce the cost.%以新型高效的高甜度甜味剂阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜与低浓度蔗糖复配,通过正交实验筛选出适用于植物蛋白饮料的高品质复合甜味剂。以甜味剂的质量百分比浓度表示的最优复合配比为:阿斯巴甜0.0236%、安赛蜜0.0129%、蔗糖0.5%,该复合甜味剂中各甜味剂间有非常好的协同增效作用,甜度高,成本低,在饮料工业生产中有较大的实用价值。

  19. Non-destructive determination of anisotropic mechanical properties of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseli, I; Hancock, B C; Cetinkaya, C

    2009-07-30

    The mechanical property anisotropy of compacts made from four commercially available pharmaceutical excipient powders (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, ascorbic acid, and aspartame) was evaluated. The speed of pressure (longitudinal) waves in the uni-axially compressed cubic compacts of each excipient in the three principle directions was determined using a contact ultrasonic method. Average Young's moduli of each compact in the axial (x) and radial (y and z) directions were characterized. The contact ultrasonic measurements revealed that average Young's modulus values vary with different testing orientations which indicate Young's modulus anisotropy in the compacts. The extent of Young's modulus anisotropy was quantified by using a dimensionless ratio and was found to be significantly different for each material (microcrystalline cellulose>lactose>aspartame>ascorbic acid). It is also observed that using the presented contact method, compacts at high solid fraction (0.857-0.859) could be differentiated than those at the solid fraction of 0.85 in their groups. The presented contact ultrasonic method is an attractive tool since it has the advantages of being sensitive to solid fraction ratio, non-destructive, requiring small amount of material and rapid. It is noteworthy that, since the approach provides insight into the performance of common pharmaceutical materials and fosters increased process knowledge, it can be applied to broaden the understanding of the effect of the mechanical properties on the performance (e.g., disintegration profiles) of solid oral dosage forms.

  20. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible.

  1. Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

    2009-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose.

  2. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS CONTAINING NON- SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various formulations of Loratadine Chewable tablets containing different pharmaceutical compositions with simple manufacturing procedures were developed by using different excipients. The excipients used here are Lactose, Mannitol, Ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Citric Acid, Aspartame, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D & C Yellow No 10 and Raspberry flavour. Oral chewable tablets are the most preferred among the conventional dosage forms due to its aesthetic appeal and ease of administering to children, which has entered the market. Loratadine is formulated into chewable tablets by wet granulation method using suitable excipients as mentioned earlier, which are evaluated by using simple analytical equipments. The chewable tablet was better presented using artificial sweetener Aspartame and Raspberry flavour as flavouring agent. The chewable tablets are prepared to ensure that they are easily crushed by chewing. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability; drug content and mouth feel along with in-vitro dissolution. As per monograph, the chewable tablets are not required to comply with disintegration test. Wet granulation process using Mannitol, Lactose, Micro crystalline cellulose (Avicel-CE 15, Ethyl cellulose and Sweeteners and Flavors were found to be simple and robust method to prepare chewable tablets.

  3. Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marko; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-07-17

    The common sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K were determined by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. In order to obtain the best compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time hydrodynamic pumping was imposed during the electrophoresis run employing a sequential injection manifold based on a syringe pump. Band broadening was avoided by using capillaries of a narrow 10 μm internal diameter. The analyses were carried out in an aqueous running buffer consisting of 150 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid and 400 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 9.1 in order to render all analytes in the fully deprotonated anionic form. The use of surface modification to eliminate or reverse the electroosmotic flow was not necessary due to the superimposed bulk flow. The use of hydrodynamic pumping allowed easy optimization, either for fast separations (80s) or low detection limits (6.5 μmol L(-1), 5.0 μmol L(-1), 4.0 μmol L(-1) and 3.8 μmol L(-1) for aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K respectively, at a separation time of 190 s). The conditions for fast separations not only led to higher limits of detection but also to a narrower dynamic range. However, the settings can be changed readily between separations if needed. The four compounds were determined successfully in food samples.

  4. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE MANGA ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E COM SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C.U. CAVALLINI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Um edulcorante deve apresentar características de sabor e aroma semelhantes às da sacarose. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades sensoriais do suco de manga adoçado com sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame, sucralose e estévia, a 8% de equivalência de doçura, através da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Foram avaliados doze atributos (cor, aroma de manga, aroma doce, aroma ácido, sabor de manga, doçura, doçura residual, amargor, amargor residual, acidez, adstringência e corpo, utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de médias de Tukey e análise de componentes principais. Não observou-se diferença significativa entre as amostras em relação à cor e o suco adoçado com sacarose apresentou média significativamente superior para o atributo corpo. As amostras com sacarose e aspartame exibiram as maiores intensidades de sabor de manga e doçura e as menores de amargor e amargor residual, quando comparadas com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina. O suco adoçado com estévia caracterizou-se por apresentar maior intensidade para doçura residual, amargor e amargor residual. De acordo com os resultados da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa o aspartame foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se assemelhou ao da sacarose em suco de manga. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Manga; edulcorantes; análise descritiva quantitativa.

  6. POTÊNCIA EDULCORANTE, DOÇURA EQUIVALENTE E ACEITAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES EM BEBIDA PREPARADA COM ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis ST. HIL. EM PÓ SOLÚVEL, QUANDO SERVIDA QUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA MARIA PORTO CARDOSO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A bebida preparada pela infusão da erva-mate torrada, mais conhecida como chá-mate, é amplamente conhecida e consumida por diferentes faixas etárias e sócio-econômicas por todo o Brasil. É habitualmente consumida quente em diferentes regiões, adoçada com sacarose ou adoçante dietético de mesa. Uma vez que a literatura cita que a potência de um edulcorante pode variar em função da temperatura, entre outros fatores, foi objetivo do presente estudo determinar a doçura equivalente e potência edulcorante de diferentes edulcorantes em relação à sacarose em chá-mate em pó solúvel, preparado e servido quente (45±2o C aplicando-se estimação de magnitude, e avaliar a aceitação da bebida quando adoçada com os mesmos edulcorantes na concentração determinada como ideal. Entre os edulcorantes estudados (aspartame, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e sucralose, a sucralose apresentou o maior poder edulcorante em chá-mate quente, sendo 679 vezes mais doce que a sacarose em doçura equivalente a 8,15%. As amostras adoçadas com sacarose, sucralose, aspartame e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 não diferiram entre si na aceitação em relação ao sabor, enquanto a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve aceitação significativamente inferior (p 0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Infusão de erva- mate; estimação de magnitude; estévia, aspartame, sucralose.

  7. Development of taste masked fast disintegrating films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride for oral use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Shastri, Nalini; Sadanandam, M

    2010-01-01

    Fast disintegrating films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride useful for the treatment of acute allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria have been developed by using the taste masking ability of cyclodextrins. The fast disintegrating films were prepared by solvent casting method. The films contained water-soluble polymers such as Kollicoat IR or pullulan, aspartame and sucralose as sweeteners and pre-gelatinized starch as disintegrant. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride was incorporated into these films by in-situ complex formation with hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin. The optimized films were evaluated for weight variation, film thickness, folding endurance, tackiness, tensile strength, assay, content uniformity, in vitro disintegration and dissolution, in vivo disintegration and taste masking ability by human gustatory sensation test. Results revealed that the organoleptic properties of levocetirizine dihydrochloride were improved by complexation with hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin and the complex could be successfully formulated into a fast disintegrating film.

  8. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  9. Análise descritiva quantitativa de edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações

    OpenAIRE

    CARDELLO Helena Maria André Bolini; SILVA Maria Aparecida A.P. DA; Maria Helena DAMÁSIO

    2000-01-01

    Edulcorantes em solução, com a mesma equivalência de doçura, podem apresentar características sensoriais que os tornam diferentes entre si. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar Análise Descritiva Quantitativa de soluções de aspartame (APM), extrato de folhas de estévia (SrB) e mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 (C/S) em diferentes níveis de doçura, ou seja, em equivalência de doçura a uma solução aquosa de sacarose a 3, 10, 20 e 30%. Onze provadores, pré-selecionados através de análise s...

  10. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  11. Chocolate Milk with Chia Oil: Ideal Sweetness, Sweeteners Equivalence, and Dynamic Sensory Evaluation Using a Time-Intensity Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Paixão, J A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2015-12-01

    The ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of the stevia, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame in chocolate milk with chia oil as well as the dynamic behavior of certain sensory attributes were investigated using a time-intensity methodology. The use of just-about-right (JAR) identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 9% (w/w). In addition, the magnitude estimation method showed that stevia had the lowest sweetness power whereas neotame presented the highest. Furthermore, the time-intensity analysis indicated that there was no significant change between the maximum intensities of the sweetness for any evaluated sweeteners. In general, the desired sensory profile and some economic considerations are decisive on the choice of which sweetener is better to be used in chocolate milk formulation added with chia oil.

  12. Novel synthetic methods for Neotame and 3,3 -dimethyl butyraldehyde%纽甜及其中间体3,3-二甲基丁醛的新合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金山; 袁赛勇; 颜士飞

    2009-01-01

    采用负载金属氧化物催化剂多相催化合成3,3-二甲基丁醛,在Pd/C催化下与阿斯巴甜加氢反应生产纽甜.该方法合成3,3-二甲基丁醛工艺简单、后处理简便、环境污染小,合成纽甜产物纯度高.%Afforded metal oxides were used as catalysts to synthesize 3,3 - dimethyl butyraldehyde, followed re- acted it with aspartame to yield neotame. The process of chemical synthesis and late treatment of 3,3 - dimethyl bu- tyraldehyde were simple, the environment pollution was less. The high purity neotame product was gained.

  13. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame

  14. 国内外甜味剂的应用和发展趋势%The Application and The Development Trend of High Potency Sweeteners in The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日尤

    2003-01-01

    近三十年甜味剂市场的发展表明,甜味剂市场商机无限,并将持续发展.本文论述了国内外甜味剂市场近期的发展状况和高倍甜味剂改进口味的技术;简述了在部分国家许合法使用的新型甜味剂如三氯蔗糖(sucralose)、阿力甜(又称天胺甜精alitame)和纽甜(neotame,第二代二肽甜味剂)等的主要特性;提供了新型复配甜味剂安赛蜜(acsulfame)的阿斯巴甜(aspartame)盐(双甜Twinsweet)的相关市场信息.

  15. Avaliação sensorial de bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes Sensory evaluation of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente procura por bebidas à base de frutas tropicais e à expansão do segmento de produtos com valores calóricos reduzidos, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o grau de doçura, sabor, impressão global e a intenção de compra das bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes através de frequência de notas, teste de médias e Mapa de Preferência Interno (MPI. Utilizaram-se polpa de goiaba, água potável e diferentes agentes adoçantes (sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina, aspartame, acesulfame-K, estévia e mistura sacarina/ciclamato sódico/acesulfame-K. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada com 100 provadores não treinados em teste laboratorial através do delineamento de blocos completos balanceados. Objetivando a avaliação das respostas individuais de cada provador, as respostas sensoriais foram avaliadas pela metodologia do MPI, empregando-se a técnica de Análise de Componentes Principais. As bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com sacarose e aspartame apresentaram avaliação sensorial semelhante por parte dos consumidores, apresentando os maiores valores médios no teste de aceitação, enquanto as adoçadas com estévia, com a mistura de três agentes adoçantes e a mistura ciclamato/sacarina apresentaram os valores mais baixos na avaliação sensorial. A utilização do MPI confirmou os resultados obtidos através de frequência de notas e teste de médias.Due to a constant search for tropical fruit drinks and calorie reduced products, this work aimed to evaluate the degree of sweetness, flavor, overall global impression, and purchase intention of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents through the response rank frequency and average test, and internal preference mapping (IPM. Guava pulp, drinking water, and sweetening agents (sucrose, mixture cyclamate/saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame K, stevia and mixture saccharine/sodium cyclamate/acesulfame K were used. The sensory evaluation was

  16. Study on the Synthesis Methods and Metabolic Pathway of Neotame%纽甜的合成方法及代谢途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关凌霄; 陈姣姣

    2012-01-01

    Neotame,a derivative of aspartame,is a new nonnutritive and high-potency sweetener.It is the sweetest sweeteners in the world so far.This paper mainly introduced research progress of the synthesis methods and metabolic pathway of neotame,which is a high-intensitive sweetener,especially reviewed about the present methods synthesis for neotame.%纽甜属于二肽类强力甜味剂,是阿斯巴甜的衍生物,它是迄今为止世界上最甜的合成甜味剂。主要介绍了新一代强力甜味剂——纽甜的合成方法、代谢途径的研究进展,重点综述了目前所采用的纽甜的合成方法。

  17. NMDA受体及其亚基NR2与糖尿病认知功能障碍发病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏; 黄永杰; 王芳; 邹英鹰

    2013-01-01

    糖尿病认知功能障碍(cognitive impairment in diabetes,CID)是糖尿病的慢性并发症之一,其发病机制目前尚未完全清楚.近年来随着人们对CID研究的深入,发现在糖尿病整个时期,N一甲基一D一天冬氨酸受体(N—methyl—D—aspartame receptor,NMDAR)及其亚基NR2A与NR2B的变化与CID的发病机制有着密切的联系,现就此作一综述,为以后进一步研究CID打下基础.

  18. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  19. Effects of glucose administration on category exclusion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has produced discrepant findings as to whether glucose administration effects lead to enhanced recollection or arise only under dual-task conditions. The aim of the present research was to address these issues by firstly employing an alternative cognitively demanding paradigm that has been linked to hippocampal function, i.e. the Process Dissociation Procedure (PDP). A second aim was to use this paradigm to explore whether glucose affects qualitative aspects of memory function. To achieve these aims, the PDP task was administered to participants who had either consumed a glucose (25 g) or aspartame-sweetened control drink. Results demonstrated glucose facilitation effects only under difficult task conditions and with no such effect emerging for the process of recollection. The present results support the contention that the beneficial effects of glucose arise under hippocampally driven, cognitively demanding task conditions, and that this effect enhances quantitative but not qualitative aspects of recognition memory.

  20. Evaluation of several Quality Criteria of Low Calorie Pumpkin Dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ece TAMER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to decrease the sugar concentration of the pumpkin dessert which is a Turkish traditional food using artificial sweeteners. Therefore, its energy content was reduced. As a result it was expected that this product can be consumed by diabetics and overweight people who do not prefer high calorie products. The design included constraints to permit sweetener addition according to the limits of Turkish food legislation. Physical and chemical properties of pumpkin desserts and the effects of sweeteners on sensory properties were investigated. According to the physical, chemical and sensory analyses it can be seen, by using aspartame and acesulfame K additives, low calorie pumpkin dessert could be produced.

  1. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  3. [Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners in beverage by ultra performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chao; Sun, Yanyan; Li, Xiuqin; Chu, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhengxing

    2009-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame and neotame) in a single injection was developed. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with gradient program and detection at 220 nm. The good linearities between the concentrations of all analytes and peak area responses were achieved over the range from 0.5 to 20.0 mg/L. The average recoveries in samples were 80.5% - 95.2% with the relative standard deviations of 0.50% - 8.7%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and powdered tabletop sweeteners.

  4. Role of nitrification in the biodegradation of selected artificial sweetening agents in biological wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N H; Nguyen, V T; Urase, T; Ngo, H H

    2014-06-01

    The biodegradation of the six artificial sweetening agents including acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), neohesperidindihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) by nitrifying activated sludge was first examined. Experimental results showed that ASP and NHDC were the most easily degradable compounds even in the control tests. CYC and SAC were efficiently biodegraded by the nitrifying activated sludge, whereas ACE and SUC were poorly removed. However, the biodegradation efficiencies of the ASs were increased with the increase in initial ammonium concentrations in the bioreactors. The association between nitrification and co-metabolic degradation was investigated and a linear relationship between nitrification rate and co-metabolic biodegradation rate was observed for the target artificial sweeteners (ASs). The contribution of heterotrophic microorganisms and autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in biodegradation of the ASs was elucidated, of which autotrophic ammonia oxidizers played an important role in the biodegradation of the ASs, particularly with regards to ACE and SUC.

  5. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  6. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries.

  7. Detection of food additives by voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Kam, Victor; Berduque, Alfonso; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2008-06-25

    Electrochemistry at the liquid-liquid interface enables the detection of nonredoxactive species with electroanalytical techniques. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of two food additives, aspartame and acesulfame K, was investigated. Both ions were found to undergo ion-transfer voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the preparation of calibration curves over the concentration range of 30-350 microM with a detection limit of 30 microM. The standard addition method was applied to the determination of their concentrations in food and beverage samples such as sweeteners and sugar-free beverages. Selective electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction of these species in both laboratory solutions and in beverage samples was also demonstrated. These results indicate the suitability of liquid-liquid electrochemistry as an analytical approach in food analysis.

  8. Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1998-05-01

    Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. First, UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello YelloTM using the spectrophotometer's software and manually by the simultaneous equations method. The following week, caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 45% methanol/55% aqueous phosphate, pH 3.0, as the mobile phase. In the third experiment, the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis using a pH 9.4 borate buffer. Students also determine the minimum detection limits for all three compounds by both LC and CE. The experiments demonstrate the analytical use and limitations of the three instruments. The reports and prelab quizzes also stress the importance of the chemistry of the three compounds, especially the relationships of acid/base behavior and polarity to the LC and CE separations.

  9. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

  10. 3-(4-甲氧基苯甲酰基)丙酸钠的甜味抑制效果评价%Inhibition effect of sodium 3-(4-methoxybenzoyl) propanoic on sweetness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁璐; 郑建仙

    2013-01-01

    采用感官评定法研究了3-(4-甲氧基苯甲酰基)丙酸钠(SMP)对甜味、苦味、酸味、咸味、鲜味这5种基本味觉的影响,并评定了SMP对蔗糖、果糖、阿斯巴甜、糖精钠、葡萄糖等甜味化合物的甜味抑制效果.结果表明,SMP是一种有效的甜味抑制剂,当添加0.5mg/mL时能对蔗糖的甜味产生明显的抑制效果,但它不影响其他的几种基本口味.对5种常用的甜味化合物能起到明显的抑制效果,在添加量相同时甜味抑制效果的强弱为阿斯巴甜>葡萄糖>果糖>糖精钠>蔗糖.%Sodium 3-(4-methoxybenzoyl) propanoic (SMP)'s effects on inhibiting sweetness,bitterness,sour,salty and umami were measured by sensory assessment.Anti-sweetness efficiency on sucrose,fructose,aspartame,Na-saccharin and glucose were studied.The results showed that the SMP was a potential sweetness inhibitor; the sweetness intensity was significantly reduced with 0.5mg/mL SMP,while other 4 tastes were not affected.With the same amount of SMP,the order of the inhibition on sweetness were:aspartame > glucose > fructose > Na-saccharin >sucrose.

  11. Recent progress about synthesis of neotame and 3, 3-dimethybutyraldehyde%纽甜及其中间体3,3-二甲基丁醛的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁力; 蔡亚; 陈凯; 夏咏梅

    2012-01-01

    Neotame, a derivative of aspartame has high - sweetness, is low - calorie and high - stability and its property is the best among sweeteners. Therefore, neotame has certain market competitiveness and excellent growth prospects. In this article, the properties and applications of neotame were reviewed in general. The synthesis methods of neotame from its precursor aspartame as well as its important intermediate 3,3- dimethybutyaldehyde was discussed. The discusses was focused on homogeneous catalysis method and the oxidation method to synthesize 3,3- dimethybutyaldehyde. Morever, oxidation of 3, 3 - dimethybutanol used TEMPO as catalyst was prospected.%作为阿斯巴甜的N-烷基化衍生物的纽甜具有甜度高、热量低、稳定性好等优良特性,是众多甜味剂中性能最优异的一种,在我国具备一定的市场竞争力,具有较好的发展前景.本文对非营养型强力甜味剂纽甜的性质和应用进行了简单评述.主要讨论了以阿斯巴甜为前体的纽甜及其关键中间体3,3-二甲基丁醛的合成方法,着重分析了非均相催化氢化法合成纽甜和氧化法合成3,3-二甲基丁醛,并且对TEMPO催化醇氧化的方法进行了展望.

  12. Synthesis of High Potency Sweetener N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-aspartyl-L-henylalaninel-methylester%超高倍甜味剂N-[3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯基)丙基]-阿斯巴甜的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美红; 郑建仙

    2009-01-01

    The development of high potency sweetener changes rapidly, sweetener with safety, low cost, high de-gree of sweetness and top properties is the trend in food industry. On the basis of sweet mechanism, by the reaction of aspartame and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylpropylaldehyde under the catalysis Pd/C, a new sweetener N-[3-(3-hy-droxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-aspartyl-L-henylalaninel-methylester is synthesized. Because of hydrophobic group added on aspartame derivative, the sweetness is 23 000 times higher than that of cane sugar. Furthermore, the method is simple and available with high yield. The paper summarizes the synthesis method of the important intermediate, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylpropylaldehyde, with 49.8% yield, which makes the high potency sweetener possible.%开发安全,低成本,高甜度,性质稳定的甜味剂是食品工业的发展方向.文中从甜味机理出发,以3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯丙醛与阿斯巴甜为原料,通过钯碳催化,合成了N-[3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯基)丙基]-阿斯巴甜.其中,由于疏水基团引入,甜度显著提高,约是蔗糖的23 000倍,且合成工艺简单,产率高,为国内高倍甜味剂大型工业化提供了广阔前景.另外,文中还着重论述了重要中间体3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯丙醛制备,得率为49.8%,为开发新产品奠定了基础.

  13. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE EDULCORANTES EM NÉCTAR DE GOIABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Koguishi de BRITO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    As indústrias estão investindo cada vez mais no desenvolvimento de alimentos com baixas calorias, devido à mudança do mercado consumidor na busca por alimentos de menor aporte calórico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento sensorial de diferentes edulcorantes em néctar de goiaba: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e acessulfame-K. Pela Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ foram escolhidos 19 termos descritores para néctar de goiaba: cor vermelho-alaranjado, brilho, opacidade, aroma de goiaba, goiabada, doce, ácido e erva, gosto doce, ácido e amargo, sabor de goiaba, goiabada e erva, doçura residual, amargor residual, adstringência, arenosidade e corpo. O comportamento das características temporais dos estímulos doce, amargo e sabor de fruta foi avaliado pelo método Tempo- Intensidade (TI e a amostra adoçada com sucralose foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se aproximou ao da sacarose. Os resultados da ANOVA do teste afetivo mostraram que amostras adoçadas com sacarose, ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame e sucralose apresentaram aceitação signifi cativamente superior (p0,05. O mapa interno de preferência confi rmou os resultados da ANOVA. Os atributos mais desejáveis em néctar de goiaba foram o aroma de goiabada, sabor de goiabada e sabor de goiaba e estes contribuíram signifi cativamente (p0,05 de forma positiva na aceitabilidade pelos consumidores.

  14. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE ABACAXI CONCENTRADO, RECONSTITUÍDO E ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. MARCELLINI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As frutas tropicais por seu aroma e sabor característicos são apreciadas no mundo inteiro. Entre as frutas de maior destaque encontra-se o abacaxi, com qualidade sensorial diferenciada e potencial de exportação em expansão. O Brasil, quarto maior produtor mundial, exportou em 2004 uma quantidade de suco de abacaxi cerca de 5 vezes maior em comparação à 2002. Os edulcorantes são uma alternativa para adoçar sucos e alimentos. O interesse no estudo do comportamento desses compostos deve-se à preocupação com a saúde e os padrões estéticos vinculados ao baixo peso corpóreo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o Perfil Livre de suco de abacaxi industrializado, reconstituído e adoçado com sucralose, aspartame, estévia, ciclamato/sacarina e sacarose. Os dados obtidos pelo Perfil Livre foram analisados através da Análise Procrustes Generalizada. O Perfil Livre levantou 16 atributos nas amostras estudadas, porém os únicos com 100% de alta correlação no componente principal 1 foram: o gosto amargo e o gosto amargo residual. O Perfil Livre também demostrou que as amostras com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina e com estévia se caracterizaram principalmente pelos gostos amargo e amargo residual, enquanto as amostras com sucralose, aspartame e sacarose se caracterizaram pelo sabor de abacaxi, aroma de abacaxi e acidez, atributos comuns do suco "in natura".

  16. Preparation of Solid Beverage of Effervescent Tablet from Bamboo Leaf and Barley Powder%竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娜; 游玥菲; 赵英英; 张宏康

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of solid beverage of effervescent tablet from bamboo leaf and barley powder was developed. Bamboo leaf, barley powder, Aspartame and etc. were used as raw materials. The best formula of effervescent tablets was determined through orthogonal test as follows: bamboo leaf and barley powder 19.1%, Aspartame 8.9%, citric acid 28%, sodium bicarbonate 40%, PVP 2% and PEG 6 000 2%. The effervescent tablet drinks had good taste and unique bamboo and barley flavour.%开发了一种新型竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料。以竹叶、大麦粉为主要原料,辅以蛋白糖等辅料,采用单因素试验和正交试验法优选主辅料配比。试验结果表明竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的最佳配方为:竹叶大麦茶粉19.1%,蛋白糖8.9%,柠檬酸28%,碳酸氢钠40%,聚乙烯吡咯烷酮2%,聚乙二醇60002%。该泡腾片溶于水后所得饮料呈棕褐色,酸甜适口,有刹口感,稍有竹叶大麦的香气,伴有竹叶的清香。

  17. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge.

  18. Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-05-08

    High-intensity sweeteners have been suggested as potential organic contaminants due to their widespread use in food, drugs and sanitary products. As a consequence, they are introduced into the environment by different pathways, affecting aquatic life. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of eight sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucralose, stevioside and glycyrrhizic acid) in river water and wastewater. To get the maximum recoveries in SPE, several commercial sorbents were tested and Oasis HLB gave the best results, with recoveries higher than 41% for all of the compounds in the different matrices. Method limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.04μg/L in river water and 0.01-0.5μg/L in influent and effluent wastewater. Method reproducibility between days (n=5) was below 15% for all compounds. The method was applied to the determination of sweeteners in various river waters and wastewaters in Catalonia. Cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, acesulfame and sucralose were found in river water, with the two last compounds being present at the highest values (1.62μg/L for acesulfame and 3.57μg/L for sucralose). In influent and effluent wastewater, all of the compounds were found at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 155μg/L except for stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, which were not detected.

  19. Application of neotame in preserved greengages%纽甜在青梅果脯中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 余小林; 宋贤良; 叶盛英; 陈晓枫

    2015-01-01

    目的:为探究纽甜这一新型高倍甜味剂的稳定性以及添加后引起青梅果脯产品质构、黏度和体积方面发生的变化,为高倍甜味剂在生产中的应用提供参考,本文对纽甜的甜度经验公式、与安赛蜜及阿斯巴甜复配的协同增效效应、风味评价方法等进行研究。方法采用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)分别测定在一定条件下加热及添加了苹果酸、柠檬酸后纽甜含量的变化,采用甜度评价实验、风味描述实验、感官评定实验方法,确定纽甜的甜度公式、增效系数和描述复合甜味液整体的标度,并将甜味剂复配用于青梅果脯制作。结果纽甜对热和酸有一定的稳定性;其呈甜味规律表现为相对甜度(RS)随等甜蔗糖浓度(ES)的增加而明显下降;确定的甜度经验公式为 RS=25787-10642·ES1/3;纽甜与阿斯巴甜按等蔗糖浓度1:6比例复配可达到14.29%的增效系数,甜味及整体感官评分皆可达到最佳效果。结论所确定的甜度经验公式可准确计算在生产上的使用量,研究得出的复配比例制作的青梅果脯感官可接受度最高。%Objective To research the sweetness empirical formula, synergies with aspartame and acesulfame complex and flavor evaluation methods of neotame to study the stability of the new type sweeteners such as neotame in preserved greengages, and the obvious changes in product quality, structure and viscosity, in order to provide reference for the application of high power sweeteners in production. Methods The content of neotame under certain conditions of heat, malic acid and citric acid was tested by high performance liquid chromatography. The sweetness formula, efficiency coefficient and scaling describing the overall composite sweet liquid were determined by a series of sweetness evaluation, flavor description and sensory evaluation tests. The complex sweetener was used into the production of

  20. IMPACTO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES NA ACEITABILIDADE DE IOGURTE “LIGHT” SABOR MORANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONIELLI CARDOSO REIS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O consumo de alimentos de baixa caloria e de adoçantes tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos. A indústria de produtos lácteos, na tentativa de atender a este público, vem introduzindo no mercado iogurtes de baixa caloria, os denominados “light”, que tem como substitutos da sacarose vários tipos de edulcorantes. Para a escolha de qual é o melhor edulcorante, ou o mais adequado são necessários vários testes uma vez que estes devem ser seguros, compatíveis com o alimento e ao mesmo tempo agradáveis ao paladar. A única forma de se avaliar a aceitação de um edulcorante é por meio de testes sensoriais afetivos. No presente estudo, diferentes formulações de iogurtes sabor morango (cinco adoçadas com edulcorantes e um contendo sacarose foram avaliadas por 101 consumidores potenciais do produto utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos. Os resultados foram analisados pela análise de variância (ANOVA e pelo mapa de preferência interno. Os consumidores separaram as amostras em três grupos distintos. As amostras de iogurte adoçadas com os edulcorantes aspartame (APM, aspartame/acessulfame-K (APM/ACK, sucralose (SUC e sacarose (SAC foram consideradas semelhantes, havendo maior preferência pelas amostras adoçadas com sacarose e sucralose. O mesmo foi observado pelo teste de Tukey, em que os iogurtes adoçados com a sucralose e com a sacarose apresentaram a mesma aceitação (p>0,05, sendo classifi - cados entre os termos hedônicos gostei moderadamente e gostei muito.

  1. HPLC Determination of 4 Artificial Edulcorators in Milk and Its Products%高效液相色谱法测定乳及乳制品中4种人工合成甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋戈; 鄂来明; 单艺

    2011-01-01

    HPLC was applied to the determination of 4 artificial edulcorators, i. e. , acesulfame, sodium saccharin, aspartame and neotame in milk and its products. The sample was added with KFe(CN)3 and Zn(OAc)2 to precipitate protein, and the edulcorator was separated by gradient elution with a mixed solution of 0.05 mol · L-1 KH2PO4 and acetonitrile in different ratios on Diamonsil-C18 column (250 mm× 4. 6 mm, 5 μm). Diode array detector was used for the determination of acesulfame at 230 nm and for sodium saccharin, aspartame and neotame at 210 nm. Values of detection limits (3S/N) of the method for the 4 edulcorators were found to be 1.0, 0. 5, 1. 5 and 2. 5 μg · g-1 respectively. Using blank sample of milk powder as matrix, recovery test was made by standard addition method, values of recovery were found in the range of 90. 0%-、103. 3% and RSD's (n=8) found were ranged from 2. 1 % to 5. 8%.%提出了高效液相色谱法测定乳及乳制品中4种人工合成甜味剂安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜含量的方法.样品加入亚铁氰化钾和乙酸锌使蛋白质沉淀析出后,以Diamonsil-C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)为固定相,0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,用二极管阵列检测器于230 nm波长处检测安赛蜜,210 nm波长处检测糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜.安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜的方法检出限(3S/N)分别为1.0,0.5,1.5,2.5μg·g-1以空白乳粉样品为基体作加标回收试验,测得回收率在90.0%6~103.3%之间,相对标准偏差(n=8)在2.1%~5.8%之间.

  2. Análise exploratória de adoçantes de mesa via espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e análise por componentes principais (ACP Exploratory analysis of commercial sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tozetto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos vinte anos, o consumo de alimentos diet e light tem aumentado sistematicamente, o que tem propiciado o constante desenvolvimento de produtos desse gênero. Grande ênfase tem sido dada àqueles produtos que substituem sacarose por edulcorantes de baixos conteúdos calóricos ou não calóricos. Seguindo esta tendência, adoçantes de mesa têm sido desenvolvidos variando-se amplamente o veículo e o tipo de edulcorante empregado. Neste trabalho, a análise de componentes principais associada à espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio foi utilizada com sucesso para diferenciar os veículos empregados na produção destes adoçantes, sendo que esta metodologia quimiométrica reduziu o espaço dimensional para dois fatores, explicando cerca de 82-% da variância total dos dados. As variáveis responsáveis por esta discriminação estão localizadas na região da impressão digital do espectro de infravermelho (752,2 a 1284,5 cm-1. A análise exploratória mostrou-se útil para a visualização destes dados, gerando informações semiquantitativas para os adoçantes constituídos por lactose/aspartame, observações que seriam dificilmente visualizadas sem o recurso quimiométrico aplicado.In the last twenty years, the consumption of diet and light foods has grown steadily, leading to the constant development of such products. Much emphasis has been placed on products that replace sucrose with sweeteners of low or zero calorie content. The development of new commercial sweeteners illustrates this tendency. In this work, principal component analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to successfully differentiate the vehicles (mediums employed in the production of sweeteners. This chemometric methodology reduced the dimensional space to two factors, accounting for 82% of the total variance of the data. The variables responsible for this discrimination were localized in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (752.2 to

  3. 中草药凉茶中甜味剂的液相色谱测定法%Determination of sweetening agents in Chinese medicinal herb tea by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海英; 杨毅兰; 李荔; 陈亚精

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To establish a new monitoring method for simultaneous determination of the content of 3 sweeteners contained in Chinese medicinal herb tea by applying HPLC. [Methods]The sample was diluted by mobile phase which was 20 mmoL sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate and acetonitrile; gradient elution was adopted on the sample. [Results] The 3 sweeteners (Acesul-fame-K , Saccharin Sodium , Aspartame) could be completely separated. With the linearity range within 8-200 μg/ml, the recovery rate was between 90.5% -107.4% , and RSD was under 1.81% ( n = 6). The minimum detection limits were 2. 46 × 10 -4, 2. 41 × 10 -4, 7.09 × 10 -4 respectively, while the minimum limits of quantitation were 2.46 × 10 -3, 1. 20 × 10 -3, 3. 55 × 10 -3, respectively. [ Conclusion ] This methodology can satisfy the requirements of simultaneously determining Acesulfame K, Sodium Saccharin and Aspartame in herbal tea. It is can be extended in other drugs and food inspection.%目的 建立一种应用高效液相色谱法同时测定中草药凉茶中3种甜味剂含量的监测方法.方法 样品经流动相稀释,以20 mmol/L磷酸二氢钠与乙腈为流动相,进行梯度洗脱.结果 可将3种甜味剂安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜完全分离,在8~200 μg/ml线性范围内(r均大于0.999 9),回收率在90.5% ~ 107.4%之间,RSD在1.81%以下(n=6).最低检出限分别为4.93×10-4、2.4×10-4和7.09×10-4mg/kg,最低定量限分别为2.46×10.3、1.20×10-3和3.55×10-3mg/kg.结论 该方法能满足中草药凉茶中同时测定安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜的要求,该方法可推广至药物及其他食品检验.

  4. Production of Hygienical Oral Vinegar Egg Liquid%醋蛋保健口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎斌; 黄国平; 韩晋辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The re,arch aimed to improve the flavor of vinegar egg liquid. [ Method] With vinegar egg and honey as main materials,hygienical oral vinegar egg liquid was produced with adding Chinese medicinal herb extract. The selection of stabilizer and correctant ,the formula of the oral liquid were discussed. [ Result ] The optimal stabilizer was β-cyclodextrin and its dosage was 0. 1%. The best correctant was aspartame and its dosage was 0. 3 g/ml. By orthogonal test and sensory evaluation,the best formula of the this oral liquid was determined as: 25% enzymolysis solution of vinegar egg, 10% honey, 1% Chinese medicinal herb extract and 0. 3 g/ml aspartame. [ Conclusion ] The product improves the vinegar egg' s flavor and has abundant nutrition for the good function of health care.%[目的]改善醋蛋液口味.[方法]以醋蛋、蜂蜜为主要原料.加入中草药提取液,研制具有保健功能的醋蛋保健口服液,并对稳定剂和矫味剂的选择、口服液的配方等进行探讨.[结果]β-环糊精为最佳稳定剂,添加量为0.1%.阿斯巴甜为最佳矫味剂,添加量为0.3g/ml.通过正交试验和感官评定,确定了该保健口服液的最佳配方为:醋蛋酶解液25%、蜂蜜10%、中草药提取液1%、阿斯巴甜0.3g/ml.[结论]该产品改善了醋蛋风味,营养丰富且具有保健养生功效.

  5. Characterization of oral disintegrating film containing donepezil for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.

  6. Fast dispersible/slow releasing ibuprofen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Ronchi, Celestino; de Moraes, Carlos Alberto Fonseca

    2008-05-01

    Eight formulations were developed containing ibuprofen in the form of orally disintegrating tablets. To prevent bitter taste and side effects of the drug, the drug was associated with Phospholipon 80H, a saturated lecithin, by wet granulation. The granules were then coated using different film forming agents (Kollicoat SR 30, Amprac 01, Kollidon 90F, Eudragit RD 100) obtaining four lots 1-4. Coated granules were then formulated with a sweetener (Aspartame), a mannitol-based diluent (Pearlitol SD 200) and Kollidon CL (1-4K) or Explotab (1-4E) were added as superdisintegrants and compacted under low compression force. The eight lots of tablets, 1-4K and 1-4E, were assessed if suitable as oral disintegrating tablets by determination of a range of technological parameters. Wetting and disintegregation time matched with the requirements of EP IV Ed., for almost all these formulations. Dissolution profiles suggested that the combined action of the hydrophobic lecithin and the coating delay the release of the drug from tablets with respect to when it is free or in the form of simple granules. By an appropriate combination of excipients it was thus possible to obtain orally disintegrating tablets and a delayed release of ibuprofen using simple and conventional techniques.

  7. 无蔗糖调味乳工艺优化%Formulation Optimization of Non-Sugar Flavored Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟丽

    2012-01-01

    研究不同甜味剂对调味乳质量的影响,在此基础上确定甜味剂的配比并进一步研究无蔗糖调味乳的配方。结果表明:甜味剂配比为三氯蔗糖25%、纽甜25%、阿斯巴甜50%;调味乳的最优配方组合为稳定剂0.2%、核桃粉0.6%、蔗糖替代比100%。比较无蔗糖调味乳和普通调味乳的感官品质,无实质性差异。%The effect of various sweeteners on the quality of flavored milk was studied to determine optimal sweetener blend for flavored milk.Further,the formulation of non-sugar flavor milk was optimized.The results showed that the optimal sweetener blend was formulated from 25% sucralose,25% neotame and 50% aspartame.The optimal formula for non-sugar flavor milk was 0.2% stabilizer,0.6% walnut powder,100% sucrose substitution.The developed non-sugar flavored milk presented no substantial difference in sensory quality compared to ordinary flavored milk.

  8. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joseph A; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation.

  9. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  10. Natural approaches to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, Alan R

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews research on the use of diet, nutritional supplements, and hormones in the treatment of epilepsy. Potentially beneficial dietary interventions include identifying and treating blood glucose dysregulation, identifying and avoiding allergenic foods, and avoiding suspected triggering agents such as alcohol, aspartame, and monosodium glutamate. The ketogenic diet may be considered for severe, treatment-resistant cases. The Atkins diet (very low in carbohydrates) is a less restrictive type of ketogenic diet that may be effective in some cases. Nutrients that may reduce seizure frequency include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese, taurine, dimethylglycine, and omega-3 fatty acids. Administration of thiamine may improve cognitive function in patients with epilepsy. Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, vitamin D, and L-carnitine may be needed to prevent or treat deficiencies resulting from the use of anticonvulsant drugs. Vitamin K1 has been recommended near the end of pregnancy for women taking anticonvulsants. Melatonin may reduce seizure frequency in some cases, and progesterone may be useful for women with cyclic exacerbations of seizures. In most cases, nutritional therapy is not a substitute for anticonvulsant medications. However, in selected cases, depending on the effectiveness of the interventions, dosage reductions or discontinuation of medications may be possible.

  11. Advances in simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid solid-state chemical stability studies: some dipeptide drugs as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Wang, Shun-Li

    2012-04-01

    The solid-state chemistry of drugs has seen growing importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of useful API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) of drugs and stable dosage forms. The stability of drugs in various solid dosage forms is an important issue because solid dosage forms are the most common pharmaceutical formulation in clinical use. In solid-state stability studies of drugs, an ideal accelerated method must not only be selected by different complicated methods, but must also detect the formation of degraded product. In this review article, an analytical technique combining differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy simulates the accelerated stability test, and simultaneously detects the decomposed products in real time. The pharmaceutical dipeptides aspartame hemihydrate, lisinopril dihydrate, and enalapril maleate either with or without Eudragit E were used as testing examples. This one-step simultaneous DSC-FTIR technique for real-time detection of diketopiperazine (DKP) directly evidenced the dehydration process and DKP formation as an impurity common in pharmaceutical dipeptides. DKP formation in various dipeptides determined by different analytical methods had been collected and compiled. Although many analytical methods have been applied, the combined DSC-FTIR technique is an easy and fast analytical method which not only can simulate the accelerated drug stability testing but also at the same time enable to explore phase transformation as well as degradation due to thermal-related reactions. This technique offers quick and proper interpretations.

  12. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  13. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  14. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D M; Patel, M M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q(30)) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE(30)). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.

  15. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression. PMID:28393871

  16. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar.

  17. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S.; Thulasimani, M.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  18. Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate).

  19. Study on processing technology of the compound asparagus juice%复合芦笋汁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾振新; 吕凤霞; 陈元民; 史志营

    2001-01-01

    Amount of juice squeezed from spear peel of asparag us was ashigh as 52.5% with 3.8% of soluble solids. The bitterness of asparagus could be shielded when 10%~25% apple juice was added into 25%~40% asparagus. A compound beverage made up of 35% asparagus juice,15% apple juice,3% sugar,0.15 % citric acid,0.03% aspartame and fresh water had a flavorite flavour.%以芦笋弃料(笋皮)为原料,经破碎、榨汁后,出汁率为52.5%,含可溶性固形物3.8%。将25%~40%的芦笋原汁与10%~25%苹果原汁复合时,可较好地掩盖芦笋皮带入的苦味,而芦笋特有的清香味不受影响。芦笋原汁35%、苹果原汁15%、白砂糖3%、柠檬酸0.15%、阿斯巴甜0.03%与清水组成复合芦笋汁具有浓郁的芦笋清香味,略带苹果香味,甜酸适口。

  20. The Effect of Oral Carbohydrate Solutions on the Performance of Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Afshari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that carbohydrate solutions can improve the performance in prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of sugar and glucose solutions on exercise performance of swimmers. Twelve male teenager elite Iranian swimmers aged 12-17 years from Waterpolo Team of Ahvaz Oil Industry participated in a double-blind cross-over trial. They consumed three oral 6% purified carbohydrate solutions as glucose, sugar or placebo (aspartame formulas in three non-consecutive days. In each day the swimmers undertook a 2×200-meter incremental swimming by 15 minutes time interval. Before starting the second course, subjects consumed their solutions. Blood glucose levels and time elapsed in two phases were recorded. Longer Swimming time significantly caused by sugar solution in the second course. Blood glucose level was increased by sugar and glucose solutions higher than the placebo before starting the second swim (p<0.05. However, after swimming, blood glucose concentrations were significantly elevated in all groups. After drinking a sugar solution and before starting the second 200-m swimming, the blood glucose level was higher than two other groups at this phase. Oral 6% sugar solution increased the time of swimming compared with oral glucose and placebo solutions in a 200-m swim. It can be explained by differences in Glycemic index in which sucrose has a lower GI than glucose.

  1. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM: A NOVEL APPROACH TO DELIVERY OF LISINOPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POONAM PHASATE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery for patients. They are easy for application, no need to drink high amounts of water or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving film of Lisinopril as an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension, congestive heart failure and improved bioavailability of drugs as compared to conventional solid oral dosage forms. Method: The films were prepared using combination of Hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose E15 and PVA (polyvinylalcohol polymers by solvent casting method. Glycerine as plasticizer, aspartame as sweetener. Result: The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and the polymers. Satisfactory results obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, drug content and disintegration time. Films in vitro drug release studies also done by using USP dissolution apparatus. In case of F4 and F5 formulations about 99.529% and 95.29% of drug was released at 2min. Conclusion: The Lisinopril mouth dissolving film was formulated. The given film disintegrates within eleven second which release drug rapidly and gives action.

  2. 昆参分散片处方工艺优选%Optimization of Prescription Technology of Kunshen Dispersible Tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立俏; 盛华刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To optimize molding process of Kunshen dispersible tablet. Method; With disintegration time as index, type of excipients were optimized by single factor test and the amount of excipients was optimized by uniform design test. Result; Optimum formulation was composed of extract powder 65% , microcrystalline cellulose 21% , cross-linked polyvinyl polyrrolidone (PVPP) 12% , aspartame 2%. Under theseconditions, disintegration time of formulation was less than 3 min, this tablet was dissolved quickly and completely. Conclusion; This optimized formulation was reasonable, and technology of it was feasible.%目的:优选昆参分散片的成型工艺.方法:以崩解时间为指标,采用单因素试验优选辅料种类;均匀设计试验优选辅料用量.结果:最佳处方组成为主药65%,交联聚乙烯吡咯烷酮12%,微晶纤维素21%,阿司帕坦2%.按该处方压片,崩解时间<3 min,溶出迅速且完全.结论:所优选处方合理,工艺可行.

  3. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ONDANSETRON ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS AND ITS OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Bhasin et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron is the first of a new class of drugs, selective serotonin receptor antagonist (5 hydroxy tryptamine type 3 used as an anti emetic associated with cancer chemotherapy. Its Orally Disintegrating Tablet has been developed for patients who find swallowing difficult by freeze dried technology by RP Scherer Corporation and Scherer DDS. The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet that has high hardness and a fast disintegration rate using conventional tablet technology. Ondansetron ODT was prepared by using traditional technology like direct compression and wet granulation technique. As blend exhibited poor flow in direct compression process, so wet granulation process was finalized. Bitter taste of Ondansetron has been masked by use of sweetener like aspartame and peppermint flavor. Quick disintegration has been achieved by use of surfactant in the granulating solvent and superdisintegrant like crospovidone in both intra and extragranular part. Design space has been created by use of different concentrations of both binders as well as disintegrant with the help of DOE and a robust formulation has been made. In vitro release profile of both formulations prepared by freeze drying and wet granulation is matching. Formulation prepared by wet granulation process has been found acceptable to volunteers in term of taste, mouth feel and convenience of administration.

  4. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO ADDED SUGARS RED STRAWBERRY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum Sabine JELLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA NIEMEYER REISSIG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to prepare jellies of conventional type of red strawberry guava (with added sucrose and no added sugar and evaluate the physical and chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds in them. Four jellies formulations were prepared: conventional with addition of sucrose (F1, aspartame (F2, saccharin and cyclamate (F3, acesulfame and sucralose (F4. Physicochemical analysis of pH were carried out, as well as analysis of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ashes, proteins, lipids, moisture, carbohydrates, calories, lightness, color tone, total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, by the capture of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Conventional and no added sugars jellies did not differ for total phenols, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. However, processing exerted significant influence (p=0.05 on total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. It is feasible to use red strawberry guava for the preparation of conventional and no added sugar jellies. The products, however, show a significant difference in carotenoids content, with the highest content of these and higher antioxidant activity in processed jellies without sugars addition.

  5. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  6. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  7. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  8. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  9. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  10. Research Progress of the Relationship between Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes and NMDA Receptor and Subunits NR2%NMDA受体及其亚基NR2与糖尿病认知功能障碍发病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏; 黄永杰; 王芳; 邹英鹰

    2013-01-01

    糖尿病认知功能障碍(cognitive impairment in diabetes, CID)是糖尿病的慢性并发症之一,其发病机制目前尚未完全清楚。近年来随着人们对CID研究的深入,发现在糖尿病整个时期,N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体(N-methyl-D-aspartame receptor, NMDAR)及其亚基NR2A与NR2B的变化与CID的发病机制有着密切的联系,现就此作一综述,为以后进一步研究CID打下基础。%Diabetic cognitive impairment is one of the chronic complications of diabetes,and the pathogenesis has not yet been fully clarified. In recent years, more and more studies of CID showed that the changes of NMDA receptor and subunits NR2A and NR2B might be important during the period of the diabetes,and they are associated with the mechanism of cognitive impairment. This article makes a summary on these researches so as to lay the foundation for a further study.

  11. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. 高效甜味剂的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日尤

    2002-01-01

    因为成本、口味和营养成分等因素的驱动,在蔗糖占市场主导地位的同时,据并非无根据的预测,理论上认为:多达2000万吨的蔗糖有可能会被高效甜味剂轻而易举的替代.简述了甜味剂市场近期的发展状况,论述了高效甜味剂改进口味的技术及在部分国家准许合法使用的新型甜味剂三氯蔗糖(sucralose)、阿力甜(又称天胺甜精alitame)和纽甜(neotame,第二代二肽甜味剂)等的主要特性;同时提供了新型复配甜味剂(双甜Twinsweet)的相关市场信息,它是安赛蜜(acesulfame)的阿斯巴甜(aspartame)盐.近三十年甜味剂市场的发展表明,甜味剂市场商机无限,并将持续发展.

  13. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  14. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q 30 and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE 30 . From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.

  15. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaraju Prasanna Lakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to mask the unpleasant taste of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate with mannitol by co-grinding method and to formulate it as an oral disintegrating tablet by direct compression method. Drug-mannitol complexes were taken in 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 ratios and tested for in vitro and in vivo bitter masking capacity of mannitol, drug content and molecular property. Different super-disintegrants like croscaramellose, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone was used as disintegrating agents. The prepared tablets were characterized for tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and In vitro and in vivo disintegration time. In addition, aspartame is used as sweetening agent which gives more pleasant taste in the mouth. Among all the formulations F1 to F6, Formulation F6 has good taste masking capacity and fast disintegration within 40sec. Furthermore, 96.7% of the drug has been released in 15min.The results disclosed that the productivity of taste masking of the drug has been done effectively with mannitol and 40mg of crosscarmellose sodium is efficient for rapid disintegrating of tablet.

  17. Study on the Preparation of Functional Effervescent Tablets%运动性泡腾片制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳茹

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了二十八烷醇为功能性添加剂的泡腾片。采用柠檬酸30%,碳酸氢钠35%,糊精5%的混合物为泡腾片赋形剂,以柠檬酸15%,阿斯巴甜0.5%,柠檬黄色素1.5%,橙浊0.15%为泡腾片辅料,冲饮时能够产生最佳的泡腾效果和感官品质。%A kind of functional effervescent tablets of octacosanol was studied in this paper.The optimum effervescing effect was produced at additions of citric acid,sodium bicarbonate and dextrin were 25%,35% and 5% of total ingredients respectively as excipients.The excellent sensory quality of effervescence beverage was produced at additions of citric acid,aspartame,emon yellow pigment and orange thickening were 15%,0.5%,1.5% and 0.15% of total ingredients respectively as assistant materials.

  18. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  19. 右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统的制备和质量评价%Preparation and quality evaluation of Dextromethorphan chewing gum drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 谭群友; 李艺; 刘碧林; 赵春景; 张景勍

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To select the best prescription for Dextromethorphan (DM) chewing gum preparation and to evaluate its quality. Methods: The DM chewing gum preparation was prepared by tablet press method; the formulation was optimized by orthogonal experiments. Results: The best prescription based on the results of orthogonal experiments was that the proportion of gum base, aspartame, menthol and essence was 90% ,3% ,0.5% and 0.2% ,respectively. Conclusion: DM chewing gum preparation can be successfully formulated and its quality can be guaranteed.%目的:筛选出最佳的右美沙芬( Dextromethorphan,DM)咀嚼胶制剂处方,制备制剂并进行质量评价.方法:采用正交设计优化咀嚼胶制剂,压片法制备DM咀嚼胶制剂.结果:正交设计优化后的DM咀嚼胶制剂最佳处方为:胶基、阿斯巴甜、薄荷脑和香精的用量分别为90%、3%、0.5%和0.2%.结论:DM咀嚼胶制剂制备工艺合理,质量符合要求.

  20. Direct simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in foods by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmannová, Michaela; Krivánková, Ludmila; Bartos, Martin; Vytras, Karel

    2006-05-01

    A method for isotachophoretic determination of sweeteners of different character in candies and chewing gums was developed. A capillary of 0.8 mm ID and 90 mm effective length made of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer is filled with an electrolyte system consisting of 10 mM HCl + 14 mM Tris, pH 7.7 (leading electrolyte) and 5 mM L-histidine + 5 mM Tris, pH 8.3 (terminating electrolyte). The analysis is performed at a driving current of 200 microA and for detection current is decreased to 100 microA. Boric acid is added to the aqueous sample solution to form borate complexes with substances of polyhydroxyl nature and make them migrate isotachophoretically. Using conductivity detection, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range up to 2.5 mM were linear for all components of interest: acesulfame K, saccharine, aspartame, cyclamate, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, and xylitol. The concentration detection limits ranged between 0.024 and 0.081 mM. Good precision of the ITP method is evidenced by favorable RSD values ranging from 0.8 to 2.8% obtained at the analyte concentration of 1.0 mM (n = 6). The analysis time was about 20 min. Simplicity, accuracy, and low cost of analyses make ITP an alternative procedure to methods used so far for the determination of ionizable sweeteners.

  1. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  2. Dysprosium(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes of aminocyclodextrins as chiral NMR shift reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, T J; Miles, R D; Zomlefer, K; Frederique, D E; Roan, M A; Troughton, J S; Pond, B V; Colby, A L

    2000-01-01

    A metal chelating ligand is bonded to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin by the reaction of diethylenetraminepentaacetic dianhydride with the corresponding 6-mono- and 2-mono(amine)cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives causes shifts in the (1)H-NMR spectra of substrates such as propranolol, tryptophan, aspartame, carbinoxamine, pheniramine, doxylamine, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate. The Dy(III)-induced shifts enhance the enantiomeric resolution in the NMR spectra of several substrates. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution using cyclodextrin derivatives with the amine tether are compared to previously described compounds in which the chelating ligand is attached through an ethylenediamine tether. In general, the Dy(III) complex of the 6-beta-derivative with the amine tether is a more effective chiral resolving agent than the complex with the ethylenediamine tether. The opposite trend is observed with the 2-beta-derivatives. The presence of the chelating ligand in the 2-beta-derivative hinders certain substrates from entering the cavity. For cationic substrates, evidence suggests that a cooperative association involving inclusion in the cavity and association with the Dy(III) unit occurs. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution in the spectrum of tryptophan are greater for the secondary alpha- and gamma-derivatives than the beta-derivative.

  3. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  4. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat.

  5. [A rapid dialysis method for analysis of artificial sweeteners in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shoichi; Fujiwara, Takushi; Yasui, Akiko; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Uematsu, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharin (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. Conventional dialysis uses a membrane dialysis tube approximately 15 cm in length and is carried out over many hours owing to the small membrane area and owing to inefficient mixing. In particular, processed cereal products such as cookies required treatment for 48 hours to obtain satisfactory recovery of the compounds. By increasing the tube length to 55 cm and introducing efficient mixing by inversion at half-hour intervals, the dialysis times of the four artificial sweeteners, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in the cookie, were shortened to 4 hours. Recovery yields of 88.9-103.2% were obtained by using the improved method, whereas recovery yields were low (65.5-82.0%) by the conventional method. Recovery yields (%) of Sa, AK, APM, and Du, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in various foods, were 91.6-100.1, 93.9-100.1, 86.7-100.0 and 88.7-104.7 using the improved method.

  6. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2013-01-30

    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual films of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhyan Bhupinder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rizatriptan Benzoate, a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist is a new generation antimigraine drug which has oral bioavailability of 47% due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The present study investigated the possibility of developing Rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving sublingual films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, thus bypassing first pass metabolism to provide rapid onset of action of the drug. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting method. Low viscosity grade of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E 15 and maltodextrin were used in combination as film forming polymer, due to their hydrophilic nature and palatable taste. To decrease the disintegration time of formulations sodium starch glycolate was used as disintegrating agent. Glycerol, mannitol, aspartame and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as a cooling agent, sweetening agent and oral penetration enhancer respectively. All the films formulations (F1-F8 was evaluated for their thickness, weight variations, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, surface pH, in-vitro disintegration, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation. Disintegration time showed by the formulations was found to be in range of 25-50 sec. Formulations F1 and F2 showed 90% in-vitro drug release within 7 min and 61% ex-vivo drug permeation within16 min. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 4 weeks when stored at 400 C and 75% in humidity.

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvazi, Shirin; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Azadi, Mehri; Mohammadi, Maryam; Arjmand, Mohammad; Vahabi, Farideh; Sadeghzadeh, Somye; Zamani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets. PMID:26904134

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablets of Lomefloxacin HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work an attempt has been made to prepare FDT of Lomefloxacin HCl with an view to enhance the patient compliance, and provide a quick onset of action, increasing the solubility and masking its bitter taste. Taste masking and solubility was enhanced by complexing Lomefloxacin HCl with hydroxyl propyl β cyclodextrin (HP-βCD by solvent evaporation method. Prepared complex was further compressed into tablets by direct compression using different superdisintegrant like Sodium starch glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Polyplasdone XL-10 in different concentration such as 1%, 1.5%, 2 % using aspartame as a sweetener and aerosil as lubricant. The drug release from FDT increase with increasing the concentration of superdisintegrants and was found to be highest with formulation F6 containing 1.5 % Croscarmellose Sodium and was consider to be the best formulation which release upto 100.68 % in 45 min. In vivo studies revealed that FDT of formulation (F 6 showed good bioavailability compared to conventional tablet. The fast dissolving tablet with HP-βCD complex can be formulated using different superdisintegrants by Direct Compression technique and was found to be disintegrate less than 2 minute, which provide faster effect and better patient compliance.

  10. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Parvazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p<0.001. The metabolites were identified as succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. The main metabolic cycles detected were alanine and aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets.

  11. Non-nutritive sweeteners are not super-normal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antenucci, Rachel G.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ‘sweeter than sugar’, with the implicit implication high potency sweeteners are super-normal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive (Sucrose, Maple Syrup, and Agave Nectar) and NNS (Acesulfame-K (AceK), Rebaudioside A (RebA), Aspartame, and Sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysical methods. Methods Participants (n=401 total) rated the intensity of sweet, bitter, and metallic sensations for nutritive and NNS in water using the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS). Results Sigmoidal Dose-Response functions were observed for all stimuli except AceK. That is, sucrose follows a sigmoidal function if the data are not artifactually linearized via prior training. More critically, there is no evidence that NNS have a maximal sweetness (intensity) greater than sucrose; indeed, the maximal sweetness for AceK, RebA and Sucralose were significantly lower than for concentrated sucrose. For these sweeteners, mixture suppression due to endogenous dose-dependent bitter or metallic sensations appears to limit maximal perceived sweetness. Conclusions In terms of perceived sweetness, non-nutritive sweeteners cannot be considered super-normal stimuli. These data do not support the view that non-nutritive sweeteners hijack or over-stimulate sweet receptors to product elevated sweet sensations. PMID:24942868

  12. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  13. [Consumption of carbonated beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners in Latin American university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Encina Vega, Claudia; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Cereceda Bujaico, María del Pilar; Antezana Alzamora, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: El consumo de bebidas carbonatadas con edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) es cada vez más común con el objetivo de mantener un peso saludable, sin embargo el efecto de los ENN sobre el peso corporal es controversial. Materiales y métodos: Estudiantes universitarios (n=1.229) de ambos sexos de 18 a 26 años, de los cuales 472 de Chile, 300 de Panamá, 253 de Guatemala y 204 de Perú. A cada estudiante se le aplicó una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo semanal de alimentos apoyada con fotografías de bebidas con ENN para cada país para determinar la ingesta de ellos. Asimismo y se les realizó una evaluación antropométrica. Resultados: El 80% de los estudiantes consumían bebidas carbonatadas con ENN, ninguno de ellos superó la ingesta diaria admitida para sucralosa, acesulfame de potasio y aspartame. El mayor consumo tanto en hombres como mujeres se observó en estudiantes universitarios chilenos (p.

  14. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Nassar, Fares; Assy, Nimer

    2010-06-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver, and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver. Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks, fructose 55% and glucose 45%. Soft drinks are the leading source of added sugar worldwide, and have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of soft drinks can increase the prevalence of NAFLD independently of metabolic syndrome. During regular soft drinks consumption, fat accumulates in the liver by the primary effect of fructose which increases lipogenesis, and in the case of diet soft drinks, by the additional contribution of aspartame sweetener and caramel colorant which are rich in advanced glycation end products that potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation. This review emphasizes some hard facts about soft drinks, reviews fructose metabolism, and explains how fructose contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  15. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks.

  16. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS.

  17. Excipientes de medicamentos e as informações da bula Pharmaceutical excipients and the information on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes em 73 apresentações farmacêuticas de 35 medicamentos para uso oral, e as informações da bula sobre excipientes. MÉTODOS: Selecionamos 35 medicamentos, de venda livre ou sob prescrição médica, comercializados no Brasil. A amostra incluiu: analgésicos/antitérmicos, antimicrobianos, mucolíticos, antitussígenos, descongestionantes, anti-histamínicos, broncodilatadores, corticosteróides, antiinflamatórios e suplementos vitamínicos. Foram analisadas 73 apresentações desses fármacos, anotando-se as informações da bula sobre conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes. RESULTADOS: A bula de um medicamento (1,3% não mencionava os ingredientes inativos. Os conservantes mais encontrados nos medicamentos foram metilparabeno e propilparabeno (43% e 35,6% respectivamente. Os adoçantes mais usados foram: sacarose (açúcar (53,4%, sacarina sódica (38,3% e sorbitol (36,9%. Vinte e um produtos (28,7% continham dois adoçantes. Predominaram os medicamentos sem corante (43,8%, seguidos pelos coloridos por amarelo crepúsculo (amarelo FD&C no. 6 (15%. Cinco produtos (6,8% continham mais de um corante. A tartrazina (amarelo FD&C no. 5 foi encontrada em sete formulações (9,5%. Os aromatizantes mais usados foram os de frutas (83%. Constatamos a freqüente omissão das bulas sobre o teor exato de açúcar dos produtos (77%. Duas das quatro bulas de medicamentos contendo aspartame não mencionavam as precauções no uso por fenilcetonúricos. CONCLUSÕES: A omissão e a imprecisão das informações da bula sobre os excipientes farmacêuticos expõem os indivíduos suscetíveis ao risco de reações adversas dos conservantes e corantes. Também podem ocorrer complicações do uso inadvertido de medicamentos contendo açúcar pelos pacientes diabéticos, ou de fármacos adoçados com aspartame pelos fenilcetonúricos.AIM: to evaluate the presence of

  18. 人工甜味剂在污水处理厂和自来水厂的归趋%Fate of Artificial Sweeteners in Waste Water and Drinking Water Treatment Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干志伟; 孙红文; 冯碧婷

    2012-01-01

    研究了7种常用的人工甜味剂[安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素、纽甜、阿斯巴甜和NHDC(新橙皮苷二氢查耳酮)]在污水处理厂及自来水厂的分布.7种人工甜味剂在污水处理厂进水中均被检出,质量浓度为6.4 ~ 31 671.0 ng/L.安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素在污水处理厂的出水中被检出,质量浓度为32.4 ~ 11 204.0 ng/L.这些甜味剂将随污水处理厂的出水排放而进入水环境.安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素、纽甜在自来水厂进水中被检出,质量浓度为低于定量限~579.4 ng/L,其中前4种在自来水中被检出,质量浓度为23.3 ~504.2 ng/L.沉淀、絮凝、氯化消毒作用对人工甜味剂没有明显的去除作用.生物降解能有效去除糖精、甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、纽甜和NHDC,但对安赛蜜和三氯蔗糖去除率不高,去除率均小于20%.%The occurrence and removal of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, neotame, aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) in waste water treatment processes ( WWTP) and drinking water treatment processes (DWTP) were assessed. All of the seven investigated artificial sweeteners were detected in the influent of WWTP, with concentrations ranging from 6. 4-31 ,671. 0 ng/L. The first four artificial sweeteners ( acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin and cyclamate) were detected in the effluent, with concentrations ranging from 32. 4-11 ,204. 0 ng/L. They might be a contaminant source for surface water. Acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate and neotame were found in the source water of DWTP, with concentrations between < LOQ and 579.4 ng/L. The first four artificial sweeteners were detected in drinking water, with concentrations ranging from 23.3-504.2 ng/L. The sedimentation, flocculation and chlorination in DWTP could not significantly remove the investigated artificial sweeteners. Compared with the other five

  19. UHPLC Determination of 5 Artificial Edulcorators in Food%超高效液相色谱法测定食品中5种人工合成甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立群; 张承聪; 张承明

    2012-01-01

    UHPLC was applied to the determination of 5 artificial edulcorators, i. e. , acesulfame, sodium saccharin, aspartame, dulcin and neotame in food. Methods for pretreatment of different kinds of samples were described in detail. MN NUCLEODUR C18 Pyramid column (3 mm× 250 mm, 5. 0 μm) was used as stationary phase, and a mixed solution of 5. 0 mmol · L^-1 acetic acid ammonium acetate buffer solution of pH 6. 0 and methanol in different ratios was used as mobile phase for gradient elution, and PDA detector at the wavelength of 235 nm was used for determination. I.inear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of the 5 edulcorators were kept in definite ranges. Values of detection limits (3S/N) of the method were found to be 0. 476, 0. 005, 3. 590, 0. 002 and 219. 9 mg · L ^-1 respectively. Tests for recovery gmd precision were made by standard addition method, values of recovery were ranged from 75. 0% to 104% and RSD's (n=5) found were ranged from 0. 3 % to 7.2%. Keywords: UHPI.C; Edulcorators; Acesulfame; Sodium saccharin; Aspartame; Dulcin; Neotame; Food%提出了超高效液相色谱法测定食品中5种人工合成甜味剂安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜、甘素和纽甜含量的方法。详细叙述了不同样品的前处理方法,以MNNUCI.EODURC18Pyramid(3mm×250mm,5.0μm)色谱柱为固定相,以不同体积比混合的pH6.0的5.0mmol·L^-1乙酸-乙酸铵缓冲溶液和甲醇为流动相进行梯度洗脱,采用二极管阵列检测器于波长235nm处进行测定。5种甜味剂的质量浓度分别在一定的范围内与峰面积呈线性关系,安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜、甘素和纽甜的检出限(3S/N)依次为0.476,0.005,3.590,0.002,219.9mg·L^-1。加标回收率在75.0%~104%之间;测定值的相对标准偏差(n=5)在0.3%~7.2%之间。

  20. Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection%固相萃取-高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法同时检测食品中5种人工合成甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 王彦; 王玉红; 周君裔; 阎超

    2012-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) in food. The sweeteners were extracted by 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid buffer solution. The extract of sample was cleaned up and concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Then the sweeteners were separated on a C18 column (3μm) using 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid buffer (adjusted to pH =3.5 with aqueous ammonia solution)-methanol (61: 39, v/v) as mobile phase, and finally detected by ELSD. The results showed that the reasonable linearity was achieved for all the analytes over the range of 30 - 1 000 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 997. The recoveries for the five sweeteners ranged from 85. 6% to 109. 0% at three spiked concentrations with the relative standard deviations ( RSDs) lower than 4. 0%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 2. 5 mg/L for both acesulfame-K and sucralose, 3 mg/L for saccharin sodium, 10 mg/L for sodium cyclamate, and 5 mg/L for aspartame. The method is simple,sensitive and low cost,and has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the five synthetic sweeteners in food.%建立了高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测仪( HPLC-ELSD)同时检测食品中安赛蜜、糖精钠、甜蜜素、三氯蔗糖和阿斯巴甜5种甜味剂的方法.甜味剂经0.1% (v/v)甲酸缓冲液提取后,利用C18固相萃取小柱净化浓缩,以3μmC18柱为分离柱,0.1% (v/v)甲酸(氨水调节pH =3.5)-甲醇(61∶39,v/v)为流动相,经高效液相色谱法分离,蒸发光散射检测器进行检测.结果表明,5种甜味剂在30~1 000 mg/L的范围内,具有良好的线性关系(相关系数大于0.997);在3个添加水平下,样品的平均回收率为85.6% ~ 109.0%,相对标准偏差小于4.0%;方

  1. 超高效液相色谱-高分辨质谱法快速检测白酒中4种甜味剂%Rapid detection of 4 sweeteners in spirit by UPLC-HRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 俞心愉; 李磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the rapid,sensitive and accurate detection method of 4 sweeteners (sodium cyclamate,sucralose,aspartame,and neotame) in spirit by ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry(UP-LC-HRMS).Methods Spirit sample was loaded into the column,eluted by methanol-water mobile phase,isolated with column Hypersil GOLD C18(100 mm ×2.1 mm,1.8 μm),and detected by Q-Exactive high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode,so qualitative and quantitative information was rapidly acquired.Results Under the conditions of full scan mode (120 m/z ~ 500 m/z) and 70 000 mass resolution,the four sweeteners (Cyclamate,Sucralose,Aspartame and Neotame) had good linear relationship (r ≥0.999) with the linear range between 2 μg/L and 400 μg/L.The LOQ (S/N =10) were 1 μg/L,0.3 g/L,1 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L respectively.The matrix recoveries were between 97.2% and 114.6%.The relative standard deviation RSD (n =3) were not exceeded 4%.Conclusion High resolution mass spectrum has a high selectivity.It substantially eliminates the sample matrix interference and simplifies the sample preparation.It can fully meet the requirements for rapid detection of sweeteners in spirit.%目的 建立白酒中甜蜜素、三氯蔗糖、阿斯巴甜和纽甜的快速、灵敏、准确的超高效液相色谱-高分辨质谱检测方法.方法 样品直接进样,经甲醇-水流动相洗脱,Hypersil GOLD C18(100 mm ×2.1 mm,1.8 μm)柱分离和Q-Ex-active高分辨质谱负离子模式检测,快速获得目标化合物定性、定量信息.结果 在质谱分辨率R=70 000、全扫描(fullscan)范围120m/z~500m/z检测条件下,4种甜味剂在2μg/L~ 400 μg/L浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系(r≥0.999);定量限LOQ(S/N=10)分别为1μg/L、0.3 μg/L、1μg/L和0.1μg/L.基质加标回收率在97.2%~ 114.6%之间,相对标准偏差RSD(n=3)≤4%.结论 该法具有的高选择性和高灵敏度,避免了样品基质干扰,节

  2. Equivalência de dulçor e poder edulcorante de edulcorantes em função da temperatura de consumo em bebidas preparadas com chá-mate em pó solúvel Equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents in differents temperatures of consumption of tea drink in soluble power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Porto Cardoso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de consumo na equivalência de doçura e no poder edulcorante de diferentes agentes adoçantes em bebida de chá-mate em pó solúvel. Foram avaliados: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, Stevia e acessulfame-K, tendo como referência a sacarose. Todos os estudos foram realizados a 6±2ºC e a 45±2ºC. Primeiramente foi determinada a doçura ideal, utillizando-se escala do ideal com 30 provadores consumidores da bebida. Em seguida, foi determinada a doçura equivalente à sacarose (na doçura considerada ideal para cada edulcorante estudado, e seu poder edulcorante nas duas temperaturas de estudo. Para tal foi aplicado o método de estimação de magnitude, utilizando-se uma equipe de 10 provadores selecionados e treinados. A doçura ideal de sacarose foi de 8,3% para a bebida de chá-mate solúvel, sem diferença significativa entre as temperaturas de estudo. Ocorreram diferenças sensoriais importantes em função da temperatura, pois, enquanto para alguns edulcorantes o aumento de temperatura provocou diminuição na potência edulcorante, para outros foi observado aumento do poder edulcorante. Portanto, não se deve generalizar as alterações no poder edulcorante em função da temperatura, pois ela pode variar em função da classe química envolvida e do meio de dispersão em que se encontra.In this work the effect of temperature of consumption in the equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents was verified in tea drink in soluble powder. The panelists had evaluated: aspartame, sucralose, mixture of cyclamate/saccharin (2:1, Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni] and acesulfame-K as sweeteners, having sucrose as reference. All sensory tests were carried-out at 6±2ºC and 45±2ºC. Firstly the ideal sweetness was determined by just-about-right scale with 30 consumers of tea drink. After the ideal sweetness of sucrose determination, the

  3. Terapia nutricional no diabetes gestacional Nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Padilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura científica sobre a terapia nutricional no Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, sem restrição de data e com fontes primárias indexadas nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed, Medline. Os resultados desta revisão apontam a intervenção nutricional como uma importante aliada no controle do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, trazendo potenciais benefícios à saúde materno-fetal. Na avaliação do estado nutricional materno devem ser empregados os indicadores antropométricos, dietéticos, bioquímicos, clínicos e funcional. Neste sentido, a avaliação dietética deve ser detalhada, com atenção para o fracionamento e composição das refeições, e grupos de alimentos presentes. No planejamento nutricional a distribuição de macronutrientes em relação ao consumo energético diário deve ser 45-65% de carboidratos, 15-20% de proteínas e 20-35% de lipídeos. Quanto a recomendação dos edulcorantes, são liberados para gestantes acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, sacarina e sucralose. A atividade física também deve fazer parte da estratégia de tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, embora o impacto do exercício nas complicações neonatais ainda mereça ser rigorosamente testado. Ademais, estudos associam a habilidade de aconselhamento nutricional com a melhorara na adesão ao cuidado nutricional. Diante desses achados, para sucesso no controle do DMG são necessários: a participação da equipe inter e multidisciplinar, o cuidado pré-natal precoce, com assistência nutricional oportuna e a garantia da assistência de qualidade ao longo da gestação.This is a scientific literature review about nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus, without date restriction and using the SciELO, PubMed and Medline databases. The results of this review show that nutritional intervention is an important tool for managing gestational diabetes mellitus, and potentially benefits the mother's and fetal health

  4. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  5. New clinical findings on the longevity gene in disease, health, & longevity: Sirtuin 1 often decreases with advanced age & serious diseases in most parts of the human body, while relatively high & constant Sirtuin 1 regardless of age was first found in the hippocampus of supercentenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic P; Jones, Marilyn; O'Young, Brian; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2011-01-01

    The expression of the longevity gene, Sirtuin 1, was non-invasively measured using Electro-Magnetic Field (EMF) resonance phenomenon between a known amount of polyclonal antibody of the C-terminal of Sirtuin 1 & Sirtuin 1 molecule inside of the body. Our measurement of over 100 human adult males and females, ranging between 20-122 years old, indicated that the majority of subjects had Sirtuin 1 levels of 5-10 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. When Sirtuin 1 was less than 1 pg, the majority of the people had various degrees of tumors or other serious diseases. When Sirtuin 1 levels were less than 0.25 pg BDORT units, a high incidence of AIDS was also detected. Very few people had Sirtuin 1 levels of over 25 pg BDORT units in most parts of the body. We selected 7 internationally recognized supercentenarians who lived between 110-122 years old. To our surprise, most of their body Sirtuin 1 levels were between 2.5-10 pg BDORT units. However, by evaluating different parts of the brain, we found that both sides of the Hippocampus had a much higher amount of Sirtuin 1, between 25-100 pg BDORT units. With most subjects, Sirtuin 1 was found to be higher in the Hippocampus than in the rest of the body and remains relatively constant regardless of age. We found that Aspartame, plastic eye contact lenses, and asbestos in dental apparatuses, which reduce normal cell telomeres, also significantly reduce Sirtuin 1. In addition, we found that increasing normal cell telomere by electrical or mechanical stimulation of True ST-36 increases the expression of the Sirtuin 1 gene in people in which expression is low. This measurement of Sirtuin 1 in the Hippocampus has become a reliable indicator for detecting potential longevity of an individual.

  6. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-adergani, Behrouz

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofiber was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique on the surface of a stainless steel bar. The manufactured tool was applied for on-line selective solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination of acesulfame (ACF) as an artificial sweetener with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The selective ability of method for the extraction of ACF was investigated in the presence of some selected sweeteners such as saccharine (SCH), aspartame (ASP) and caffeine (CAF). Electrospinning of MIP sol-gel solution on the stainless steel bar provided an unbreakable sorbent with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. Moreover, application of the MIP-SPME tool revealed a unique approach for the selective microextraction of the analyte in beverage samples. In this work, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine (TMSPA) was chosen as a precursor due to its ability to imprint the analyte by hydrogen bonding, Van der Walls, and dipole-dipole interactions. Nylon 6 was also added as a backbone and support for the precursor in which sol could greatly growth during the sol-gel process and makes the solution electrospinable. Various effective parameters in the extraction efficiency of the MIP-SPME tool such as loading time, flow rate, desorption time, selectivity, and the sample volume were evaluated. The linearity for the ACF in beverage sample was in the range of 0.78-100.5 ng mL(-1). Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.78 ng mL(-1) respectively. The RSD values (n=5) were all below 3.5%at the 20 ng mL(-1) level.

  7. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  8. Study on forming prescription and preparation technology of hydrotalcite chewable tablets%铝碳酸镁咀嚼片的处方及制剂工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 冯锁民

    2011-01-01

    The best prescription of hydrotalcite chewable tablets was hydrotalcite 500 g,lactose 300 g , xylital 200 g,aspartame 5 g and magnesium stearate 10 g. Wet granulation pellet method was adopted to prepare hydrotalcite chewable tablets and get three groups of samples. Then using appearance, the hardness. the difference in taste and the content as evaluation indexes,the quality of hydrotalcite chewable tablets was analyzed. Results indicated the hydrotalcite chewable tablets which producted with this prescription and processing technology have good taste,clean and stable, all around indexes conforms with the regulations. The preparation technology is reasonable and mature,it could be used to full scale production.%铝碳酸镁咀嚼片的最佳处方为:铝碳酸镁500 g,乳糖300 g,木糖醇200 g,阿斯巴甜5 g,硬脂酸镁10 g.采用湿法制粒压片法制备铝碳酸镁咀嚼片,并试制3批样品,以外观、硬度、片重差异、口感、含量等为指标对其质量进行了考察.结果表明,该处方工艺制得的咀嚼片,外观光洁,口感良好,硬度、片重差异、含量等均符合规定.本品处方工艺成熟,适合大批量生产.

  9. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  10. HPLC determination of 11 Kinds of Drink Additives%饮料中11种添加剂的高效液相色谱测定法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李堃; 郭蒙京

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究用液相色谱法一次性测定饮料中苯甲酸、山梨酸、安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜、咖啡因、日落黄、柠檬黄、苋菜红、胭脂红、亮蓝的分析方法.方法:利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法梯度洗脱对11种饮料添加剂进行分离,定量测定.结果:合成着色剂线性范围为2.5~25 μg/ml,其他添加剂线性范围为10 ~ 100 μg/ml,相关系数0.9998~0.9999.结论 该方法一次分离11种添加剂,简便,快捷,适合含有其中几种添加剂的样品批量测定.%[Objective] To establish a method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, acesulfame, saccharin, aspartame , caffeine, sunset yellow, lemon yellow, amaranth red, carmine , bright blue in beverage by HPLC. [Methods] The 11 beverage additives were separated by gradient elution of HPLC and the quantitative determination was performed. [Results] The linear range of the synthetic colorants ranged from 2. 5 - 25 μg/mg while other additives' linear range was 10 ~ 100 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression equation was 0. 999 8 ~ 0. 999 9. [Conclusion] This method is simple, rapid, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of several food additives.

  11. Studies on Formulation and Preparation of Children Calcium Carbonate and Vitamin D3 Chewable Tablets%小儿碳酸钙维D3咀嚼片处方工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦序锋; 王开颖; 彭晓国; 董调雅; 刘华本

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究小儿碳酸钙维D3咀嚼片的处方工艺及检查方法。方法处方采用正交试验,通过对辅料用量的筛选为考察项目,以颗粒休止角为考察指标,最终确定最优的处方及工艺。结果采用辅料麦芽糊精、阿司巴坦、枸橼酸、山梨醇做为辅料,采用20目筛网制粒,在60℃条件下烘干,水分控制在2.5%以下,稳定性良好,符合质量要求。结论采用该处方及生产工艺,符合咀嚼片剂的要求,可以用于大生产。%OBJECTIVE The prescription process and inspection method on children Calcium Carbonate and Vitamin D3 Chewable Tablets.METHODS The prescription by orthogonal test,through the screening of excipients as research project,to the repose angle,tablet hardness,friability,content as the indexes,finally determined the opti-mal prescription and technology.RESULTS To usr the excipients maltodextrin,aspartame,citric acid,sorbitol as materials,using 20 mesh sieve granulation,drying in the 60 conditions,Moisture control below 2.5%,good stability and meet the quality requirements.CONCLUSION To use the materials and production process, in accordance with the requirements of a chewable tablet,Can be used for mass production.

  12. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

    2012-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Two Preservatives and Three Sweeteners in Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage by HPLC Method%HPLC法同时测定乳酸菌饮料中2种防腐剂和3种甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京京

    2012-01-01

    建立了一种高效液相色谱法同时测定乳酸菌饮料中2种防腐剂(苯甲酸、山梨酸)、3种甜味剂(乙酰磺氨酸钾、天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯、糖精钠)的方法.样品经12%乙酸锌溶液和12%亚铁氰化钾溶液处理后,用C18色谱柱分离,以甲醇和0.02 mol/L乙酸铵溶液为流动相梯度淋洗,紫外检测波长为230,205 nm,可在30 min内将5种组分完全分离,测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.1%~4.3%(n=5),加标回收率为90%~102%.%A rapid and selective HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of two preservatives and three sweeteners including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K), L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame), saccharin sodium in lactic acid bacteria beverage. The preservatives and sweeteners in samples were extracted with 12% zinc acetate solution and 12% potassium ferrocyanide solution, separated on a Cl8 column using a mobile phase made up of methanol - 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate and ultraviolet detection wavelength was 230,265 nm. All the five additives were separated completely in 30 minutes. The recovery was in the range 90% - 102%, and the RSD of determination results was 1.1%-4.3%(n=5).

  14. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  15. Occurrence of artificial sweeteners in human liver and paired blood and urine samples from adults in Tianjin, China and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gan, Zhiwei; Gao, Chuanzi; Ma, Ling; Li, Yanxi; Li, Xiao; Sun, Hongwen

    2016-09-14

    In this study, acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC) and cyclamate (CYC) were found in all paired urine and blood samples collected from healthy adults, with mean values of 4070, 918 and 628 ng mL(-1), respectively, in urine and 9.03, 20.4 and 0.72 ng mL(-1), respectively, in blood. SAC (mean: 84.4 ng g(-1)) and CYC (4.29 ng g(-1)) were detectable in all liver samples collected from liver cancer patients, while ACE was less frequently detected. Aspartame (ASP) was not found in any analyzed human sample, which can be explained by the fact that this chemical metabolized rapidly in the human body. Among all adults, significantly positive correlations between SAC and CYC levels were observed (p < 0.001), regardless of human matrices. Nevertheless, no significant correlations between concentrations of SAC (or CYC) and ACE were found in any of the human matrices. Our results suggest that human exposure to SAC and CYC is related, whereas ACE originates from a discrete source. Females (or young adults) were exposed to higher levels of SAC and CYC than males (or elderly). The mean renal clearance of SAC was 730 mL per day per kg in adults, which was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than those for CYC (10 800 mL per day per kg) and ACE (10 300 mL per day per kg). The average total daily intake of SAC and ACE was 9.27 and 33.8 μg per kg bw per day, respectively.

  16. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-01

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF LORATADINE FOR SUBLINGUAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanusiya A.Qadir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Loratadine is a second generation orally administered non-sedative antihistamine used in the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis, urticarial (hives and other skin allergies. In the work undertaken, an attempt was made to prepare quick release films of loratadine with the purpose of developing a dosage form for very quick onset of action, which will be beneficial in managing severe condition of allergies, aiding in enhancement of bioavailability and very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing & without using water. The drug has salty taste and hence an attempt was made to mask the taste by using artificial sweetener aspartame which also acts as a saliva stimulant. The films of loratadine were prepared by using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC & polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC by solvent casting method. The IR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer. They were evaluated for physicochemical tests such as thickness, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drug content, folding endurance, surface pH, tensile strength and % elongation, disintegration test, all of which showed satisfactory results. The formulations were also subjected for in vitro drug release by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug release was also carried out using porcine membrane as the model. All the formulation showed 70-92% release within 4 min by the in vitro method and 64-86% within 4 min during ex vivo drug release studies. The stability studies conducted showed that there was no appreciable change when stored at refrigeration temperature 2-8°C, room temperature 25-30°C and oven temperature 45-50°C.

  18. Functional and structural variation of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) gene of Stevia rebaudiana-UGTSr involved in the synthesis of rebaudioside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Harish; Bhasker, Salini; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2013-02-01

    The sweetness of honey leaf plant Stevia rebaudiana is attributed to steviol glycosides or steviosides, accumulated in the leaves. Steviol glycosides are diterpenoids derived from steviol as the final step of glycosylation by the marker enzyme Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT). Out of the eight different steviol glycosides, rebaudioside A was detected as the sweetest glycoside with reduced bitter aftertaste. The pattern of glycosylation of steviol has a crucial role in maintaining the sweetness as well as the taste perception of stevioside. Within the 12 UGTs of S. rebaudiana so far elucidated, the functional genomics of three UGTs-UGT76G1, UGT74G1 & UGT85C2 in stevioside synthesis were studied. In the present study a UGT gene of S. rebaudiana named UGTSr showing resemblance with UGT76G1 was structurally analyzed and the functional role of the recombinant UGTSr in the synthesis of rebaudioside A was ascertained. The relative expression of UGTSr by qPCR showed a higher level of expression in mature leaves than in tender. Despite the similarity of nucleotide with UGT76G1, the gene UGTSr exhibits 48 SNPs and 39 associated amino acid substitutions with remarkable variation in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The helical changes, the presence of a new amino acid, novel substitutions of amino acids and the hydrogen bond in the conserved histidine and aspartame residues observed in UGTSr support its functional stability and specificity from that of other UGTs of S. rebaudiana. Based on these features UGTSr exhibits a novel status from other UGTs of S. rebaudiana.

  19. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  20. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  1. Análise descritiva quantitativa de edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDELLO Helena Maria André Bolini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Edulcorantes em solução, com a mesma equivalência de doçura, podem apresentar características sensoriais que os tornam diferentes entre si. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar Análise Descritiva Quantitativa de soluções de aspartame (APM, extrato de folhas de estévia (SrB e mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 (C/S em diferentes níveis de doçura, ou seja, em equivalência de doçura a uma solução aquosa de sacarose a 3, 10, 20 e 30%. Onze provadores, pré-selecionados através de análise seqüencial, tendo como critério suas habilidades de discriminação, foram treinados após o levantamento da terminologia descritiva. Após o treinamento, os provadores foram selecionados através de seu poder de discriminação, reproducibilidade e concordância com a equipe no uso de escalas. Os termos descritivos dos edulcorantes, para todos os níveis de doçura, gerados através do método rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method foram: doçura inicial, doçura residual, amargo inicial, amargo residual, residual de alcaçuz, corpo e acidez. Os resultados obtidos para cada nível de doçura foram analisados através de análise de variância, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. A análise descritiva foi efetiva em caracterizar o perfil sensorial dos edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações, evidenciando as mudanças no perfil com o aumento de suas concentrações.

  2. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF LORATADINE FOR SUBLINGUAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanusiya A.Qadir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loratadine is a second generation orally administered non-sedative antihistamine used in the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis, urticarial (hives and other skin allergies. In the work undertaken, an attempt was made to prepare quick release films of loratadine with the purpose of developing a dosage form for very quick onset of action, which will be beneficial in managing severe condition of allergies, aiding in enhancement of bioavailability and very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing & without using water. The drug has salty taste and hence an attempt was made to mask the taste by using artificial sweetener aspartame which also acts as a saliva stimulant. The films of loratadine were prepared by using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC & polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC by solvent casting method. The IR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer. They were evaluated for physicochemical tests such as thickness, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drug content, folding endurance, surface pH, tensile strength and % elongation, disintegration test, all of which showed satisfactory results. The formulations were also subjected for in vitro drug release by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug release was also carried out using porcine membrane as the model. All the formulation showed 70-92% release within 4 min by the in vitro method and 64-86% within 4 min during ex vivo drug release studies. The stability studies conducted showed that there was no appreciable change when stored at refrigeration temperature 2-8°C, room temperature 25-30°C and oven temperature 45-50°C.

  3. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO – IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATING FILMS OF A DRUG MEANT FOR CHRONIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayalakshmi*, E. Surender , B. Pragna , Md. Zia Askary , Lohidasu Borubhadra , A.J. Balamurugan and Hemant Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to design oral FDFs of a drug meant for management of chronic disease like type-2 diabetes mellitus which affects mostly elderly population. Glimepiride was the drug of choice because of its low dose. Since in vitro dissolution rate is the rate limiting step in drug absorption for class II drugs, in the present work, it was also proposed to make a complex of the drug with hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPBCD to improve the physicochemical-pharmacokinetic characters of the drug. Various batches of FDFs were developed by the solvent casting method using water soluble polymers HPMC-E5 and Maltodextrin as film formers; Glycerol and PEG-600 as plasticizers; Sodium starch glycollate as super disintegrating/channeling agent; Sodium lauryl sulphate, polaxamer 407 and Tween-80 as surfactants; aspartame as a sweetener and brilliant blue as coloring agent. The drug was complexed with HPBCD by kneading method in the ratio of 1:1 and was incorporated in the film in the place of plain drug. Poloxamer containing films gave better physico-chemical characters than the other tested surfactants and addition of HPBCD complexed drug further improved the characters of the films. The formulation containing drug- HPBCD complex and polaxamer 407 as the surfactant gave lowest disintegration time, more uniform and faster dissolution profile, had better taste, highter Cmax and lower tmax values during in vivo studies. It can therefore be concluded that the drug in its most soluble form gives better physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characters which results in better management of the disease as patient compliance improves.

  4. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkalla Salwa W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers. Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group. Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts. The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose

  5. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  6. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  7. Reaction kinetics and efficiencies for the hydroxyl and sulfate radical based oxidation of artificial sweeteners in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Janie E; Rickman, Kimberly A; Venter, Andre R; Kiddle, James J; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2012-10-11

    Over the past several decades, the increased use of artificial sweeteners as dietary supplements has resulted in rising concentrations of these contaminants being detected in influent waters entering treatment facilities. As conventional treatments may not quantitatively remove these sweeteners, radical-based advanced oxidation and reduction (AO/RP) treatments could be a viable alternative. In this study, we have established the reaction kinetics for both hydroxyl ((•)OH) and sulfate (SO(4)(•-)) radical reaction with five common artificial sweeteners, as well as their associated reaction efficiencies. Rate constants for acesulfame K, aspartame, rebaudioside A, saccharin, and sucralose were <2 × 10(7), (2.28 ± 0.02) × 10(9), (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10(8), <2 × 10(7), and (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for the sulfate radical, and (3.80 ± 0.27) × 10(9), (6.06 ± 0.05) × 10(9), (9.97 ± 0.12) × 10(9), (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9), and (1.50 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the hydroxyl radical, respectively. These latter values have to be combined with their corresponding reaction efficiencies of 67.9 ± 0.9, 52.2 ± 0.7, 43.0 ± 2.5, 52.7 ± 2.9, and 98.3 ± 3.5% to give effective rate constants for the hydroxyl radical reaction that can be used in the modeling of the AOP based removal of these contaminants.

  8. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  9. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.

  10. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  11. Preparation of puerarin orally disintegrating tablets%葛根素口腔崩解片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向程

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop oral disintegrating tablets with puerarin as themodeldrug .Methods The develop-ment selected the disintegration time and sedimentation volume ratio as an indicator .Screened tablet formulation consisting and process of single factor method .Optimized the preparation process .Results Puerarin orally disintegrating tablets were pre-pared by lyopyilization,containing the inactive ingredient:mannitol,gelatin,aspartame and mint flavor.The prepared tablets tas-ted fine and could disintegrate in 4s.The in vitro dissolution test indicated that 96.46%of puerarin dissolved in 4 minutes from the oral disintegrating tablets .Conclusion The prepared of puerarin oral disintegrating tablets disintegrated rapidly in oral cavity,the process of preparation is feasible .%目的:以葛根素为模型药物制备口腔崩解片。方法该研制把崩解时间及沉降容积比为指标,单因素法筛选片剂的处方组成及工艺,并优化制备工艺。结果葛根素口腔崩解片的辅料为甘露醇、明胶、阿司帕坦与薄荷香精,经过冷冻干燥方法制备,口感良好,4s的崩解时间,在4min内体外溶出度达96.46%。结论葛根素口腔崩解片可迅速崩解于口腔内,制备工艺可行。

  12. Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 μg/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products.

  13. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose.

  14. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied.

  15. Occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment and precipitation of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Feng, Biting; Wang, Ruonan; Zhang, Yanwei

    2013-09-15

    Seventy water samples, including wastewaters, tap waters, fresh surface waters, coastal waters, groundwaters, and precipitation samples, from Tianjin, China, were analyzed for seven commonly used artificial sweeteners (ASs). The concentrations of the investigated ASs were generally in the order of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent > WWTP effluent > surface water > tap water > groundwater ≈ precipitation, while the composition profiles of ASs varied in different waters. Acesulfame, sucralose, cyclamate, and saccharin were consistently detected in surface waters and ranged from 50 ng/L to 0.12 mg/L, while acesulfame was the dominant AS in surface and tap waters. Aspartame was found in all of the surface waters at a concentration up to 0.21 μg/L, but was not found in groundwaters and tap waters. Neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone were less frequently detected and the concentrations were low. The concentrations of the ASs in some of the surface waters were of the same order with those in the WWTP influents, but not with the effluents, indicating there are probably untreated discharges into the surface waters. The ASs were detected in precipitation samples with high frequency, and acesulfame, saccharin, and cyclamate were the predominant ASs, with concentrations ranging from 3.5 ng/L to 1.3 μg/L. A gross estimation revealed that precipitation may act as a source for saccharin and cyclamate in the surface environment of Tianjin city. Moreover, the presence of ASs in the atmosphere was primarily assessed by taking 4 air samples to evaluate their potential source in precipitation.

  16. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  17. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Clotrimazole Buccal Adhesive Tablets%克霉唑口腔黏附片的制备及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丽芳; 王静; 张友智

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare and evaluate clotrimazole buccal adhesive tablets. Method: The tablets were prepared by direct compression process using carbopol (CP 934) , sodium alginate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV) as the main adjunvants. The quality of the tablets was evaluated by the parameters of drug content, swelling index, in vitro drug release and mucoadhesive strength. Result: The optimized formula was as follows; clotrimazole of 5 mg, CP 934 of 30 mg, SCMC LV of 155 mg, PEG 6000 of 40 mg, lactose of 10mg, microcrystalline cellulose of 8 mg,magnesium stearate of 0.5 mg and aspartame of 2 mg. Conclusion: The buccal adhesive tablets are prepared successfully, and can be used in the further in vivo and in vitro studies.%目的:制备克霉唑口腔黏附片并评价其质量.方法:采用黏膜粘着剂卡波姆(CP 934)、海藻酸钠、低黏度羧甲基纤维素钠(SCMC),用直接压片法压片制备克霉唑口腔黏附片,并对黏附片的不同参数如药物含量、体外溶胀百分率、药物体外释放度和黏附力进行评价.结果:筛选出最佳配方:克霉唑5 mg,CP 934 30 mg,SCMC 155 mg,聚乙二醇6000 40 mg,乳糖10mg,微晶纤维素8 mg,硬脂酸镁0.5 mg和阿斯巴甜2 mg.结论:成功制备了克霉唑口腔黏附片,其可用于进一步的体内、体外研究.

  18. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls. PMID:26178725

  19. Comparison of hydrophilic interaction and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common steviol glycosides in popular beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2016-08-05

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to separate artificial and natural sweeteners approved for use in European Union (EU). Among three tested HILIC columns (BlueOrchid PAL-HILIC, Ascentis Express Si and Acclaim™ Trinity™ P2) the last one was selected for the development of HILIC method due to the best results obtained with it. Early eluting and coeluting compounds in HILIC (acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) were successfully separated by the HILIC-based approach for the first time. The developed HILIC method allows for determination of all high potency sweeteners in one analytical run. The calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity within the tested ranges. The limits of detection and quantitation were in the range 0.81-3.30ng/mL and 2.32-9.89ng/mL, respectively. The obtained recoveries used for trueness and precision estimation were from 98.6% to 106.2% with standard deviation less than 4.1%. Sample preparation was reduced to a necessary minimum and contained only proper dilution and centrifugation. More than twenty samples of beverages were analyzed with the developed HILIC method. Finally, the chromatographic parameters of peaks (reduced retention time, width at baseline, width at 50% of peak height, tailing factor and efficiency) obtained in HILIC mode and in RPLC mode were compared. Developed HILIC method along with RPLC method can be applied for rapid evaluation of sweeteners' content, quality and safety control.

  20. 高效液相色谱法同时测定榨菜中的10种食品添加剂%SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF 10 FOOD ADDITIVES IN PICKLED MUSTARD BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙; 庄莉; 崔群; 孙伟强

    2011-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法直接测定榨菜中的防腐剂、甜味剂、合成着色剂的方法.采用C18柱以甲醇-乙酸按(0.02 mot/L)为流动相,紫外检测波长为230,254 nm,可在25 min内将苯甲酸、山梨酸、脱氮乙酸、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯、对羟基苯甲酸丙酯、糖精钠、乙酰磺胺酸钾(安赛蜜)、天门冬酰苯丙胺酸甲酯(阿斯巴甜)、柠檬黄、日落黄完全分离,测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.1%-3.3%(n=3),回收率为96.6%-99.4%.%A method was developed for simultaneous determination of food additives in pickled mustard by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directly. The analysis was performed on a C18 column using methanol - ammonium acetate (0.02 mol/L) as mobile phase, and ultraviolet detection wavelength was 230, 254 nm. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acetate, ethyl p-hydroxy benzoate, propyl p-hydroxyl benzoate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K) , L-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine methyl ester (aspartame), tartrazine and sunset yellow were separated completely in 25 minutes. The RSD of determination results were in the range of 1. 1 % -3.3%(n=3), and the recoveries were in the range of 96.6% -99.4%.

  1. Taste responses to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats and baboon monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, M; Rogatka, H; Yamamoto, T; Zehavi, U

    1982-06-01

    Preference-aversion behavior to solutions containing neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC) was studied rats and baboon monkeys. Electrophysiological responses evoked by application of NHDHC solutions to taste receptors innervated by the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves were also measured. As a group, rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC in short and long-term preference tests. A solution containing the very high concentration of 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC was consumed less than water by all rats. The aversive behavior of rats to the 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC solution appeared to be due to taste quality rather than olfaction. When percent preferences were calculated on an individual basis for the long-term preference tests, 59% of the rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC, 33% of the animals found this solution aversive and less than 8% showed preference. Behavioral responses to a solution of 3.4 x 10(-4) M aspartame also varied considerably among rats. The electrophysiological data were in line with the behavioral responses suggesting weak taste responses for NHDHC in rats. More pronounced responses observed in the glossopharyngeal nerve as compared to the chorda tympani. Baboon monkeys showed a strong preference for solutions containing 1.6 x 10(-5) M-1.6 x 10(-3) M NHDHC. A solution of 1.6 x 10(-2) M was consumed to a lesser extent than water. It is concluded that baboon monkeys present a better experimental model than rats for investigating the sweetness of NHDHC.

  2. 梯度洗脱HPLC法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中甜味剂含量%Gradient HPLC determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 金薇; 乐健; 杨永健

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中4种甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)的方法,并在2011年度国家药品质量评价性抽验工作中,按照所建方法对盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中的4种甜味剂进行测定和评价.方法:采用Agilent SB-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)柱,流动相A为0.02 mol·L-1磷酸二氢铵缓冲液(pH 4.4),流动相B为乙腈,流速1.0 mL·min-1,线性梯度洗脱,检测波长为200 nm(糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)和226 nm(安赛蜜).结果:安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦和甜菊糖、甜菊素分离完全,各辅料均无干扰,线性范围分别为0.00561 ~0.225 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00106 ~0.106 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00522 ~0.209 mg· mL-1(r =0.9999)和0.00517~0.296 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000);检测限分别为0.4 ng,0.4 ng,1.6 ng和15.5 ng;定量限分别为1.3 ng,1.5 ng,5.2 ng和51.7 ng;平均加样回收率(n=6)分别为98.8% (RSD=0.5%),99.5%(RSD=0.3%),100.6%(RSD=0.2%),99.1% (RSD=1.1%).结论:本法具有较高的选择性,结果稳定,通过测定甜味剂的含量可监控制剂生产过程中辅料投料是否与处方一致.%Objective: To develop a method for determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution including potassium acesulfame, sodium saccharine, aspartame and stevioside/steviosin. Methods: The separation was conducted on an Agilent SB - C18(4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) and coupled with DAD at 200 nm( sodium saccharine , aspartame and stevioside/steviosin) and 226 nm ( potassium acesulfame). The mobile phase consisted of 0. 02 mol · L-1 ammonium dihydrogen phosphate( pH 4. 4 ) ( A) and acetonitrile ( B ) with gradient program. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min . Results:Good separation of 4 sweeteners and other excipients were achieved. The linear ranges of potassium acesulfame,sodium saccharinem,aspartame and stevioside were 0. 00561 -0. 225 mg · mL-1 (r = 1.0000) ,0.00106 -0

  3. Preparation of Apple Vinegar Beverage%发酵苹果醋饮的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程稚玲; 姚薇; 王钰慧; 张琳; 霍乃蕊; 王如福

    2016-01-01

    通过发酵酿制苹果醋并调配成醋饮,有助于苹果的高值利用并缓解苹果的市场压力。结果表明:经过4天酒精发酵,接种发酵第3天的老陈醋醋醅可使苹果醋醋酸发酵的时间缩短为5天。经过单因素试验:白砂糖替代实验以及感官评价确定苹果醋饮配方为苹果醋18%,蜂蜜3%,浓缩苹果汁6%,白砂糖1%,果葡糖浆1%,高倍甜味剂(阿斯巴甜与安赛蜜1∶1比例混合)0.01%,食盐0.025%。醋饮最终呈淡黄色,清亮透明,无悬浮物及沉淀,具有明显的醋香味、苹果香味,口感酸爽,后味丰富,酸甜柔和,酸而不烈,甜而不腻。%Apple vinegar is brewed into beverage in this study to make a foundation for high-value utilization and relieving the market pressure of overproduced apples.The results show that after 4 days'alcoholic fermentation,the fermentation time of vinegar is shortened to 5 days by inoculating the fermented solid vinegar matrix of Shanxi mature vinegar.The formulation of the apple vinegar beverage is determined by single factor test,sugar replacement test and sensory assessment.It is composed of 18% apple vinegar,3% honey,6% concentrated apple juice,1% white sugar,1%fructose syrup,0.01% high-times sweetener prepared by equal mass of aspartame and acesulfame and 0.025% table salt.The vinegar beverage is transparent and pale yellow,without suspended substance and sediments,with distinct vinegar,apple and honey flavor,sour and clear mouth feel and rich aftertaste,proper sourness and sweetness.

  4. Preparation of flavor vinegar jelly with kiwi and apple%猕猴桃/苹果风味醋果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐清萍; 胡风城

    2012-01-01

    以食醋、猕猴桃、苹果等为原料,研制开发风味醋果冻.研究了风味醋果冻中混合胶复配比例和用量、复合果汁,甜味剂、食醋的用量等对风味醋果冻性能的影响.结果表明,果冻复配胶的最佳配比为鱼胶粉∶黄原胶∶琼脂=1∶1∶2;猕猴桃汁∶苹果汁=3∶1.通过正交试验确定了风味醋果冻的配方:复合胶粉质量分数1.0%,复合果汁体积分数20%,甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶砂糖=1∶50)质量分数4.0%,白醋体积分数6.0%.成品果冻营养健康,色泽均匀,组织状态良好,口感酸甜,香气协调.%Vinegar, kiwi and apple were used for making flavor vinegar jelly. The influences of the dosage of jelly powder, complex juice, sweetener, and vinegar on flavor vinegar jelly were studied. The best ratio for fish powder, xanthan gum and agar was 1:1:2 and the best ratio for kiwifruit juice and apple juice was 3:1 according to experiment. The optimal ratio for flavor vinegar jelly, which was determined by orthogonal experiments, was as follows: jelly powder 1.0% ,fruit juice 20% ,sweetener 4.0% (the ratio for aspartame and granulated sugar was 1:50),white vinegar 6.0%. Vinegar jelly obtained was healthy with even color, good state, sour and sweet taste, and balanced smell.

  5. Prevention of nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A, a food contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creppy, E E; Baudrimont, I; Betbeder, A M

    1995-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by ubiquitous Aspergilli, mainly by Aspergillus ochraceus and also by Penicilium verrucosum. It was found all over the world in feed and human food and blood as well as in animal blood and tissues. The most threatening effects of OTA are its nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity, since this mycotoxin is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far and is increasingly involved in the Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a human chronic interstitial nephropathy which is most of the time associated to urinary tract tumours. Since it seems impossible to avoid contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, detoxification and detoxication for OTA are needed. To reduce or abolish the OTA-induced toxic effects, several mechanisms were investigated. The results of these investigations showed that some of the potential antidotes were efficient in preventing the main OTA toxic effects whereas some others were not. Promising compounds are structural analogues of OTA, and/or compounds having a high binding affinity for plasma proteins such as piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Some enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, radical scavengers, vitamins, prostaglandin (PG) synthesis inhibitors, (such as piroxicam), pH modificators, adsorbant resin such as cholestyramine etc. are efficient in vivo. Some of the results obtained in vivo were already confirmed in vitro and gave useful information on how to safely use these antidotes. The most generally acting compound seems to be A19 (Aspartame), a structural analogue of OTA and phenylalanine. When given to rats A19 (25 mg/kg/48 h) combined to OTA (289 micrograms/kg/48 h) for several weeks largely prevented OTA nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity. When given after intoxication of animals with OTA it washes out the toxin efficiently from the body. In vitro, A19 (10 micrograms/ml) prevents OTA (20-500 micrograms/ml) binding to plasma proteins. Its general

  6. 液相色谱串联质谱法同时检测酱香型白酒中6种人工合成甜味剂%Simultaneous Detection of Six Artificial Sweeteners in Jiangxiang Baijiu(liquor) by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余磊; 王缅; 朱明

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱串联质谱法同时测定白酒中6种人工合成甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、纽甜及三氯蔗糖)的分析方法。样品直接稀释,过0.45滋m滤膜上机分析。采用C18柱分离,以0.1%甲酸水溶液-甲醇为流动相,梯度洗脱,以保留时间和质荷比对分离出的组分进行定性,用峰面积进行定量。结果表明,6种甜味剂的质量浓度与其峰面积在一定范围内呈良好线性关系,10~200 ng/mL范围内相关系数为0.9915~0.9943,20~500 ng/mL范围内相关系数为0.9961~0.9983,检出限均为10滋g/kg,相对标准偏差2.1%~7.9%。%In this study, we developed a method to simultaneously detect six artificial sweeteners(acesulfame K, saccharin sodium, sodium cycla-mate, aspartame, neotame and sucralose) in Jiangxiang Baijiu (liquor) by HPLC-MS/MS. Samples were diluted directly, and went through 0.45μm filter membrane. Then samples were separated by C18 column, using 0.1%formic acid and methanol as mobile phase, with gradient elu-tion. Qualitative analysis of the separated composition was carried out based on retention time and mass-charge ratio, and quantitative analysis was based on peak area. The results showed that, there was a linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area of the six sweeteners:within the range of 10~200 ng/mL, the correlation coefficient was 0.9915~0.9943, and within the range of 20~500 ng/mL, the cor-relation coefficient was 0.9961~0.9983. The detection limit was 10 μg/g, and the relative standard deviation was 2.1%~7.9%. (Trans. by HUANG Xiaoli).

  7. 高效液相色谱-四极杆飞行时间质谱法快速筛查饮料中6种人工合成甜味剂%Analysis of 6 Synthetic Sweeteners in Beverage by Liquid Chromatography--Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 王建华; 刘靖靖; 李立; 颜冬云

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱-四极杆飞行时间串联质谱快速检测饮料中糖精钠、甜蜜素、安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、纽甜、三氯蔗糖6种人工合成甜味剂的方法。样品经水提取,采用C18色谱柱,以甲醇和0.1%甲酸-10 mmol/L甲酸铵溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,四极杆飞行时间串联质谱电喷雾负离子模式检测。各化合物在0.02~2.0 mg/L范围内均呈现良好的线性关系,相关系数均大于0.998。样品平均添加回收率为63.0%~113.2%,测定结果的相对标准偏差均小于9.6%(n=5)。该方法简便快捷,选择性好,灵敏度高,可满足国内外现行法规的限量要求。%A new method was established for the determination of 6 synthetic sweeteners (sodium saccharin, cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, sucralose) in beverage, by using high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q TOF MS). The samples were extracted by water and measured directly by HPLC-Q TOF MS with electrospray ionization in negative mode. The compounds were separated by a C18 column with methyl alcohol and 0.1% formic acid-10 mmol/L ammonium formate solution as the mobile phase. A detailed fragmentation study for 6 synthentic sweeteners was carried out by time of flight. The 6 compounds behave linearly in the range of 0.02-2.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of more than 0.998. The recoveries were 63.0%-113.2%, with coefficients of variation below 9.6%(n=5). The method is suitable for routine qualitative and quantitative analyses of synthetic sweeteners in beverage.

  8. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  9. Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    Sterilizing the pre-cancer skin of malignant melanoma (M.M.) with 70% Isopropyl alcohol intensified malignancy & the malignant response extended to surrounding normal looking skin, while sterilizing with 80% (vodka) or 12% (plum wine) ethyl alcohol completely inhibited M.M. in the area (both effects lasted for about 90 minutes initially). Burnt food (bread, vegetables, meat, and fish), a variety of smoked & non-smoked fish-skin, many animal's skin, pepper, Vitamin C over 75 mg, mango, pineapple, coconut, almond, sugars, Saccharine & Aspartame, garlic, onion, etc & Electromagnetic field from cellular phones worsened M.M. & induced abnormal M.M. response of surrounding skin. We found the following factors inhibit early stage of M.M. significantly: 1) Increasing normal cell telomere, by taking 500 mg Haritaki, often reached between 400-1150 ng& gradually diminished, but the M.M. response was completely inhibited until normal cell telomeres are reduced to 150 ng, which takes 6-8 hours. More than 70 mg Vitamin C, Orange Juice, & other high Vitamin C containing substances shouldn't be taken because they completely inhibit the effects of Haritaki. 2) We found Chrysotile asbestos & Tremolite asbestos (% of the Chrysotile amount) coexist. A special Cilantro tablet was used to remove asbestos & some toxic metals. 3) Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has a maximum inhibiting effect on M.M. but 800 I.U. or higher promotes malignancy. 4) Noricontaining Iodine, etc., was used. 5) EPA 180 mm with DHA 120 mg was most effectively used after metastasis to the surrounding skin was eliminated. When we combined 1 Cilantro tablet & Vitamin D3 400 I.U. withsmall Nori pieces & EPA with DHA, the effect of complete inhibition of M.M. lasted 9-11 hours. When these anti-M.M.substances (Haritaki, Vitamin D3, Cilantro, Nori, EPA. with DHA) were taken together, the effect lasted 12-14 hoursand M.M. involvement in surrounding normal-looking skin disappeared rapidly & original dark brown or black are as

  10. PARÂMETROS DE CURVAS TEMPO-INTENSIDADE DOS ESTÍMULOS DOCE E AMARGO DE EDULCORANTES: SELEÇÃO POR ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE POR PASSO E ANÁLISE DE CORRELAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELENA MARIA ANDRé BOLINI CARDELLO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A análise tempo-intensidade é uma técnica que permite estudar as variações de intensidade de estímulos sensoriais com o decorrer do tempo. Para este estudo, são coletados os valores de parâmetros das curvas obtidas, os quais são submetidos a análises estatísticas, que fornecem informações sobre o estimulo sensorial gerado pela amostra avaliada. Esse processo é trabalhoso, uma vez que são analisadas várias curvas, em razão do número de amostras, provadores e repetições. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade de diminuir o número de parâmetros que devem ser obtidos de cada curva. Para isso, foram realizadas análises de correlação entre os parâmetros e análise discriminante por passos. Os edulcorantes estudados foram: aspartame, extrato de folhas de estévia e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, em doçura equivalente à sacarose em solução a 3%, 10%,20% e 30%. Os parâmetros obtidos foram: tempo para atingir a intensidade máxima (TImáx, tempo onde a intensidade máxima começa a declinar (Td, tempo de duração da intensidade máxima (Platô, área total sob a curva (Área, tempo total de duração do estímulo (Ttot e intensidade máxima percebida (Imáx Concluiu-se que, para os gostos doce e amargo, para os edulcorantes estudados, o parâmetro Área poderia ser eliminado .

  11. Rate of atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice long after discontinuation of cola beverage drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of cola beverages drinking on atherosclerosisand test the hypothesis whether cola beverages consumption at early life stages might affect the development and progression of atherosclerosis later in life. ApoE-/- C57BL/6J mice (8 week-old were randomized in 3 groups (n = 20 each according to free accessto water (W, sucrose sweetened carbonated cola drink(C or aspartame-acesulfame K sweetened carbonated 'light' cola drink (Lfor the next 8 weeks. Drinking treatment was ended by switching C and L groups to drinking water. Four mice per group and time were sequentially euthanized: before treatment (8 weeks-old, at the end of treatment (16 weeks-old and after treatment discontinuation (20 weeks-old, 24 weeks-old, 30 week-old mice. Aortic roots and livers were harvested, processed for histology and serial cross-sections were stained. Aortic plaque area was analyzed and plaque/media-ratio was calculated. Early consumption of cola drinks accelerated atherosclerotic plaque progression favoring the interaction between macrophages and myofibroblasts, without the participation of either T lymphocytes or proliferative activity. Plaque/media-ratio varied according to drink treatment (F2,54 = 3.433, p<0.04 and mice age (F4,54 = 5.009, p<0.03 and was higher in C and L groups compared with age-matched W group (p<0.05 at 16 weeks and 20 weeks, p<0.01 at 24 weeks and 30 weeks. Natural evolution of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice (W group evidenced atherosclerosis acceleration in parallel with a rapid increase in liver inflammation around the 20 weeks of age. Cola drinking within the 8-16 weeks of age accelerated atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice favoring aortic plaque enlargement (inward remodeling over media thinning all over the study time. Data suggest that cola drinking at early life stages may predispose to atherosclerosis progression later in life in ApoE-/- mice.

  12. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Shiang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K, aspartame (ASP, cyclamate (CYC, dulcin (DUL, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, neotame (NEO, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC, saccharin (SAC, sucralose (SCL, and stevioside (STV] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC–MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits. Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners.

  13. The binding site for neohesperidin dihydrochalcone at the human sweet taste receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochwil Nicole A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sweet taste perception among species depend on structural variations of the sweet taste receptor. The commercially used isovanillyl sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone activates the human but not the rat sweet receptor TAS1R2+TAS1R3. Analysis of interspecies combinations and chimeras of rat and human TAS1R2+TAS1R3 suggested that the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 is crucial for the activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Results By mutational analysis combined with functional studies and molecular modeling we identified a set of different amino acid residues within the heptahelical domain of human TAS1R3 that forms the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding pocket. Sixteen amino acid residues in the transmembrane domains 2 to 7 and one in the extracellular loop 2 of hTAS1R3 influenced the receptor's response to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Some of these seventeen residues are also part of the binding sites for the sweetener cyclamate or the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. In line with this observation, lactisole inhibited activation of the sweet receptor by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and cyclamate competitively, whereas receptor activation by aspartame, a sweetener known to bind to the N-terminal domain of TAS1R2, was allosterically inhibited. Seven of the amino acid positions crucial for activation of hTAS1R2+hTAS1R3 by neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are thought to play a role in the binding of allosteric modulators of other class C GPCRs, further supporting our model of the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone pharmacophore. Conclusion From our data we conclude that we identified the neohesperidin dihydrochalcone binding site at the human sweet taste receptor, which overlaps with those for the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. This readily delivers a molecular explanation of our finding that lactisole is a competitive inhibitor of the receptor

  14. DOÇURA IDEAL E ANÁLISE DE ACEITAÇÃO DE SUCO DE ABACAXI CONCENTRADO RECONSTITUÍDOADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. MARCELLINI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Em razão da necessidade de substituição da sacarose por adoçantes não calóricos vem crescendo o interesse no estudo dessas substâncias. Há um grande número de substâncias definidas como adoçantes não calóricos, os fatores individuais destes adoçantes, tais como a intensidade e persistência do gosto doce e a presença ou não do gosto residual, são fundamentais para a aceitação, preferência dos consumidores. O abacaxi, fruta tropical bastante apreciada por seu sabor característico, tem no seu suco reconstituído um alto potencial econômico do mercado nacional e internacional. Foram objetivos do trabalho: Realizar determinação de doçura equivalente, análise de aceitação, determinação da doçura ideal de suco de abacaxi industrializado reconstituído, adoçado com diferentes edulcorantes (ciclamato/sacarina, sucralose, aspartame puro, estévia e sacarose. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que o método de determinação de equivalência de doçura e o da doçura ideal dos edulcorantes proporcionaram a obtenção de valores diferentes no suco de abacaxi. Observando-se a análise de aceitação vê-se que o suco de abacaxi adoçado com o edulcorante sucralose foi mais aceito que todos os outros edulcorantes e que a própria sacarose. Apenas a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve médias de aceitação na região negativa da escala (abaixo de 4,5.

  15. Study on the Changes of Bone Metabolism in CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rats%肝纤维化大鼠骨代谢及其调控激素的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞华芳; 朱金水; 余小虎

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究肝纤维化大鼠骨代谢及其调控激素的改变.方法:20只大鼠分为2组,一组以四氯化碳肌注建立肝纤维化大鼠模型,另一组为正常对照组.分别测定2组的肝功能[丙氨酸氨基转移酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(aspartame aminotransferase,AST)、总胆红素(total bilirubin,TB)、总蛋白(serum total protein,TP)、白蛋白/球蛋白(A/G)、γ-谷氨酰转移酶(γ-glutamyltransferase,γ-GT)];股骨和腰椎骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD);骨代谢指标及其调控激素[血清钙、尿钙、25羟基维生素D3[25(OH)VitD3]、甲状旁腺激素(parathyroid hormone,PTH)、尿吡啶酚/肌酐(urinary pyridinoline/creatinine,Pyd/Cr)].结果:肝纤维化大鼠与正常对照组相比,股骨和腰椎骨密度下降,但无显著差异[0.149±0.014 vs0.151±0.006 g/cm2,P>0.05;0.139±0.012 vs 0.146±0.007 g/cm2,P>0.05];血清25(OH)VitD3无显著差异[18.97±1.52 vs18.20±1.03ng/ml,P>0.05];尿Pyd/Cr则显著升高[0.13±0.04 vs 0.08±0.02 nm/μmol,P<0.01].相关性分析显示,腰椎骨密度与血清A/G呈正相关(r=0.586,P<0.01),而与尿Pyd/Cr呈负相关(r=-0.512,P<0.05).结论:肝纤维化大鼠骨吸收加强.

  16. Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belscak-Cvitanović, Ana; Benković, Maja; Komes, Drazenka; Bauman, Ingrid; Horzić, Dunja; Dujmić, Filip; Matijasec, Matea

    2010-06-23

    with sweeteners (aspartame/acesulfame K and stevia extract), and there was a significant difference in the sensory attributes between the experimental mixtures and the control. The displayed results indicate the significant potential of using alternative sweeteners for the preparation of cocoa drink mixtures, which may provide good physical and sensory properties and also enhance the already existing beneficial effects of cocoa.

  17. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvable product, electronic cigarette liquids and to compare with sweetener levels in confectionary products. Methods: Sweetener content of US-sourced smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarette liquid, and confectionary product samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Results: All smokeless products contained synthetic high intensity sweeteners, with snus and dissolvables exceeding levels in confectionary products (as much as 25-fold). All snus samples contained sucralose and most also aspartame, but no saccharin. In contrast, all moist snuff samples contained saccharin. The dissolvable sample contained sucralose and sorbitol. Ethyl maltol was the most common sweet-associated component in electronic cigarette liquids. Discussion: Sweetener content was dependent on product category, with saccharin in moist snuff, an older category, sucralose added at high levels to more recently introduced products (snus, dissolvable) and ethyl maltol in electronic cigarette liquid. The very high sweetener concentrations may be necessary for the consumer to tolerate the otherwise aversive flavors of tobacco ingredients. Regulation of sweetener levels in smokeless tobacco products may be an effective measure to modify product attractiveness, initiation and use patterns. Implications: Dissolvables, snus and electronic cigarettes have been promoted as risk-mitigation products due to their relatively low content of nitrosamines and other tobacco

  18. Preparation and quality evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets of Tiazanidine Hydrochloride%盐酸替扎尼定口腔黏附片的研制及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓艳; 张友智; 耿立坚

    2014-01-01

    目的:制备盐酸替扎尼定口腔黏附片并评价其质量。方法采用不同配比的羟丙甲基纤维素(H PM C )、羧甲基纤维素钠(SCMC)、β-环糊精和羟丙基-β-环糊精等辅料,用直接压片法压片制备盐酸替扎尼定口腔黏附片,并对黏附片的理化性质、药物含量、药物体外释放度和黏附力进行评价。结果得到各项指标均较适宜的处方:盐酸替扎尼定4.56 mg ,羟丙甲纤维素20 mg ,羧甲基纤维素钠75mg,羟丙基-β-环糊精27.36mg,甘露醇4mg,阿斯巴甜1mg,微粉硅胶1mg。结论成功制备了盐酸替扎尼定口腔黏附片,可用于进一步的体内、体外研究。%Objective To prepare and evaluate a buccal adhesive tablet containing tiazanidine hydrochloride .Methods The tablets were prepared by using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC ) ,sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC ) ,β-cyclodextrin , hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin ,etc as the auxiliary materials .Direct compression process was used to prepare the buccal adhesive tablets ,and different parameters such as physicochemical property ,drug content ,in vitro drug release ,and mucoadhesive strength were evaluated .Results The prescription was as follows :tiazanidine hydrochloride 4 .56 mg ,hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose 20 mg ,sodium carboxymethylcellulose 75 mg ,hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin 27 .36 mg ,mannitol 4 mg ,aspartame 1 mg and aerosil 1 mg .Conclusion The buccal adhesive tablets of tiazanidine hydrochloride were prepared successfully ,and which can be used for the further study both in vivo and in vitro .

  19. 昂丹司琼口腔黏附片的制备及评价%Preparation and evaluation of ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友智; 王力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate an oral mucosal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochioride. Methods The tablets were prepared with carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used in preparing oral mucosal adhesive tablets. The study was appraised by different parameters such as drug content, swelling index, in vitro drug release studies, and mucoadhesive strength. Results The optimized formulation was composed of ondansetron (5 mg), CP 934 (30 rag), SCMC LV (165 mg), PEG-6000 (40 mg), lactose (10 mg), magnesium stearate (1.5 mg), and aspar-tame (2 mg). Conclusion Compared with ondansetron ordinary tablets, buccal adhesive ondansetron tablets have good dosage form, maximum release and permeation. Ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets are an alternative route to bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of ondansetron.%目的 制备及评价盐酸昂丹司琼口腔黏附片.方法 采用相关的黏膜黏着剂卡波姆(CP934)、海藻酸钠、低黏度羧甲基纤维素钠( SCMCLV),用直接压片法压片,对黏附片的不同参数如药物含量,体外溶胀百分率、药物体外释放度和黏附力进行评价.结果 筛选出最佳配方:昂丹司琼5mg、CP934 30 mg、SCMC 165 mg、聚乙二醇-6000 40 mg,乳糖10mg、硬脂酸镁1.5 mg和阿斯巴甜2mg.结论 与昂丹司琼的普通片剂进行比较,昂丹司琼口腔黏附片体外药物释放和渗透都很好,既避免了肝脏首过效应,提高了昂丹司琼的生物利用度;又避免了昂丹司琼的苦味,更易于为患者所接受.

  20. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  1. Study on Processing Technology of Cactus Suck Jelly%仙人掌可吸果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂长莉; 于淑坤; 曹晓虹; 程广超

    2016-01-01

    Edible cactus has not only profuse nutrition,but possesses a healthcare function. Because of its strong adaptability and stress resistance,it has been planted a lot in our country. As the nutrition and health care value of edible,cactus have become more widely known,it has drawn the increasing public attention. In the study it was made a kind of sucking jelly with edible cactus as the main ingredient. Results indicate that with the content of edible cactus juice 20%,APM (Aspartame) 0.4%,citric acid 0.4%and carrageenan 1.2%,the jelly would be irregular shape and the gel would not be dispersed and ramous. For the delicate taste and palatability of its sweet and sour taste,it could meet the consuming habit of consumers. The study also showed that hygienic-qual-ity indicators of the product were satisfied with the relevant standards. Through the study,it would be concluded that the industrialized production of this kind of jelly can be realized.%食用型仙人掌具有丰富的营养价值和保健功能,其适应性与抗逆性强,在我国已大量种植,随着人们对仙人掌营养保健价值的逐渐认知,仙人掌食品开始受到关注。以食用仙人掌为原料,研制开发一款老少皆宜的仙人掌可吸果冻,确定其可实现工业化生产的配方与加工工艺。结果表明:当仙人掌汁含量20%,阿斯巴甜0.4%,柠檬酸为0.4%,卡拉胶1.2%时,冻体呈不定形状、凝胶不流散、无破裂,口感细腻、酸甜适口,符合大众消费习惯,质量卫生指标合格,可作为食品规模化生产。

  2. A glucose-centric perspective of hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasarma, T; Rafi, M

    2016-02-01

    targets. Some are effective in slowing formation of glucose in intestines by inhibiting α-glucosidases (e.g., salacia/saptarangi). Knowledge gained from French lilac on active guanidine group helped developing Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) one of the popular drugs in use. One strategy of keeping sugar content in diets in check is to use artificial sweeteners with no calories, no glucose or fructose and no effect on blood glucose (e.g., steviol, erythrytol). However, the three commonly used non-caloric artificial sweeteners, saccharin, sucralose and aspartame later developed glucose intolerance, the very condition they are expected to evade. Ideal way of keeping blood glucose under 6 mM and HbA1c, the glycation marker of hemoglobin, under 7% in blood is to correct the defects in signals that allow glucose flow into glycogen, still a difficult task with drugs and diets.

  3. 反相高效液相色谱梯度洗脱法测定乳饮料中9种食品添加剂%Simultaneous determination of nine food additives in milk beverage by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with gradient program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 赵永纲; 姚珊珊

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop a simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 9 food additives by reversed -phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Methods: Samples extracted by methyl alcohol were separated in a Gemini C18 column (250 mm ×4.6 mm × 5 μn) with gradient program by using acetonitrile/trifluoroacetic acid/ammonium acetate as mobile phase. Detection was performed with UV detector at 210 ran and the column temperature was hold at 30℃. Quantitative analysis was carried out by measuring peak area and comparing it with external standard. Results: Good linearity in the range of 5.0 mg/L - 100.0 mg/L for acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid and neotame while stevioside with the linearity in the range of 10.0 mg/L - 200. 0 mg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 93.2% - 103.3% , and precision values expressed as relative standard deviation ( RSDs) were lower than 6.0%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) in samples were in the range of 1.0 mg/kg - 10.0 mg/kg. Conclusion: The developed method possesses many advantages, i. e. , simple pretreatment, well separation and reproducibility with gradient program, rapid, sensitive and accurate , which can be applied to the routine analyses for the determination of the 9 food additives in milk beverage samples.%目的:建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定乳饮料中9种食品添加剂的分析方法.方法:样品经甲醇处理后采用Gemini C(18)柱(250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm)以乙腈-三氟乙酸-乙酸铵为流动相进行梯度洗脱分离,紫外检测器测定,外标法定量.检测波长为210 nm,柱温30℃.结果:安赛蜜、糖精、咖啡因、阿斯巴甜、苯甲酸、山梨酸、脱氢乙酸和纽甜在5.0 mg/L~100.0 mg/L范围均具有良好的线性,甜菊糖苷在10.0 mg/L~200.0 mg/L范围具有良好的线性,9种待测物的回收率在93.2%~103.3%范围,RSD均小于6.0%,最低定量检出限在1.0 mg/kg~10

  4. Simultaneous Screening of 14 Illegal Food Additives in Wines Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-串联质谱快速筛查葡萄酒中的14种禁用食品添加剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯峰; 杨烁; 凌云; 江桂斌; 储晓刚

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时测定葡萄酒中14种禁用食品添加剂的超高效液相色谱-电喷雾电离串联质谱(UPLC-ESI-MS/MS)分析方法.采用UPLC BEH C18( 100 mm×2.1mm×1.7 μm)色谱柱,对流动相的组成、缓冲液离子强度及质谱的各种参数进行了优化.结果表明,流动相的离子强度对食品添加剂的质谱检测有重要影响,以含1 mmol/L甲酸铵-甲酸缓冲液(pH 3.9)-乙腈为流动相,梯度洗脱,柱温35℃,可以在6 min内完成14种食品添加剂的分离和检测.在ESI负离子模式下,采用选择离子监测方法进行测定时,除三氯蔗糖、日落黄和酸性红13的检出限分别为10,2和2 μg/L外,其它11种的检出限在0.01~ 1.0 μg/L之间.回收率为93.8%~106%,相对标准偏差小于3.1%.本方法快速、准确、灵敏度高,可用于葡萄酒及其它复杂基质食品中的低剂量、多种禁用食品添加剂的同时筛查.%An ultra performance liquid chromatography-eiectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectro-metric (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous screening 14 illegal food additives (acesul-fame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, neotame, sucralose, ponceau 2R, ponceau 3R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow FCF, allura red, acid Red 1, acid red 13, erythrosine) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out using an UPLC BEH C18(100 mm×2. 1 mm× 1. 7 μm) as solid phase. Several parameters, including the compositions and ion strength of the mobile phase, and the monitor ions were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity could be significantly influenced by the amine concentration in the eluent. The separation could be completed in less than 6 min when using 1 mmol/L ammonium formate-formic acid buffer (pH 3. 9) and acetonitrile as the mobile phases, gradient elution. The column temperature was kept at 35 °C. When the analytes were detected by ESI~-MS under

  5. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定调味品中8种人工合成甜味剂%Simultaneous determination of eight artificial sweeteners in flavorings by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮丽萍; 蔡梅; 吉文亮; 马永建

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立一种高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(HPLC-MS/MS)同时测定调味品中8种人工合成甜味剂(安赛蜜、甜蜜素、糖精、阿斯巴甜、阿力甜、纽甜、三氯蔗糖、新橘皮苷二氢查耳酮).方法 样品用水提取,提取液用甲醇沉淀水溶性大分子化合物,离心后取上清液经过中性氧化铝固相萃取柱分离色素,采用C18色谱分离柱,以10 mmol/L甲酸铵溶液-乙腈进行梯度洗脱,电喷雾负离子模式下多反应监测(MRM)模式检测.结果 线性范围分别为糖精于0.05~5μg/ml,三氯蔗糖于0.1~ 10 μg/ml,其它甜味剂于0.01~1μg/ml,线性关系良好,r2>0.990.在3个添加水平下,样品平均回收率为82.7%~117.9%,RSD为0.6%~10.6%.甜味剂于液体及半固体基质中的检出限均为0.01 ~0.1 mg/kg,于固体基质中的检出限为0.1~1 mg/kg.结论 本方法选择性强、灵敏度高、处理方法简单,可用于调味品中8种人工合成甜味剂的测定.%Objective To establish a HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of eight artificial sweeteners in flavorings.Methods The artificial sweeteners,including acesulfame-K,cyclamate,saccharin,aspartame,alitame,neotame,sucralose and neohesperidine dihydrochalcone were extracted with water and the water-soluble macromolecular compounds in flavorings were precipitated with methanol.The supernatant was cleaned-up using aluminum-N cartridges and separated on a C18 column using 10 mmol/L ammonium formic acid/acetonitrile as mobile phase and then detected by HPLC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode.Results The calibration curves showed a good linearity with correlation coefficients > 0.990.The linear range for saccharin was 0.05-5 μg/ml,0.1-10 μg/ml for sucralose,and the other sweeteners was 0.01-1 μg/ml.The average recoveries were from 82.7% to 117.9%,and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were from 0.6% to 10.6%.The detection limits for

  6. 苯磺酸左氨氯地平分散片的制备及质量研究%Preparation and Quality Investigation of Levoamlodipine Besylate Dispersible Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐开勇; 郭晓静; 周庆武

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prepare Levoamlodipine Besylate dispersible tablets, and evaluate its quality. Methods Different disintegrates were screened, and the best formulation was optimized by orthogonal experiment design using the disintegration time and dissolution as indexes. The best formulation of Levoamlodipine Besylate dispersible tablets was authenticated by the initial stability experiment. Results Lactose is incompatible with Levoamlodipine Besylate. The best formulation of Levoamledipine Besylate dispersible tablets was composed of Levoamlodipine Besylate 3.47 mg, MCC 70 mg, brushite 30 mg, starch 30 mg, PVPP 8%, aspartame 5 mg, 2.5% polyvidone k30 queous solution quantity sufficient, and 1% Magnesium stearate. The effect of disintegration was much optimized when PVPP were used in coordinationwith exterior addition (4%) and interior addition (4%). The result showed that the disintegration time of optimizedprescription formulation was < 85 s, and the dissolution percent at 10 min was obviously better than that of conventionaltablets (P<0.05), and the quality of the dispersible tablets was very well by stability test. Conclusion The dispersible tablets of Levoamlodipine Besylate have a higher dissolution speed than conventional tablets. Its formulationand technology is simple, reasonable, and is suitable for industrialization production.%目的 制备苯磺酸左氨氯地平分散片并评价其质量.方法 采用辅料相容性研究和崩解时间为指标筛选崩解剂的种类和用量;采用正交试验设计方案,优化最佳处方和制备工艺,通过初步稳定性考查,认证处方组成的合理性.结果 相容性试验表明:乳糖和苯磺酸左氨氯地平具有配伍禁忌;优化处方组成:主药苯磺酸左氨氯地平3.47 mg,微晶纤维素(MCC)70 mg,磷酸氢钙30 mg,淀粉30 mg,崩解剂交取聚乙烯吡轿咯烷酮(PVPP 8%),矫味剂阿斯巴甜5 mg.2.5%聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP-k30)水溶液制粒,硬脂酸镁1%.

  7. Research of Stability of Sesame Favor Compound Protein Beverage%芝麻风味复合蛋白饮料稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立

    2014-01-01

    芝麻风味复合蛋白饮料是新兴的健康饮品,其稳定性和良好的风味体现是产品成功的关键。本文为了研制风味接受度较高,体系较稳定的芝麻风味复合蛋白饮料,探讨了不同稳定剂对体系稳定性的影响。通过单因素实验、正交试验,对芝麻风味复合蛋白饮料的产品稳定性进行了研究。实验以4.8%全脂奶粉加0.65%大豆分离蛋白,配合添加0.1%芝麻主剂。以蔗糖、阿斯巴甜、安塞蜜作为复合甜味物质。以瓜尔豆胶、k-卡拉胶、微晶纤维素(MCC)和蔗糖酯为复合稳定体系。以乳香精和芝麻香精(比例1∶2)总量0.06%为调香方案。均质温度65~70℃,压力25MPa,杀菌温度121℃,10min,研制出稳定性较高、风味体现较好的芝麻风味复合蛋白饮料。结果显示:在稳定性上,瓜尔豆胶、k-卡拉胶、MCC配合使用对产品的稳定性有较好的影响,通过正交试验优选出稳定剂瓜尔豆胶、k-卡拉胶、MCC最佳配合为:0.03%、0.03%、0.15%,影响度大小顺序为MC>k-卡拉胶>瓜尔豆胶。%Sesame favor compound protein beverage is a new kind of health drink. It's stability and favor are the keys to the its successful production. This paper aims to research on the sesame favor compound protein beverage of high acceptance and high stability,and discuss the effects of different stabilizers on the system stability of the product via single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. The optimal formula of sesame favor compound protein beverage is combined with 4.8% of whole milk powder,0.65% soy protein isolate and 0.1% sesame as main raw materials, saccharose,Aspartame and acesulfame as compound sweet materials,guar gum,K-carrageen,MCC and sucrose ester as compound stability system,and 0.06% milk fragrance and sesame fragrance(ratio of 1∶2)as fragrance. The temperature is between 65℃and 70℃. The pressure is 25 MPa. The sterilization temperature is

  8. 高效液相色谱法同时测定软饮料中20种食品添加剂%Simultaneous Determination of 20 Food Additives in Drinks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Photo-diode Array Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马康; 蒋孝雄; 赵敏; 蔡冶强

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and accurate analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 synthetic food additives, including acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine, amaranthus red, ponceau 4R, caffeine, sunset yellow, aspartame, allure red, brilliant blue, erythrosine, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, n-propyl paraben, isobutyl paraben, n-butyl paraben and n-heptyl paraben, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PDA). A C18 stationary phase was used and the mobile phase contained an acetonitrile-methanol (10:90, V/V) mixture and 0. 1 mol/L ammonium acetate buffer solution at pH 7. 2. Successful separation was obtained for all the compounds within 50 min at 30 ℃by using gradient elution. The absorbance of 20 compounds behaved linearly with their concentrations ranged from 0. 10 mg/L to 300 mg/L with correlation coefficients more than 0. 998. The limits of detection of these compounds were from 0. 005 mg/L to 0. 110 mg/L. The recoveries were from 91. 4% to 100. 5% at spiked levels of 10-100 mg/L, The precision (n = 6) was range from 0. 6% to 4. 0%. The method has been used in the determination of 16 food additives in various drinks.%建立了高效液相色谱同时测量软饮料中20种食品添加剂(咖啡因、3种甜味剂、9种防腐剂和7种着色剂)的方法.确定的最佳分离条件为:C18反相色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm×5μm),流动相为0.10 mol/L乙酸铵缓冲溶液(pH 7.2)和乙腈-甲醇混合有机相(10∶90,V/V),梯度洗脱,二极管阵列检测器在190~ 700 nm监测.20种食品添加剂浓度在0.10~300 mg/L范围内具有良好的线性,相关系数大于0.998; 20种食品添加剂的检出限在0.005~0.110 mg/L范围内;20种食品添加剂的加标回收率为91.4%~100.5%;相对标准偏差计为0.6%~4.0%.本方法可应用于16个品牌的软饮料中食品添加剂的检测.

  9. 布洛芬盐酸苯海拉明分散片的制备及质量评价%Preparation of Ibuprofen and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Dispersible Tablets and Their Quality Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉洁; 罗永煌; 戈振凯; 田翠翠; 张贺; 尼玛仓木拉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare and evaluate ibuprofen and diphenhydramine hydrochloride dispersible tablets in order to provide data for state category Ⅲ new drug application. Methods The formulations were optimized with disintegration time, dispersion homogeneity, rigidity and taste as reference parameters by single-factor and orthog onal tests. HPLC was performed to determine the content and dissolution of the tablets. Results Disintegrating a gent-6% PVPP (with an internal and external ratio of 2: 1) filling agent -24% MCC adhesive agent -2% PVPk30 solution and correctant with an aspartame/steviosin ratio of 1 ~ 9. The dispersible tablets thus prepared were good in taste, with a disintegration time of 64.6±5.73 s. The cumulative dissolution per- centage was more than 80 % within 5 min. Drug content and dispersion homogeneity were within the speci fied scope. Conclusion The prescription of the dispersible tablet is reasonable; the preparation process is simple the quality indexes conform to the requirement of dispersible tablets.%目的:筛选布洛芬盐酸苯海拉明分散片的最优处方并对其质量进行评价,为申报三类新药提供核心数据.方法:以崩解时限、分散均匀性、硬度和口感为指标,单因素试验筛选崩解剂和矫味剂,正交试验优化处方,湿法制粒制备分散片,HPLC测定其片剂的含量和溶出度.结果:崩解剂为6%PVPP(内外加比例2:1),填充剂为24%MCC,粘合剂为2%的PVPk30溶液适量,矫味剂占2%且阿司帕坦/甜菊素为1:9,所制备的分散片口感良好,崩解时限为64.63±3.58S,5min分散片中布洛芬和盐酸苯海拉明的溶出度均达到了80%以上,含量和分散均匀性均在规定范围内.结论:该分散片处方合理,工艺简单,质量指标符合分散片要求.

  10. 钛胶正相高效液相色谱法测定饮料中的山梨酸%Determination of sorbic acid in beverages by titania- based high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瑞; 李荣; 谭津; 姜子涛

    2012-01-01

    Preservative is a kind of food additive which can improve the quality of food, extend the storage time and control the growth of microorganism. The sorbic acid can participate in human metabolism and thus are regarded as the component of the food. It has been recognized as the best preservative. A method for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) on titania in beverage was reported. The samples were treated by 0.45u,m millipore filter and separated with a Titania Sachtopore - NP column (250 x4. 6 mm, 5mm). The chromato-graphic separation conditions were as follows: a mixture of water and methanol in the ratio of 20 to 80 containing 8 mmol/L acetate used as mobile phase, flow rate of 0. 8mL/min, column temperature 60t, and the detection wavelength 254 nm. A good linear relationship is obtained by ESTD. The linear range of the method was 2 - 20μg/mL with a detection limit of 1. 2 μg/mL. The recoveries were between 98. 2% and 103. 9%. RSD ( n = 8) was less than 0. 74%. The method is applied to determine sorbic acid in beverage with satisfactory results. The method is simple, timesaving, and precise and it is applicable to the determination of aspartame in drinks.%防腐剂是能抑制微生物生长,防止食品腐败变质,延长保存期的一类添加剂.山梨酸在人体内能参加正常的新陈代谢,可视做食品的成分之一,是迄今为止国际公认的理想食品防腐剂.本文建立了根据钛胶正相高效液相色谱法测定饮料中防腐剂山梨酸含量的快速检测方法,4种饮料样品经过0.45 μm微孔滤膜过滤后直接进样.色谱条件:分离柱为Titania Sachtopore - NP柱(250mm×4.6mm i.d.,5μm),流动相为水∶甲醇=20∶80 (V/V)、流动相中含醋酸盐8mmol/L,流速0.8mL/min,柱温60℃,检测波长254nm.采用外标法定量,得到了良好的线性关系,线性范围为2 - 20μg/mL,检出限1.2μg/mL,回收率为98.2%~103.9%,RSD (n=8)<0.74%.准确度和精

  11. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L

    2016-01-01

    that fructose has no specific adverse effects relative to any other carbohydrate. Consumption of excess sugar may also promote the development of CVD and T2DM indirectly by causing increased body weight and fat gain, but this is also a topic of controversy. Mechanistically, it is plausible that fructose consumption causes increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure due to its failure to stimulate leptin production. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain demonstrates that the brain responds differently to fructose or fructose-containing sugars compared with glucose or aspartame. Some epidemiological studies show that sugar consumption is associated with body weight gain, and there are intervention studies in which consumption of ad libitum high-sugar diets promoted increased body weight gain compared with consumption of ad libitum low- sugar diets. However, there are no studies in which energy intake and weight gain were compared in subjects consuming high or low sugar, blinded, ad libitum diets formulated to ensure both groups consumed a comparable macronutrient distribution and the same amounts of fiber. There is also little data to determine whether the form in which added sugar is consumed, as beverage or as solid food, affects its potential to promote weight gain. It will be very challenging to obtain the funding to conduct the clinical diet studies needed to address these evidence gaps, especially at the levels of added sugar that are commonly consumed. Yet, filling these evidence gaps may be necessary for supporting the policy changes that will help to turn the food environment into one that does not promote the development of obesity and metabolic disease.

  12. Rapid determination of five food additives in soft drinks by high pressure liquid chromatography%高压液相色谱法快速测定饮料中的五种食品添加剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰; 郭志谋; 章飞芳; 梁鑫淼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a high pressure liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of 3 sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, aspartame) and 2 preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid) in soft drinks. Methods The samples were diluted with initial mobile phase and filtrated for liq-uid chromatographic analysis. The separation was performed on a polar-modified XAqua C18 column with 50 mmol/L pH 4.5 KH2PO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient mode. The flow rate was set at 2 mL/min and column temperature was 40℃. The separation could be achieved within 6 min. And one sample could be analyzed within 10 min with the addition of 4 min equilibration time. Results Under the optimized chroma-tographic conditions, a good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5~50 mg/L for the 5 food additives, with correlation coefficients (r2) all above 0.9999. For samples (carbonated and fruit juice beverage matrix) spiked with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the 5 food additives, the recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) were96.48%~105.64% and 0.21%~5.39%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method calculated by signal to noise ratio (S/N) = 3:1 was 0.02~0.08 mg/L. Conclusion The developed analysis method was rapid and accurate, and could be used for the simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in soft drinks.%  目的建立一种高压液相色谱方法同时检测饮料制品中3种甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜)和2种防腐剂(苯甲酸、山梨酸)。方法样品采用起始流动相稀释后直接过膜分析,色谱分离在极性修饰 XAqua C18色谱柱上进行,流动相采用50 mmol/L pH 4.5 KH2PO4和乙腈,梯度模式洗脱,流速2 mL/min,柱温40℃,6 min 内即可完成一次分离分析,加上4 min 梯度平衡时间,10 min 内即可完成平衡及分离。结果5种食品添加剂在0.5~50 mg/L 内线性关系良好,相关系数 r2均大于0.9999。

  13. 离子抑制剂对苯甲酸等9种食品添加剂的反相液相色谱行为的影响%Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永纲; 陈晓红; 李小平; 姚珊珊; 金米聪

    2011-01-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, I.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzole acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, I.e. , trif-luoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, I. E. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetoni-trile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients (r2) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87.61% and 108.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu-rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods.%研究了反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)流动相中酸性离子抑制剂三氟乙酸(TFA)与缓冲盐离子抑制剂TFA-乙酸铵( AmAc)对安赛蜜、糖精、咖啡因、阿斯巴甜、苯甲酸、山梨酸、甜菊糖苷、脱氢乙酸和纽甜等9种食品添加剂色谱保留行为的影响.着重探讨了TFA与TFA-AmAc作为离子抑制剂的有机调节剂作用,考察了乙腈-TFA水溶液和乙腈-TFA-Am

  14. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定白酒中6种甜味剂%Determination of Six Kinds of Sweeteners in Liquor by HPLC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅婕; 司冠儒; 张温清; 唐莹; 周萍

    2016-01-01

    建立了白酒中安赛蜜、糖精钠、甜蜜素、三氯蔗糖、阿斯巴甜和纽甜6种甜味剂的高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)分析方法。白酒样品经微孔滤膜过滤后,以乙腈和含0.1%甲酸的水溶液为流动相,在ZORB-AX Eclipse Plus C18色谱柱上进行分离,以电喷雾多反应监测(MRM)模式进行质谱分析。研究结果表明,6种甜味剂在检测范围内均具有良好的线性关系(R2>0.997);方法的检出限LOD (S/N=3)分别为0.36μg/L、1.30μg/L、0.54μg/L、4.08μg/L、0.15μg/L和0.003μg/L,定量限LOQ (S/N=10)分别为1.21μg/L、4.34μg/L、1.80μg/L、13.61μg/L、0.49μg/L和0.01μg/L;样品的回收率分别为95.2%~97.5%、95.4%~98.7%、97.0%~97.8%、98.3%~100.7%、96.1%~99.9%和93.4%~98.6%;相对标准偏差分别为0.83~3.34、1.80~3.42、1.17~3.14、0.70~3.10、0.29~1.10和0.25~3.30。该分析方法前处理简单、灵敏度高、重现性好、分析速度快,可用于白酒中甜味剂的检测。%A rapid and accurate analytic method based on HPLC-MS/MS had been developed for the determination of six kinds of sweeteners in liquor, including acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose, aspartame and neotame. Liquor samples underwent microporous membrane filtration, then separated on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1%formic acid aqueous solu-tion as the mobile phase, and then electrospray ionization was applied and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The re-sults showed that, the correlation curves of six sweeteners showed good linearity (R2>0.997), the limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) were 0.36μg/L, 1.30 μg/L, 0.54 μg/L, 4.08 μg/L, 0.15 μg/L and 0.003 μg/L, respectively; the limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) were 1.21 μg/L, 4.34μg/L, 1.80μg/L, 13.61μg/L, 0.49μg/L and 0.01μg/L, respectively;and the recoveries were 95.2%~97.5%, 95.4%~98.7%, 97.0%~97.8%, 98

  15. 温肾软肝清化汤治疗肝硬化男性性功能减退综合征临床效果观察%Clinical effect of warming kidney and mild liver soup in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction syndrome of patients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于姜标; 白春玲

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To observe and analyze the clinical effects of warming kidney and mild liver soup in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction syndrome of patients with liver cirrhosis,to improve cure rate of male sexual dysfunction syndrome.Methods:120 cirrhosis patients with male sexual dysfunction syndrome in our hospital from January 201 1 to January 2012 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group by means of digital random method,60 cases in each group.Observation group received warming kidney and mild liver soup for treatment,while control group received oral Anluohuaxian pill for treatment.Changes in the sexual dysfunction, anorexia,fatigue and discomfort of the two groups were compared and levels ofalbumin (ALB),total bilirubin (TBiL),serum testosterone (T)values and aspartame aminotransferase (AST)were measured after treatment. Results:The total effective rate of the observation group and control group was 85.0% and 58.3% respectively, with statistically significant difference (P<0.05 );the level of TBiL,ALB,AST and T value in the two groups were significantly improved after treatment;and the improvement of each indicator in the observation group was bet-ter than control group,with statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion:Warming kidney and mild liver soup has significant effect in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction syndrome of patients with liver cirrhosis, which is worth promoting.%目的:观察并分析温肾软肝清化汤治疗肝硬化男性性功能减退综合征的临床效果,以提高肝硬化男性性功能减退综合征的临床治愈率。方法:选择医院2011年1月至2012年1月收治的120例肝硬化男性性功能减退综合征患者为研究对象,采用数字随机方法将其随机分成观察组和对照组,每组60例。观察组患者采用温肾软肝清化汤治疗,对照组患者口服安络化纤丸治疗,比较两组患者治疗结束后性功能减退、纳