WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspartame

  1. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in thousands of processed foods and drinks. Products that contain aspartame include yogurt, frozen desserts, pudding, dry dessert mixes, chewing gum, and soft drinks. It is also used as a tabletop sweetener (for example, to sweeten a glass of iced tea). Aspartame ...

  2. The History of Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Nill, Ashley G.

    2000-01-01

    These two opposing tensions, the market desire for low-calorie foods including sugar substitutes, and the fear of consumer manipulation by a burgeoning industry and a collusive FDA, drive the fascinating history of aspartame. This paper follows the important hurdles in aspartame's past, including the attempts of its promoters to gain regulatory acceptance, several safety scares, botched scientific research, scandals, lawsuits and investigations. It also seeks to illuminate how FDA has dealt w...

  3. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  4. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  5. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. Enzymatic spectrophotometric reaction rate determination of aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Trifković Kata T.; Łękawska-Andrinopoulou Lucyna; Bugarski Branko M.; Georgiou Constantinos A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener of low caloric value (approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose). Aspartame is currently permitted for use in food and beverage production in more than 90 countries. The application of aspartame in food products requires development of rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for its determination. The new assay for determination of aspartame was based on set of reactions that are catalyzed by three different enzymes: α...

  7. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, H M; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, B K

    2015-04-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6-8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened kalakand was observed during storage. However, only a slight drop in pH was observed in all samples on storage. The titratable acidity was higher in aspartame sweetened products than the corresponding control samples. Lightness (L*) was less in control samples with sucrose than the aspartame sweetened kalakand during storage. Total plate counts were higher in aspartame sweetened kalakand than its corresponding control throughout the storage period. Total plate counts increased linearly for both aspartame sweetened kalakand and control. A solid phase extraction method was standardized for the isolation of aspartame in kalakand. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized for separation of aspartame and its degradation products diketopiperazine and L-phenylalanine. HPLC analysis revealed that aspartame did not degrade in kalakand during storage establishing its stability in these products. PMID:25829622

  8. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrling, J K; Kobe, P; McLane, M P; Olson, R E; Kamath, S; Horwitz, D L

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two subjects having either insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes completed a randomized, double-blind study comparing effects of aspartame or a placebo on blood glucose control. Twenty-nine subjects consumed 2.7 g aspartame per day for 18 wk, given as aspartame-containing capsules with meals, while 33 subjects took identical appearing placebo capsules. After 18 wk, no changes were seen in fasting or 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels or glycohemoglobin levels in either the aspartame- or placebo-treated groups. Adverse reactions were no more common in the group taking aspartame. We conclude that use of aspartame as a low-calorie sweetener does not adversely affect glycemic control of persons with diabetes. PMID:3902420

  9. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  10. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight)....

  11. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand

    OpenAIRE

    Gawande, H. M.; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6–8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened k...

  12. Enzymatic spectrophotometric reaction rate determination of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Kata T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener of low caloric value (approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Aspartame is currently permitted for use in food and beverage production in more than 90 countries. The application of aspartame in food products requires development of rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for its determination. The new assay for determination of aspartame was based on set of reactions that are catalyzed by three different enzymes: α-chymotrypsin, alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Optimization of the proposed method was carried out for: (i α-chymotrypsin activity; (ii time allowed for α-chymotrypsin action, (iii temperature. Evaluation of the developed method was done by determining aspartame content in “diet” drinks, as well as in artificial sweetener pills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  13. STUDY OF ASPARTAME ON BIOFILM PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sourabh; Piyali; Swagnik; Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame is an odourless white crystalline powder 160 - 200 times sweeter than sucrose used in beverages. The present study has been planned to observe the biofilm production of Streptococcus mutans over a biosurface and to assess the influence of aspartame on biofilm production ov er that surface. The lyophilic standard Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (Hi media lab) was reactivated in Trypiticase Soy Broth incubated at37 0 C with 10% CO 2 ...

  14. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic. PMID:26321723

  15. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. PMID:24925367

  16. STUDY OF ASPARTAME ON BIOFILM PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an odourless white crystalline powder 160 - 200 times sweeter than sucrose used in beverages. The present study has been planned to observe the biofilm production of Streptococcus mutans over a biosurface and to assess the influence of aspartame on biofilm production ov er that surface. The lyophilic standard Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (Hi media lab was reactivated in Trypiticase Soy Broth incubated at37 0 C with 10% CO 2 for 18 hrs. 2.5 ml of this liquid culture was added in two 5ml of Brain Heart Infusion Broths with sucrose, congo red and sterile human tooth one with 0.3% aspartame and other without as partame and incubated at 37 0 C with 10% CO 2 for 18 hrs. Biofilm production was evidenced by blackeni n g of tooth along with black deposits .Blackening appeared less in the broth containing aspartame which was further proved by subculturing from both over Brain Heart Infusion (BHI agar with sucrose and Congo red.

  17. MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT ASPARTAME AND SUCRALOSE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Maganti Brahmini; Tanikonda Keerthi; Birudugadda Priyadarshini; Idpuganti Sudheerbabu

    2012-01-01

    Earlier, a clinical research gave a clean chit to the artificial sweeteners, dismissing allegations that these sweeteners induce certain ailments. Aspartame has been found to be safe for human consumption by more than ninety countries worldwide, with FDA officials describing aspartame as “one of the most thoroughly tested and studied food additives the agency have ever approved” and its safety as “clearcut”. The dangers of aspartame are now widely known, but the risks of using sucralose are n...

  18. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Stephen L. Atkin; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight indivi...

  19. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation.This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics.Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008 and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04, reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects.Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Ega Purnamasari R.D; Eti Yerizel; Efrida .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes mel...

  1. Aspartame and the rat brain monoaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, C; De Simoni, M G; Fodritto, F; Raimondi, L; Diomede, L; Salmona, M; Algeri, S; Garattini, S

    1988-12-01

    A high dose of aspartame (APM) was administered to rats to study possible effects on brain monoaminergic systems. APM and its metabolite phenylalanine (Phe) were given orally at doses of 1000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Significant increases were seen in brain Phe and tyrosine (Tyr) levels. Two different approaches were used to study monoaminergic systems: whole tissue measurements by HPLC-ED and in vivo voltammetry in freely moving rats. Dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were taken as indexes of neuronal activity. In spite of the high dose used, no modification was found in monoamines or their metabolites in striatum, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. PMID:2464204

  2. The neuropsychiatric effects of aspartame in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, K A; Greenblatt, D J; Goddard, J E; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1990-05-01

    Ten healthy volunteers with no history of aspartame intolerance (6 men and 4 women, aged 21-36 years) received a single dose of aspartame (15 mg/kg body weight in capsules) or matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Eleven blood samples collected over 24 hours were analyzed for plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations. The following variables were evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours post-dosage: changes in mood measured on visual analog scales, cognitive function determined by digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) and arithmetic test scores, and reaction time measured with a brake-pedal reaction timer. Memory was tested at 2 and 24 hours after dosage based on recall of standardized 16-item word lists. No significant differences between aspartame and placebo were found in measures of sedation, hunger, headache, reaction-time, cognition, or memory at any time during the study. Plasma phenylalanine levels were significantly higher following aspartame (P less than .01) than with placebo between 1 and 6 hours postdosage, reaching a maximum difference of +3.36 mumols/dl at 2 hours. Plasma glucose concentrations were not significantly different between aspartame and placebo. The results of this study suggest that following a single 15 mg/kg dose of aspartame, no detectable effects are observed in a group of healthy volunteers with no history of aspartame intolerance, despite significant increases in plasma phenylalanine concentrations. PMID:2347957

  3. Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, L J; Stegink, L D

    1989-01-01

    This study reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame on blood levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, and methanol in normal subjects and known phenylketonuric heterozygotes. The effect of aspartame on the phenylalanine-to-large neutral amino acid ratio under various feeding situations is shown. The clinical studies of aspartame in diabetic subjects are limited to observations of its effects on blood levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, and glucagon. These studies clearly demonstrate the safety of this high-intensity sweetener for use by humans. PMID:2653751

  4. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

    1987-01-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in asp...

  5. Possible health risks due to the consumption of aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Guerrero Villegas; Galo Mora Flores

    2014-01-01

    Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives ...

  6. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  7. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    OpenAIRE

    Xia LI; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; LI, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B.

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, ...

  8. Gender Dimorphism in Aspartame-Induced Impairment of Spatial Cognition and Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Saleh, Soad M; Andres, Bernard; Inglis, Angela; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory i...

  9. Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Kohn; Cierra Lewis; Ashley Feigenbutz; Danielle Indelicato; Stephanie Schleidt

    2009-01-01

    Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006). To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea) was measured in deionized water (control), ethanol, aspartame, and five different mixtures of ethanol and aspartame. The heart rate was chosen as a representative measure since it is control...

  10. Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

    1990-03-01

    Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

  11. Determination of aspartame and its major decomposition products in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic procedure already evaluated in a preceding study for the analysis of acesulfam-K is also suitable for the determination of the intense sweetener aspartame in tabletop sweetener, candy, fruit beverage, fruit pulp, soft drink, yogurt, cream, cheese, and chocolate preparations. The method also allows the determination of aspartame's major decomposition products: diketopiperazine, aspartyl-phenylalanine, and phenylalanine. Samples are extracted or diluted with water and filtered. Complex matrixes are centrifuged or clarified with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract is analyzed on a reversed-phase muBondapak C18 column using 0.0125M KH2PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile ([85 + 15] or [98 + 2]) as mobile phase. Detection is performed by UV absorbance at 214 nm. Recoveries ranged from 96.1 to 105.0%. Decomposition of the sweetener was observed in most food samples. However, the total aspartame values (measured aspartame + breakdown products) were within -10% and +5% of the declared levels. The repeatabilities and the repeatability coefficients of variation were, respectively, 1.00 mg/100 g and 1.34% for products containing less than 45 mg/100 g aspartame and 4.11 mg/100 g and 0.91% for other products. The technique is precise and sensitive. It enables the detection of many food additives or natural constituents, such as other intense sweeteners, organic acids, and alkaloids, in the same run without interfering with aspartame or its decomposition products. The method is consequently suitable for quality control or monitoring. PMID:8471853

  12. MYTHS AND FACTS ABOUT ASPARTAME AND SUCRALOSE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maganti Brahmini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, a clinical research gave a clean chit to the artificial sweeteners, dismissing allegations that these sweeteners induce certain ailments. Aspartame has been found to be safe for human consumption by more than ninety countries worldwide, with FDA officials describing aspartame as “one of the most thoroughly tested and studied food additives the agency have ever approved” and its safety as “clearcut”. The dangers of aspartame are now widely known, but the risks of using sucralose are not documented-until now. When deciding between sucralose and aspartame, it is important to remember that studies conclude that both are safe when consumed with in reasonable limits.However, some consumers reported symptoms which were believed to be associated with these sweeteners. When FDA probed in to the matter, it came with the conclusion that there is no enough medical evidence that suggests a link between these sweeteners and alleged illnesses. Thus, it can be deduced that artificial sweeteners can be safely consumed in moderate doses.

  13. Crystal structure of aspartame anhydrate from powder diffraction data. Structural aspects of the dehydration process of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guguta, C.; Meekes, H.L.M.; Gelder, R. de

    2006-01-01

    Aspartame has three pseudo-polymorphic forms, two hydrates and a hemi-hydrate, for which crystal structures were determined from single-crystal diffraction data. This paper presents the crystal structure of the anhydrate, which was obtained by dehydrating the hemi-hydrate. The crystal structure of a

  14. A review of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of aspartame: does it safe or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Uçar, Aslı

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review genotoxicologic and carcinogenic profile of the artificial sweetener aspartame. Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide, nearly 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is the most widely used artificial sweetener especially in carbonated and powdered soft drinks, beverages, drugs and hygiene products. There is a discussion ongoing for many years whether aspartame posses genotoxic and carcinogenic risk for humans. This question led to many studies to specify the adverse effects of aspartame. Therefore, we aimed to review the oldest to latest works published in major indices to gather information within this article. With respect to published data, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aspartame is still confusing. So, consumers should be aware of the potential side effects of aspartame before they consume it. PMID:24510317

  15. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951). Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine,...

  16. A review of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of aspartame: does it safe or not?

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Uçar, Aslı

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review genotoxicologic and carcinogenic profile of the artificial sweetener aspartame. Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide, nearly 180–200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is the most widely used artificial sweetener especially in carbonated and powdered soft drinks, beverages, drugs and hygiene products. There is a discussion ongoing for many years whether aspartame posses genotoxic and carcinogenic risk for humans. This question led to many studies to specif...

  17. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Siegler Jason; Howell Keith; Vince Rebecca; Bray James; Towlson Chris; Peart Daniel; Mellor Duane; Atkin Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during ...

  18. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais; William D. Lubell

    2013-01-01

    The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallizatio...

  19. Aspartame: Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Banbara, Mutsunori; Gebser, Martin; Inoue, Katsumi; Schaub, Torsten; Soh, Takehide; Tamura, Naoyuki; Weise, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Encoding finite linear CSPs as Boolean formulas and solving them by using modern SAT solvers has proven to be highly effective, as exemplified by the award-winning sugar system. We here develop an alternative approach based on ASP. This allows us to use first-order encodings providing us with a high degree of flexibility for easy experimentation with different implementations. The resulting system aspartame re-uses parts of sugar for parsing and normalizing CSPs. The obtained set of facts is ...

  20. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells -->.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Mistry, Bhupendra; Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Noorzai, Rafi; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01-0.05 mg/ml) of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells. PMID:27298583

  1. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Pandurangan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01–0.05 mg/ml of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells.

  2. Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kohn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006. To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea was measured in deionized water (control, ethanol, aspartame, and five different mixtures of ethanol and aspartame. The heart rate was chosen as a representative measure since it is controlled by the nervous system and the heart rate of D.magna can easily be measured. The results were statistically evaluated by student’s t-test. A significant increase in heart rate was observed for all mixed assays compared to both control and ethanol, but not to aspartame. The data suggests that the aspartame and alcohol mixture have a greater effect on D. magna heart rate than water or ethanol, but not aspartame alone. We propose that alcohol in combination with aspartame has potentially detrimental consequences for the nervous system.

  3. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food... component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the... acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  4. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. PMID:26593524

  5. Stability of aspartame in water: organic solvent mixtures with different dielectric constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyude, S; Locock, R A; Pagliaro, L A

    1991-07-01

    In order to examine the influence of solvent composition on the stability of aspartame (N-alpha-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) in solution (5 mg/mL), the degradation of aspartame was carried out in water:methanol, water:ethanol, and water:glycerine mixtures with dielectric constant values of 45, 55, and 65, respectively. The rate of disappearance of aspartame was measured by a sensitive HPLC assay. The degradation rate of aspartame increased as the dielectric constant of the solvent mixture decreased in all three solvents systems. For example, at 60 degrees C, the degradation rate constants were 4.1, 5.9, and 8.4 x 10(-3) h-1 at dielectric constant of 65, 55, and 45, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that the stability of aspartame in aqueous solutions cannot be enhanced by the replacement of water by solvents of lower dielectric constant. PMID:1941567

  6. Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, J C; Rigaud, D; Colas-Linhart, N; Petiet, A; Girard, A; Apfelbaum, M

    1991-11-01

    It has been claimed that sucrose intake induces a rise in beta-endorphins. In an attempt to discriminate between the sensorial and metabolic effects of sucrose intake in this process, the effects of two chocolate drinks were compared: one sweetened with 50 g of sucrose, the other with 80 mg of aspartame. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were more elevated after the aspartame drink than after sucrose or fasting, while insulin increased after drinking as much with aspartame as with sucrose. We suggest that the increase in beta-endorphin after aspartame edulcorated chocolate is related with insulin secretion in the absence of marked changes in blood glucose or with a direct effect of aspartame itself on beta-endorphin liberation. PMID:1805284

  7. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Collison

    Full Text Available Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (P<0.05. Females were less affected, but had significantly raised fasting glucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training, the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (P<0.05. Spatial learning of female aspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime

  8. Aspartame and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31 December 2012. The search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents. PMID:24965331

  9. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  10. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Ryoichiro; Kubo, Satoru; Otabe, Akira; Oobayashi, Yoko; SUZUKI, Shoko; Yoshida, Mika; Yoshida, Mitsuya; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM) and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM) are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM). The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an ODS column ...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame (E 951. Aspartame is a sweetener authorised as a food additive in the EU. In previous evaluations by JECFA and the SCF, an ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day was established based on chronic toxicity in animals. Original reports, previous evaluations, additional literature and data made available following a public call were evaluated. Aspartame is rapidly and completely hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. Chronic and developmental toxicities were relevant endpoints in the animal database. From chronic toxicity studies in animals, a NOAEL of 4000 mg/kg bw/day was identified. The possibility of developmental toxicity occurring at lower doses than 4000 mg/kg in animals could not be excluded. Based on MoA and weight-of-evidence analysis, the Panel concluded that developmental toxicity in animals was attributable to phenylalanine. Phenylalanine at high plasma levels is known to cause developmental toxicity in humans. The Panel concluded that human data on developmental toxicity were more appropriate for the risk assessment. Concentration-response modelling was used to determine the effects of aspartame administration on plasma phenylalanine using human data after phenylalanine administration to normal, PKU heterozygote or PKU homozygote individuals. In normal and PKU heterozygotes, aspartame intakes up to the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day, in addition to dietary phenylalanine, would not lead to peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations above the current clinical guideline for the prevention of adverse effects in fetuses. The Panel concluded that aspartame was not of safety concern at the current aspartame exposure estimates or at the ADI of 40 mg/kg bw/day. Therefore, there was no reason to revise the ADI of aspartame. Current exposures to aspartame - and its degradation product DKP - were below their respective ADIs. The ADI is not applicable

  12. Gender dimorphism in aspartame-induced impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Saleh, Soad M; Andres, Bernard; Inglis, Angela; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM) testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (Pglucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training), the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (Paspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, may affect spatial cognition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice, particularly in

  13. Possible health risks due to the consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Guerrero Villegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and FDA set the Acceptable Daily Intake at 40 and 50 mg / kg bw / day, respectively. The sweetener and its degradation products have been evaluated for over 30 years with the involvement of numerous international organizations. However, there is still controversy over its use because there are researches whose results attribute to it neuropsychiatric side effects, brain tumors, carcinogenic properties for different organs, damage to the fetus during pregnancy, development of lymphomas and leukemia, while other researchers say their use is harmless to humans if consumption is less than the Acceptable Daily Intake. It is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria and pregnant women.

  14. Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

    1984-01-01

    The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated tem...

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  16. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  18. PANJANG SIKLUS ESTRUS MENCIT (Mus musculus L. YANG DIBERI PEMANIS BUATAN ASPARTAM SECARA ORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulastri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap panjang siklus estrus mencit betina dewasa. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan P0 sebagai kontrol diberi aquades dan perlakuan P1, P2 dan P3 diberi aspartam dosis10 mg/kg bb; 15 mg/kg bb dan20 mg/kg bb. Aspartam diberikan setiap hari secara oral (gavage selama 14 hari sebanyak 0,3 ml. Setelah 14 hari, apusan vagina dibuat setiap 8 jam dalam sehari selama dua kali siklus estrus. Variabel yang diamati adalah panjang waktu tiap fase dalam siklus estrus. Hasil analisis menggunakan Uji One Way Anova dan Uji Kruskal Wallis menunjukkan bahwa aspartam secara nyata (P<0,05 memperpanjang siklus estrus dengan peningkatan dosis yang diberikan.

  19. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the succe...

  1. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. Methods As part of an ongoing study of a novel bar...

  2. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  3. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  4. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  5. Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sumit; Shendurse, Ashish M.; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, Balbir K.; Singh, Ashish K

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, artificial sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation pro...

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam merupakan gula pengganti rendah kalori yang sering dikonsumsi oleh pengidap diabetes, tetapi keamanannya masih kontroversi. Intensitas rasa manis aspartam yang tinggi diduga dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian lain menyebutkan hasil metabolisme aspartam berupa asam aspartat dan fenilalanin dapat menjadi prekursor glukosa melalui glukoneogenesis. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan post-test only control group design. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 20 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol negatif (KN, kontrol positif (KP, perlakuan 1 (P1, perlakuan 2 (P2. Aloksan 150 mg/kgBB diinduksikan pada kelompok KP dan P2, aspartam 315 mg/kgBB diberikan pada kelompok P1 dan P2 selama 4 minggu. Kadar glukosa darah puasa diukur setelah 4 minggu menggunakan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan rerata kadar glukosa darah puasa kelompok KN (88,39 mg/dL, KP (134,11 mg/dL, P1 (93,95 mg/dL, dan P2 (66,66 mg/dL. Analisis data dengan Uji ANOVA nilai p= 0,000 (p<0,05, terdapat perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Keimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah puasa tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan.Kata kunci: aspartam, kadar glukosa darah, diabetes melitus, aloksanAbstractAspartame is a low-calorie sugar substitute that is often consumed by people with diabetes, but the safety of aspartame is still controversial. The high intensity of aspartame sweetness could be expected to lower blood glucose levels. Other study said the results of the metabolism of aspartame such aspartic acids and phenylalanine which can be a precursor of glucose through gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on blood

  7. A novel strategy for selection of allosteric ribozymes yields RiboReporter™ sensors for caffeine and aspartame

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Alicia; Boomer, Ryan M.; Kurz, Markus; Keene, Sara C.; Diener, John L.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Wilson, Charles; Cload, Sharon T.

    2004-01-01

    We have utilized in vitro selection technology to develop allosteric ribozyme sensors that are specific for the small molecule analytes caffeine or aspartame. Caffeine- or aspartame-responsive ribozymes were converted into fluorescence-based RiboReporter™ sensor systems that were able to detect caffeine or aspartame in solution over a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 mM. With read-times as short as 5 min, these caffeine- or aspartame-dependent ribozymes function as highly specific and facile...

  8. N-acetylcysteine protects the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Pês, Tanise; Ourique, Giovana; Saccol, Etiane; Schiefelbein, Sun; Llesuy, Susana; Partata, Wania

    2014-10-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily ingestion dose causes oxidative stress in the rat kidney through the dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provides the cystein required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of NAC on the aspartame-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidney. The animals received aspartame by gavage for six weeks (40mg/kg). From the 5th week, NAC (1mmol/kg, via intraperitoneal) was injected for two weeks. Then, they were anaesthetized for blood sample and euthanized for the kidney collection. The blood was centrifuged at 1800g for 15min and the serum was separated for creatinine measurement. The tissue was homogenized in 1.15% KCl buffer and centrifuged at 700g for 10min at 4°C. The supernatant fraction obtained was used to the measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers. The creatinine levels were enhanced in the serum of aspartame-treated rats. NAC caused a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, carbonyl protein and hydrogen peroxide levels, which were increased in the kidney of aspartame-treated animals. Additionally, NAC caused an elevation in the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, total glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased in the kidney of aspartame-treated rats. In conclusion, NAC may be useful for the protection of the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26461335

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Revivo Rinda Pratama; Eti Yerizel; Rahmatini .

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakAspartam telah disetujui oleh FDA untuk dikonsumsi. Konsumsi pemanis buatan ini menggunakan dosis ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) yaitu 50 mg/kgBB. Individu dengan diabetes melitus kemungkinan menjadi antusias terhadap adanya aspartam. Aspartam dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme profil lipid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan randomized pos...

  10. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  11. Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum), Juice in Rats Consuming Aspartame Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) has been traditionally used as medicine in many countries due to its high antioxidant activity, which has been related to beneficial health properties. Aspartame (ASP) is a widely used artificial sweetener that may be harmful at abuse levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) in protecting tissues from the possible damage induced by aspartame. ASP treated rats were given ASP, by gavages, at a dose of 250 mg/kg /day for 28 days. PJ-ASP treated rats were given PI at a dose of 1ml /kg body weight/day along with ASP. The data obtained indicate that ASP administration results in no significant change in the concentration of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Tc), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and glucose while significant decreases have been recorded for insulin. The results demonstrated also that aspartame promotes lipid peroxidation and decreases the level of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in serum and liver tissues. Significant elevations in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (AL T) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also observed. Administration of PI in parallel with aspartame protected rats from aspartame-induced oxidative injury and ameliorated liver function

  12. FTIR determination of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K in tabletop sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2004-12-29

    Two different strategies for sweeteners determination in tabletop samples by Fourier transform middle-infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, an off-line and a fully mechanized extraction of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K with different mixtures of chloroform and methanol, have been developed. The off-line method involves the extraction of both active principles by sonication of samples with 25:75 v/v CHCl3/CH3OH and direct measurement of the peak height values at 1751 cm(-1), corrected using a baseline defined at 1850 cm(-1) for Aspartame, and measurement of the peak height at 1170 cm(-1) in the first-order derivative spectra, corrected by using a horizontal baseline established at 1850 cm(-1), for Acesulfame-K. Limit of detection values of 0.10 and 0.9% w/w and relative standard deviations of 0.17 and 0.5% were found for Aspartame and Acesulfame-K, respectively. The time needed for the sweeteners determination is reduced from 35 min for the HPLC method to 7 min by FTIR. On the other hand, the fully mechanized on-line extraction avoids the contact of the operator with toxic solvents and differentiates between samples that contain Aspartame and Acesulfame-K and those that include only Aspartame, reducing the time needed for the analysis of the last kind of samples to 5 min. PMID:15612758

  13. Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

    1999-03-01

    Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

  14. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  15. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX, carboxyl esterase (CaE and bovine serum albumin (BSA were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC. The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  16. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10-4moldm-3 and xylenol orange with 2.5x10-1moldm-3 of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%

  17. Aspartame tablets-gamma dose response and usability for routine radiation processing dosimetry using spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, S.H. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: shs_barc@yahoo.com; Mukherjee, T. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2007-02-15

    Aspartame tablets were studied for gamma dose response, using spectrophotometric read-out method. The optimum concentration for ferrous ions was 2x10{sup -4}moldm{sup -3} and xylenol orange with 2.5x10{sup -1}moldm{sup -3} of sulphuric acid for the optimum acidity in FX solution. Wavelength of maximum absorbance is 548nm. Post-irradiation stability is appreciable i.e. for not less than one month. Dose response is non-linear with third order polynomial fit, in the dose range of 1000-10000Gy. This system of aspartame was further used for carrying out relative percentage dose profile measurement in Gamma Cell-220. Results obtained were inter-compared with that of a glutamine dosimeter, which showed that maximum difference between the values of aspartame and glutamine systems is within +/-10%.

  18. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ohtsuki

    Full Text Available α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM.

  19. Development of an HPLC Method with an ODS Column to Determine Low Levels of Aspartame Diastereomers in Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Ryoichiro; Kubo, Satoru; Otabe, Akira; Oobayashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Shoko; Yoshida, Mika; Yoshida, Mitsuya; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    α-L-Aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester (L, D-APM) and α-D-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (D, L-APM) are diastereomers of aspartame (N-L-α-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester, L, L-APM). The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has set 0.04 wt% as the maximum permitted level of the sum of L, D-APM and D, L-APM in commercially available L, L-APM. In this study, we developed and validated a simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using an ODS column to determine L, D-APM and D, L-APM in L, L-APM. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, of L, D-APM and D, L-APM were found to be 0.0012 wt% and 0.004 wt%. This method gave excellent accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility in a recovery test performed on five different days. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to the determination of these diastereomers in commercial L, L-APM samples. Thus, the developed method is a simple, useful, and practical tool for determining L, D-APM and D, L-APM levels in L, L-APM. PMID:27015640

  20. Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarik, Paul; Kai, Dasha

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aspartame may have idiosyncratic toxic effects for some people; however, there are few case reports published in the medical literature. We present two case reports in a pair of siblings, one with a vestibular and the other with a cochlear toxicity to aspartame. The cochlear toxicity is the first case to be reported, while the vestibular toxicity is the second case to be reported. Case presentation A 29-year-old white female had a 20-month history of nausea and headache, progress...

  1. Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; de Carvalho, Adriana Evaristo; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2008-07-30

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400 mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the presence of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) cyclamate was 4.7x10(-7) mol L(-1), and the detection limit for cyclamate in the presence of 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame was 4.2x10(-6) mol L(-1). When simultaneously changing the concentration of both aspartame and cyclamate in a 0.5 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution, the corresponding detection limits were 3.5x10(-7) and 4.5x10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained was 1.3% for the 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame solution (n=5) and 1.1% for the 3.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) cyclamate solution. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of aspartame in several dietary products with results similar to those obtained using an HPLC method at 95% confidence level. PMID:18585340

  2. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Yasuura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

  3. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, P.; Smith, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2015), s. 047107. ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28882S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile metabolities * aspartame * methanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  4. Use of aspartame-based sweetener tablets in emergency dosimetry using EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident dosimetry aims to evaluate the unplanned radiation doses delivered to individuals through one of the objects exist in the area of the accident. The gamma dose response of free radicals generated in irradiated aspartame tablets and its usability for emergency dosimetry was studied. EPR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated aspartame-based sweetener were recorded. Two signals arise after irradiating, S1 at g (S1) = 2.00229 ± 0.00097 and S2 at g (S2) = 2.00262 ± 0.00088. Some EPR parameters were studied for radiation-induced radicals in aspartame sweeteners tablets, such as the microwave saturation behaviour, the effect of magnetic field modulation amplitude on the peak-to-peak height and peak-to-peak line width for both of S1 and S2. Responses of S1 and S2 to different radiation doses were studied and resulted in linear relationships, radicals persistence curves were plotted over a 49-d storage period. It was found that Aspartame sweeteners tablets are useful in the range from 0.96 to 39.96 Gy. Radiation-induced radicals possess reasonable stability. (authors)

  5. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. PMID:26377607

  6. A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

  7. [Simultaneous determination of aspartame and amino acids in fermented milk beverages by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Sun, X; She, Q; Zhang, X

    1998-11-01

    An RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and amino acids in fermented milk beverages were established. Samples were prepared by mixing with methanol at a ratio of 1:1 and centrifuged at 4,000 r/min for 15 min. Ten microL supernatant was moved into a sample tube, dried and derivatized according to PICO-TAG procedure developed by Waters. A Novapak C18 column (3.9 mm x 150 mm) was used instead of PICO TAG column and the gradient elution program was modified correspondingly. Column temperature was maintained at 38 degrees C and the components were detected at 254 nm. Linearity for aspartame at the range in 1-100 mg/L is A = 333 C + 20 with r = 0.9996 where A is the integrated area of chromatographic peak of aspartame and C is the corresponding mass concentration. Repeatability for 8 injections was tested and the RSD of 3.2% was obtained. The recovery of aspartame for 5 samples with the method ranged from 94.2% to 98.7%. PMID:11938922

  8. Nutritional and biochemical effects of aspartame intake in rats under an experimental diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martinez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of aspartame intake in rats under a diet mimicking the trends of fat consumption in the society. The composition of the experimental diet was within the recommended human limits except the saturated fat amount supplying from coconut fat. Rats under the experimental diet showed an increase in the body weight, transitory increase in the blood pressure and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides alongside a transitory reduction in plasma urea versus the standard group. Rats under the experimental diet plus aspartame intake (54.8 ± 7.3 mg/kg bw/day did not show any increase of body weight and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides while showed an improvement in the plasma value of urea with respect the group under only the experimental diet. However, the aspartame group showed a more maintained increase of blood pressure. In conclusion, experimental diet produces negative effects on cardiovascular risk factors of the rats while the aspartame intake under the experimental feeding had mixed effects on the cardiometabolic factors of the animals.

  9. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, D L; McLane, M; Kobe, P

    1988-03-01

    Twelve normal subjects and 10 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were given, in random order at intervals of greater than or equal to 1 wk, three drinks of the same beverage: one unsweetened, one sweetened with 400 mg aspartame, and one sweetened with 135 mg saccharin. The amount of sweetener approximated that in 1 L of sugar-free soft drink. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured for 3 h after ingestion of the test beverage. Plasma glucose declined slightly throughout the test period, probably due to fasting, with no differences between the three treatments. Neither sweetener affected peak insulin levels in subjects with or without diabetes. Analysis of area under the curve showed that mean insulin levels were statistically significantly higher after aspartame than after saccharin or unsweetened beverage in normal subjects only, but the magnitude of the difference was small and unlikely to be of physiological importance in the absence of differences in glucose levels. Furthermore, the differences could largely be accounted for by a decrease in insulin values after both unsweetened beverage and saccharin, with no change from baseline after aspartame. Glucagon levels showed time-to-time variation but no overall differences. We conclude that ingestion of aspartame- or saccharin-sweetened beverages by fasting subjects, with or without diabetes, did not affect blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:3046854

  10. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-12-01

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values. PMID:26582819

  11. Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumit; Shendurse, Ashish M; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, Balbir K; Singh, Ashish K

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, artificial sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in sample isolates. Storage studies revealed that increase in acidity and viscosity and decrease in pH and ascorbic acid content of artificially sweetened whey lemon beverage samples were similar to the changes occurring in control samples during storage. Analysis using HPLC showed that aspartame (added either singly or in a blend) and acesulfame-K (added in a blend) were stable in whey lemon beverage under refrigerated condition for 15 days. PMID:24425980

  12. 酶法合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame%Catalytic Synthesis of Aspartame by Thermolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶国良; 陈震华; 卓仁禧

    1989-01-01

    @@1969年,Mazur等[1]发现L-天门冬氨酰L-苯丙氨酸甲酯(商品名为Aspartame)具有很强的甜味。此后,人们在Aspartame的合成上做了大量的研究工作。起初,Aspartame的合成主要是通过化学法[2,3]。在化学法合成中,由于天门冬氨酸二个羧基的反应择向性不够高,使得合成反应具有步骤多、产率低、产物需分离提纯等不足。因此,人们也尝试了通过其他途径来合成Aspartame。七十年代后期和八十年代,有一些文献报道了用酶、固定化酶以及微生物法来合成Aspartame。1979年,Isowa等[4]用嗜热蛋白酶作催化剂,高产率地合成了Aspartame前体,其高度的反应专一性使之成为合成Aspartame的一种有效途径。 以前的酶法合成文献中,对反应的研究不够系统,有些文献对于合成条件没有详细的描述,且都没有完整合成Aspartame的报道。本工作以嗜热蛋白酶为催化剂,合成了Aspartame前体,进一步通过酸化脱盐、氢化脱保护基,得到了Aspartame,并且对影响酶促反应产率的各种因素进行了研究。

  13. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, ...

  14. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Iyaswamy Ashok; Rathinasamy Sheeladevi

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administ...

  15. Aspartame Attenuates 2, 4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Clinical Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Jeong-Je; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common multifactorial chronic skin disease that has a multiple and complex pathogenesis. AD is gradually increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive applications of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evoke AD-like clinical symptoms similar to human AD. Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester) is a methyl ester of a dipeptide, which is used as an artificial non-nutritive sweetener. Aspartame has analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions that are similar to the function of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. We investigated whether aspartame can relieve AD-like clinical symptoms induced by DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Sucrose did not relieve AD-like symptoms, whereas aspartame at doses of 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.5 mg kg(-1) inhibited ear swelling and relieved AD-like clinical symptoms. Aspartame inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells, and CD4(+) T cells, and suppressed the expression of cytokines including IL-4 and IFN-γ, and total serum IgE levels. Aspartame may have therapeutic value in the treatment of AD. PMID:26099025

  16. Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2008-02-13

    Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector. PMID:18181572

  17. Effect of aspartame and protein, administered in phenylalanine-equivalent doses, on plasma neutral amino acids, aspartate, insulin and glucose in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S E

    1991-05-01

    Six human males each received 0.56 g phenylalanine (Phe) in the form of 1.0 g aspartame or 12.2 g bovine albumin in 200 ml water or water alone. Venous blood samples collected before consumption and during the following 4 hr were assayed for plasma levels of large, neutral amino acids (LNAA), aspartate, insulin and glucose. The area under the curve for plasma Phe was 40% greater, although not significant, after aspartame compared with albumin intake. The indicated increased clearance rate of plasma Phe after albumin may be caused by the significant increase of insulin, on which aspartame had no effect. There was a significant main effect of aspartame for plasma tyrosine but not for tryptophan, valine, isoleucine or leucine. Plasma aspartate was significantly increased at 0.25 hr after the aspartame intake. The percentage Phe/LNAA decreased slightly in response to albumin but increased 55% after aspartame and remained significantly increased for 2 hr. Tyrosine/LNAA increased and tryptophan/LNAA decreased modestly after aspartame intake. The study showed that the intake of aspartame in a not unrealistically high dose produced a marked and persistent increase of the availability of Phe to the brain, which was not observed after protein intake. The study indicated, furthermore, that Phe was cleared faster from the plasma after consumption of protein compared with aspartame. PMID:1946186

  18. Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Wen-Rui; Wu, Zhai; Wang, Ren-Hai; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2014-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of Aspartame in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-L) and sodium alginate (SA) revealed that only CMC-L showed a suppression effect, while SA did not. By using an artificial taste receptor model, we found that the presence of SA or CMC-L resulted in a decrease in association constants. Further investigation of CMC-L solution revealed that the decrease in water mobility and diffusion also contribute to the suppression effect. In the case of SA, the decreased viscosity and comparatively higher amount of free water facilitated the diffusion of sweetener, which might compensate for the decreased binding constant between Aspartame and receptor. This may suppress the impact of SA on sweetness intensity. The results suggest that exploring the binding affinity of taste molecules with the receptor, along with water mobility and diffusion in hydrocolloidal structures, provide sufficient information for understanding the mechanism behind the effect of macromolecular hydrocolloids on taste. PMID:24996335

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of citric acid and aspartame on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omar M. E. Abdel Salam; Shaffie, Nermeen M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of citric acid or the sweetening agent aspartame on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Citric acid (10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg), aspartame (0.625 or 1.25 mg/kg) or silymarin (25 mg/kg) was given once daily orally simultaneously with CCl4 and for one week thereafter. The administration of citric acid at 100 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg to CCl4-treated rats reduced elevated plasma ALT by 44.1-63.3 %, AST by 47.8-70.6 %, ALP by 41.7-67.2 %,...

  20. Interaction study of amino acids and the peptide aspartame with lanthanide (III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between the Nd(III) ion with the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-histidine and the peptide aspartame in aqueous solution were studied. The study was conducted by means of electronic spectroscopy with the Judd-Ofelt formalism for transition intensity parameters calculations. Several coordination compounds involving Nd(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) and the ligands L-histidine and aspartame were synthesized and characterized in the solid state. Mixed compounds involving Eu(III) and Tb(III) with the same ligands were synthesized and characterized also. The characterization were achieved by chemical analysis, melting points, vibrational spectroscopy (IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  1. Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, J

    1990-03-01

    Using a within-subjects design, we gave over-weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 min after the preload was completed. Blood was drawn throughout and assayed for concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acid. When subjects drank the fructose preload, they subsequently ate fewer overall calories and fewer grams of fat than when they drank any of the other preloads. The aspartame load did not stimulate intake beyond the plain-water control. The effects of the oxidation of fructose as a possible mechanism for the reduction in food intake is discussed. The effects of insulin in stimulating intake are also discussed. PMID:2178391

  2. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  3. Nutritional and biochemical effects of aspartame intake in rats under an experimental diet

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Martinez-Morales; Enrique Maldonado-Cervantes; Mario Alberto Isiordia-Espinoza; Othoniel Hugo Aragon-Martinez

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of aspartame intake in rats under a diet mimicking the trends of fat consumption in the society. The composition of the experimental diet was within the recommended human limits except the saturated fat amount supplying from coconut fat. Rats under the experimental diet showed an increase in the body weight, transitory increase in the blood pressure and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides alongside a transitory reduction in plasma u...

  4. EFSA on Aspartame January 2013: a lost, but not the last, opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Millstone, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Executive summary The draft report on the safety of aspartame, issued by the European Food Safety Authority’s ANS panel on 8 January 2013, is deeply flawed. There are at least two main types of flaws: those arising from the criteria by which ‘evidence’ has been selected, and those arising from the criteria by which those studies are interpreted. The criteria of inclusion have been overly narrow, and have in particular excluded vital documents that bear directly on the scientific...

  5. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure. PMID:26015492

  6. [Use of HPLC technique for determination of aspartame and acesulfam-K in processed fruit products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczyk, K; Czerwiecki, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the intense sweeteners--aspartame and acesulfam-K in fruit and vegetable nectars was described. Samples were extracted with water, then clarified with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract was analyzed on C-18 reverse-phase column with UV detection. Mean recoveries ranged from 95.9 to 101.8%. The method is suitable for routine determinations of both sweeteners. PMID:8619119

  7. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Collison Kate S; Makhoul Nadine J; Zaidi Marya Z; Al-Rabiah Rana; Inglis Angela; Andres Bernard L; Ubungen Rosario; Shoukri Mohammed; Al-Mohanna Futwan A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantiti...

  8. Effect of aspartame on biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat blood

    OpenAIRE

    Prokić Marko D.; Paunović Milica G.; Matić Miloš M.; Đorđević Nataša Z.; Ognjanović Branka I.; Štajn Andraš Š.; Saičić Zorica S.

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame (ASP) is one of the most widely used nonnutritive sweeteners. This study investigates the chronic effects of ASP on hematological and biochemical parameters, and its effects on the oxidative/antioxidative status in the red blood cells of Wistar albino rats. Rats were provided with ASP (40 mg/kg/daily for six weeks) in drinking water. Increased food and fluid intake was observed in the ASP-treated rats. Total body mass was significantly decreased i...

  9. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  10. Renewable stationary phase liquid magnetochromatography: determining aspartame and its hydrolysis products in diet soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, E; Rodríguez, J A; Castrillejo, Y

    2006-08-01

    A new chromatographic modality that does not require high pressures and also allows renewal of the stationary phase as desired is reported. The technique is based on a thin layer paramagnetic stationary phase (Fe3O4-SiO2) retained on the inner wall of a minicolumn through the action of an external magnetic field, which also plays an important role in separating the analytes. Accordingly, the name "renewable stationary phase liquid magnetochromatography", or RSP-LMC, has been proposed for it. The technique was used to separate and quantify the sugar substitute alpha-aspartame and its constituent amino acids (hydrolysis products), L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine, in diet fizzy soft drinks. When the results obtained for alpha-aspartame were compared with those obtained using HPLC as a reference method, no significant differences were observed. The system proposed is fully automated, making it an economic, competitive alternative to conventional methods of determining alpha-aspartame and its amino acid components. PMID:16633788

  11. Spectroscopic and mechanistic investigations into oxidation of aspartame by diperiodatocuprate(III in aqueous alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant I. Gowda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of aspartame (ASP by diperiodatocuprate(III (DPC in aqueous alkaline medium at 298 K and a constant ionic strength of 0.30 mol dm−3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between aspartame and diperiodatocuprate(III in alkaline medium exhibits 1:6 stoichiometry in the reaction. The order of the reaction with respect to [diperiodatocuprate(III] was unity, while the apparent order with respect to [aspartame] was less than unity over the concentration range studied. The rate of the reaction increased with increase in [OH−] whereas the rate decreased with increase in [$ {\\text{IO}}^-_4 $]. Increasing the ionic strength of the medium increased the rate. The main products were identified by FT-IR, NMR, and LC-MS spectral studies. The probable mechanism was proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities were also calculated. Kinetic studies suggest that [Cu(H2IO6(H2O2] is the reactive species of Cu(III.

  12. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI,40 mg/kg bwt administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

  13. Aspartamın, Bozunma Ürünlerinin ve Bazı Gıda Katkılarının Yüksek Performans Sıvı Kromatografisi Yöntemi ile Tayini

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Güleren

    1998-01-01

    Aspartame, a-L, aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, is a sweetening with broadening food applications. Its use in many food systems can provide significant reduction in calories. The known pH-dependent stability of aspartame in liquid systems provides a need to develop versatile analytical methods that can monitor both aspartame loss and decomposition products formation during storage of nonrefrigerated extended shelf-life products. As well, similarities between aspartame and other polar f...

  14. Oxidant stress evoked damage in rat hepatocyte leading to triggered nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels on long term consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyaswamy Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how long-term (40 mg/kg b.wt consumption of aspartame can alter the antioxidant status, stress pathway genes, and apoptotic changes in the liver of Wistar albino rats. Numerous controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolites during metabolism. To mimic the human methanol metabolism the methotrexate treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. The aspartame treated methotrexate (MTX animals showed a marked significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in the liver from control and MTX control animals, and showed a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH and protein thiol in aspartame treated animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked significant decrease in the body weight, brain, and liver weight. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS, c-fos, Heat shock protein (Hsp 70 Tumour necrosis Factor (TNFα, caspase 8, c-jun N terminal kinases (JNK 3 and Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB gene expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a marked increase in the c-fos, Hsp 70, iNOS Caspase 8, and JNK 3 protein expression in the liver from control and MTX control animals indicating the enhancement of stress and apoptosis. The aspartame treated MTX animals showed a streak of marked DNA fragmentation in the liver. On immunohistochemical analysis aspartame treated animals showed brown colored positive hepatocytes indicating the stress specific and apoptotic protein expression. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise among people, it is essential to create awareness regarding the usage of this artificial sweetener.

  15. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  16. [Aspartame--the sweet-tasting dipeptide--does not affect the pancreatic insulin-secreting function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikova, N V; Fedotov, V P; Aleshina, L V; Shvachkin, Iu P; Girin, S K

    1984-01-01

    The action of a synthetic dipeptide aspartam (150 to 180 times as sweet as glucose) on pancreatic insulin-secretory function of rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. The drug was given orally while drinking (300 mg/kg body weight) or was added to the incubation medium of cultivated pancreatic cells (20 mM). It was shown that insulin content in the rat blood serum remained unchanged 10 and 35 minutes after aspartam administration. The drug did not exert any stimulating effect upon insulin secretion following the addition to the pancreatic cell culture medium. It is concluded that aspartam exhibits no direct or mediated action on pancreatic insulin-secretory function. PMID:6382247

  17. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

  18. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  19. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separa...

  20. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Cristina Radulescu; Bogdan Bucur; Madalina-Petruta Bucur; Gabriel Lucian Radu

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM ...

  1. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  2. Aspartame-stabilized gold-silver bimetallic biocompatible nanostructures with plasmonic photothermal properties, antibacterial activity, and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciani, Chiara; Silvero, M Jazmin; Anghel, Maria Alexandra; Argüello, Gerardo A; Becerra, Maria Cecilia; Scaiano, Juan C

    2014-12-17

    Gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles stabilized with a common sweetener, aspartame (AuNP@Ag@Asm), combine the antimicrobial properties of silver with the photoinduced plasmon-mediated photothermal effects of gold. The particles were tested with several bacterial strains, while biocompatibility was verified with human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25487127

  3. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAspartam telah disetujui oleh FDA untuk dikonsumsi. Konsumsi pemanis buatan ini menggunakan dosis ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake yaitu 50 mg/kgBB. Individu dengan diabetes melitus kemungkinan menjadi antusias terhadap adanya aspartam. Aspartam dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme profil lipid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap kadar LDL dan HDL tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan randomized post test only control group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 15 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol negatif, kelompok kontrol positif, dan kelompok perlakuan. Masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima (5 ekor tikus. Pemberian aspartam (dosis 315 mg/kgBB tikus diberikan kepada kelompok perlakuan selama empat (4 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL. Kadar LDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 30 ± 2 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 24 ± 2 mg/dl. Sedangkan kadar HDL pada kelompok kontrol positif adalah 19 ± 1 mg/dl, pada kelompok perlakuan adalah 22 ± 1 mg/dl. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada kadar LDL dan HDL antara kelompok kontrol positif dengan kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini adalah pemberian aspartam pada tikus diabetes melitus diinduksi aloksan berpengaruh terhadap penurunan kadar LDL dan peningkatan kadar HDL.Kata kunci: aspartam, diabetes melitus, LDL, HDLAbstractAspartame has been approved by the FDA for consumption. Consumption of artificial sweeteners is using ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake dose which is 50 mg/kg. Individuals with diabetes mellitus would likely be enthusiastic consumers of aspartame. Aspartame can influence the metabolism of lipid profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspartame on levels of LDL

  4. Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

    1993-10-01

    An artificial sweetener, aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation σ, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of σ by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 σ 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 μm or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

  5. Comparing the effects of aspartame and sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Massien, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J; Fricker, J; Chapelot, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1994-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four breakfast preloads on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes of 24 normal-weight nondieting young men and women. The preloads, composed of creamy white cheese (fromage blanc), were either plain or sweetened with aspartame or sucrose. Their energy value was either 1255 or 2929 kJ (300 or 700 kcal). Taste preferences were measured before and 150 min after breakfast. Motivational ratings were obtained at 30-min intervals. The subjects ate lunch, snack, and dinner meals in the laboratory. The consumption of low-energy as opposed to high-energy breakfasts, regardless of sweetness, led to elevated motivational ratings and increased energy intakes at lunch. However, intakes at subsequent meals were the same for all preloads, and no overall compensation in energy was observed. Aspartame did not promote hunger or lead to increased energy intakes in normal-weight subjects. PMID:8310983

  6. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahi M; Aghabarati F; Nikfar Sh; Etemad F; Abdoli N

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late pha...

  7. Gıdalarda Aspartamın Katkı Maddesi Olarak Kullanılması

    OpenAIRE

    (Özüdoğru), Nilgün Özbek; Yentür, Gülderen

    1993-01-01

    Bu derlemede, gıdalarda katkı maddesi olarak kullanılan aspartamın özellikleri, kullanılma amacı, metabolizması ve toksisitesi açıklanmıştır. Sağlık üzerine etkileri literatür bilgisine dayanarak değerlendirilmiştir. 

  8. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  9. Effect of aspartame on biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Marko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (ASP is one of the most widely used nonnutritive sweeteners. This study investigates the chronic effects of ASP on hematological and biochemical parameters, and its effects on the oxidative/antioxidative status in the red blood cells of Wistar albino rats. Rats were provided with ASP (40 mg/kg/daily for six weeks in drinking water. Increased food and fluid intake was observed in the ASP-treated rats. Total body mass was significantly decreased in the ASP-treated rats. Treatment with ASP caused an increase in the concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and in the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, as well as a decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol in the serum. A significant decline in the number of white blood cells (WBC was observed after ASP uptake. Based on the results we conclude that ASP induces oxidative stress, observed as an alteration of the glutathione redox status, which leads to increased concentrations of nitric oxide (NO and lipid peroxides (LPO in the red blood cells. Changes in biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, as well as changes in the levels of oxidative stress markers and the appearance of signs of liver damage indicate that chronic use of ASP can lead to the development of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and associated diseases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  10. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes. PMID:25431414

  11. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. PMID:25543075

  12. [Simultaneous determination of neotame, alitame and aspartame in foods by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Hirata, Keiko; Sakamaki, Narue; Hagino, Kayo; Ushiyama, Hirofumi

    2008-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of three artificial sweeteners, neotame (NE), alitame (AL) and aspartame (APM) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Chopped or homogenized samples were packed into cellulose tubing with 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid containing 10% sodium chloride, and dialyzed against 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 24-48 hours. The dialyzate was passed through an Oasis MCX cartridge, and the cartridge was washed with water and methanol. Then the three sweeteners were eluted from the cartridge with a mixture of 0.5 mol/L ammonium chloride-acetonitrile (3 : 2). The sweeteners were separated on a Cosmosil 5C18-AR column using a gradient mode with a mobile phase of 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries of NE, AL and APM from 8 kinds of foods spiked with 10 and 100 microg/g were 86-100% and 89-104%, respectively. The detection limits of NE, AL and APM were 1 microg/g in samples. Furthermore, the three sweeteners were successfully identified by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:18344656

  13. Aspartame has no effect on seizures or epileptiform discharges in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Anderson, G M; Novotny, E J; Ebersole, J S; Sullivan, C M; Gillespie, S M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; APM) on the neurological status of children with well-documented seizures were examined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. We report on 10 children (5 boys, 5 girls, ages 5-13 yr) who were tested for 2 weeks each on APM and placebo (single morning dose, 34 mg/kg). Seven children had generalized convulsions with 4 also having absence episodes. One child had absence seizures and 2 had complex partial seizures only. On each arm of the study, children were admitted to the hospital for a standard 21-lead electroencephalogram (EEG), continuous 24-hour cassette EEG, and determination of biochemical variables in plasma and urine. Subjects completed the Subjects Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (STESS) and parents the Conners Behavior Rating Scale. There were no significant differences between APM and placebo in the standard EEG or 24-hour EEG. No differences were noted for the STESS or the Conners ratings, and no differences were noted for any of the biochemical measures (except for expected increases in phenylalanine and tyrosine after APM). Our findings indicate that, in this group of vulnerable children, APM does not provoke seizures. PMID:7506878

  14. Engymatic synthesis of aspartame precursor in organic solvent; Yuki yobaichu deno asuparutemu zenkutai no koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-11-05

    Taking up the synthetic reaction of the precursor of artificial sweetener aspartame for which thermolysin is used as the catalyst, the features and problems of enzymatic reaction in organic solvent are discussed. It is found that immobilized enzyme which has high activity and stability can be prepared by adsorbing high concentration thermolysin in Amberlite XAD7 followed by bridge immobilization. The initial rate of the synthesis and the stability of immobilized enzyme depend on the types of solvents. Continuous reaction is attempted using a columnar ferment reactor (PFR) in ethyl acetate at the beginning, but the yield decreases in a short period because the immobilized enzyme lose its activity gradually from the upper area of the column where Z-Asp concentration is high. When CSTR (complete mixed type reactor) is used, deactivation of immobilized enzyme can be restricted because low Z-Asp concentration in the reactor can be maintained. It is demonstrated that continuous reaction of longer than 200 hours is possible although the reaction rate is as low as 90%. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marko D Prokić; Milica G Paunović; Miloš M Matić; Nataša Z Djordjević; Branka I Ognjanović; Andraš Š Štajn; Zorica S Saičić

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ОNОО−) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  16. The Study of Aspartame in Fruit%水果中阿斯巴甜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建秀; 刘东华; 石杰; 杜平

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the contents of phenylalanine,aspartic acid and aspartame in 8 kinds of fruits were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS).The content of methanol in these fruits was determined by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC).In addition,the simulation synthesis reaction of aspartame was carried out to further explore the existence of aspartame,phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol in the fruits and the concentration relationship between them.The results indicated that,aspartsme,phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol existed in all eight kinds of fruits.The contents of aspartame,aspartic acid,phenylalanine and methanol were 23.4-117 μg/kg,8.72-186mg/kg,1.84-84.2 mg/kg and 1.81-248 mg/kg,respectively.No obvious difference of the contents of aspartame was detected among the eight kinds of fruits.However,the contents of phenylalanine,aspartic acid and methanol had obvious differences among the investigated fruits.Hence,it was concluded that there was no significant correlation between aspartame contents and the other three's.%采用高效液相色谱-三重四级杆串联质谱(HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS)对橙等8种水果中的苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和阿斯巴甜进行测定,采用气相顶空(HS-GC)对水果中的甲醇进行测定,并进行阿斯巴甜的模拟合成实验,研究在水果中是否存在阿斯巴甜及合成阿斯巴甜所必须的苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇以及它们之间的浓度关系.实验结果表明:8种水果中均含有阿斯巴甜、苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇.其中阿斯巴甜的含量为23.4~117 μg/kg,天冬氨酸含量为8.72~186 mg/kg,苯丙氨酸含量为1.84~84.2 mg/kg,甲醇含量为1.81~248mg/kg.不同水果中阿斯巴甜含量差异不大,而苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇的含量差异较大.阿斯巴甜的含量与苯丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和甲醇的含量无明显相关性.

  17. Estimated intake of sweeteners acesulfame-K and aspartame from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars in a scholar group of Portuguese teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Lino, Celeste De Matos; Costa, Isabel M.; Pena, Angelina Lopes Simões; Ferreira, Rui; Cardoso, Salvador M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Abstract A surveillance of acesulfame-K and aspartame levels in soft drinks and in light nectars was undertaken. Furthermore, the estimated intake of these intense sweeteners was also studied in a scholar group of teenagers. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg/L. Aspartame was found in 92% of the samples. The mean concentration was 89 mg/L. When soft drinks results were analyzed according to the flavour, the cola dr...

  18. The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Massien, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J; Fricker, J; Chapelot, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the effects of four breakfast preloads of different sweetness and energy content on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes of 12 obese and 12 lean women. The preloads consisted of creamy white cheese (fromage blanc) and were either plain, sweetened with sucrose or aspartame, or sweetened with aspartame and supplemented with maltodextrin. Their energy content was either 300 kcal (1,255 kJ) or 700 kcal (2,929 kJ). Motivational ratings of hunger and the desire to eat were obtained prior to and at 30 min intervals after breakfast. Taste preferences were measured prior to and 150 min after breakfast. The subjects ate buffet-style lunch, snack, and dinner meals in the laboratory. Obese women consumed significantly more energy at meals (2,596 kcal or 10,862 kJ) than did lean women (1,484 kcal or 6,209 kJ); derived a greater proportion of energy from fat (39.9% vs. 35.5%), and had lower dietary carbohydrate-to-fat ratios. Consumption of low-energy as opposed to high-energy breakfast preloads was associated with elevated motivational ratings by noon. However, energy intakes at lunch, snack, or dinner did not vary as a function of preload type, and no compensation was observed for the energy consumed at breakfast. Taste preferences were not affected by preload ingestion or by preload type. The study provided no evidence that aspartame promotes hunger or results in increased energy intakes in obese or in lean women. PMID:7951479

  19. Flow-through spectrophotometric sensor for the determination of aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products

    OpenAIRE

    Capit??n Vallvey, Luis Ferm??n; Valencia Mir??n, Mar??a del Carmen; Arana Nicol??s, Evaristo de

    2004-01-01

    A very simple flow-through sensor is presented for the determination of the intense sweetener aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products. The sensor is implemented in a monochannel flow-injection system with UV spectrophotometric detection using a Sephadex CM-C25 cationic exchanger packed 20 mm high in a flow cell. This method is based on the transient retention of a cationic species of the sweetener on the solid phase when a pH 5.0 acetic acid sodium acetate buffer (0.01 M) is used as a c...

  20. First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100–150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all...

  1. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents. PMID:18850355

  2. Study on the thermalstability of aspartame%阿斯巴甜的热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 于淑娟

    2011-01-01

    Effects of high temperature on the content of aspartame and phenylalanine were examined through analyzing pH,reactive time and temperature.Method:through single-factor experiment including pH,reactive time and temperature,sample were produced in the high-pressure reactor.Then using the HPLC to detect the sample at 210nm.The results indicated that aspartame and phenylalanine were influenced by pH, reactive time and temperature,especially by pH and temperature.%研究分析了加热时间、温度和pH对于阿斯巴甜热稳定性的影响以及产物苯丙氨酸的产生与阿斯巴甜减少之间的对应关系.方法:通过单因素实验(包括反应时间、温度和pH),在高压反应釜中进行反应来制备样品;HPLC在210nm波长处进行检测.结果表明:阿斯巴甜和苯丙氨酸受反应温度、pH和反应时间的影响,其中温度和pH影响较大.

  3. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  4. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI. PMID:19680835

  5. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception. PMID:10690159

  6. Determinação espectrofotométrica de aspartame em adoçantes por injeção em fluxo usando um reator em fase sólida contendo fosfato de zinco imobilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Airton Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for determining aspartame in sweeteners. Sample was dissolved in water and 250 µL of the solution was injected into a carrier stream of 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 sodium borate solution. The sample flowed through a column (14 cm x 2.0 mm packed with Zn3(PO42 immobilized in a polymeric matrix of polyester resin and Zn(II ions were released from the solid-phase reactor by formation of the Zn(II-aspartame complex. The mixture merged with a stream of borate buffer solution (pH 9.0 containing 0.030 % (m/v alizarin red S and the Zn(II-alizarin red complex formed was measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. The calibration graph for aspartame was linear in the concentration range from 10 to 80 µg mL-1 with a detection limit of 4 µg mL-1 of aspartame. The RSD was 0.3 % for a solution containing 40 µg mL-1 aspartame (n = 10 and seventy results were obtained per hour. The proposed method was applied for determining aspartame in commercial sweeteners.

  7. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

    2003-02-01

    Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate

  8. Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Inglis, Angela; Andres, Bernard L; Ubungen, Rosario; Saleh, Soad; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The human diet has altered markedly during the past four decades, with the introduction of Trans hydrogenated fat, which extended the shelf-life of dietary oils and promoted a dramatic increase in elaidic acid (Trans-18.1) consumption. Food additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASP) were introduced to increase food palatability and reduce caloric intake. Nutrigenomics studies in small-animal models are an established platform for analyzing the interactions bet...

  9. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine. PMID:17406813

  10. Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951 as a food additive. After the end of the public consultation on the draft opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951 (15th February 2013, the cut-off date for the inclusion of new literature in the assessment, two papers were brought to the attention of EFSA as relevant for the evaluation of aspartame. One was the evaluation by Gift et al. (2013 of several studies carried out by the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF and the second was the Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer by the US-EPA. The Panel noted that the Gift et al. (2013 review of the ERF studies is consistent with EFSA’s conclusions on the lack of carcinogenic activity of aspartame. The Panel also analysed US-EPA’s Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer in the context of the safety assessment of aspartame. The Panel noted that the combination of the endpoint used, a benchmark dose response (BMR of 5% and the uncertainty factors applied, resulted in a Reference Dose (RfD for exogenous methanol of 2 mg/kg bw/day that was overly conservative. This RfD was by definition in addition to dietary intakes of methanol which were included in the background exposure estimates used by the US EPA. Taking all these factors into consideration, the Panel concluded that the toxicological review of methanol by US-EPA and the review by Gift et al. (2013 do not alter the conclusions on the risk assessment of aspartame performed by EFSA. EFSA confirmed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg bw/day.

  11. Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1996-02-23

    A method for the determination of aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) and its metabolites, applicable on a routine quality assurance basis, is described. Liquid samples (diet Coke, 7-Up, Pepsi, etc.) were injected directly onto a mini-cartridge reversed-phase column on a high-performance liquid chromatographic system, whereas solid samples (Equal, hot chocolate powder, pudding, etc.) were extracted with water. Optimising chromatographic conditions resulted in resolved components of interest within 12 min. The by-products were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Although the method was developed on a two-pump HPLC system fitted with a diode-array detector, it is straightforward and can be transformed to the simplest HPLC configuration. Using a single-piston pump (with damper), a fixed-wavelength detector and a recorder/integrator, the degradation of products can be monitored as they decompose. The results obtained were in harmony with previously reported tedious methods. The method is simple, rapid, quantitative and does not involve complex, hazardous or toxic chemistry. PMID:8900578

  12. Effect of mealing on plasma and brain amino acid, and brain monoamine in rats after oral aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, K; Mimura, T; Takasaki, Y; Ichimura, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspartame (APM; L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) was investigated for its ability to alter brain amino acids and monoamines in overnight fasted rats allowed to consume commercial diets for 60 minutes. In addition, the effects of mealing on the changes in plasma and brain amino acids and brain monoamines induced by glucose and/or insulin, and known pharmacologically active compounds, were studied. The consumption of the commercial chow largely prevented changes in blood glucose and amino acids, and brain amino acids and the monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin that might be expected to occur following glucose with or without insulin. Feeding failed to prevent changes in the above parameters when 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, p-chlorophenylalanine and reserpine were administered. The oral administration of up to 250 mg/kg BW APM with water or glucose followed by free feeding failed to alter brain monoamines. These studies demonstrate the potent ability of food to normalize biochemical parameters in blood and brain that otherwise might occur, and clearly show the lack of effect on brain monoamine levels of abuse doses of APM when administered with food. PMID:2940610

  13. Statement on two reports published after the closing date of the public consultation of the draft Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive. After the end of the public consultation on the draft opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E951) (15th February 2013, the cut-off date for the inclusion of new literature in the assessment), two papers were brought to the a...

  14. Determinação espectrofotométrica de aspartame em adoçantes por injeção em fluxo usando um reator em fase sólida contendo fosfato de zinco imobilizado

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Airton Vicente; Marcolino-Junior Luiz Humberto; Fatibello-Filho Orlando

    2000-01-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for determining aspartame in sweeteners. Sample was dissolved in water and 250 µL of the solution was injected into a carrier stream of 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 sodium borate solution. The sample flowed through a column (14 cm x 2.0 mm) packed with Zn3(PO4)2 immobilized in a polymeric matrix of polyester resin and Zn(II) ions were released from the solid-phase reactor by formation of the Zn(II)-aspartame complex. The mixture merged with a str...

  15. HPLC法同时测定口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜%Determination of aspartame and alitame in Chewing gums by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋定国; 方从容; 杨大进

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To establish the determination method of aspartame and alitame in the chewing gums. Methods: To dissolve gum with n - hexane and to extract aspartame and alitame with water, the chromatographic column was Zorbax SB - Clg and the mobile phase was methanol/water (45 +55, volume ratio), the detection wavelength was at 208 nm from the diode array detector. Results: Limit of quantification of aspartame and alitame were 12 mg/kg and 13 mg/kg, respectively, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range were linear, the correlation coefficients were better than 0. 9997, the average rate of recovery were between 98. 9% and 100. 3% , the relative standard deviations were less than 3.8%. Conclusion; The method is simple, practical and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in chewing gum from various brands on the market.%目的:建立口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检测方法.方法:采用正己烷溶解胶基和水提取阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,以Zorbax SB-C18为色谱柱和以甲醇/水(45 +55,体积比)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器在200 nm处进行检测.结果:阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的定量限分别为12 mg/kg和13 mg/kg,标准曲线线性良好,相关系数大于0.9997,平均回收率为在98.9%~100.3%之间,相对标准偏差小于3.8%.结论:该方法简单实用,而且适用于市场上各品牌的口香糖中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的测定.

  16. Measuring the Reward Value of Aspartame-Sweetened Yogurt Shake via Continuous and Progressive Ratio Schedules in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Gondek-Brown

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for measuring the reward value of food. Potentially, this methodology may help determine why people tend to regain weight after stopping a diet program. Human subjects were given aspartame-sweetened yogurt shake and non-sweet yogurt shake on continuous, or uninhibited, and progressive ratio, or inhibited for increasing intervals, schedules. It was expected that subjects would consume more of the sweet than non-sweet shake on each schedule, and that the progressive ratio schedule would amplify the difference between intake of sweet and non-sweet shake. For males and females together, intake measured reward value only on the continuous schedule. Also, males consumed significantly higher quantities of both sweet and non-sweet shake than females on the continuous schedule, indicating that males may consume markedly more than females only when the food is easily obtained. A second variable, post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale, measured reward value for both sexes together on the continuous schedule, and for females, also on the progressive ratio schedule. This variable predicted intake in females, suggesting that females place more emphasis on taste in determining intake than do males. On the continuous schedule, a one-point increase on the nine-point palatability scale corresponded to a 100 gram intake increase. Ultimately, the study showed that when there is no obstacle to obtaining the reinforcer, intake and post-meal palatability rating on a nine-point scale predict reward value, and that males and females stress different factors in deciding how much to consume.

  17. Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

    2011-05-20

    An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 μg mL(-1) and 4.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 μg mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 μg mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 μg mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For

  18. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  19. Stability considerations of aspartame in the direct analysis of artificial sweeteners in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berset, Jean-Daniel; Ochsenbein, Nicole

    2012-07-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS method is presented for the simultaneous determination of frequently used artificial sweeteners (ASs) and the main metabolite of aspartame (ASP), diketopiperazine (DKP), in environmental water samples using the direct-injection (DI) technique, thereby achieving limits of quantification (LOQ) of 10 ng L(-1). For a reliable quantification of ASP pH should be adjusted to 4.3 to prevent formation of the metabolite. Acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC) and sucralose (SUC) were ubiquitously found in water samples. Highest concentrations up to 61 μg L(-1) of ACE were found in wastewater effluents, followed by surface water with concentrations up to 7 μg L(-1), lakes up to 600 ng L(-1) and groundwater and tap water up to 70 ng L(-1). The metabolite DKP was only detected in wastewater up to 200 ng L(-1) and at low detection frequencies. PMID:22503463

  20. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame, amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effect of artificial edulcorant l-aspartil-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame, widely used in hypocaloric and low-glucose diets. Such effect may reflect cell response to genetic damage, induced by artificial edulcorant in the cell cycle G2 period and shows its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes, previously present in heterozygosis

  1. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame) em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame) in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    OpenAIRE

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado; Munif Gebara; Carmem Boto Querol; Josil Santos Gebara

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame), amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effe...

  2. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. PMID:25895731

  3. Construction of hybrid peptide synthetases for the production of alpha-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, a precursor for the high-intensity sweetener aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerfahrt, Thomas; Doekel, Sascha; Sonke, Theo; Quaedflieg, Peter J L M; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2003-11-01

    Microorganisms produce a large number of pharmacologically and biotechnologically important peptides by using nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Due to their modular arrangement and their domain organization NRPSs are particularly suitable for engineering recombinant proteins for the production of novel peptides with interesting properties. In order to compare different strategies of domain assembling and module fusions we focused on the selective construction of a set of peptide synthetases that catalyze the formation of the dipeptide alpha-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine (Asp-Phe), the precursor of the high-intensity sweetener alpha-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). The de novo design of six different Asp-Phe synthetases was achieved by fusion of Asp and Phe activating modules comprising adenylation, peptidyl carrier protein and condensation domains. Product release was ensured by a C-terminally fused thioesterase domains and quantified by HPLC/MS analysis. Significant differences of enzyme activity caused by the fusion strategies were observed. Two forms of the Asp-Phe dipeptide were detected, the expected alpha-Asp-Phe and the by-product beta-Asp-Phe. Dependent on the turnover rates ranging from 0.01-0.7 min-1, the amount of alpha-Asp-Phe was between 75 and 100% of overall product, indicating a direct correlation between the turnover numbers and the ratios of alpha-Asp-Phe to beta-Asp-Phe. Taken together these results provide useful guidelines for the rational construction of hybrid peptide synthetases. PMID:14622284

  4. 如何完善阿斯巴甜检验标准的检验方法%How to improve the detecting method of aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小根; 丁敖星; 叶爱英; 蒋龙

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0 前言 阿斯巴甜,英文名为ASPARTAME,化学名为天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(简称APM),是当前用途较为广泛的食品添加剂.在食品中的使用功能为:增甜剂、糖类替代物、调味剂,甜度为糖的200倍.阿斯巴甜为白色结晶性粉末,无异味,能溶解于水,微溶于酒精,无副作用,其水溶液在40℃以上易分解而失去甜味.目前在食品加工行业主要用于软饮料如"可乐”等各种液体饮料、口香糖、咖啡、药用糖衣等,起调味与增甜作用,可作为较理想的蔗糖替代物,适合糖尿病患者食用.

  5. 高效液相色谱法测定茶饮料中的阿斯巴甜含量%Determination of Content of Aspartame in Tea Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘郁; 刘连新; 燕传勇; 李德峰

    2012-01-01

    To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination content of Aspartame in tea beverages ,20 μL samples were tested on a thermo C18 column using 0.01 mol-L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile (40:60) as mobile phase was with flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 210nm.The results showed that Aspartame concentration had good liner relationship within the range of 0~50 ug/mL (Y=52139X (0~50 μg/mL, R=0.9994). The average recovery was 100.3% with RSD of 0.33%.The method was simple, fast, accurate, and precise, which could be used to determine content of aspartame in tea beverages.%本文建立了HPLC测定茶饮料中阿斯巴甜含量的方法,采用色谱柱:THERMO C18(4.6×250 mm,5μm),检测波长:210nm,流量:1.0 mL/min,进样量:20μL,流动相:0.01 mol/L磷酸二氢钾-乙腈为85:15.结果表明:阿斯巴甜在0~50 μg/mL范围内呈现良好的线性关系,Y=52139X(0~50 μg/mL)(R=0.9994).平均回收率100.3%,RSD=0.33%.本方法简单,快速、准确、重现性好,可以用作茶饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量测定.

  6. Simultaneous determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋定国; 方从容; 杨大进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a determination method for aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits. Methods Aspartame and alitame in jellies were extracted with 80% methanol at 70℃. Preserved fruits were homogenized with water and then were extracted with 50% methanol. A chromatographic column Zorbax SB-C18 was used; the mobile phase was methanol/water (40 +60, volume ratio) , and a diode array detector was used for the detection at wavelength 200nm. Results The limits of quantification of aspartame and alitame were both 8mg/kg for jellies and both 20mg/kg for preserved fruits; the calibration curves were linear in the range of tested concentration. The correlation coefficients were better than 0. 9996. The average recovery rates were in the range of 98. 1 % -101. 2% , the relative standard deviations were 2. 21% -4. 10% Conclusion The method is simple, practical, accurate, reliable and successful in the determination of aspartame and alitame in jellies and preserved fruits from various brands on markets.%目的 建立果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检测方法.方法 在70℃下用80%甲醇水提取果冻中的阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,蜜饯类食品经过加水匀浆后用50%甲醇水提取阿斯巴甜和阿力甜,并以Zorbax SB-C18为色谱柱和以甲醇/水(体积比:40+ 60)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器在200nm处进行检测.结果 果冻中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检出限均为8mg/kg,蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的检出限均为20mg/kg,方法的标准曲线线性良好,相关系数大于0.9996,平均回收率在98.1%~101.2%之间,相对标准偏差在2.21% ~4.10%之间.结论 该方法简单实用和准确可靠,适用于常见的果冻和蜜饯类食品中阿斯巴甜和阿力甜的测定.

  7. A facile HPLC method for optical purity and quantitative measurements of phenylalanine from the hydrolyzed aspartame under different pH and temperature after its derivatization with a fluorescent reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsien, T-J; Chen, S

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the artificial sweetener aspartame is deliberately hydrolyzed under different pH and temperature in the matrix, and time period for the hydrolysis. The HPLC analysis is then performed to quantitatively measure the amount and the optical purity of phenylalanine produced as a result of hydrolysis in the matrix after its functionalization with a fluorescent reagent. The results show that the amount of phenylalanine in the matrix is affected by the pH variation during the hydrolysis and found increased in low pH conditions. High temperature or long time periods for the decomposition also increases the amount, which indicates that beverages and foods containing aspartame as a sweetener may not be safe for phenylketonuria patients to consume if they are stored under these conditions. Conversely, the optical purity of phenylalanine, expressed as the percentage of D: -enantiomer, is not affected by pH variations. However, it decreases as the length of time elapsed is increased or surrounding temperature is elevated during the decomposition. PMID:17068663

  8. HPLC法测定饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜%Determination of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳; 刘赐敏; 周金森; 刘钰钗

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for detecting acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks by HPLC.Methods: After pretreatment, the separation was performed on VP - ODS C18 column with 0.02 mol/L ( NH4 )2SO4/CH3OH/CH3CN/10% H2SO4 ( 800∶150∶ 49∶ 1, v/v) as the mobile phase and detected at the wavelength of 214 nm.Results:The linear range was 0.004 mg/ml ~ 0.020 mg/ml for acesulfame potassium and adsaccharin sodium, respectively (r > 0.999),while aspartame was 0.004 mg/ml ~ 0.025 mg/ml ( r > 0.999 ).The detection limits of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame were 0.4 mg/kg, 0.6 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively.The recoveries of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame were 98.0% ~ 101.7%, 99.7% ~ 100.8% and 100.1% ~ 102.8%, respectively, and the RSD of the method was less than 1.0%.Conclusion: The proposed method was simple, reliable and sensitive for the determination of acesulfame potassium, saccharin sodium and aspartame in drinks.%目的:建立HPLC法测定饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜的方法.方法:样品经前处理后,以0.02 moL/L硫酸铵:甲醇:乙腈:10%硫酸(800:150:49:1)为流动相,经VP-ODS柱分离,于214nm检测.结果:安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜分别在在0.004 mg/ml~0.020 mg/ml时相关系数均0.999,糖精钠在0.004 mg/ml~0.025 mg/ml相关系数大于0.999,安赛蜜,糖精钠,阿斯巴甜最低检出浓度分别为0.4 mg/kg,0.6 mg/kg,0.5 mg/kg,实际样品的方法回收率分别为98.0%~101.2%,93.2%~96.8%,98.8%~102.2%;相对标准偏差小于1%.结论:此法简便、准确、灵敏,可用于饮料中安赛蜜、糖精钠和阿斯巴甜的同时测定.

  9. HPLC 法测定小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒中阿斯帕坦的含量%Determination of Aspartame in Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin Granule by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菲

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒中阿斯帕坦的高效液相色谱测定方法。方法:采用 AgiLent Zorbax SB-C18(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.05 mol·L -1磷酸(20∶80)为流动相,流速为1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为204 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为10μl。结果:阿斯帕坦在21.72~868.67μg·ml -1浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系(r =1.0000),平均回收率为99.36%(RSD =0.3%,n =6)。结论:该方法稳定性和重复性均较好,可用于测定小儿氨酚黄那敏颗粒的质量控制。%Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of aspartame in Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin granule. Methods:An Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm)was used with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-0. 05 mol·L -1 H3 PO4(20 ∶80). The flow rate was 1. 0 ml ·min -1 and the detection wavelength was 204 nm. The column temperature was 25℃ and the injection volume was 10 μl. Results:Aspartame had a good linear relationship within the range of 21. 72- 868. 67 μg · ml -1(r = 1. 000 0). The average recovery of aspartame was 99. 36% and RSD was 0. 3% (n = 6). Conclusion:The method has good stability and repeatability,and is suitable for the quality control of Xiaoer Anfen Huang Namin granule.

  10. Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Arana Nicolás, E; García-Jiménez, J F

    2006-05-01

    An integrated solid-phase spectrophotometry-FIA method is proposed for simultaneous determination of the mixture of saccharin (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide; E-954) (SA) and aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; E-951) (AS). The procedure is based on on-line preconcentration of AS on a C18 silica gel minicolumn and separation from SA, followed by measurement, at lambda = 210 nm, of the absorbance of SA which is transiently retained on the adsorbent Sephadex G-25 placed in the flow-through cell of a monochannel FIA setup using pH 3.0 orthophosphoric acid-dihydrogen phosphate buffer, 3.75x10(-3) mol L(-1), as carrier. Subsequent desorption of AS with methanol enables its determination at lambda = 205 nm. With a sampling frequency of 10 h(-1), the applicable concentration range, the detection limit, and the relative standard deviation were from 1.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 0.30 microg mL(-1), and 1.0% (80 microg mL(-1), n = 10), respectively, for SA and from 10.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 1.4 microg mL(-1), and 1.6% (100 microg mL(-1), n = 10) for AS. The method was used to determine the amounts of aspartame and saccharin in sweets and drinks. Recovery was always between 99 and 101%. The method enabled satisfactory determination of blends of SA and AS in low-calorie and dietary products and the results were compared with those from an HPLC reference method. PMID:16804990

  11. 高效液相色谱法检测饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量的不确定度评估%Evaluation on Uncertainty of Determining Aspartame in Beverage by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩霞; 舒勇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]评估高效液相色谱法检测饮料中阿斯巴甜含量的不确定度.[方法]用高效液相色谱法测定饮料中阿斯巴甜的含量,对整个测量过程的不确定度来源进行分析,并对不确定度各分量进行了评估和合成.[结果]用GB/T 22254-2008方法重复6次测定饮料中阿斯巴甜平均含量为(0.806±0.038)g/kg,k=2.影响过程不确定度的主要来源为样品称量过程、样品定容体积所引入标准溶液的配制过程、拟合标准曲线所引入的不确定度.①标准工作液的不确定度.标准工作液的合成不确定度为0.013 9,包括标准样品纯度引入的不确定度0.005 8、标准物质称量引入的标准不确定度1.49×10-4、阿斯巴甜标准储备液配制过程中玻璃器具校准产生的相对不确定度0.007 88、标准工作溶液配制过程中玻璃器具校准产生的不确定度0.009 9.②样品试样制备过程引入的不确定度.包括样品称量过程的相对标准不确定度0.009和样品定容过程引入的不确定度0.000 78.③标准曲线拟合过程不确定度.曲线拟合的相对不确定度为0.002 46.阿斯巴甜测定结果的不确定度为0.017 0,合成总的相对标准不确定度为0.023 9,扩展标准不确定度为0.019.[结论]标准溶液、标准曲线和重复性的不确定度分量是不确定度的主要来源,待测样品的称量和定容的不确定度分量占的比例不大.%[Objective] The aim was to evaluate the uncertainty of determining aspartame in beverage by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [Method] The content of aspartame in beverage was determined by HPLC, then the source of uncertainty in the whole determination process was analyzed, and each component of uncertainty was evaluated and combined. [Result] Through 6 repeated determinations by the method in GB/T 22254-2008 "Determination of Aspartame in Food", the average content of aspartame in beverage was (0.806±0.038) g/kg, and k=2. The main

  12. 阿斯巴甜及其组分对小鼠餐后血糖的影响%Effect of aspartame and its compositions on postprandial glucose metabolism in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆; 王觐; 刘英华; 张永; 张新胜; 薛长勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of aspartame and its compositions on postprandial glucose metabolism in Kunming and KKAy mice. Methods Kunming and KKAy mice were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, 12 in each group. Mice in intervention group received intra-gastric aspartame or its composition(aspartic acid or phenylalanine at the dose of 2mg/(g · kg) plus glucose or starch, while those in control group received only glucose or starch at the dose of 2mg/(g · kg). Blood samples were collected from vena caudalis of the mice and blood glucose level was measured in mice 0.5,1 and 2h after intra-gastric intervention with drugs. Blood glucose level and AUC at different intervention time points were compared between two groups. Results Glucose tolerance test and starch tolerance test showed that the blood glucose level and AUC at different intervention time points were significantly lower in intervention group than in control group. Conclusion Aspartame and its compositions(aspartic acid and phenylalanine) can decrease the postprandial glucose level and AUC in Kunming or KKAy mice.%目的 观察甜味剂阿斯巴甜及其组分天冬氨酸和苯丙氨酸对昆明(km)小鼠和KKAy糖尿病小鼠糖代谢的影响.方法 将km小鼠和KKAy糖尿病小鼠分别按空腹血糖随机分为2组,每组12只;干预组灌胃给予2mg/g阿斯巴甜或天冬氨酸或苯丙氨酸+2mg/g葡萄糖或淀粉,对照组灌胃给予2mg/g葡萄糖或淀粉.尾静脉采血检测灌胃后0.5h、1h和2h血糖,比较各个时间点血糖和血糖曲线下面积(AUC).结果 与对照组比较,阿斯巴甜组km鼠葡萄糖耐量实验餐后0.5h血糖及淀粉耐量实验餐后1h血糖均有明显下降,KKAy鼠在葡萄糖耐量和淀粉耐量实验中餐后0.5h、1h血糖和AUC均有显著下降;与对照组比较,天冬氨酸组在km鼠葡萄糖耐量和淀粉耐量实验中餐后0.5h、1h血糖和AUC均有显著下降,KKAy鼠淀粉耐量实验餐后0.5h、1h、2h血

  13. Determination of Aspartame in Diet Coke Samples by RP-HPLC on Titania%钛胶柱反相高效液相色谱法测定饮料中的阿斯巴甜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包荣; 李荣; 谭津; 姜子涛

    2012-01-01

    建立基于钛胶柱对无糖可乐中甜味剂阿斯巴甜的高效液相色谱快速测定方法。色谱条件:分离柱为TitaniaSachtopore-RP柱(250mm×4.6m,5μm),柱温70℃,流动相为V[15mmol/L磷酸铵缓冲溶液,(NH4)2HPO4:NH4H2PO4=6:4;10mmol/L氟化铵]-V(甲醇)=70:30,流速1mL/min,检测波长217nm。线性范围为10~2500μg/mL,最低检出限为0.08μg/mL,回收率为92.5%~97.4%,相对标准偏差(n=8)小于0.72%。本法准确度和精密度均可满足饮料中阿斯巴甜的测定要求。%A method to determine aspartame in diet coke by high performance liquid chromatography on a titania column was described in this paper.The samples were separated on a titania Sachtopore-RP column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm at 70 ℃ using 15 mmol/L ammonium phosphate buffer((NH4)2HPO4:NH4H2PO4=6:4) added with 10 mmol/L ammonium fluoride and methanol in the ratio of 70 to 30 as mobile phase.The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 217 nm.The linear range of the method was 10-2500 μg/mL with a Detection limit of 0.08μg/mL.The recoveries of the method were between 92.5% and 97.4%.The relative standard deviation of the method was less than 0.72%.The method is simple,fast,accurate and precise and may be used in the determination of aspartame in drinks.

  14. Aspartame affects the electrical activity of projection neurons in central nervous system by inhibiting the calcium channel current in Drosophila%阿斯巴甜抑制钙通道电流影响果蝇中枢投射神经元电活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 齐旻悦; 吴诗哲; 顾怀宇

    2016-01-01

    目的:从突触水平检验不同浓度的阿斯巴甜对果蝇中枢神经元影响及作用机制,为进一步探究阿斯巴甜生物安全性提供支持。方法采用膜片钳全细胞记录的方法,通过离子通道的阻断与分离,分别记录给药前后果蝇投射神经元(PN)的胆碱能突触微小兴奋性电流(mEPSC)、钙离子通道电流和钙通道瞬时电流密度,统计并分析mEPSC幅值和频率,以及钙通道电流峰值和瞬时电流密度。结果与给药前相比,8μg/ml阿斯巴甜会降低果蝇PN的mEPSC频率(t=22.05,P<0.01)、钙电流峰值(t=5.01,P<0.01)和瞬时电流密度(t=2.68,P<0.05);2μg/ml阿斯巴甜会降低果蝇PN的mEPSC频率(t=3.15,P<0.05),其他实验指标差异则无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论一定浓度的阿斯巴甜可影响果蝇中枢投射神经元的电活动,并且该作用可能是通过影响钙电流而实现的。%Objective To study the effect of different concentrations of aspartame in Drosophila central nervous system , especially to the electrical activity of projection neuron (PN), and evaluate the biological security of aspartame and neural mechanism. Methods The whole-cell electrophysiological signals of projection neurons in Drosophila was detected by patch clamp. The recordings of mini excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) and calcium currents were performed in both pre-and post-of aspartame treatment. Results Aspartame treatments with 8 μg/ml could reduce the frequency of mEPSC (t=22.05, P0.05) at the same time. In addition, there have no statistically significant in aspartame treatments with 2μg/ml experimental groups except for the frequency of mEPSC (t=3.15, P<0.05). Conclusion There has a range of aspartame concentration can significantly affect the electrical activity of projection neurons in Drosophila central nervous system, which could be effective via the calcium

  15. 高效液相色谱法测定果冻中阿斯巴甜含量的不确定度评定%Assessment of the uncertainties in the determination of aspartame content in fruit jelly by UPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠一; 李燕; 吴帅

    2016-01-01

    按照JJF 1059.1—2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的方法,建立高效液相色谱法测定果冻中阿斯巴甜含量的数学模型,分析其中各不确定度分量的来源,并对其分别进行量化,最终合成果冻中阿斯巴甜含量测定结果的不确定度。通过分析得出,引入不确定度的主要分量有标准溶液的配制操作、标准曲线的拟合过程、试样前处理操作等。果冻中阿斯巴甜含量测定结果可表示为(0.58±0.01) g/kg, k=2。%According to the approach in Measurement Uncertainty and Results Indication (JJF 1059.1—2012) , a mathematical model had been set up to assess the uncertainties in the determination of aspartame content in fruit jelly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The source of each uncertainty in the mathematical model was analyzed, quantified and synthesized. Results indicated that main influence factors of the uncertainties in the determination were the preparation of standard solution, standard curve fitting process and sample pretreatment. The content of aspartame in fruit jelly could be shown as (0.58±0.01) g/kg, k=2.

  16. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as a sugar substitute tablet for sweetening hot beverages, including coffee and tea, L-leucine may be... purchase and use. (3) When the additive is used in a sugar substitute for table use, its label shall bear... this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 172.804, see the List of...

  17. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  18. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data. PMID:25686474

  19. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  20. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    OpenAIRE

    Masato Yasuura; Yusuke Tahara; Hidekazu Ikezaki; Kiyoshi Toko

    2014-01-01

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge...

  1. HIGH DOSES OF ASPARTAME HAVE NO EFFECTS ON SENSORIMOTOR FUNCTION OR LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute or repeated (14 days) intragastric administration of L-d-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester suspended in saline and Tween-80 in doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg had no significant effect in male Fischer-344 rats on routine measures of sensorimotor function, including spontaneo...

  2. 天冬天精的合成%Synthesis of Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金石; 徐浙龙; 黄金花

    2004-01-01

    本文通过全新的合成路线,以L-苯丙氨酸为起始化合物,经过甲酯化、游离、成内酐、缩合、水解、精制等6步反应得到天冬天精,总收率达到45.85%,较文献收率提高了8%,质量符合标准.

  3. 分光光度法测定酶促合成产物Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许激扬; 孙亚欣

    1997-01-01

    一种简便的分光光度法测定Aspartame,以茚三酮试验为显色剂,在575nm波长处比色,在4 ̄20μg/ml浓度范围内,Aspartame标准曲线呈线性关系,相关系数r=0.9992。本文方法用于测定嗜热菌蛋白酶酶促合成产物Aspartame,并将结果与滴定法作了比较。

  4. 短小杆菌酶促合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时海

    1998-01-01

    研究多种因素对短小杆菌酶催化L-天冬氨酸(L-Asp)和L-苯丙氨酸甲酯(L-PheOMe)合成二肽甜味剂Aspartame能力的影响。结果表明,反应最适pH为6.0,最适温度为40℃,反应10h,催化能力为0.475g APM/g菌体,产率80.5%,收率81.05%。

  5. Optimization for the Synthesis of Aspartame Intermediate%天冬甜精中间体的合成优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓君; 陈志荣; 鲁波

    2002-01-01

    用均匀设计法优化了天冬甜精中间体--N-乙氧硫羰基天冬氨酸的合成反应条件.优化工艺条件为:反应温度72 ℃,n(甲基乙基黄原酸酯)∶ n(天冬氨酸)=1.50∶ 1.00,m(天冬氨酸)∶ m(氢氧化钠)=0.50∶ 1.00,m(水)∶ m(天冬氨酸)=4.00∶ 1.00,m(甲醇)∶ m(水)=0.15∶ 1.00.N-乙氧硫羰基天冬氨酸的收率为88.92%.

  6. 阿斯巴甜工艺制作过程分析%Analysis of the Production Process of Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德金; 张凯; 唐根生

    2010-01-01

    根据生产实践经验,本文介绍了使用L-苯丙氨酸和L-天门冬氨酸作为原料制造阿斯巴甜的工艺过程,分析制作过程中仍然存在的关键问题和需要改进的事项,提出了仍有待进一步攻关的科研目标.

  7. 阿斯巴甜的安全性研究进展%Research advancement of security of aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱科; 阚建全; 陈景旺; 凡哪哪

    2008-01-01

    阿斯巴甜作为一种食品甜味剂,现在在食品工业中比较常见.然而自从其进入市场以来,对它的评价一直都是褒贬不一.本文针对阿斯巴甜安全性研究的情况加以综述,以便人们更加全面的认识阿斯巴甜.

  8. ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS OF FORMATION OF Z-ASPARTAME IN IONIC LIQUID: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS. (R828131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. The stereochemical resolution of the enantiomers of aspartame on an immobilized alpha-chymotrypsin HPLC chiral stationary phase: the effect of mobile-phase composition and enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaud, P; Wainer, I W

    1990-01-01

    The enantioselective and diastereoselective resolutions of the stereoisomers of N alpha-aspartyl-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester (APME) have been accomplished on an HPLC chiral stationary phase based upon alpha-chymotrypsin (the ACHT-CSP) with observed enantioselectivities (alpha 1) for the DL-/LD-enantiomer of as high as 29.17 and for the DD-/LL-enantiomers of as high as 28.97. In addition, the effect on the chromatographic retention of the APME stereoisomers of the activity of the ACHT and the composition of the mobile phase--structure of the anionic component, molarity, and pH--have been studied. The results of this study suggest that the aspartyl moiety and/or the aspartyl-phenylalanine amide linkage play key roles in the observed enantioselectivity; the APME stereoisomers containing L-phenylalanine, i.e., DL- and LL-APME, bind at a different site in the ACHT molecule (the L-Phe site) than the APME stereoisomers containing D-phenylalanine (the D-Phe site); and the observed enantioselectivity is a measure of the difference in the binding affinities at the two sites rather than the consequence of differential affinities at a single site. PMID:2400637

  10. Aspartame生产废液作为农业氮肥资源的评估研究%Evaluation of Aspartame Byproducts As Potential Nitrogen Sources for Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海啸; MalcolmE.Sumner

    2002-01-01

    以美国佐治亚州广为分布的红壤和沙质灰土以及棉花和玉米为试验材料,进行Aspartame生产废液(BST,下同)与传统氮肥尿素、硫酸铵的温室盆栽和恒温土培对比试验.结果表明,BST是很好的氮肥资源,等同于或某种程度上优于尿素和硫酸铵.对土壤的理化性质、氨态氮、硝态氮含量以及对作物吸收Ca,Mg,K等养分和生长发育的影响与常规氮肥相似.但废液中有机态氮的水解以及向硝态氮的转化比尿素要快一些.尿素和BST比硫酸铵更适于在红壤和沙质灰土上施用.

  11. HPLC法测定对羟基苯甲酸甲(丙)酯、阿斯巴甜%HPLC Determination of n - propyl - 4 - hydroxybenzoate and Aspartame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙边成; 张艳; 吴昊

    2006-01-01

    目的同时测定液态食品和可溶性固态食品中的对羟基苯甲酸甲(丙)酯、阿斯巴甜的含量.方法高效液相色谱法.结果样品加标回收率为91%~104.3%,RSD<3%.结论该法操作简单、方便,令人满意.

  12. Determination of Aspartame in Food by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定食品中阿斯巴甜的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪梅林; 谢东华; 房科腾; 曹苏仙

    2009-01-01

    样品经水提取后,在ODS-3色谱柱上以磷酸二氢钾水溶液(10mmol/L,pH=3.5)和乙腈以85:15的比例作为流动相进行色谱分离,用HPLC法VWD210nm处检测食品中阿斯巴甜的含量.本方法在标准浓度1.0-50.0μg/mL范围内,相关系数大于0.999.该方法适合日常检测.

  13. Study on Synthesis of Neotame from Aspartame%由阿斯巴甜合成甜味剂纽甜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国廷; 沈彬; 陈亚芹; 张亮; 顾昕

    2009-01-01

    本实验通过阿斯巴甜直接合成纽甜.在钯(Pd/C)氢化催化剂存在的情况下,阿斯巴甜与3,3-二甲基丁醛在甲醇溶液中经催化氢化合成、结晶、干燥,制得白色结晶纽甜.此方法条件温和,产品纯度高,收率可达到61%.

  14. 阿斯巴甜的合成和应用研究进展%Research progress of Aspartame on application and synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璞强; 赵桂霞; 张亚楠; 崔建东

    2010-01-01

    阿斯巴甜是一种新型安全的甜味剂,在食品工业中被广泛的使用,文章就目前阿斯巴甜的合成和应用研究进展做了综述,重点介绍了阿斯巴甜的合成方法.旨在为改进和创建新的阿斯巴甜合成方法提供参考依据.

  15. 反相离子对液相色谱法分析天冬二肽%Analysis of Aspartame by RP- ionic Pair Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于慧娟

    2003-01-01

    提出了一种反相离子对液相色谱法分析天冬二肽的分析技术; 采用 C18为分析柱, 以三氟乙酸为离子对试剂, 乙腈-磷酸二氢钾水溶液为流动相; 方法不仅适用于天冬二肽产品的纯度分析, 而且适用于天冬二肽合成过程中的中间体及副产物的分析; 方法具有分析速度快、准确度高、操作简单、实用性强等优点.

  16. 离子交换树脂回收L-苯丙氨酸%RECOVERY OF L-PHENYLALANINE BY ION EXCHANGE RESIN FROM ASPARTAME FILTRATED STOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊可可; 韦萍; 吴锡军

    1999-01-01

    为降低Aspartame生产成本,建立了1套水解二肽母液,并用离子交换树脂分离L-苯丙氨酸的回收工艺.该工艺可使L-苯丙氨酸回收率达72%以上,且其质量完全达到生产Aspartame的要求.

  17. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each day over a person's lifetime. The artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K, saccharin, neotame, and sucralose are all FDA approved. Aspartame is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria (PKU). Their body ... sweeteners is acceptable in moderation. However, the American Medical ...

  18. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study of over half a million retirees. Increasing consumption of aspartame-containing beverages was not associated with the development of lymphoma, leukemia, or brain cancer ( 2 ). Acesulfame potassium, Sucralose, and Neotame In addition to saccharin and aspartame, ...

  19. Mycophenolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aspartame or sorbitol. Ask your pharmacist for a list ... retardation), you should know that mycophenolate suspension contains aspartame, a source of phenylalanine.

  20. Drug: D08862 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08862 Drug Aspartame acesulfame (NF) C14H18N2O5. C4H5NO4S 457.1155 457.4549 D08862...or type 1 [HSA:80834 83756] [KO:K04625 K04626] Aspartame D08862 Aspartame acesulfame (NF) CAS: 106372-55-8 P

  1. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R.; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 6...

  2. Determination of Saccharin and Aspartame in food by High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC)%高效液相色谱法测定食品中糖精钠和天冬糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 谭慧

    2000-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱测定食品和复合甜味剂蛋白糖中人工合成甜味剂-糖精钠和天冬糖,采用国产C18不锈钢柱(Superisorb C18 5μm,70mm×4.6mmi.d)以甲醇-O.02mol/L磷酸缓冲液pH4.5(30/70)为流动相,于210nm波长下进行检测,采用该方法糖精钠和天冬糖的回收率分别为96.2%~102.7%和99.2%~105.1%:最小检出限分别为0.6ng和1.4ng.

  3. 甜味素对复合法制备大鼠肝硬化模型的影响%Effect of aspartame on the liver cirrhosis model induced by the complex factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁向春; 马丽娜; 陈学新

    2009-01-01

    肝硬化动物模型是肝硬化的研究基础,研究肝硬化的发生机制及其防治必须建立良好的动物模型。目前,国内外制备肝硬化模型方法虽较多,但死亡率较高,成模率较低。本研究对目前最常用的复合法制备肝硬化模型的方法进行了改良,提高了肝硬化成模率、降低了大鼠死亡率。

  4. 甜味化合物天冬氨酰苯丙氨酰甲酯及其类似物的量子化学研究%A Quantum Chemistry Study for Sweet Compounds:Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士国

    2003-01-01

    用量子化学计算从头算的Hartree Fock方法,在6-31G基组水平上,对甜味剂天冬氨酰苯丙氨酰甲酯Aspartame及其类似物H-(S)-Asp(1R,2R)-c6Phe-OMe进行了研究.经几何优化得到了它们的稳定构象.用Fukui指数分析了分子中原子的反应性.根据分子的结构特征对甜味剂与受体的作用模式进行了分析.

  5. A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

  6. Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

    2014-05-25

    Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (PGlucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24632416

  7. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1) are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05) by the panelist...

  8. Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheeses, soy products, fava beans, hard sausages, smoked fish, and Chianti wine Aspartame (NutraSweet ® and Equal ® ) To ... time for yourself and finding healthy ways to deal with stress are important. Some things you can ...

  9. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) has tested and approved five artificial sweeteners: aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), saccharin (Sweet'N Low, Sugar Twin), acesulfame-K (Sunnet, Sweet One), neotame, and sucralose (Splenda). Stevia ( ...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... glucose), ti light sugar (99.2% sugar with the residual comprised of the artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame K), caster sugar, golden syrup, ferdiana granella grossa, golden granulated...

  11. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) has tested and approved five artificial sweeteners: aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet), saccharin (Sweet'N Low, Sweet Twin), acesulfame-K (Sunnet, Sweet One), neotame, and sucralose (Splenda). Stevia ( ...

  12. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

  13. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  14. The relationships among artificial sweetener consumption, body weight and caloric intake

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    The relationships among artificial sweetener consumption, body weight, and energy intake were examined using a rat model and a survey of college students. The rats were divided into four treatment groups and one control group (n=10 per group). Group 1 was provided with a 10% sucrose solution; group 2, a 50% sucrose solution; group 3, a 0.05% aspartame solution; and group 4, a 0.25% aspartame solution. All groups were provided with rat chow and water ad libitum. Analysi...

  15. Psychophysical evaluation of interactive effects between sweeteners and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nahon, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intense sweeteners in a light soft drink influences the preferences for, and the flavour profiles of these drinks to various extents, depending on the aroma and sweeteners present. In this study equisweet mixtures of sweeteners were composed at 10% Sucrose Equivalent Value. The sucrose/maltitol and sucrose/aspartame mixtures were additive, whereas equisweet binary sucrose/Na-cyclamate mixtures and ternary sucrose/aspartame/Na-cyclamate mixtures revealed synergistic effects.The...

  16. Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Food Colorants and Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Turak; Mahmure Ustun Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for simultaneous determination of two colorants (Indigotin and Brilliant Blue) and two sweeteners (Acesulfame-K and Aspartame) in synthetic mixtures and chewing gums without any prior separation or purification. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry (ZCDS), is based on recording the first derivative curves (for Indigotin, Brillant Blue, and Acesulfame-K) and third-derivative curve (for Aspartame) and determining each component ...

  17. 以Cu-L-Proline-Aspartame三元配合物为手性选择剂毛细管电泳拆分氨基酸对映体%ENANTIOSEPARATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS USING Cu(Ⅱ)-L-PROLINE-ASPARTAME TERNARY COMPLEX AS THE CHIRAL SELECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书林; 李舒婷

    2003-01-01

    @@ 近年来,一些痕量D-氨基酸已经发现存在于人和动物体内[1,2],并已证明部分D-氨基酸是在细胞中直接生物合成[3],且生物体内的D-氨基酸具有某种重要的生理功能[4].因此,氨基酸的手性拆分和检测在生命的起源、发育、病变及衰老研究中,具有重要意义.毛细管电泳(CE)手性拆分,具有高效、快速、低耗等优点,近年来已得到了快速发展[5].由于CE分离所需样品少(nL级),特别适合于质量有限的生物样品的分离和测定.CE手性分离,一般是在电解质溶液中加入手性选择剂,如:环糊精及其衍生物、手性冠醚、手性金属配合物、手性表面活性剂及大环抗生素等.Zare[6]研究组最先报道在CE中应用配位交换原理,以Cu-L-histidine二元配合物为手性选择剂,分离丹酰化氨基酸对映体.我们曾采用三元配合物Cu-(s)-3-aminopyrrolidine-L-histidine为手性选择剂,直接拆分了天然氨基酸对映体[7].在本工作中,以Cu-L-Proline Aspartame三元配合物为手性选择剂,对5种含有芳环结构的天然氨基酸对映体,进行了手性拆分研究.

  18. Fate of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants in New York State, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-12-01

    Very few studies describe the fate of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame were determined based on the concentrations measured in wastewater influent, primary effluent, effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs in the Albany area of New York State, U.S.A. All ASWs were detected at a mean concentration that ranged from 0.13 (aspartame) to 29.4 μg/L (sucralose) in wastewater influent, 0.49 (aspartame) to 27.7 μg/L (sucralose) in primary influent, 0.11 (aspartame) to 29.6 μg/L (sucralose) in effluent, and from 0.08 (aspartame) to 0.65 μg/g dw (sucralose) in sludge. Aspartame was found in 92% of influent SPM samples at a mean concentration of 444 ng/g dw, followed by acesulfame (92 ng/g) and saccharin (49 ng/g). The fraction of the total mass of ASWs sorbed to SPM was in the rank order: aspartame (50.4%) > acesulfame (10.9%) > saccharin and sucralose (0.8%). The sorption coefficients of ASWs ranged from 4.10 (saccharin) to 4540 L/kg (aspartame). Significant removal of aspartame (68.2%) and saccharin (90.3%) was found in WWTPs; however, sucralose and acesulfame were less efficiently removed (sucralose, saccharin, and acesulfame in the WWTP that served a smaller population (∼15,000) was 1.3-1.5 times lower than that in another WWTP that served a larger population (∼100,000). The average daily loading of sucralose in both WWTPs (18.5 g/d/1000 people) was ∼2 times higher than the average loading of saccharin. The daily discharge of sucralose from the WWTPs was the highest (17.6 g/d/1000 people), followed by acesulfame (1.22 g/d/1000 people), and saccharin (1.07 g/d/1000 people). Approximately, 1180 g of saccharin and 291 g of acesulfame were transformed in or removed daily from the two WWTPs. This is the first study to describe the fate of ASWs, including the

  19. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2014-12-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

  20. Investigation of the impact of annealing on global molecular mobility in glasses: optimization for stabilization of amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Hodge, Ian M; Pikal, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of annealing on the molecular mobility in lyophilized glasses using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) techniques. A second objective that emerged was a systematic study of the unusual pre-T(g) thermal events that were observed during DSC warming scans after annealing. Aspartame lyophilized with three different excipients; sucrose, trehalose and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was studied. The aim of this work was to quantify the decrease in mobility in amorphous lyophilized aspartame formulations upon systematic postlyophilization annealing. DSC scans of aspartame:sucrose formulation (T(g) = 73 degrees C) showed the presence of a pre-T(g) endotherm which disappeared upon annealing. Aspartame:trehalose (T(g) = 112 degrees C) and aspartame:PVP (T(g) = 100 degrees C) showed a broad exotherm before T(g) and annealing caused appearance of endothermic peaks before T(g). This work also employed IMC to measure the global molecular mobility represented by structural relaxation time (tau(beta)) in both un-annealed and annealed formulations. The effect of annealing on the enthalpy relaxation of lyophilized glasses, as measured by DSC and IMC, was consistent with the behavior predicted using the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) phenomenology (Luthra et al., 2007, in press). The results show that the systems annealed at T(g) -15 degrees C to T(g) -20 degrees C have the lowest molecular mobility. PMID:18200533

  1. Advantame Sweetener Preference in C57BL/6J Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in dire...

  2. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bittern...

  3. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the stereoisomers of some sweetener peptides with a helical nickel(II) chelate in the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylak, G

    1994-05-13

    The use of a chiral mobile phase additive in the form of the helically distorted, square-planar, chiral nickel(II) chelate dl-[4,4'-(1-methyl-2-propylethane-1,2-diyldiimino)bis(pent-3 -en-2- onato)]nickel(II) was investigated for the resolution of optical isomers of dipeptide-type sweeteners, viz., aspartame, alitame and antiaspartame, and some of their decomposition products, e.g., diketopiperazines. The chiral discrimination mechanism for the solutes was elucidated. The proposed chiral RP-HPLC system was applied to the stereoselective determination of aspartame impurities in samples of its commercial dietetic and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:8032495

  4. Drug: D02381 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02381 Drug Aspartame (NF/INN) C14H18N2O5 294.1216 294.3031 D02381.gif Sweetener Same as: C11045 ... n hsa04973(80834+83756) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption ... Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] ...

  5. Taste Perception with Age: Generic or Specific Losses in Supra-threshold Intensities of Five Taste Qualities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of ageing on supra-threshold intensity perception of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dissolved in water and in `regular' product was studied in 21 young (19¿33 years) and 21 el

  6. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame) as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.   

  7. 78 FR 8101 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... additives of the GSFA. (CX/FA 13/45/8). Proposed draft food additive provisions for aspartame- acesulfame... Codex Committee on Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives (CCFA) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission...

  8. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young sub

  9. Toxicological evaluation of a number of sweeteners and modified polydextroses

    OpenAIRE

    Esch, van, Joep; G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Toxicologische evaluaties zijn gemaakt van een negental stoffen, die als zoetstof in de voeding worden gebruikt. Het betreft: Aspartame, Acesulfam-K, Gemodificeerd Polydextrose, Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol, Lycasin 80/55, Mannitol, Maltitol. Als resultaat wordt in dit rapport een acceptable daily intake (ADI) voorgesteld, die gebruikt kan worden t.b.v. het beleid in het kader van de Warenwet.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of a number of sweeteners and modified polydextroses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch; G.J.van

    1984-01-01

    Toxicologische evaluaties zijn gemaakt van een negental stoffen, die als zoetstof in de voeding worden gebruikt. Het betreft: Aspartame, Acesulfam-K, Gemodificeerd Polydextrose, Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol, Lycasin 80/55, Mannitol, Maltitol. Als resultaat wordt in dit rapport een acceptable dail

  11. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  12. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  13. The influence of fat co-administration on the glucose memory facilitation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2004-02-01

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced when learning is preceded by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution. The present study examined whether memory performance is also enhanced when glucose is administered in conjunction with another food constituent, in particular fat. Four groups of healthy young participants were tested under one of four conditions: (a) glucose + full-fat yoghurt; (b) glucose + fat-free yoghurt; (c) aspartame + full-fat yoghurt; (d) aspartame + fat-free yoghurt. The groups were compared on measures of blood glucose and cognitive performance. Participants receiving a glucose drink in conjunction with a fat-free yoghurt displayed higher blood glucose levels (BGL) and better performance on short- and long-delay recall of the word list compared with (a) individuals who consumed the glucose drink in conjunction with a full-fat yoghurt and (b) individuals who consumed the aspartame drink. The glycaemic data indicated that the presence of fat slows down glucose absorption. The findings suggest that only foods with a relatively fast glucose absorption rate are able to significantly enhance the encoding and long-term retention of novel memory materials in healthy young adults. PMID:15085555

  14. Determinations in the Production of Baijiu(Liquor)(XXⅢ):Baijiu(Liquor) Safety Detection(ContinueⅡ)%白酒生产检验(二十三):白酒食品安全检测(续二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大和; 王超凯; 李国红; 彭奎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the detection methods of Baijiu(liquor) safety indicators such as acesulfame potassium, aspartame, and phthalate were introduced.(Trans. by YUE Yang)%介绍白酒食品安全指标中安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、邻苯二甲酸酯(塑化剂)的检测方法.

  15. [The use of low-calorie sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research. PMID:23894781

  16. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML. PMID:26406785

  17. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  18. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  19. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  20. The use of modified divinylbenzene-polystyrene resins in the separation of fermentation products. A case study utilizing amino acids and a dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, J L; Addo-Yobo, F; Kenney, C N; Aracil, J; Martínez, M

    1992-01-01

    The adsorption of phenylalanine, aspartic acid, asparagine and aspartame from phosphate-buffered aqueous solutions with modified divinyl-benzene-polystyrene resins has been investigated using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH studied was 2.8, the temperature range was 293-313 K and the ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 mol dm-3. Over the range of variables investigated, the adsorption isotherms are linear and may be characterized by temperature and pH-dependent apparent adsorption equilibrium constants, characteristic of the resin-adsorbate system. By studying the dependence on temperature of this adsorption constant, heats of adsorption and entropy of adsorption have been estimated. In terms of the heat liberated on adsorption, the amino acids and a dipeptide can be ranked thus: aspartame > phenylalanine > aspartic acid > asparagine. PMID:1368901

  1. Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages and special nutritional products using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Maja; Knežević, Zorka

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods used for the separation and determination of artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulphame K, sodium saccharin, and sodium cyclamate in beverages and special nutritional products (special food intended for specific population groups). All four compounds are soluble in aqueous solutions and can easily be separated and determined by HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD). The first method involved separation of aspartame, acesulphame K, and sodium saccharin on a C18 column with an isocratic elution of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The second method was used to separate sodium cyclamate on a C18 column with methanol and water as mobile phase. Under optimum conditions, both methods showed good analytical performance, such as linearity, precision, and recovery. The methods were successfully applied for the analysis of real samples of soft drinks and special nutritional products. PMID:21705305

  2. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, U.; Fagt, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    . The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable...... daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds...

  3. Pesquisa de adocantes não calóricos sintéticos em adoçante natural de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela T. Auricchio

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 19 amostras de "Adoçantes Natu rais de Stevia", tendo por objetivo verificar-se a presença de outros adoçantes nao calóricos sintéticos que não são declarados no rótulo do produto. Constatou-se que em 18 amostras,além de componentes do extrato de Stevia reubadiana (Bert. Bertoni, a sacarina estava presente e que só uma delas declarava tal fato no rótulo. Em três dessas amostras foi encontrado tanbém aspartame e em uma, ciclamato. Fimalmente, em uma amostra não foi encontrado nenhum componente do extrato de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni, mas sim uma mistuna de manitol e aspartame.

  4. Endogenous formaldehyde turnover in humans compared with exogenous contribution from food sources

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    The FEEDAP Panel received a request to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of formaldehyde used in feed for all animal species based on dossiers submitted by applicants. In parallel, the ANS Panel evaluated the safety of formaldehyde formed from endogenous production and from dietary sources of methanol, including aspartame. In order to support both evaluations, assistance was requested to the SCER unit to evaluate the oral internal dose of formaldehyde in humans from endo...

  5. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Belza, A; Holst, J J;

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD versus...... semi-skimmed milk) and two non-energy-containing beverages (aspartame-sweetened soft drink (ASSD) and water) on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake (EI)....

  6. Introduction to Peptide Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Stawikowski, Maciej; Fields, Gregg B.

    2002-01-01

    A number of synthetic peptides are significant commercial or pharmaceutical products, ranging from the dipeptide sugar-substitute aspartame to clinically used hormones, such as oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. This unit provides an overview of the field of synthetic peptides and proteins. It discusses selecting the solid support and common coupling reagents. Additional information is provided regarding common side reactions and synthesizing modified residues.

  7. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  8. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto; Hill, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucos...

  9. Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction with a buffer...

  10. Modified Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by Artificial Sweetener Causes Severe Premature Cellular Senescence and Atherosclerosis with Impairment of Functional and Structural Properties of apoA-I in Lipid-Free and Lipid-Bound State

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Wookju; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which have atheroprotective effects. Long-term treatment of apoA-I...

  11. The intake of intense sweeteners ? an update review

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Andrew Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author?s previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant ADI values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available...

  12. Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wenjau; Wang, Yun-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these fou...

  13. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  14. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Sharma; Amarnath, S.; Thulasimani, M.; RAMASWAMY, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United State...

  15. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. ...

  16. Splenda - A Safe and Sweet Alternative to Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Sham, Caroline W.

    2005-01-01

    The new noncaloric sweetener Splenda has recently gained incredible popularity. Splenda’s sweetness comes from the compound sucralose, a tri-chlorinated version of sucrose that is about 600 times sweeter. Sucralose has many advantages over older noncaloric sweeteners, such as saccharin, cyclamate, and aspartame. It has a taste profile very similar to sugar, and its stability at high temperatures allows for its use in industrial food processing and home baking. In spite of numerous experiments...

  17. Evaluation of Brazilian light ketchups II: quantitative descriptive and physicochemical analysis Avaliação de catchups light do mercado brasileiro II: análise descritiva quantitativa e avaliação físico-química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Maziero de Campos Bannwart

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of ketchup available on the Brazilian market, one traditional (sweetened with sucrose and three light versions (sweetened with aspartame, acesulfame-K and a blend of cyclamate, saccharin and stevia were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Four main groups of attributes were generated: appearance, oral texture, aroma and flavor. The samples presented significant differences in all attributes, except for syneresis and overripe tomato flavor. The highest means for sweetener and bitter tastes and aftertastes were observed for the samples sweetened with acesulfame-K and the blend of sweeteners. Although different characteristics were observed among the products evaluated and, despite the differences in the formulations, the light ketchup sweetened with aspartame was the one that presented properties most similar to those of the traditional ketchup.Amostras de catchup disponíveis no mercado brasileiro, uma tradicional (adoçada com sacarose e três light (adoçadas com aspartame, acessulfame-K e uma combinação de ciclamato, sacarina e estévia foram avaliadas quanto às características físico-químicas e ao perfil sensorial (Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Quatro grandes grupos de atributos foram gerados: aparência, textura bucal, aroma e sabor. As amostras apresentaram diferença significativa em todos os atributos, exceto sinerese e tomate passado. As maiores médias para os atributos relacionados a sabor e sabor residual amargo e de adoçante foram obtidas para as amostras adoçadas com acessulfame-K e com a combinação de edulcorantes. Apesar das diferentes características observadas entre os produtos avaliados e das diferenças entre as formulações, o catchup light adoçado com aspartame foi o que apresentou propriedades mais próximas ao produto tradicional.

  18. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-...

  19. Evaluation of Brazilian light ketchups II: quantitative descriptive and physicochemical analysis Avaliação de catchups light do mercado brasileiro II: análise descritiva quantitativa e avaliação físico-química

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Cristina Maziero de Campos Bannwart; Helena Maria André Bolini; Maria Cecília de Figueiredo Toledo; Ana Paula Contel Kohn; Gisele Cristina Cantanhede

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ketchup available on the Brazilian market, one traditional (sweetened with sucrose) and three light versions (sweetened with aspartame, acesulfame-K and a blend of cyclamate, saccharin and stevia) were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis). Four main groups of attributes were generated: appearance, oral texture, aroma and flavor. The samples presented significant differences in all attributes, except for syneresi...

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2011-01-01

    The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners ...

  1. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chui-Shiang Chang; Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), glycyrrhizic acid (GA), neotame (NEO), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), sucralose (SCL), and stevioside (STV)] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–M...

  2. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additio...

  3. Non-nutritive sweeteners are not super-normal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Antenucci, Rachel G.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ‘sweeter than sugar’, with the implicit implication high potency sweeteners are super-normal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive (Sucrose, Maple Syrup, and Agave Nectar) and NNS (Acesulfame-K (AceK), Rebaudioside A (RebA), Aspartame, and Sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysic...

  4. Analysis of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi by HPLC and HPTLC plates

    OpenAIRE

    George, V; Arora, S; Wadhwa, B. K.; A. K. Singh

    2010-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of multiple sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame-K and saccharin) and their degradation products (diketopiperazine, Lphenylalanine, acetoacetamide and 2-sulfobenzoic acid) from lassi. Analytical conditions for HPLC were standardized over C18 column using UV detector for the simultaneous separation and estimation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi sample isolates. A simple cartridge...

  5. Untersuchungen von Einschlusskomplexen aus Cyclodextrinen mit Aminosäuren und Dipeptiden

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Die Cyclodextrin-modifizierte Kapillarelektrophorese (CE) ist eine wichtige chirale analytische Technik geworden, die zur HPLC und zur Gaschromatographie komplementär ist und sich deshalb für die Analyse der Abbauprodukte von Aspartam gut eignet. Ausgehend von diesen Abbauprodukten wurden im Arbeitskreis Scriba an der Universität Jena systematische Studien über die Trennung von Enantiomeren verschiedener Dipeptide mit einer Vielzahl von nativen und derivatisierten Cyclodextrinen bei verschied...

  6. Influencia de distintos polioles en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de mermelada de fresa.

    OpenAIRE

    BAIXAULI MARÍN, ELENA ASCENSIÓN

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The purpose of this dissertation was to assess the effect of different polyols (maltitol, isomalt, and erythritol) and intensive sweeteners (acesulfame potassium, aspartame, stevia, and sucralose) on physico-chemical and sensorial properties of strawberry jam. Five different formulations were developed and their compositional properties (Brix degrees, humidity, pH and water activity) and physico-chemical (optical and rheological) were evaluated during 6 months of storage a...

  7. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples wit...

  8. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Renuka; Parikh R; Gohel M; Soniwala M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were eva...

  9. Naturvidenskab - fra forskning til nyhed

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jeannie Bøg; Corfixen, Natasja Lykke; List, Karoline Cecilie Knudsen; Thevapalan, Thenuga; Thorsted, Phillip Alexander; Kløvgaard, Ida; Hansen, Kasper Alexander Brauner; Rosenlund, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is essential for a number of medical conditions and this area is currently undergoing a lot of research. In a publication in the journal Nature, Suez et al. (2014), describes the impact of the non-caloric artificial sweeteners saccharin, sucralose and aspartame on the blood glucose, the impact of saccharin on the gut microbiota and the adverse effects associated with the metabolic diseases, obesity and Diabetes mellitus. Products containing artificial swe...

  10. Placebo expectancy effects in the relationship between glucose and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W; Taylor, M A; Elliman, N A; Rhodes, O

    2001-08-01

    The present study investigated the extent of expectancy in the ability of glucose to affect cognitive performance. Using a within-subjects design, subjects (n 26) completed four experimental sessions (in counterbalanced order and after an initial practice session) during which they were given a 500 ml drink 30 min prior to completing a cognitive assessment battery. In addition, all subjects completed a baseline practice session during which they were given no drink. During two of the sessions, subjects were given a drink containing 50 g glucose and on the other two they were given a drink containing aspartame. A balanced placebo design was used, such that for half the sessions subjects were accurately informed as to the content of the drink (glucose or aspartame), whereas in the other two sessions they were misinformed as to the content of the drink. The task battery comprised a 6 min visual analogue of the Bakan vigilance task, an immediate verbal free-recall task, an immediate verbal recognition memory task and a measure of motor speed (two-finger tapping). Blood glucose and self-reported mood were also recorded at several time points during each session. Glucose administration was found to improve recognition memory times, in direct contrast to previous findings in the literature. Glucose administration also improved performance on the Bakan task (relative to the control drink), but only in sessions where subjects were informed that they would receive glucose and not when they were told that they would receive aspartame. There were no effects either of the nature of the drink or expectancy on the other measures. These results are interpreted in terms of there being some contribution of expectancy concerning the positive effects of glucose on cognition in studies which have not used an equi-sweet dose of aspartame as a control drink. PMID:11502230

  11. The Effect of Oral Carbohydrate Solutions on the Performance of Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Laleh Afshari; Shooka Mohammadi; Saeid Shakerian; Reza Amani

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that carbohydrate solutions can improve the performance in prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of sugar and glucose solutions on exercise performance of swimmers. Twelve male teenager elite Iranian swimmers aged 12-17 years from Waterpolo Team of Ahvaz Oil Industry participated in a double-blind cross-over trial. They consumed three oral 6% purified carbohydrate solutions as glucose, sugar or placebo (aspartame) formulas in three non-cons...

  12. Endogenous formaldehyde turnover in humans compared with exogenous contribution from food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The FEEDAP Panel received a request to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of formaldehyde used in feed for all animal species based on dossiers submitted by applicants. In parallel, the ANS Panel evaluated the safety of formaldehyde formed from endogenous production and from dietary sources of methanol, including aspartame. In order to support both evaluations, assistance was requested to the SCER unit to evaluate the oral internal dose of formaldehyde in humans from endogenous production, food-derived from target animals exposed to formaldehyde-treated feed and formaldehyde generated from dietary sources of methanol, including from food additives such as aspartame. Endogenous turnover of formaldehyde was estimated to be approximately 0.61-0.91 mg/kg bw per minute and 878-1310 mg/kg bw per day assuming a half life of 1 1.5 min. Compared with formaldehyde turnover and the background levels of formaldehyde from food sources (1.7-1.4 mg/kg b. w per day for a 60-70 kg person, including from dietary methanol, the relative contribution of exogenous formaldehyde from consumption of animal products (milk, meat from target animals exposed to formaldehyde-treated feed was negligible (<0.001 %. Oral exposure to formaldehyde from aspartame involves metabolism to methanol and further oxidation to formaldehyde. At the current ADI of 40 mg/kg bw per day for aspartame, formaldehyde would be approximately 4 mg/kg bw per day and represent only 0.3-0.4 % of the endogenous turnover of formaldehyde.

  13. Development of new peptide synthetic method of enzyme using the extraction reactivity; Chushutsu hanno wo mochiita shiki pepuchido koso goseiho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Makoto [Oita University, Oita (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    Recently, taste and bioactivation of large number of oligopeptide become clear, and the development of the efficient synthetic method becomes the urgency. In the production process by conventional enzyme reaction which combined the crystallization, because the solubility of the product to the water which is reaction solvent is low, the yield remained at about 60%, and the problem of reaction inhibition of the product by the crystal had also been indicated. In the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame in which he is the representative oligopeptide, it aimed at the establishment of the new synthesis method which can improve yield and reaction rate, while the segregation enzyme was continuously utilized. In this synthetic method, supply of organic solvent which dissolved the substrate, extraction of the substrate from organic solvent to water phase, synthesis reaction by the segregation enzyme in water phase, extraction of the aspartame which is a product from water phase to organic solvent progress, and they continuously progress by one complete mixing reactor. The process which controlled these speeds and yields was quantitatively analyzed, and material balance style considering substrate, enzyme and mass transfer of the product and enzyme reaction speed was deduced. The optimum operating condition for improving yield and productivity of the purpose product using this solution was examined, and optimum supply concentration and agitation speed of aspartic acid which was a substrate were started, and the optimum operating condition which realizes the improvement in high yield and productivity over 90% of the aspartame was clarified. Like this, it is that this research adopts features of liquid Citrus nobilis two-phase partition for the enzyme synthesis of the aspartame, and it is considered that there is a value, because it is the creative research which verified that the productivity can be greatly improved by the utilization of the chemical-engineering technique, and

  14. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners. PMID:26181574

  15. Sweetener/sweetness-induced changes in flavor perception and flavor release of fruity and green character in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bonnie M; Arents, Paul; Bouter, N; Duineveld, C A A; Meyners, M; Schroff, S I; Soekhai, S T

    2006-04-01

    Green leaf volatile (GLV) mixtures, commercial orange flavors, and commercial strawberry flavors were applied to beverage bases in which concentrations of citric acid as well as a sweetener (sucrose or aspartame/acesulfame-K) were varied. Sensory profiling showed that flavor-specific fruity character increased as perceptible sweetness increased, independent of whether the sweetness resulted from sucrose (a change from 9 to 12 Brix) or aspartame/acesulfame-K (a change from 0.2 to 0.4 Brix). Sweetness was affected only by the tastants in the base and not by the flavors, although flavor-specific interactions between sweetener type and sweetener level occurred. Flavor release from the sucrose bases was compared to flavor release from bases containing aspartame/acesulfame-K by static headspace measurements and by MS-Nose measurements using an artificial throat. These measurements showed greater flavor volatility from bases having low Brix (fewer soluble solids). This negative Brix effect was also evident in the sensory data for perception of some GLV green notes. The headspace data could not support a positive Brix effect, the typical salting out, which would correspond to the observed perceptual enhancement of fruity notes. PMID:16569060

  16. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations. PMID:25560795

  17. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, N.; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mgl(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners...... was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mgkg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40...... and 2.5 mgkg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1 - 10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged...

  18. [Simultaneous determination of various aseptics and sweeteners in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ge; Jiang, Jindou; Zhang, Qiumei

    2010-03-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid, and aspartame in milk and dairy products using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The proteins in milk and dairy products were mostly eliminated by the precipitators. Three aseptics and two sweeteners were separated on a C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate under gradient elution. With a diode array detector, acesulfame, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid were detected at 230 nm and sodium saccharin and aspartame were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries were 96.0% - 103.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1.93% - 2.76%. The detection limits of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid and aspartame were 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 microg/g, respectively. This method can be used for the routine analysis of these additives in milk and dairy products. PMID:20549988

  19. Acute hyperglycemia alters von Willebrand factor but not the fibrinolytic system in elderly subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Ludovico; Coppola, Antonino; Grassia, Antonio; Mastrolorenzo, Luigia; Lettieri, Biagio; De Lucia, Domenico; De Nanzio, Annarita; Gombos, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    To assess whether acute hyperglycemia affects fibrinolytic balance in elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 40 non-obese elderly subjects (20 NGT, age 68 +/- 8 years; and 20 IGT, age 69 +/- 11 years) were studied. On two experimental days, randomly allocated and spaced 1 week apart, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in each subject at baseline (0) and 30, 60, 90, 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose or a similarly sweet dose of aspartame (250 mg) (control test). In both NGT and IGT elderly subjects, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and fibrinogen plasma levels did not significantly change after both oral aspartame and glucose load. In IGT subjects, vWF plasmatic levels decreased after glucose (not aspartame) oral load, reaching the minimum level at 90 min after load (82.7 +/- 7.8 versus 93.7 +/- 10.2, P <0.01). These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia does not modify plasma fibrinolysis in elderly subjects. The decrease of plasma concentration of vWF in IGT elderly subjects requires cautious interpretation and further extensive investigations. PMID:15613917

  20. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved. PMID:17364923

  1. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value. PMID:18484294

  2. Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

    2009-04-22

    Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

  3. Retention behaviour of some high-intensity sweeteners on different SPE sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide information about application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for isolation of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin, sucralose and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) from aqueous solutions. The influence of several types of LC-MS compatible buffers (different pH values and compositions) on their recovery has been studied and discussed. A number of commercially available SPE cartridges, such as Chromabond C18ec, Strata-X RP, Bakerbond Octadecyl, Bakerbond SDB-1, Bakerbond SPE Phenyl, Oasis HLB, LiChrolut RP-18, Supelclean LC-18, Discovery DSC-18 and Zorbax C18 were tested in order to evaluate their applicability for the isolation of analytes. Very high recoveries (better than 92%) of all studied compounds were obtained using formic acid-N,N-diisopropylethylamine buffer adjusted to pH 4.5 and C(18)-bonded silica sorbents. Behaviour of polymeric sorbents strongly depends on their structure. Strata-X RP behaves much like a C(18)-bonded silica sorbent. Recoveries obtained using Oasis HLB were comparable with those observed for silica-based sorbents. The only compound less efficiently (83%) retained by this sorbent was cyclamate. Bakerbond SDB-1 shows unusual selectivity towards aspartame and alitame. Recoveries of these two sweeteners were very low (26 and 42%, respectively). It was also found that aspartame and alitame can be selectively separated from the mixture of sweeteners using formic acid-triethylamine buffer at pH 3.5. PMID:20875571

  4. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  5. POTÊNCIA EDULCORANTE, DOÇURA EQUIVALENTE E ACEITAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES EM BEBIDA PREPARADA COM ERVA-MATE (Ilex paraguariensis ST. HIL. EM PÓ SOLÚVEL, QUANDO SERVIDA QUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Porto CARDOSO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A bebida preparada pela infusão da erva-mate torrada, mais conhecida como chá-mate, é amplamente conhecida e consumida por diferentes faixas etárias e sócio-econômicas por todo o Brasil. É habitualmente consumida quente em diferentes regiões, adoçada com sacarose ou adoçante dietético de mesa. Uma vez que a literatura cita que a potência de um edulcorante pode variar em função da temperatura, entre outros fatores, foi objetivo do presente estudo determinar a doçura equivalente e potência edulcorante de diferentes edulcorantes em relação à sacarose em chá-mate em pó solúvel, preparado e servido quente (45±2o C aplicando-se estimação de magnitude, e avaliar a aceitação da bebida quando adoçada com os mesmos edulcorantes na concentração determinada como ideal. Entre os edulcorantes estudados (aspartame, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e sucralose, a sucralose apresentou o maior poder edulcorante em chá-mate quente, sendo 679 vezes mais doce que a sacarose em doçura equivalente a 8,15%. As amostras adoçadas com sacarose, sucralose, aspartame e ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 não diferiram entre si na aceitação em relação ao sabor, enquanto a amostra adoçada com estévia obteve aceitação significativamente inferior (p 0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Infusão de erva- mate; estimação de magnitude; estévia, aspartame, sucralose.

  6. Conservación de una bebida saborizada de leche de soya parcialmente hidrolizada

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, A.; Mejías, E.; Silveira, I; Lafargue, D.

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de conservación de una bebida saborizada de leche de soya parcialmente hidrolizada. Se incluyeron bebidas de tres sabores: cocoa (CHC), sabor chocolate en polvo (CHP) y sabor café en polvo (SCP) en versiones endulzadas con azúcar o con una mezcla de aspartame y acesulfame (ASPACE). Estas se envasaron en potes de poliestireno de 100 mL con tapa. Se probó la conservación a 4 y a 10 ºC. En el primer caso se tomaron muestras a los 0, 7, 14 y 21 días y...

  7. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd+3 with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd3+ ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and AspartameTM in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  8. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

  9. Determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Wasik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    An interlaboratory trial was conducted to validate an analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis with evaporative light-scattering detection for the simultaneous determination of 9 intense sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin, and sucralose in carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and canned or bottled fruits. Seven laboratories participated in the validation study. The majority of the samples fortified with levels close to the limit of quantification had relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values sweeteners and matrixes tested. PMID:19382579

  10. Stress oxidativo e genotoxicidade em ratinhos expostos a Acessulfame K

    OpenAIRE

    Arteiro, Fátima Raquel Sousa

    2010-01-01

    O Acessulfame K é um edulcorante que foi sintetizado pela primeira vez em 1967 e é 150-200 vezes mais doce do que o açúcar. Este composto é altamente estável e encontramo-lo em muitos alimentos, incluindo pastilha elástica, sobremesas, bebidas alcoólicas, refrigerantes, xaropes, doces, molhos e iogurte. Habitualmente utilizado em combinação com o Aspartame ou outros edulcorantes porque apresenta uma acção combinada para aumentar e manter o sabor doce dos alimentos e bebidas,...

  11. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Torloni; Mary Uschiyama Nakamura; Alexandre Megale; Victor Hugo Saucedo Sanchez; Claudia Mano; Annunziata Sônia Fusaro; Rosiane Mattar

    2007-01-01

    Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C). O aspartame tem sido extensivamen...

  12. Equivalência de dulçor e poder edulcorante de edulcorantes em função da temperatura de consumo em bebidas preparadas com chá-mate em pó solúvel Equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents in differents temperatures of consumption of tea drink in soluble power

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Maria Porto Cardoso; Juliana Rosa Battochio; Helena Maria André Bolini Cardello

    2004-01-01

    No presente estudo foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de consumo na equivalência de doçura e no poder edulcorante de diferentes agentes adoçantes em bebida de chá-mate em pó solúvel. Foram avaliados: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, Stevia e acessulfame-K, tendo como referência a sacarose. Todos os estudos foram realizados a 6±2ºC e a 45±2ºC. Primeiramente foi determinada a doçura ideal, utillizando-se escala do ideal com 30 provadores consumidores da be...

  13. Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorelli, A M; Czarnowski-Hill, J V

    1990-01-01

    In response to growing consumer demand for better tasting, low-calorie, sugar-free food products, the number of food items containing nonnutritive sweeteners has grown markedly in recent years. In this paper, present sweetener consumption is reviewed; the history, properties, uses, advantages, and safety of approved sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame-K are presented, as well as those of sweeteners such as cyclamate, sucralose, and alitame that are awaiting FDA approval; the role of sweeteners in the dietary management of persons with diabetes is discussed; and counseling guidelines for safe consumption are given. PMID:2202574

  14. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Torben; Fabricius, Niels; Fagt, Sisse

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In 1999 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg/L were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg/kg bw/day for acesulfame-K, aspa...

  15. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    America’s obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed [1,2]. While people often choose “diet” or “light” products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may...

  17. Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa; Ballantyne, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether obese women can compensate for sucrose added to the diet when it is given blind, rather than gaining weight or exhibiting dysfunctional regulation of intake, in the present study, forty-one healthy obese (BMI 30–35 kg/m2) women (age 20–50 years), not currently dieting, were randomly assigned to consume sucrose (n 20) or aspartame (n 21) drinks over 4 weeks in a parallel single-blind design. Over the 4 weeks, one group consumed 4 × 250 ml sucrose drinks (total 1800 kJ/d)...

  18. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE MANGA ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E COM SACAROSE

    OpenAIRE

    D. C.U. CAVALLINI; H. M. A. BOLINI

    2009-01-01

    Um edulcorante deve apresentar características de sabor e aroma semelhantes às da sacarose. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades sensoriais do suco de manga adoçado com sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame, sucralose e estévia, a 8% de equivalência de doçura, através da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Foram avaliados doze atributos ...

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L; Anthony, G D; Lau, E P

    1976-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure is described for the analysis of the chemical sweetener L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). Using a strong cation exchange column and pressures less than 1000 psig, an analysis can be performed in less than 15 min. The technique has been applied to a wide range of food products and formulations. No interferences were found in the samples studied. Recoveries are quantitative, and the coefficients of variation for replicate analyses are less than or equal to 2.5%. PMID:965327

  20. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE EDULCORANTES EM NÉCTAR DE GOIABA

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alexandre Koguishi de BRITO; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2010-01-01

    As indústrias estão investindo cada vez mais no desenvolvimento de alimentos com baixas calorias, devido à mudança do mercado consumidor na busca por alimentos de menor aporte calórico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento sensorial de diferentes edulcorantes em néctar de goiaba: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e acessulfame-K. Pela Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ) foram escolhidos 19 termos descritores para néctar...

  1. Analysis of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi by HPLC and HPTLC plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V; Arora, S; Wadhwa, B K; Singh, A K

    2010-08-01

    A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of multiple sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame-K and saccharin) and their degradation products (diketopiperazine, Lphenylalanine, acetoacetamide and 2-sulfobenzoic acid) from lassi. Analytical conditions for HPLC were standardized over C18 column using UV detector for the simultaneous separation and estimation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi sample isolates. A simple cartridge free method was developed for the isolation of sucralose from lassi. Method was also standardized for qualitative detection and quantitative estimation of sucralose over amino and silica gel plates of HPTLC. PMID:23572661

  2. 贮藏加工知识与信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文生

    2004-01-01

    @@ (1)蛋白糖(Aspartame)包括:蛋白糖APM、蛋白糖FT、蛋白糖US,均以APM为基料辅以多种食品添加剂精制而成的复方甜味剂.其中FT-100适用于白酒(100表示相当于蔗糖甜度的100倍),参考使用量为万分之三到万分之四.

  3. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    1998-10-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  4. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS CONTAINING NON- SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various formulations of Loratadine Chewable tablets containing different pharmaceutical compositions with simple manufacturing procedures were developed by using different excipients. The excipients used here are Lactose, Mannitol, Ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Citric Acid, Aspartame, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D & C Yellow No 10 and Raspberry flavour. Oral chewable tablets are the most preferred among the conventional dosage forms due to its aesthetic appeal and ease of administering to children, which has entered the market. Loratadine is formulated into chewable tablets by wet granulation method using suitable excipients as mentioned earlier, which are evaluated by using simple analytical equipments. The chewable tablet was better presented using artificial sweetener Aspartame and Raspberry flavour as flavouring agent. The chewable tablets are prepared to ensure that they are easily crushed by chewing. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability; drug content and mouth feel along with in-vitro dissolution. As per monograph, the chewable tablets are not required to comply with disintegration test. Wet granulation process using Mannitol, Lactose, Micro crystalline cellulose (Avicel-CE 15, Ethyl cellulose and Sweeteners and Flavors were found to be simple and robust method to prepare chewable tablets.

  5. Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

    2009-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose. PMID:19533103

  6. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with α,β methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10-7 M to 10-2 M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p -6 M, aspartame 10-7 M and sodium saccharin 10-7 M. Acesulfame K 10-6 M increased the maximum contractile response to α,β methylene ATP by 35% (± 9.6%) (p -6 M increased the log EC5 from -2.79 (± 0.037) to -3.03 (± 0.048, p -7 M from -2.74 (± 0.03) to 2.86 (± 0.031, p +2 channels

  7. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  8. [Diet and migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leira, R; Rodríguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine. PMID:8681169

  9. The capsaicin receptor participates in artificial sweetener aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; Damak, Sami; le Coutre, Johannes

    2008-11-28

    Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and cyclamate produce at high concentrations an unpleasant after-taste that is generally attributed to bitter and metallic taste sensations. To identify receptors involved with the complex perception of the above compounds, preference tests were performed in wild-type mice and mice lacking the TRPV1 channel or the T1R3 receptor, the latter being necessary for the perception of sweet taste. The sweeteners, including cyclamate, displayed a biphasic response profile, with the T1R3 mediated component implicated in preference. At high concentrations imparting off-taste, omission of TRPV1 reduced aversion. In a heterologous expression system the Y511A point mutation in the vanilloid pocket of TRPV1 did not affect saccharin and aspartame responses but abolished cyclamate and acesulfame-K activities. The results rationalize artificial sweetener tastes and off-tastes by showing that at low concentrations, these molecules stimulate the gustatory system through the hedonically positive T1R3 pathway, and at higher concentrations, their aversion is partly mediated by TRPV1. PMID:18804451

  10. Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marko; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-07-17

    The common sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K were determined by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. In order to obtain the best compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time hydrodynamic pumping was imposed during the electrophoresis run employing a sequential injection manifold based on a syringe pump. Band broadening was avoided by using capillaries of a narrow 10 μm internal diameter. The analyses were carried out in an aqueous running buffer consisting of 150 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid and 400 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 9.1 in order to render all analytes in the fully deprotonated anionic form. The use of surface modification to eliminate or reverse the electroosmotic flow was not necessary due to the superimposed bulk flow. The use of hydrodynamic pumping allowed easy optimization, either for fast separations (80s) or low detection limits (6.5 μmol L(-1), 5.0 μmol L(-1), 4.0 μmol L(-1) and 3.8 μmol L(-1) for aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K respectively, at a separation time of 190 s). The conditions for fast separations not only led to higher limits of detection but also to a narrower dynamic range. However, the settings can be changed readily between separations if needed. The four compounds were determined successfully in food samples. PMID:23830447

  11. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in preserved fruits by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Chou, S S; Sheu, F; Shyu, Y T

    2000-08-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary method for the simultaneous determination of the sweeteners dulcin, aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K and the preservatives sorbic acid; benzoic acid; sodium dehydroacetate; and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in preserved fruits is developed. These additives are ion-paired and extracted using sonication followed by solid-phase extraction from the sample. Separation is achieved using a 57-cm fused-silica capillary with a buffer comprised of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.02 M borate-phosphate buffer (pH 8.6), and 5% acetonitrile, and the wavelength for detection is 214 nm. The average recovery rate for all sweeteners and preservatives is approximately 90% with good reproducibility, and the detection limits range from 10 to 25 microg/g. Fifty preserved fruit samples are analyzed for the content of sweeteners and preservatives. The sweeteners found in 28 samples was aspartame (0.17-11.59 g/kg) or saccharin (0.09-5.64 g/kg). Benzoic acid (0.02-1.72 g/kg) and sorbic acid (0.27-1.15 g/kg) were found as preservatives in 29 samples. PMID:10955509

  12. Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species'. PMID:20212013

  13. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  14. Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Guo, Yingying; Ye, Mingli; James, Frits S

    2005-08-26

    In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, SO4(2)-, PO4(3)- and some organic acid such as formate, acetate, benzoate, and citrate did not interfere with the determination. With this method, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. Detection limits of aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin were 0.87, 0.032, 0.019, 0.045 mg/L, respectively. Rate of recovery were between 98.23 and 105.42%, 99.48 and 103.57%, 97.96 and 103.23%, 98.46 and 102.40%, respectively. The method has successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and preserved fruits. PMID:16106861

  15. [Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Junyi; Yan, Chao

    2012-03-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) in food. The sweeteners were extracted by 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer solution. The extract of sample was cleaned up and concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Then the sweeteners were separated on a C18 column (3 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer (adjusted to pH = 3.5 with aqueous ammonia solution)-methanol (61: 39, v/v) as mobile phase, and finally detected by ELSD. The results showed that the reasonable linearity was achieved for all the analytes over the range of 30 - 1000 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.997. The recoveries for the five sweeteners ranged from 85.6% to 109.0% at three spiked concentrations with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 4.0%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 2.5 mg/L for both acesulfame-K and sucralose, 3 mg/L for saccharin sodium, 10 mg/L for sodium cyclamate, and 5 mg/L for aspartame. The method is simple, sensitive and low cost, and has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the five synthetic sweeteners in food. PMID:22715696

  16. 复合甜味剂在植物蛋白饮料中的应用研究%Compound sweetener in plant protein drinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯治平; 刘玲

    2012-01-01

    A high quality compound sweetener in plant protein drinks, made up of high intensity sweeteners (aspartame, cesulfame potassium) and sucrose, was studied by using orthogonal experiment design. The results show that the optimum direction (mass concentration) is the following, aspartame 0.0236%, cesulfame potassium 0.0129% and sucrose 0.5%. The compound sweetener has high sweetness and good taste profile resulting from the high coordinate-improving effect, and can be extensively used in beverage industry to reduce the cost.%以新型高效的高甜度甜味剂阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜与低浓度蔗糖复配,通过正交实验筛选出适用于植物蛋白饮料的高品质复合甜味剂。以甜味剂的质量百分比浓度表示的最优复合配比为:阿斯巴甜0.0236%、安赛蜜0.0129%、蔗糖0.5%,该复合甜味剂中各甜味剂间有非常好的协同增效作用,甜度高,成本低,在饮料工业生产中有较大的实用价值。

  17. Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Food Colorants and Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for simultaneous determination of two colorants (Indigotin and Brilliant Blue and two sweeteners (Acesulfame-K and Aspartame in synthetic mixtures and chewing gums without any prior separation or purification. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry (ZCDS, is based on recording the first derivative curves (for Indigotin, Brillant Blue, and Acesulfame-K and third-derivative curve (for Aspartame and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The other method, ratio derivative spectrophotometry (RDS, depends on application ratio spectra of first- and third-derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to spectral overlapping. Both colorants and sweeteners showed good linearity, with regression coefficients of 0.9992–0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.05 to 0.33 μgmL−1 and from 0.06 to 0.47 μgmL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision tests produced good RSD% values (<0.81%; recoveries ranged from 99.78% to 100.67% for all two methods. The accuracy and precision of the methods have been determined, and the methods have been validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing colorants and sweeteners. Two methods were applied for the above combination, and satisfactory results were obtained. The results obtained by applying the ZCDS method were statistically compared with those obtained by the RDS method.

  18. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  19. 无糖冰淇淋的研制%Study on the Producing of Sugar-Free Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳淑珍

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the process of sugar-free ice cream by using maltitol,acesulfame potassium,sucralose, aspartame and the other materials. The optimal formula of sweetening agents is obtained through orthogonal test. The optimal formula is: sucralose 0.003%, maltitol 8%, aspartame 0.018%, acesulfame potassium 0.007%. Application of the sweetener made ice cream recipe organization delicate, smooth and taste delicious, sweet pure mild.%以麦芽糖醇、乙酰磺胺酸钾(安赛蜜)、三氯蔗糖(蔗糖素)、天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯(阿斯巴甜)配以其他原料研制无糖冰淇淋.通过正交试验,确定添加上述四种甜味剂制成的无糖冰淇淋的最佳搭配配方为:三氯蔗糖0.003%、麦芽糖醇8%、阿斯巴甜0.018%、安赛蜜0.007%.应用该甜味剂配方制作的无糖冰淇淋组织细腻幼滑,滋味协调,甜味纯正温和.

  20. Correlation of annealing with chemical stability in lyophilized pharmaceutical glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Hodge, Ian M; Utz, Marcel; Pikal, Michael J

    2008-12-01

    This research constitutes a thorough study of the relationship between the chemical stability, aging state and global molecular motion on the one hand, and microscopic local mobility in multi-component systems on the other hand. The objective of the present work was to determine whether annealing a glass below T(g) affects its chemical stability and determine if the rate of chemical degradation couples with global relaxation times determined using calorimetery, and/or with T(1) and T(1rho) relaxation times measured using ssNMR. Model compounds chosen for this research were lyophilized aspartame/sucrose and aspartame/trehalose (1:10 w/w) formulations. The chemical degradation was assessed at various temperatures using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the impact of annealing on chemical stability. The rate constant for chemical degradation was estimated using stretched time kinetics. The results support the hypothesis that thermal history affects the molecular mobility required for structural relaxation and such effect is critical for chemical stability, that is, a stabilization effect upon annealing is observed. PMID:18481306

  1. Assessment of bitterness intensity and suppression effects using an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Kirsanov, D.; Frolova, Yu.; Clapham, D.; Caricofe, R.

    2009-05-01

    Quantification of bitterness intensity and effectivness of bitterness suppression of a novel active pharmacological ingredient (API) being developed by GSK was performed using an Electronic Tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. Calibration of the ET was performed with solutions of quinine hydrochloride in the concentration range 0.4-360 mgL-1. An MLR calibration model was developed for predicting bitterness intensity expressed as "equivalent quinine concentration" of a series of solutions of quinine, bittrex and the API. Additionally the effectiveness of sucralose, mixture of aspartame and acesulfame K, and grape juice in masking the bitter taste of the API was assessed using two approaches. PCA models were produced and distances between compound containing solutions and corresponding placebos were calculated. The other approach consisted in calculating "equivalent quinine concentration" using a calibration model with respect to quinine concentration. According to both methods, the most effective taste masking was produced by grape juice, followed by the mixture of aspartame and acesulfame K.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative control of carbonated cola beverages using ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pauline; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Reusch, Helmut; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-03-21

    ¹H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (400 MHz) was used in the context of food surveillance to develop a reliable analytical tool to differentiate brands of cola beverages and to quantify selected constituents of the soft drinks. The preparation of the samples required only degassing and addition of 0.1% of TSP in D₂O for locking and referencing followed by adjustment of pH to 4.5. The NMR spectra obtained can be considered as "fingerprints" and were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Clusters from colas of the same brand were observed, and significant differences between premium and discount brands were found. The quantification of caffeine, acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, benzoate, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), sulfite ammonia caramel (E 150D), and vanillin was simultaneously possible using external calibration curves and applying TSP as internal standard. Limits of detection for caffeine, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and benzoate were 1.7, 3.5, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. Hence, NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is an efficient tool for simultaneous identification of soft drinks and quantification of selected constituents. PMID:22356160

  3. [Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chao; Feng, Feng; Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Li; Chu, Xiaogang

    2010-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out on an Ultimate C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). Several parameters, including the composition and pH of the mobile phase, column temperature and the monitor ions, were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity of determination. The results demonstrated that the separation can be completed in less than 5 min by gradient elution with 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 3.8) and methanol as the mobile phase. The column temperature was kept at 45 degrees C. When the analytes were detected by ESI -MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring mode, the detection limits were 0.6, 5, 1, 0.8 and 0.2 microg/L for acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 103%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 1.2%. This method is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of low concentration of the synthetic sweeteners, which are illegally added to wines and other foods with complex matrices. PMID:21261041

  4. Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Z S; Hall, W G; Pappas, T N; Schiffman, S S

    1993-03-01

    The effects of meal sensory properties (tasty vs. bland) and nutrient composition [high-CHO (carbohydrate) vs. high-FAT] on hunger ratings, blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA), taste perception, and subsequent food intake, were studied in human subjects. Aspartame and vanilla were used to augment meal palatability, yielding four isocaloric liquid meals: bland-FAT, tasty-FAT, bland-CHO, tasty-CHO. Normal-weight, nondieting young adults consumed each of the meals for breakfast on separate days. The main finding was that tasty versions of high-FAT and high-CHO meals were more satiating than nutritionally identical bland meals, as indicated by a greater decrease in hunger ratings following the tasty meals. Changes in blood glucose and FFA were related to meal nutrient composition, but not to meal sensory properties. High-CHO meals tended to be more satiating than high-FAT meals. Consumption of each of the meals produced a similar decrease in pleasantness ratings of food-related tastes. Intake of carbohydrates was significantly higher at a self-selected lunch 5.25 h following a tasty breakfast. These findings indicate that hunger is decreased to a greater extent by meals flavored with aspartame and vanilla relative to nutritionally identical, unflavored meals. The satiety-enhancing effect of oral stimulation was found for both high-FAT and high-CHO meals. PMID:8451323

  5. Application potential for some sugar substitutes in some low energy and diabetic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A

    1997-06-01

    Preparation of acceptable low energy fiber enriched and diabetic jams, cakes and biscuits using different formulas of sucrose substitutes with the partial replacement of wheat flour with bran as a source of dietary fibre, was studied. Special care was paid to evaluate the nutritional plus keeping qualities and the potential effect of the most acceptable formulae from each food stuffs group on the blood glucose level in lean and obese diabetes mellitus patients. It was technologically possible to prepare acceptable, high nutritional diabetic and low energy apricot, guava and strawberry jams and jellies by combinations of sweeteners using xylitol (i.e. xylitol-sorbitol-aspartame and xylitol-fructose). The attainment of a suitable texture may be more difficult in xylitol and sorbitol jams, therefore 0.2 g CaCl2. 2H2O was added. Storage of these jams at 4 degrees C improved their keeping quality significantly (p aspartame in combination with fructose, sorbitol and xylitol. Consumption of such low energic and diabetic food items reduces significantly (p glucose level in lean and obese diabetics. Addition of wheat bran in bakery products not only reduced both energy value of these foods and blood glucose, but it also improved peripheral insulin activity by its system modification. PMID:9232852

  6. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24668608

  7. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  8. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  9. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were evaluated for hydration study, folding endurance and in vitro drug dissolution in the distilled water. The films containing both Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films showed neutral surface pH when prepared using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Glycerol played a critical role in imparting flexibility to the film and improving the drug release from film. The bitter taste of the drug was masked by using aspartame and menthol accompanied by the synergistic effect of Eudragit and glycerol. Water uptake by films was found to be dependant both on the amount of Eudragit EPO and glycerol. The films containing the higher proportion of glycerol showed higher water uptake and faster drug release at all the sampling time in the in vitro dissolution test. Optimum plasticity was obtained using the required concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and glycerol. The study revealed that taste masked valdecoxib films can be developed by the selection of appropriate film former and by the use of auxiliary excipients.

  10. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. PMID:25627677

  11. The effect of various substances on the suppression of the bitterness of quinine-human gustatory sensation, binding, and taste sensor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoko; Tanigake, Atsu; Miyanaga, Yohko; Ogawa, Tazuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the perceived bitterness of quinine by various substances and to examine the mechanism of bitterness suppression. The following compounds were tested for their ability to suppress bitterness: sucrose, a natural sweetener; aspartame, a noncaloric sweetener; sodium chloride (NaCl) as the electrolyte; phosphatidic acid, a commercial bitterness suppression agent; and tannic acid, a component of green tea. These substances were examined in a gustatory sensation test in human volunteers, a binding study, and using an artificial taste sensor. Sucrose, aspartame, and NaCl were effective in suppressing bitterness, although at comparatively high concentrations. An almost 80% inhibition of bitterness (calculated as concentration %) of a 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride solution required 800 mM of sucrose, 8 mM of aspartame, and 300 mM NaCl. Similar levels of bitterness inhibition by phosphatidic acid and tannic acid (81.7, 61.0%, respectively) were obtained at much lower concentrations (1.0 (w/v)% for phosphatidic acid and 0.05 (w/v)% for tannic acid). The mechanism of the bitterness-depressing effect of phosphatidic acid and tannic acid was investigated in terms of adsorption and masking at the receptor site. With phosphatidic acid, 36.1% of the bitterness-depressing effect was found to be due to adsorption, while 45.6% was due to suppression at the receptor site. In the case of 0.05 (w/v)% tannic acid, the total bitterness-masking effect was 61.0%. The contribution of the adsorption effect was about 27.5% while the residual masking effect at the receptor site was almost 33%. Further addition of tannic acid (0.15 (w/v)%), however, increased the bitterness score of quinine, which probably represents an effect of the astringency of tannic acid itself. Finally, an artificial taste sensor was used to evaluate or predict the bitterness-depressing effect. The sensor output profile was shown to reflect the

  12. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE MANGA ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E COM SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C.U. CAVALLINI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Um edulcorante deve apresentar características de sabor e aroma semelhantes às da sacarose. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades sensoriais do suco de manga adoçado com sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame, sucralose e estévia, a 8% de equivalência de doçura, através da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. Foram avaliados doze atributos (cor, aroma de manga, aroma doce, aroma ácido, sabor de manga, doçura, doçura residual, amargor, amargor residual, acidez, adstringência e corpo, utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, teste de médias de Tukey e análise de componentes principais. Não observou-se diferença significativa entre as amostras em relação à cor e o suco adoçado com sacarose apresentou média significativamente superior para o atributo corpo. As amostras com sacarose e aspartame exibiram as maiores intensidades de sabor de manga e doçura e as menores de amargor e amargor residual, quando comparadas com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina. O suco adoçado com estévia caracterizou-se por apresentar maior intensidade para doçura residual, amargor e amargor residual. De acordo com os resultados da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa o aspartame foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se assemelhou ao da sacarose em suco de manga. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Manga; edulcorantes; análise descritiva quantitativa.

  13. Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1998-05-01

    Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. First, UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello YelloTM using the spectrophotometer's software and manually by the simultaneous equations method. The following week, caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 45% methanol/55% aqueous phosphate, pH 3.0, as the mobile phase. In the third experiment, the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis using a pH 9.4 borate buffer. Students also determine the minimum detection limits for all three compounds by both LC and CE. The experiments demonstrate the analytical use and limitations of the three instruments. The reports and prelab quizzes also stress the importance of the chemistry of the three compounds, especially the relationships of acid/base behavior and polarity to the LC and CE separations.

  14. Pesquisa de adocantes não calóricos sintéticos em adoçante natural de Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela T. Auricchio; Monica A. Batistic; Vânia R. Hoppen; Isaura Y. Yamashita

    1989-01-01

    Foram analisadas 19 amostras de "Adoçantes Natu rais de Stevia", tendo por objetivo verificar-se a presença de outros adoçantes nao calóricos sintéticos que não são declarados no rótulo do produto. Constatou-se que em 18 amostras,além de componentes do extrato de Stevia reubadiana (Bert.) Bertoni, a sacarina estava presente e que só uma delas declarava tal fato no rótulo. Em três dessas amostras foi encontrado tanbém aspartame e em uma, ciclamato. Fimalmente, em uma amostra não foi encontrado...

  15. Rhodotorula glutinis-potential source of lipids, carotenoids, and enzymes for use in industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Anna M; Błażejak, Stanisław; Kurcz, Agnieszka; Gientka, Iwona; Kieliszek, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of synthesizing numerous valuable compounds with a wide industrial usage. Biomass of this yeast constitutes sources of microbiological oils, and the whole pool of fatty acids is dominated by oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. Due to its composition, the lipids may be useful as a source for the production of the so-called third-generation biodiesel. These yeasts are also capable of synthesizing carotenoids such as β-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin. Due to their health-promoting characteristics, carotenoids are commonly used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They are also used as additives in fodders for livestock, fish, and crustaceans. A significant characteristic of R. glutinis is its capability to produce numerous enzymes, in particular, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). This enzyme is used in the food industry in the production of L-phenylalanine that constitutes the substrate for the synthesis of aspartame-a sweetener commonly used in the food industry. PMID:27209039

  16. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  17. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2012-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food (......: acesulfame K, aspartame, cyclamates, neotame, saccharin, steviol glycosides and sucralose.......Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food...... intake (ADI) for humans. The ADI is the amount of the food additive, expressed on a milligram per kilogram of body weight (bw) basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without any appreciable health risk. The following low-calorie sweeteners have been allocated an ADI by either the SCF or EFSA...

  18. Detection of food additives by voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Kam, Victor; Berduque, Alfonso; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2008-06-25

    Electrochemistry at the liquid-liquid interface enables the detection of nonredoxactive species with electroanalytical techniques. In this work, the electrochemical behavior of two food additives, aspartame and acesulfame K, was investigated. Both ions were found to undergo ion-transfer voltammetry at the liquid-liquid interface. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for the preparation of calibration curves over the concentration range of 30-350 microM with a detection limit of 30 microM. The standard addition method was applied to the determination of their concentrations in food and beverage samples such as sweeteners and sugar-free beverages. Selective electrochemically modulated liquid-liquid extraction of these species in both laboratory solutions and in beverage samples was also demonstrated. These results indicate the suitability of liquid-liquid electrochemistry as an analytical approach in food analysis. PMID:18512937

  19. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  20. [Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo

    2010-11-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food. PMID:21381416

  1. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  2. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  3. Noncariogenic intense natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A D; Kaneda, N; Baek, N I; Kennelly, E J; Soejarto, D D

    1998-09-01

    There is a definite relationship between the dietary consumption of sucrose and the incidence of dental caries. Noncaloric sucrose substitutes for use in the sweetening of foods, beverages, and medicines may be either synthetic compounds or natural products. In the United States, four potently sweet artificial sweeteners are approved, namely, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Highly sweet plant constituents are used in Japan and some other countries, including the diterpene glycoside stevioside and the protein thaumatin. Recent progress in a research project oriented towards the discovery and evaluation of novel potentially noncariogenic sweeteners from plants has focused on substances in the sesquiterpenoid, diterpenoid, triterpenoid, steroidal saponin, and proanthocyanidin structural classes. The feasibility of using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and behavioral assays to monitor the sweetness of plant extracts, chromatographic fractions, and pure isolates has been investigated. An in vivo cariogenicity study on the commercially available natural sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A has been carried out. PMID:9735874

  4. O uso de adoçantes na gravidez: uma análise dos produtos disponíveis no Brasil The use of sweeteners in pregnancy: an analysis of products available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os adoçantes são freqüentemente utilizados por mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Esta é uma revisão narrativa da literatura a respeito dos adoçantes atualmente comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Existem poucas informações sobre o uso da sacarina e ciclamato na gestação, e seus efeitos sobre o feto. Devido às limitadas informações disponíveis e ao seu potencial carcinogênico em animais, a sacarina e o ciclamato devem ser evitados durante a gestação (risco C. O aspartame tem sido extensivamente estudado em animais, sendo considerado seguro para uso na gestação (risco B, exceto para mulheres homozigóticas para fenilcetonúria (risco C. A sucralose e o acessulfame-K não são tóxicos, carcinogênico ou mutagênicos em animais, mas não existem estudos controlados em humanos. Porém, como esses dois adoçantes não são metabolizados, parece improvável que seu uso durante a gestação possa ser prejudicial (risco B. A estévia, substância derivada de uma planta nativa brasileira, não produz efeitos adversos sobre a gestação em animais, porém não existem estudos em humanos (risco B. Os agentes de corpo usados na formulação dos adoçantes (manitol, sorbitol, xilitol, eritrol, lactilol, isomalte, maltilol, lactose, frutose, maltodextrina, dextrina e açúcar invertido são substâncias consideradas seguras para o consumo humano. Concluindo, segundo as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o aspartame, a sucralose, o acessulfame e a estévia podem ser utilizados com segurança durante a gestação.Sweeteners are frequently used by women of reproductive age. This is a narrative review about the sweeteners currently sold in the Brazilian commerce. There is a few information on the use of saccharin and cyclamates in pregnancy and their effects on the fetus. Due to the limited information available and their carcinogenic potential in animal species, saccharin and cyclamates should be avoided during pregnancy (risk C. Aspartame

  5. Study on the Synthesis Methods and Metabolic Pathway of Neotame%纽甜的合成方法及代谢途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关凌霄; 陈姣姣

    2012-01-01

    Neotame,a derivative of aspartame,is a new nonnutritive and high-potency sweetener.It is the sweetest sweeteners in the world so far.This paper mainly introduced research progress of the synthesis methods and metabolic pathway of neotame,which is a high-intensitive sweetener,especially reviewed about the present methods synthesis for neotame.%纽甜属于二肽类强力甜味剂,是阿斯巴甜的衍生物,它是迄今为止世界上最甜的合成甜味剂。主要介绍了新一代强力甜味剂——纽甜的合成方法、代谢途径的研究进展,重点综述了目前所采用的纽甜的合成方法。

  6. Effects of glucose administration on category exclusion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has produced discrepant findings as to whether glucose administration effects lead to enhanced recollection or arise only under dual-task conditions. The aim of the present research was to address these issues by firstly employing an alternative cognitively demanding paradigm that has been linked to hippocampal function, i.e. the Process Dissociation Procedure (PDP). A second aim was to use this paradigm to explore whether glucose affects qualitative aspects of memory function. To achieve these aims, the PDP task was administered to participants who had either consumed a glucose (25 g) or aspartame-sweetened control drink. Results demonstrated glucose facilitation effects only under difficult task conditions and with no such effect emerging for the process of recollection. The present results support the contention that the beneficial effects of glucose arise under hippocampally driven, cognitively demanding task conditions, and that this effect enhances quantitative but not qualitative aspects of recognition memory. PMID:25693890

  7. Chocolate Milk with Chia Oil: Ideal Sweetness, Sweeteners Equivalence, and Dynamic Sensory Evaluation Using a Time-Intensity Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Paixão, J A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2015-12-01

    The ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of the stevia, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame in chocolate milk with chia oil as well as the dynamic behavior of certain sensory attributes were investigated using a time-intensity methodology. The use of just-about-right (JAR) identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 9% (w/w). In addition, the magnitude estimation method showed that stevia had the lowest sweetness power whereas neotame presented the highest. Furthermore, the time-intensity analysis indicated that there was no significant change between the maximum intensities of the sweetness for any evaluated sweeteners. In general, the desired sensory profile and some economic considerations are decisive on the choice of which sweetener is better to be used in chocolate milk formulation added with chia oil. PMID:26523944

  8. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain. PMID:26900907

  9. One-step Real-time Food Quality Analysis by Simultaneous DSC-FTIR Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses an analytical technique that combines differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy, which simulates the accelerated stability test and detects decomposition products simultaneously in real time. We show that the DSC-FTIR technique is a fast, simple and powerful analytical tool with applications in food sciences. This technique has been applied successfully to the simultaneous investigation of: encapsulated squid oil stability; the dehydration and intramolecular condensation of sweetener (aspartame); the dehydration, rehydration and solidification of trehalose; and online monitoring of the Maillard reaction for glucose (Glc)/asparagine (Asn) in the solid state. This technique delivers rapid and appropriate interpretations with food science applications. PMID:24762327

  10. Biocatalytic Pathway Selection in Transient Tripeptide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Charalampos G; Sasselli, Ivan R; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-07-01

    Structural adaption in living systems is achieved by competing catalytic pathways that drive assembly and disassembly of molecular components under the influence of chemical fuels. We report on a simple mimic of such a system that displays transient, sequence-dependent formation of supramolecular nanostructures based on biocatalytic formation and hydrolysis of self-assembling tripeptides. The systems are catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin and driven by hydrolysis of dipeptide aspartyl-phenylalanine-methyl ester (the sweetener aspartame, DF-OMe). We observed switch-like pathway selection, with the kinetics and consequent lifetime of transient nanostructures controlled by the peptide sequence. In direct competition, kinetic (rather than thermodynamic) component selection is observed. PMID:26014441

  11. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  12. Avaliação sensorial de bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes Sensory evaluation of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente procura por bebidas à base de frutas tropicais e à expansão do segmento de produtos com valores calóricos reduzidos, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o grau de doçura, sabor, impressão global e a intenção de compra das bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com diferentes agentes adoçantes através de frequência de notas, teste de médias e Mapa de Preferência Interno (MPI. Utilizaram-se polpa de goiaba, água potável e diferentes agentes adoçantes (sacarose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina, aspartame, acesulfame-K, estévia e mistura sacarina/ciclamato sódico/acesulfame-K. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada com 100 provadores não treinados em teste laboratorial através do delineamento de blocos completos balanceados. Objetivando a avaliação das respostas individuais de cada provador, as respostas sensoriais foram avaliadas pela metodologia do MPI, empregando-se a técnica de Análise de Componentes Principais. As bebidas de goiaba adoçadas com sacarose e aspartame apresentaram avaliação sensorial semelhante por parte dos consumidores, apresentando os maiores valores médios no teste de aceitação, enquanto as adoçadas com estévia, com a mistura de três agentes adoçantes e a mistura ciclamato/sacarina apresentaram os valores mais baixos na avaliação sensorial. A utilização do MPI confirmou os resultados obtidos através de frequência de notas e teste de médias.Due to a constant search for tropical fruit drinks and calorie reduced products, this work aimed to evaluate the degree of sweetness, flavor, overall global impression, and purchase intention of guava drinks sweetened with different sweetening agents through the response rank frequency and average test, and internal preference mapping (IPM. Guava pulp, drinking water, and sweetening agents (sucrose, mixture cyclamate/saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame K, stevia and mixture saccharine/sodium cyclamate/acesulfame K were used. The sensory evaluation was

  13. Novel synthetic methods for Neotame and 3,3 -dimethyl butyraldehyde%纽甜及其中间体3,3-二甲基丁醛的新合成方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金山; 袁赛勇; 颜士飞

    2009-01-01

    采用负载金属氧化物催化剂多相催化合成3,3-二甲基丁醛,在Pd/C催化下与阿斯巴甜加氢反应生产纽甜.该方法合成3,3-二甲基丁醛工艺简单、后处理简便、环境污染小,合成纽甜产物纯度高.%Afforded metal oxides were used as catalysts to synthesize 3,3 - dimethyl butyraldehyde, followed re- acted it with aspartame to yield neotame. The process of chemical synthesis and late treatment of 3,3 - dimethyl bu- tyraldehyde were simple, the environment pollution was less. The high purity neotame product was gained.

  14. NMDA受体及其亚基NR2与糖尿病认知功能障碍发病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏; 黄永杰; 王芳; 邹英鹰

    2013-01-01

    糖尿病认知功能障碍(cognitive impairment in diabetes,CID)是糖尿病的慢性并发症之一,其发病机制目前尚未完全清楚.近年来随着人们对CID研究的深入,发现在糖尿病整个时期,N一甲基一D一天冬氨酸受体(N—methyl—D—aspartame receptor,NMDAR)及其亚基NR2A与NR2B的变化与CID的发病机制有着密切的联系,现就此作一综述,为以后进一步研究CID打下基础.

  15. 国内外甜味剂的应用和发展趋势%The Application and The Development Trend of High Potency Sweeteners in The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日尤

    2003-01-01

    近三十年甜味剂市场的发展表明,甜味剂市场商机无限,并将持续发展.本文论述了国内外甜味剂市场近期的发展状况和高倍甜味剂改进口味的技术;简述了在部分国家许合法使用的新型甜味剂如三氯蔗糖(sucralose)、阿力甜(又称天胺甜精alitame)和纽甜(neotame,第二代二肽甜味剂)等的主要特性;提供了新型复配甜味剂安赛蜜(acsulfame)的阿斯巴甜(aspartame)盐(双甜Twinsweet)的相关市场信息.

  16. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of several Quality Criteria of Low Calorie Pumpkin Dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ece TAMER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to decrease the sugar concentration of the pumpkin dessert which is a Turkish traditional food using artificial sweeteners. Therefore, its energy content was reduced. As a result it was expected that this product can be consumed by diabetics and overweight people who do not prefer high calorie products. The design included constraints to permit sweetener addition according to the limits of Turkish food legislation. Physical and chemical properties of pumpkin desserts and the effects of sweeteners on sensory properties were investigated. According to the physical, chemical and sensory analyses it can be seen, by using aspartame and acesulfame K additives, low calorie pumpkin dessert could be produced.

  18. 3-(4-甲氧基苯甲酰基)丙酸钠的甜味抑制效果评价%Inhibition effect of sodium 3-(4-methoxybenzoyl) propanoic on sweetness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁璐; 郑建仙

    2013-01-01

    采用感官评定法研究了3-(4-甲氧基苯甲酰基)丙酸钠(SMP)对甜味、苦味、酸味、咸味、鲜味这5种基本味觉的影响,并评定了SMP对蔗糖、果糖、阿斯巴甜、糖精钠、葡萄糖等甜味化合物的甜味抑制效果.结果表明,SMP是一种有效的甜味抑制剂,当添加0.5mg/mL时能对蔗糖的甜味产生明显的抑制效果,但它不影响其他的几种基本口味.对5种常用的甜味化合物能起到明显的抑制效果,在添加量相同时甜味抑制效果的强弱为阿斯巴甜>葡萄糖>果糖>糖精钠>蔗糖.%Sodium 3-(4-methoxybenzoyl) propanoic (SMP)'s effects on inhibiting sweetness,bitterness,sour,salty and umami were measured by sensory assessment.Anti-sweetness efficiency on sucrose,fructose,aspartame,Na-saccharin and glucose were studied.The results showed that the SMP was a potential sweetness inhibitor; the sweetness intensity was significantly reduced with 0.5mg/mL SMP,while other 4 tastes were not affected.With the same amount of SMP,the order of the inhibition on sweetness were:aspartame > glucose > fructose > Na-saccharin >sucrose.

  19. Synthesis of High Potency Sweetener N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-aspartyl-L-henylalaninel-methylester%超高倍甜味剂N-[3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯基)丙基]-阿斯巴甜的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美红; 郑建仙

    2009-01-01

    The development of high potency sweetener changes rapidly, sweetener with safety, low cost, high de-gree of sweetness and top properties is the trend in food industry. On the basis of sweet mechanism, by the reaction of aspartame and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylpropylaldehyde under the catalysis Pd/C, a new sweetener N-[3-(3-hy-droxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-aspartyl-L-henylalaninel-methylester is synthesized. Because of hydrophobic group added on aspartame derivative, the sweetness is 23 000 times higher than that of cane sugar. Furthermore, the method is simple and available with high yield. The paper summarizes the synthesis method of the important intermediate, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylpropylaldehyde, with 49.8% yield, which makes the high potency sweetener possible.%开发安全,低成本,高甜度,性质稳定的甜味剂是食品工业的发展方向.文中从甜味机理出发,以3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯丙醛与阿斯巴甜为原料,通过钯碳催化,合成了N-[3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯基)丙基]-阿斯巴甜.其中,由于疏水基团引入,甜度显著提高,约是蔗糖的23 000倍,且合成工艺简单,产率高,为国内高倍甜味剂大型工业化提供了广阔前景.另外,文中还着重论述了重要中间体3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯丙醛制备,得率为49.8%,为开发新产品奠定了基础.

  20. Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity sweeteners have been suggested as potential organic contaminants due to their widespread use in food, drugs and sanitary products. As a consequence, they are introduced into the environment by different pathways, affecting aquatic life. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of eight sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucralose, stevioside and glycyrrhizic acid) in river water and wastewater. To get the maximum recoveries in SPE, several commercial sorbents were tested and Oasis HLB gave the best results, with recoveries higher than 41% for all of the compounds in the different matrices. Method limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.04μg/L in river water and 0.01-0.5μg/L in influent and effluent wastewater. Method reproducibility between days (n=5) was below 15% for all compounds. The method was applied to the determination of sweeteners in various river waters and wastewaters in Catalonia. Cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, acesulfame and sucralose were found in river water, with the two last compounds being present at the highest values (1.62μg/L for acesulfame and 3.57μg/L for sucralose). In influent and effluent wastewater, all of the compounds were found at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 155μg/L except for stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, which were not detected. PMID:25840659

  1. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

  2. Preparation of Solid Beverage of Effervescent Tablet from Bamboo Leaf and Barley Powder%竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娜; 游玥菲; 赵英英; 张宏康

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of solid beverage of effervescent tablet from bamboo leaf and barley powder was developed. Bamboo leaf, barley powder, Aspartame and etc. were used as raw materials. The best formula of effervescent tablets was determined through orthogonal test as follows: bamboo leaf and barley powder 19.1%, Aspartame 8.9%, citric acid 28%, sodium bicarbonate 40%, PVP 2% and PEG 6 000 2%. The effervescent tablet drinks had good taste and unique bamboo and barley flavour.%开发了一种新型竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料。以竹叶、大麦粉为主要原料,辅以蛋白糖等辅料,采用单因素试验和正交试验法优选主辅料配比。试验结果表明竹叶大麦泡腾片固体饮料的最佳配方为:竹叶大麦茶粉19.1%,蛋白糖8.9%,柠檬酸28%,碳酸氢钠40%,聚乙烯吡咯烷酮2%,聚乙二醇60002%。该泡腾片溶于水后所得饮料呈棕褐色,酸甜适口,有刹口感,稍有竹叶大麦的香气,伴有竹叶的清香。

  3. PERFIL SENSORIAL DE EDULCORANTES EM NÉCTAR DE GOIABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Koguishi de BRITO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    As indústrias estão investindo cada vez mais no desenvolvimento de alimentos com baixas calorias, devido à mudança do mercado consumidor na busca por alimentos de menor aporte calórico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento sensorial de diferentes edulcorantes em néctar de goiaba: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, estévia e acessulfame-K. Pela Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ foram escolhidos 19 termos descritores para néctar de goiaba: cor vermelho-alaranjado, brilho, opacidade, aroma de goiaba, goiabada, doce, ácido e erva, gosto doce, ácido e amargo, sabor de goiaba, goiabada e erva, doçura residual, amargor residual, adstringência, arenosidade e corpo. O comportamento das características temporais dos estímulos doce, amargo e sabor de fruta foi avaliado pelo método Tempo- Intensidade (TI e a amostra adoçada com sucralose foi o edulcorante cujo comportamento sensorial mais se aproximou ao da sacarose. Os resultados da ANOVA do teste afetivo mostraram que amostras adoçadas com sacarose, ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, aspartame e sucralose apresentaram aceitação signifi cativamente superior (p0,05. O mapa interno de preferência confi rmou os resultados da ANOVA. Os atributos mais desejáveis em néctar de goiaba foram o aroma de goiabada, sabor de goiabada e sabor de goiaba e estes contribuíram signifi cativamente (p0,05 de forma positiva na aceitabilidade pelos consumidores.

  4. UK biotechnology companies lead the way for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    A number of new well-structured biotechnology companies have been launched in Britain over the last few years, e.g. Imperial Biotechnology, IQ(Bio) and Celltech, while Wellcome and Searle (U.K.) are established firms, keeping up with the new technology. Imperial Biotechnology, with its accent on development rather than research and making products not in anyone else's catalogue, has produced a whole range of enzymes, biopolymers, antibiotics, and human proteins under contract. Its long term objective is to develop its own bioproducts. IQ(Bio) is poised to enter the diagnostic big league with its enzyme-linked immunoassay (Aelia) technology and intends to pursue opportunities where there is a strict regulatory climate prohibiting the growth of radioimmunoassays, e.g. France and Japan. It plans to produce kits that a doctor can use simply and give results in less than 30 minutes. Celltech has a culture products division which supplies large quantities of monoclonal antibodies, it has a diagnostics and health care research section, a speciality chemicals area and an industrial microbiology sector. Wellcome Biotechnology has an interferon programme which includes a broad range of chemical trials in the anticancer and antiviral areas. The company could supply the entire world market for interferon using cell culture and produces a very large range of conventional vaccines. Searle uses biotechnology as just another means of producing new drugs as they have a large drug development machine in place. A considerable amount of process development work has focused on Searle's artificial sweetener, aspartame, and they are looking at all the technical approaches to aspartame production.

  5. CARACTERIZAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE SUCO DE ABACAXI CONCENTRADO, RECONSTITUÍDO E ADOÇADO COM DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES E SACAROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. MARCELLINI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    As frutas tropicais por seu aroma e sabor característicos são apreciadas no mundo inteiro. Entre as frutas de maior destaque encontra-se o abacaxi, com qualidade sensorial diferenciada e potencial de exportação em expansão. O Brasil, quarto maior produtor mundial, exportou em 2004 uma quantidade de suco de abacaxi cerca de 5 vezes maior em comparação à 2002. Os edulcorantes são uma alternativa para adoçar sucos e alimentos. O interesse no estudo do comportamento desses compostos deve-se à preocupação com a saúde e os padrões estéticos vinculados ao baixo peso corpóreo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o Perfil Livre de suco de abacaxi industrializado, reconstituído e adoçado com sucralose, aspartame, estévia, ciclamato/sacarina e sacarose. Os dados obtidos pelo Perfil Livre foram analisados através da Análise Procrustes Generalizada. O Perfil Livre levantou 16 atributos nas amostras estudadas, porém os únicos com 100% de alta correlação no componente principal 1 foram: o gosto amargo e o gosto amargo residual. O Perfil Livre também demostrou que as amostras com a mistura ciclamato/sacarina e com estévia se caracterizaram principalmente pelos gostos amargo e amargo residual, enquanto as amostras com sucralose, aspartame e sacarose se caracterizaram pelo sabor de abacaxi, aroma de abacaxi e acidez, atributos comuns do suco "in natura".

  6. 2-(4-甲氧基苯氧基)丙酸锌的甜味抑制效果评价%Inhibition effect of zinc 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy) propanoic acid on sweetness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘露云; 郑建仙

    2012-01-01

    Zinc 2- (4 - methoxyphenoxy) propanoic acid (Zn-PMP) was synthesized by chemical method, with 2 - (4-methoxyphenoxy) propanoic acid (HPMP) and zinc carbonate. The effects on inhibition of sweetness, bitterness, sour, salty and umami were measured by sensory assessment. Anti -sweetness efficiency on sucrose, fructose , glucose, aspartame, acesulfame - K and Na - saccharin was studied. Finally, the efficiency of Zn - PMP and HPMP was compared. The results showed that Zn - PMP was a potential sweetness inhibitor; the sweetness intensity was significantly reduced with 200mg/kg Zn - PMP, while the other 4 basic tastes were not affected. Moreover, its inhibition on sucrose, glucose, fructose, aspartame, acesulfame - K was better than HPMP. and Na - saccharin. And the inhibition efficiency was nearly the same with HPMP, whereas it could reduce undesired tastes, namely, its flavor was better.%以2-(4-甲氧基苯氧基)丙酸(HPMP)和碳酸锌为原料,通过化学合成法制备了2-(4-甲氧基苯氧基)丙酸锌(Zn-PMP),再采用感官评定法研究了Zn-PMP对甜味、苦味、酸味、咸味、鲜味这5种基本口感的影响以及不同浓度Zn-PMP对蔗糖、果糖、葡萄糖、阿斯巴甜、安赛蜜、糖精钠这6种甜味剂的甜味抑制效果,最后比较了Zn-PMP和HPMP的甜味抑制效力.结果表明:Zn-PMP是一种有效的甜味抑制剂,添加200mg/kg的Zn-PMP就能够显著降低蔗糖的甜味,但它不会对其他4种基本口感造成显著影响,同时还发现它可以有效抑制蔗糖、果糖、葡萄糖、阿斯巴甜、安赛蜜、糖精钠这6种甜味剂的甜味.此外,通过Zn-PMP与HPMP的甜味抑制效果比较实验,发现Zn-PMP的甜味抑制效果与HPMP相当,但它能减少其它杂感,即口感优于HPMP.

  7. 中草药凉茶中甜味剂的液相色谱测定法%Determination of sweetening agents in Chinese medicinal herb tea by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海英; 杨毅兰; 李荔; 陈亚精

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To establish a new monitoring method for simultaneous determination of the content of 3 sweeteners contained in Chinese medicinal herb tea by applying HPLC. [Methods]The sample was diluted by mobile phase which was 20 mmoL sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate and acetonitrile; gradient elution was adopted on the sample. [Results] The 3 sweeteners (Acesul-fame-K , Saccharin Sodium , Aspartame) could be completely separated. With the linearity range within 8-200 μg/ml, the recovery rate was between 90.5% -107.4% , and RSD was under 1.81% ( n = 6). The minimum detection limits were 2. 46 × 10 -4, 2. 41 × 10 -4, 7.09 × 10 -4 respectively, while the minimum limits of quantitation were 2.46 × 10 -3, 1. 20 × 10 -3, 3. 55 × 10 -3, respectively. [ Conclusion ] This methodology can satisfy the requirements of simultaneously determining Acesulfame K, Sodium Saccharin and Aspartame in herbal tea. It is can be extended in other drugs and food inspection.%目的 建立一种应用高效液相色谱法同时测定中草药凉茶中3种甜味剂含量的监测方法.方法 样品经流动相稀释,以20 mmol/L磷酸二氢钠与乙腈为流动相,进行梯度洗脱.结果 可将3种甜味剂安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜完全分离,在8~200 μg/ml线性范围内(r均大于0.999 9),回收率在90.5% ~ 107.4%之间,RSD在1.81%以下(n=6).最低检出限分别为4.93×10-4、2.4×10-4和7.09×10-4mg/kg,最低定量限分别为2.46×10.3、1.20×10-3和3.55×10-3mg/kg.结论 该方法能满足中草药凉茶中同时测定安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜的要求,该方法可推广至药物及其他食品检验.

  8. Análise exploratória de adoçantes de mesa via espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e análise por componentes principais (ACP Exploratory analysis of commercial sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tozetto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos vinte anos, o consumo de alimentos diet e light tem aumentado sistematicamente, o que tem propiciado o constante desenvolvimento de produtos desse gênero. Grande ênfase tem sido dada àqueles produtos que substituem sacarose por edulcorantes de baixos conteúdos calóricos ou não calóricos. Seguindo esta tendência, adoçantes de mesa têm sido desenvolvidos variando-se amplamente o veículo e o tipo de edulcorante empregado. Neste trabalho, a análise de componentes principais associada à espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio foi utilizada com sucesso para diferenciar os veículos empregados na produção destes adoçantes, sendo que esta metodologia quimiométrica reduziu o espaço dimensional para dois fatores, explicando cerca de 82-% da variância total dos dados. As variáveis responsáveis por esta discriminação estão localizadas na região da impressão digital do espectro de infravermelho (752,2 a 1284,5 cm-1. A análise exploratória mostrou-se útil para a visualização destes dados, gerando informações semiquantitativas para os adoçantes constituídos por lactose/aspartame, observações que seriam dificilmente visualizadas sem o recurso quimiométrico aplicado.In the last twenty years, the consumption of diet and light foods has grown steadily, leading to the constant development of such products. Much emphasis has been placed on products that replace sucrose with sweeteners of low or zero calorie content. The development of new commercial sweeteners illustrates this tendency. In this work, principal component analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to successfully differentiate the vehicles (mediums employed in the production of sweeteners. This chemometric methodology reduced the dimensional space to two factors, accounting for 82% of the total variance of the data. The variables responsible for this discrimination were localized in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (752.2 to

  9. Production of Hygienical Oral Vinegar Egg Liquid%醋蛋保健口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎斌; 黄国平; 韩晋辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The re,arch aimed to improve the flavor of vinegar egg liquid. [ Method] With vinegar egg and honey as main materials,hygienical oral vinegar egg liquid was produced with adding Chinese medicinal herb extract. The selection of stabilizer and correctant ,the formula of the oral liquid were discussed. [ Result ] The optimal stabilizer was β-cyclodextrin and its dosage was 0. 1%. The best correctant was aspartame and its dosage was 0. 3 g/ml. By orthogonal test and sensory evaluation,the best formula of the this oral liquid was determined as: 25% enzymolysis solution of vinegar egg, 10% honey, 1% Chinese medicinal herb extract and 0. 3 g/ml aspartame. [ Conclusion ] The product improves the vinegar egg' s flavor and has abundant nutrition for the good function of health care.%[目的]改善醋蛋液口味.[方法]以醋蛋、蜂蜜为主要原料.加入中草药提取液,研制具有保健功能的醋蛋保健口服液,并对稳定剂和矫味剂的选择、口服液的配方等进行探讨.[结果]β-环糊精为最佳稳定剂,添加量为0.1%.阿斯巴甜为最佳矫味剂,添加量为0.3g/ml.通过正交试验和感官评定,确定了该保健口服液的最佳配方为:醋蛋酶解液25%、蜂蜜10%、中草药提取液1%、阿斯巴甜0.3g/ml.[结论]该产品改善了醋蛋风味,营养丰富且具有保健养生功效.

  10. HPLC Determination of 4 Artificial Edulcorators in Milk and Its Products%高效液相色谱法测定乳及乳制品中4种人工合成甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋戈; 鄂来明; 单艺

    2011-01-01

    HPLC was applied to the determination of 4 artificial edulcorators, i. e. , acesulfame, sodium saccharin, aspartame and neotame in milk and its products. The sample was added with KFe(CN)3 and Zn(OAc)2 to precipitate protein, and the edulcorator was separated by gradient elution with a mixed solution of 0.05 mol · L-1 KH2PO4 and acetonitrile in different ratios on Diamonsil-C18 column (250 mm× 4. 6 mm, 5 μm). Diode array detector was used for the determination of acesulfame at 230 nm and for sodium saccharin, aspartame and neotame at 210 nm. Values of detection limits (3S/N) of the method for the 4 edulcorators were found to be 1.0, 0. 5, 1. 5 and 2. 5 μg · g-1 respectively. Using blank sample of milk powder as matrix, recovery test was made by standard addition method, values of recovery were found in the range of 90. 0%-、103. 3% and RSD's (n=8) found were ranged from 2. 1 % to 5. 8%.%提出了高效液相色谱法测定乳及乳制品中4种人工合成甜味剂安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜含量的方法.样品加入亚铁氰化钾和乙酸锌使蛋白质沉淀析出后,以Diamonsil-C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)为固定相,0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,用二极管阵列检测器于230 nm波长处检测安赛蜜,210 nm波长处检测糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜.安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜和纽甜的方法检出限(3S/N)分别为1.0,0.5,1.5,2.5μg·g-1以空白乳粉样品为基体作加标回收试验,测得回收率在90.0%6~103.3%之间,相对标准偏差(n=8)在2.1%~5.8%之间.

  11. IMPACTO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES EDULCORANTES NA ACEITABILIDADE DE IOGURTE “LIGHT” SABOR MORANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RONIELLI CARDOSO REIS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O consumo de alimentos de baixa caloria e de adoçantes tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos. A indústria de produtos lácteos, na tentativa de atender a este público, vem introduzindo no mercado iogurtes de baixa caloria, os denominados “light”, que tem como substitutos da sacarose vários tipos de edulcorantes. Para a escolha de qual é o melhor edulcorante, ou o mais adequado são necessários vários testes uma vez que estes devem ser seguros, compatíveis com o alimento e ao mesmo tempo agradáveis ao paladar. A única forma de se avaliar a aceitação de um edulcorante é por meio de testes sensoriais afetivos. No presente estudo, diferentes formulações de iogurtes sabor morango (cinco adoçadas com edulcorantes e um contendo sacarose foram avaliadas por 101 consumidores potenciais do produto utilizando a escala hedônica de nove pontos. Os resultados foram analisados pela análise de variância (ANOVA e pelo mapa de preferência interno. Os consumidores separaram as amostras em três grupos distintos. As amostras de iogurte adoçadas com os edulcorantes aspartame (APM, aspartame/acessulfame-K (APM/ACK, sucralose (SUC e sacarose (SAC foram consideradas semelhantes, havendo maior preferência pelas amostras adoçadas com sacarose e sucralose. O mesmo foi observado pelo teste de Tukey, em que os iogurtes adoçados com a sucralose e com a sacarose apresentaram a mesma aceitação (p>0,05, sendo classifi - cados entre os termos hedônicos gostei moderadamente e gostei muito.

  12. Methanol: a chemical Trojan horse as the root of the inscrutable U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Woodrow C

    2010-03-01

    Until 200 years ago, methanol was an extremely rare component of the human diet and is still rarely consumed in contemporary hunter and gatherer cultures. With the invention of canning in the 1800s, canned and bottled fruits and vegetables, whose methanol content greatly exceeds that of their fresh counterparts, became far more prevalent. The recent dietary introduction of aspartame, an artificial sweetener 11% methanol by weight, has also greatly increased methanol consumption. Moreover, methanol is a major component of cigarette smoke, known to be a causative agent of many diseases of civilization (DOC). Conversion to formaldehyde in organs other than the liver is the principal means by which methanol may cause disease. The known sites of class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH I), the only human enzyme capable of metabolizing methanol to formaldehyde, correspond to the sites of origin for many DOC. Variability in sensitivity to exogenous methanol consumption may be accounted for in part by the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase sufficient to reduce the toxic effect of formaldehyde production in tissue through its conversion to the much less toxic formic acid. The consumption of small amounts of ethanol, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of methanol's conversion to formaldehyde by ADH I, may afford some individuals protection from DOC. PMID:19896282

  13. 右美沙芬咀嚼胶给药系统的制备和质量评价%Preparation and quality evaluation of Dextromethorphan chewing gum drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 谭群友; 李艺; 刘碧林; 赵春景; 张景勍

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To select the best prescription for Dextromethorphan (DM) chewing gum preparation and to evaluate its quality. Methods: The DM chewing gum preparation was prepared by tablet press method; the formulation was optimized by orthogonal experiments. Results: The best prescription based on the results of orthogonal experiments was that the proportion of gum base, aspartame, menthol and essence was 90% ,3% ,0.5% and 0.2% ,respectively. Conclusion: DM chewing gum preparation can be successfully formulated and its quality can be guaranteed.%目的:筛选出最佳的右美沙芬( Dextromethorphan,DM)咀嚼胶制剂处方,制备制剂并进行质量评价.方法:采用正交设计优化咀嚼胶制剂,压片法制备DM咀嚼胶制剂.结果:正交设计优化后的DM咀嚼胶制剂最佳处方为:胶基、阿斯巴甜、薄荷脑和香精的用量分别为90%、3%、0.5%和0.2%.结论:DM咀嚼胶制剂制备工艺合理,质量符合要求.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual films of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhyan Bhupinder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rizatriptan Benzoate, a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist is a new generation antimigraine drug which has oral bioavailability of 47% due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The present study investigated the possibility of developing Rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving sublingual films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, thus bypassing first pass metabolism to provide rapid onset of action of the drug. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting method. Low viscosity grade of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E 15 and maltodextrin were used in combination as film forming polymer, due to their hydrophilic nature and palatable taste. To decrease the disintegration time of formulations sodium starch glycolate was used as disintegrating agent. Glycerol, mannitol, aspartame and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as a cooling agent, sweetening agent and oral penetration enhancer respectively. All the films formulations (F1-F8 was evaluated for their thickness, weight variations, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, surface pH, in-vitro disintegration, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation. Disintegration time showed by the formulations was found to be in range of 25-50 sec. Formulations F1 and F2 showed 90% in-vitro drug release within 7 min and 61% ex-vivo drug permeation within16 min. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 4 weeks when stored at 400 C and 75% in humidity.

  15. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

  16. The Effect of Oral Carbohydrate Solutions on the Performance of Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Afshari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that carbohydrate solutions can improve the performance in prolonged exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of sugar and glucose solutions on exercise performance of swimmers. Twelve male teenager elite Iranian swimmers aged 12-17 years from Waterpolo Team of Ahvaz Oil Industry participated in a double-blind cross-over trial. They consumed three oral 6% purified carbohydrate solutions as glucose, sugar or placebo (aspartame formulas in three non-consecutive days. In each day the swimmers undertook a 2×200-meter incremental swimming by 15 minutes time interval. Before starting the second course, subjects consumed their solutions. Blood glucose levels and time elapsed in two phases were recorded. Longer Swimming time significantly caused by sugar solution in the second course. Blood glucose level was increased by sugar and glucose solutions higher than the placebo before starting the second swim (p<0.05. However, after swimming, blood glucose concentrations were significantly elevated in all groups. After drinking a sugar solution and before starting the second 200-m swimming, the blood glucose level was higher than two other groups at this phase. Oral 6% sugar solution increased the time of swimming compared with oral glucose and placebo solutions in a 200-m swim. It can be explained by differences in Glycemic index in which sucrose has a lower GI than glucose.

  17. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  18. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants, with a view to recommending Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) and tolerable intakes, respectively, and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives and contaminants (including flavouring agents), and the establishment and revision of specifications. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives (furfural, paprika oleoresin, caramel colour II, cochineal extract, carmines, aspartame-acesulfame salt, D-tagatose, benzoyl peroxide, nitrous oxide, stearyl tartrate and trehalose), flavouring agents and contaminants (cadmium and tin), and of intake data on calcium from calcium salts of food additives. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for ADIs of the food additives and tolerable intakes of the contaminants considered, changes in the status of specifications of these food additives and specific flavouring agents, and further information required or desired. PMID:11588830

  19. Effervescent tablet formulation for enhanced patient compliance and the therapeutic effect of risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kareem Abu Bakr; Ibrahim, Howida Kamal; Ghorab, Mahmoud Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Risperidone is a poorly water soluble atypical antipsychotic drug. This work investigated the potential of developing risperidone effervescent tablets to facilitate drug administration and mask drug taste. The solid dispersion technique was selected to improve drug solubility due to its ease of scaling up, reproducibility and affordable cost. Thirty formulas were prepared adopting a 5(1).2(1).3(1) full factorial design. Trehalose, Inulin, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Eudragit E100 were used as hydrophilic carriers at different ratios. Rotovap, lyophilization and the kneading-oven were applied as solvent evaporation techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug was present as amorphous material entrapped within the carrier matrix. Eight tablet blends were prepared using different effervescent mixture ratios with or without binder and lubricant/glidant mixture. All of the blends had acceptable flowability, acceptable effervescence times and immediate drug release that could not be achieved by any of the control formulas. The formula of choice contained 40% effervescent mixture, 5% starch, 1% boric acid, 1% aspartame and sufficient lactose. The relative bioavailability (RB) of risperidone from this formula was 161.41% with a significantly higher extent of absorption compared to the market conventional tablets. This formula may be promising in improving patient compliance and drug efficiency. PMID:24833273

  20. 无蔗糖调味乳工艺优化%Formulation Optimization of Non-Sugar Flavored Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟丽

    2012-01-01

    研究不同甜味剂对调味乳质量的影响,在此基础上确定甜味剂的配比并进一步研究无蔗糖调味乳的配方。结果表明:甜味剂配比为三氯蔗糖25%、纽甜25%、阿斯巴甜50%;调味乳的最优配方组合为稳定剂0.2%、核桃粉0.6%、蔗糖替代比100%。比较无蔗糖调味乳和普通调味乳的感官品质,无实质性差异。%The effect of various sweeteners on the quality of flavored milk was studied to determine optimal sweetener blend for flavored milk.Further,the formulation of non-sugar flavor milk was optimized.The results showed that the optimal sweetener blend was formulated from 25% sucralose,25% neotame and 50% aspartame.The optimal formula for non-sugar flavor milk was 0.2% stabilizer,0.6% walnut powder,100% sucrose substitution.The developed non-sugar flavored milk presented no substantial difference in sensory quality compared to ordinary flavored milk.

  1. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

  2. Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers. Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Le Donne, C; Piccinelli, R; Leclercq, C

    2004-04-01

    In a previous study, Italian female teenagers regular consumers of sugar free soft drinks and table-top sweeteners were suggested to have a higher intake of intense sweeteners than other teenagers. A food frequency questionnaire designed to identify adolescents who were high consumers of these food products was filled in by a randomly extracted sample of teenagers (n=3982) living in the District of Rome (Italy) in year 2000. A consumer survey was then carried out in a randomly extracted sub-sample of males and females and in all females who reported high consumption of sugar-free soft drinks and/or table-top sweeteners. A total of 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. For each sugar-free product, producers provided the concentration of intense sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate). No intake in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was observed. Also medicines and supplements were taken into account and these did not result in a large impact on chronic exposure to intense sweeteners. The intake levels did not exceed the ADI even under a worst case scenario which was performed to take into consideration a hypothetical future substitution of all regular food products with their sugar-free version. It can be concluded that, with the observed current consumption patterns and occurrence levels, the risk of an excessive intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers is extremely low. PMID:15019193

  3. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, A A; Tordoff, M G; Beauchamp, G K

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice of the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by B6 mice, but not by 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

  4. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

  5. Modified apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by artificial sweetener causes severe premature cellular senescence and atherosclerosis with impairment of functional and structural properties of apoA-I in lipid-free and lipid-bound state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wookju; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which have atheroprotective effects. Long-term treatment of apoA-I with the sweetener at physiological concentration (3 mM for 168 h) resulted in loss of antioxidant and phospholipid binding activities with modification of secondary structure. The AS treated apoA-I exhibited proteolytic cleavage to produce 26 kDa-fragment. They showed pro-atherogenic properties in acetylated LDL phagocytosis of macrophages. Each sweetener alone or sweetener-treated apoA-I caused accelerated senescence in human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that long-term consumption of AS might accelerate atherosclerosis and senescence via impairment of function and structure of apoA-I and HDL. PMID:21533907

  6. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease. PMID:21138816

  7. Direct simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in foods by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmannová, Michaela; Krivánková, Ludmila; Bartos, Martin; Vytras, Karel

    2006-05-01

    A method for isotachophoretic determination of sweeteners of different character in candies and chewing gums was developed. A capillary of 0.8 mm ID and 90 mm effective length made of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer is filled with an electrolyte system consisting of 10 mM HCl + 14 mM Tris, pH 7.7 (leading electrolyte) and 5 mM L-histidine + 5 mM Tris, pH 8.3 (terminating electrolyte). The analysis is performed at a driving current of 200 microA and for detection current is decreased to 100 microA. Boric acid is added to the aqueous sample solution to form borate complexes with substances of polyhydroxyl nature and make them migrate isotachophoretically. Using conductivity detection, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range up to 2.5 mM were linear for all components of interest: acesulfame K, saccharine, aspartame, cyclamate, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, and xylitol. The concentration detection limits ranged between 0.024 and 0.081 mM. Good precision of the ITP method is evidenced by favorable RSD values ranging from 0.8 to 2.8% obtained at the analyte concentration of 1.0 mM (n = 6). The analysis time was about 20 min. Simplicity, accuracy, and low cost of analyses make ITP an alternative procedure to methods used so far for the determination of ionizable sweeteners. PMID:16830728

  8. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  9. Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection--development and single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Andrzej; McCourt, Josephine; Buchgraber, Manuela

    2007-07-20

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin and sucralose in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks, canned or bottled fruits and yoghurt. The procedure involves an extraction of the nine sweeteners with a buffer solution, sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction cartridges followed by an HPLC-ELSD analysis. The trueness of the method was satisfactory with recoveries ranging from 93 to 109% for concentration levels around the maximum usable dosages for authorised sweeteners and from 100 to 112% for unauthorised compounds at concentration levels close to the limit of quantification (LOQs). Precision measures showed mean repeatability values of <4% (expressed as relative standard deviation) for highly concentrated samples and <5% at concentration levels close to the LOQs. Intermediate precision was in most cases <8%. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 15 microg g(-1) and the LOQs below 30 microg g(-1) in all three matrices. Only dulcin showed slightly higher values, i.e., LODs around 30 microg g(-1) and LOQs around 50 microg g(-1) PMID:17540386

  10. Non-nutritive sweeteners are not super-normal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antenucci, Rachel G.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ‘sweeter than sugar’, with the implicit implication high potency sweeteners are super-normal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive (Sucrose, Maple Syrup, and Agave Nectar) and NNS (Acesulfame-K (AceK), Rebaudioside A (RebA), Aspartame, and Sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysical methods. Methods Participants (n=401 total) rated the intensity of sweet, bitter, and metallic sensations for nutritive and NNS in water using the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS). Results Sigmoidal Dose-Response functions were observed for all stimuli except AceK. That is, sucrose follows a sigmoidal function if the data are not artifactually linearized via prior training. More critically, there is no evidence that NNS have a maximal sweetness (intensity) greater than sucrose; indeed, the maximal sweetness for AceK, RebA and Sucralose were significantly lower than for concentrated sucrose. For these sweeteners, mixture suppression due to endogenous dose-dependent bitter or metallic sensations appears to limit maximal perceived sweetness. Conclusions In terms of perceived sweetness, non-nutritive sweeteners cannot be considered super-normal stimuli. These data do not support the view that non-nutritive sweeteners hijack or over-stimulate sweet receptors to product elevated sweet sensations. PMID:24942868

  11. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Amarnath, S; Thulasimani, M; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia) have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame) have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:27298490

  12. Artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS have become an important part of everyday life and are increasingly used nowadays in a variety of dietary and medicinal products. They provide fewer calories and far more intense sweetness than sugar-containing products and are used by a plethora of population subsets for varying objectives. Six of these agents (aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, neotame, acesulfame-K, and stevia have previously received a generally recognized as safe status from the United States Food and Drug Administration, and two more (Swingle fruit extract and advantame have been added in the recent years to this ever growing list. They are claimed to promote weight loss and deemed safe for consumption by diabetics; however, there is inconclusive evidence to support most of their uses and some recent studies even hint that these earlier established benefits regarding NNS use might not be true. There is a lack of properly designed randomized controlled studies to assess their efficacy in different populations, whereas observational studies often remain confounded due to reverse causality and often yield opposite findings. Pregnant and lactating women, children, diabetics, migraine, and epilepsy patients represent the susceptible population to the adverse effects of NNS-containing products and should use these products with utmost caution. The overall use of NNS remains controversial, and consumers should be amply informed about the potential risks of using them, based on current evidence-based dietary guidelines.

  13. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

  14. Whole nerve chorda tympani responses to sweeteners in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; McCaughey, S A; Bachmanov, A A; Beauchamp, G K

    2001-09-01

    The C57BL/6ByJ (B6) strain of mice exhibits higher preferences than does the 129P3/J (129) strain for a variety of sweet tasting compounds. We measured gustatory afferent responses of the whole chorda tympani nerve in these two strains using a broad array of sweeteners and other taste stimuli. Neural responses were greater in B6 than in 129 mice to the sugars sucrose and maltose, the polyol D-sorbitol and the non-caloric sweeteners Na saccharin, acesulfame-K, SC-45647 and sucralose. Lower neural response thresholds were also observed in the B6 strain for most of these stimuli. The strains did not differ in their neural responses to amino acids that are thought to taste sweet to mice, with the exception of L-proline, which evoked larger responses in the B6 strain. Aspartame and thaumatin, which taste sweet to humans but are not strongly preferred by B6 or 129 mice, did not evoke neural responses that exceeded threshold in either strain. The strains generally did not differ in their neural responses to NaCl, quinine and HCl. Thus, variation between the B6 and 129 strains in the peripheral gustatory system may contribute to differences in their consumption of many sweeteners. PMID:11555486

  15. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  16. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jodi E; Reimer, Raylene A; Shearer, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. PMID:27090230

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Six Food Additives in drinks by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the successful separation and determination of 6 synthetic food additives (aspartame, acesulfame potassium, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, tartrazine and sunset yellow) was developed. A EclipseXDB-C18 column (250x4.6 mm I.D.; 5 micro m) was used and the mobile phase contained methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) (30:70, v/v) was pumped at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at room temperature. Successful separation conditions were obtained for all the compounds using an optimized gradient elution within 10 min. The diode array detector was used to monitor the food additives at 230 nm. The method was thoroughly validated, detection limits for all substances varied between 0.03 and 1.35 micro g/mg, the intra-day precision (as RSD) ranged from 1.57% to 4.72 %, the inter-day precision (as RSD) was between 2.05 % and 4.18 %. Satisfactory recoveries, ranging from 90.00 % to 109.87 %, were obtained. The proposed system was applied to drink samples. (author)

  18. Excipientes de medicamentos e as informações da bula Pharmaceutical excipients and the information on drug labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes em 73 apresentações farmacêuticas de 35 medicamentos para uso oral, e as informações da bula sobre excipientes. MÉTODOS: Selecionamos 35 medicamentos, de venda livre ou sob prescrição médica, comercializados no Brasil. A amostra incluiu: analgésicos/antitérmicos, antimicrobianos, mucolíticos, antitussígenos, descongestionantes, anti-histamínicos, broncodilatadores, corticosteróides, antiinflamatórios e suplementos vitamínicos. Foram analisadas 73 apresentações desses fármacos, anotando-se as informações da bula sobre conservantes, corantes, adoçantes e aromatizantes. RESULTADOS: A bula de um medicamento (1,3% não mencionava os ingredientes inativos. Os conservantes mais encontrados nos medicamentos foram metilparabeno e propilparabeno (43% e 35,6% respectivamente. Os adoçantes mais usados foram: sacarose (açúcar (53,4%, sacarina sódica (38,3% e sorbitol (36,9%. Vinte e um produtos (28,7% continham dois adoçantes. Predominaram os medicamentos sem corante (43,8%, seguidos pelos coloridos por amarelo crepúsculo (amarelo FD&C no. 6 (15%. Cinco produtos (6,8% continham mais de um corante. A tartrazina (amarelo FD&C no. 5 foi encontrada em sete formulações (9,5%. Os aromatizantes mais usados foram os de frutas (83%. Constatamos a freqüente omissão das bulas sobre o teor exato de açúcar dos produtos (77%. Duas das quatro bulas de medicamentos contendo aspartame não mencionavam as precauções no uso por fenilcetonúricos. CONCLUSÕES: A omissão e a imprecisão das informações da bula sobre os excipientes farmacêuticos expõem os indivíduos suscetíveis ao risco de reações adversas dos conservantes e corantes. Também podem ocorrer complicações do uso inadvertido de medicamentos contendo açúcar pelos pacientes diabéticos, ou de fármacos adoçados com aspartame pelos fenilcetonúricos.AIM: to evaluate the presence of

  19. [Safety of intensive sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law. Only after the additive has gone through these procedure can be placed to the list of food additives, which contains not only the range of food these additives can be used, but also the recommended highest amount of daily consumption. European Food Safety Authority considering the latest scientific examination results, evaluates regularly the safety of sweeteners authorized earlier. Until now there is no evidence found to question the safety of the authorized intensive sweeteners. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 14-28. PMID:27088715

  20. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  1. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Nassar, Fares; Assy, Nimer

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver, and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver. Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks, fructose 55% and glucose 45%. Soft drinks are the leading source of added sugar worldwide, and have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of soft drinks can increase the prevalence of NAFLD independently of metabolic syndrome. During regular soft drinks consumption, fat accumulates in the liver by the primary effect of fructose which increases lipogenesis, and in the case of diet soft drinks, by the additional contribution of aspartame sweetener and caramel colorant which are rich in advanced glycation end products that potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation. This review emphasizes some hard facts about soft drinks, reviews fructose metabolism, and explains how fructose contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:20518077

  2. Construction and evaluation of a novel bifunctional phenylalanine-formate dehydrogenase fusion protein for bienzyme system with cofactor regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2016-05-01

    Phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) plays an important role in enzymatic synthesis of L-phenylalanine for aspartame (sweetener) and detection of phenylketonuria (PKU), suggesting that it is important to obtain a PheDH with excellent characteristics. Gene fusion of PheDH and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was constructed to form bifunctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of L-phenylalanine coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Comparing with the PheDH monomer from Microbacterium sp., the bifunctional PheDH-FDH showed noteworthy stability under weakly acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 6.5-9.0). The bifunctional enzyme can produce 153.9 mM L-phenylalanine with remarkable performance of enantiomers choice by enzymatic conversion with high molecular conversion rate (99.87 %) in catalyzing phenylpyruvic acid to L-phenylalanine being 1.50-fold higher than that of the separate expression system. The results indicated the potential application of the PheDH and PheDH-FDH with coenzyme regeneration for phenylpyruvic acid analysis and L-phenylalanine biosynthesis in medical diagnosis and pharmaceutical field. PMID:26819086

  3. Ameliorating treatment-refractory depression with intranasal ketamine: potential NMDA receptor actions in the pain circuitry representing mental anguish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opler, Lewis A; Opler, Mark G A; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the antidepressant actions of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartame glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, and offers a potential neural mechanism for intranasal ketamine's ultra-rapid actions based on the key role of NMDAR in the nonhuman primate prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although intravenous ketamine infusions can lift mood within hours, the current review describes how intranasal ketamine administration can have ultra-rapid antidepressant effects, beginning within minutes (5-40 minutes) and lasting hours, but with repeated treatments needed for sustained antidepressant actions. Research in rodents suggests that increased synaptogenesis in PFC may contribute to the prolonged benefit of ketamine administration, beginning hours after administration. However, these data cannot explain the relief that occurs within minutes of intranasal ketamine delivery. We hypothesize that the ultra-rapid effects of intranasal administration in humans may be due to ketamine blocking the NMDAR circuits that generate the emotional representations of pain (eg, Brodmann Areas 24 and 25, insular cortex), cortical areas that can be overactive in depression and which sit above the nasal epithelium. In contrast, NMDAR blockade in the dorsolateral PFC following systemic administration of ketamine may contribute to cognitive deficits. This novel view may help to explain how intravenous ketamine can treat the symptoms of depression yet worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25619798

  4. Water-activity of dehydrated guava slices sweeteners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to investigate the individual and combined effect of caloric sweeteners (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and non-caloric sweeteners (saccharine, cyclamate and aspartame) along with antioxidants (citric acid and ascorbic acid) and chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite and potassium sorbate) on the water-activity (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. Different dilutions of caloric sweeteners (20, 30, 40 and 50 degree brix (bx) and non-caloric sweeteners (equivalent to sucrose sweetness) were used. Guava slices were osmotically dehydrated in these solutions and then dehydrated initially at 0 and then at 60 degree C to final moisture-content of 20-25%. Guava slices prepared with sucrose: glucose 7:3 potassium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid and citric acid produced best quality products, which have minimum (a/sub w/) and best overall sensory characteristics. The analysis showed that treatments and their various concentrations had a significant effect (p=0.05) on (a/sub w/) of dehydrated guava slices. (author)

  5. Formulation and characterization of acetaminophen nanoparticles in orally disintegrating films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare orally disintegrating films containing nanoparticles loaded with acetaminophen. Nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method where acetone phase containing acetaminophen and poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) was added to water phase containing hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, poly ethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and aspartame in a rate of 1.5 drop s(-1) and agitated at 1200 rpm. The size, polydispersity index (PI) and drug entrapment (DE) were measured. The emulsions were cast to form films, which were evaluated physico-mechanically. The effect of different degrees of hydrolization of PVA and polymerization of PLGA and the effect of different ratios of PVA to PLGA was studied. Films with acceptable physico-mechanical properties were further studied. The size and PI of the nanoparticles was dependent on PVA hydrolization, PLGA polymerization and the ratio of PVA to PLGA. All films disintegrated in less than one minute, but acetaminophen was not free in the dissolution media even after six days. These results may indicate that although the nanoparticles released from the films immediately when impressed in solution the drug is sustained in the nanoparticles for longer time, which is to be clarified in future work. PMID:25013958

  6. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvazi, Shirin; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Azadi, Mehri; Mohammadi, Maryam; Arjmand, Mohammad; Vahabi, Farideh; Sadeghzadeh, Somye; Zamani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets. PMID:26904134

  7. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using (1)HNMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvazi, Shirin; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Azadi, Mehri; Mohammadi, Maryam; Arjmand, Mohammad; Vahabi, Farideh; Sadeghzadeh, Somye; Zamani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using (1)HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and (1)HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets. PMID:26904134

  9. Determination of the decomposition products of Usal in model systems and determination of dioxopiperazine in soft drinks by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudel, M; Davídková, E

    1985-01-01

    A HPLC method for the determination of Usal (Aspartame hydrochloride, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride) and its decomposition products was elaborated. Aspartic acid, phenylalanine, phenylalanine methyl ester, aspartyl-phenylalanine, phenylalanyl-aspartic acid, 5-benzyl-3,6-dioxo-2-piperazineacetic acid (DOP) and Usal were separated on Separon SI C-18. The mobile phase was: 0.5 M NaH2PO4 (pH 2.1) and methanol (85:15 v/v). The detection was carried out at 200 nm. The method for DOP determination was tested by the analysis of 10 types of soft drinks to which DOP was added. In two newly developed sorts of soft drinks sweetened with Usal the formation of DOP was followed during storage. The DOP increment after 34 days of storage reached 0.7 and 6 mg/l at 7 and 20 degrees C, resp. The method is also suitable for DOP determination in the sweetener itself. PMID:4022104

  10. Expediting the method development and quality control of reversed-phase liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical analysis by using an LC/MS performance test mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Fitch, W L; Alexander, M S; Dolan, J W

    2000-11-01

    Mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography (LC/MS) has become an important analytical methodology in both pharmaceutical and biomolecule analyses. LC/MS, especially with reversed-phase HPLC (RP-LC), is extensively used in the separation and structural identification of pharmaceutical samples. However, many parameters have to be considered when a new LC/MS method is developed for either separation and structural analysis of unknown mixtures or quantitative analysis of a set of known compounds in an assay. The optimization of a new LC/MS method can be a time-consuming process. A novel kit-LC/MS performance test mix-composed of aspartame, cortisone, reserpine, and dioctyl phthalate has been developed to accelerate the process of establishing a new RP-LC/MS method. The LC/MS mix makes the evaluation and validation of an LC/MS method more efficient and easier. It also simplifies the quality control procedure for an LC/MS method in use. PMID:11080866

  11. [Simultaneous rapid determination of eight food additives in foods by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y

    2000-11-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of eight food additives by RP-HPLC is described. They were saccharin, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, vanillin, caffeine, carmine and sunset yellow. The experiments were carried on Shim-pack CLC-ODS (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d.) with methanol-20 mmol/L NH4Ac (44:56, V/V; pH 7.0) as the eluent at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The UV detection wavelength was fixed at 220 nm. The food samples, after precipitation of the impurities with Carrez reagent, were injected directly into the HPLC system. The average recoveries of all the eight additives were between 91.9%-108.5%, and the RSDs were lower than 4% (n = 5). The analysis of a single sample required only 8 min. This method has been successfully applied to the routine analysis of these additives in foods. PMID:12541745

  12. Comparison of capillary zone electrophoresis with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of additives in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimidar, M; Hamoir, T P; Foriers, A; Massart, D L

    1993-04-23

    A capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) method was developed to determine caffeine, aspartame and benzoic acid in diet cola soft drinks and in artificial sweetening powders. The effects of pH, ionic strength, organic solvents and different buffers were investigated to select the optimum conditions. These consisted of a sodium phosphate buffer at pH 11 and ionic strength 0.025. The running voltage was set at 15 kV and the injection was performed hydrostatically for 30 s. The CZE method was then compared with a previously developed high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method in terms of repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, sensitivity and separation efficiency. Both methods gave good repeatability. The relative standard deviations for reproducibility were significantly higher in CZE than in HPLC. The main reason for this is probably the condition of the wall of the capillary, which was difficult to keep constant between the days of analysis. The separation efficiency of CZE was 65-110 times higher than that of HPLC; on the other hand, 10-20 times lower detection limits were obtained in HPLC. Both methods were linear, but the linear ranges were different owing to the lower detection limit of HPLC. In CZE, the effect of the matrix was higher. PMID:8491835

  13. Effect of ochratoxin A and ochratoxin C on the monocyte and lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, H; Heller, M; Erler, W; Müller, G; Rosner, H; Gräfe, U

    2002-06-01

    The effect of practically relevant mycotoxin concentrations on functions of immune cells was studied in in vitro experiments. Porcine mononuclear cells were exposed to a crudeAspergillus-ochraceus toxin containing OTA, a HPLC fraction identical with OTC derived from the crude toxin (RE2), as well as pure OTA and OTC in a concentration range from 0.46 to 3000 ng/ml. The influence of mycotoxin exposure on metabolic activity, mitogen induced proliferation, expression of the activation marker CD25 and the cell cycle of lymphocytes and on the formation of free oxygen radicals as well as the production of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α by monocytes was determined. Exposure to high concentrations of all mycotoxin preparations lead to non-specific suppression of the immune cell functions, which was related to cytotoxic effects. Low concentrations caused ambivalent reactions, especially on monocyte function. In general, the HPLC fraction RE2 had an up to 100-fold stronger effect than pure OTA. Ochratoxin-induced suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was not abrogated by phenylalanine or aspartame. The results indicate that immunomodulation can be caused by very low mycotoxin concentrations which are not related to clinical symptoms or loss of performance. PMID:23606156

  14. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C O; Trenerry, V C; Kemmery, B

    1995-03-10

    A rapid method for the determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. Caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, which are often added to soft drinks, can also be determined with this procedure. The artificial sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, alitame and dulcin, and the other food additives are well separated in less than 12 min using an uncoated fused-silica capillary column with a buffer consisting of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate, 0.01 M sodium borate operating at 20 kV. Dehydroacetic acid was used as the internal standard for the determinations. The levels of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and caffeine were in good agreement with those determined by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure currently used in our Laboratory. The MEKC procedure has the same order of repeatability, is faster and less costly to operate than the HPLC method. PMID:7704194

  15. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  16. Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, L; Chabert, M; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1997-03-01

    The sweet taste of nonnutritive sweeteners has been reported to increase hunger and food intake through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR). We investigated the effect of oral sensation of sweetness on CPIR and other indexes associated with glucose metabolism using nutritive and nonnutritive sweetened tablets as stimuli. At lunchtime, 12 normal-weight men sucked for 5 min a sucrose, an aspartame-polydextrose, or an unsweetened polydextrose tablet (3 g) with no added flavor. The three stimuli were administered in a counterbalanced order, each on a separate day at 1-wk intervals. Blood was drawn continuously for 45 min before and 25 min after the beginning of sucking and samples were collected at 1-min intervals. Spontaneous oscillations in glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations were assessed as were increments (slopes) of fatty acid concentrations during the baseline period. The nature of the baseline (oscillations: glucose, insulin, and glucagon; and slopes: fatty acids) was taken into account in the analyses of postexposure events. No CPIR and no significant effect on plasma glucagon or fatty acid concentrations were observed after the three stimuli. However, there was a significant decrease in plasma glucose and insulin after all three stimuli. Only the consumption of the sucrose tablet was followed by a postabsorptive increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations starting 17 and 19 min, respectively, after the beginning of sucking. In conclusion, this study suggested that oral stimulation provided by sweet nonflavored tablets is not sufficient for inducing CPIR. PMID:9062523

  17. Conditioned insulin and blood sugar responses in humans in relation to binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, J; Jansen, A

    1997-04-01

    This study proposed to demonstrate a classically conditioned blood sugar decrease in humans and to clarify its relevance for binge eating. Six conditioning trials were run in healthy females. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a compound peppermint flavor/fragrance, whereas the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) consisted of 50 g of oral glucose. Control subjects received an aspartame drink as the UCS. Ad lib glucose intake, blood parameters, and subjective craving were monitored before and after conditioning. Results showed that the experimental group failed to show conditioned blood sugar and glucagon decreases or C-Peptide increases. Although an increased insulin response was found in the experimental group, the effect size did not exceed that of spontaneous fluctuations. No increases in craving for sweet substances were found. An impressive increase (mean: 78%) in glucose intake after conditioning was found in both conditions, as well as in a subsequently run third condition with plain water as the UCS. The increased glucose intake probably resulted from an initial neophobia to the laboratory setting that subsided as subjects had experienced more lab sessions. Importantly, because no conditioned hypoglycemia occurred in the present study, its relationship with subjectively experienced craving for sweet substance could not be determined. PMID:9108577

  18. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness. PMID:22457081

  19. Natural approaches to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, Alan R

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews research on the use of diet, nutritional supplements, and hormones in the treatment of epilepsy. Potentially beneficial dietary interventions include identifying and treating blood glucose dysregulation, identifying and avoiding allergenic foods, and avoiding suspected triggering agents such as alcohol, aspartame, and monosodium glutamate. The ketogenic diet may be considered for severe, treatment-resistant cases. The Atkins diet (very low in carbohydrates) is a less restrictive type of ketogenic diet that may be effective in some cases. Nutrients that may reduce seizure frequency include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese, taurine, dimethylglycine, and omega-3 fatty acids. Administration of thiamine may improve cognitive function in patients with epilepsy. Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, vitamin D, and L-carnitine may be needed to prevent or treat deficiencies resulting from the use of anticonvulsant drugs. Vitamin K1 has been recommended near the end of pregnancy for women taking anticonvulsants. Melatonin may reduce seizure frequency in some cases, and progesterone may be useful for women with cyclic exacerbations of seizures. In most cases, nutritional therapy is not a substitute for anticonvulsant medications. However, in selected cases, depending on the effectiveness of the interventions, dosage reductions or discontinuation of medications may be possible. PMID:17397265

  20. Metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise: effects of pre-exercise glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouassi, D; Mercier, J; Ahmaidi, S; Brun, J F; Mercier, B; Orsetti, A; Préfaut, C

    1997-01-01

    We investigated metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise (a force-velocity test; Fv test) and examined the effect of glucose ingestion on these responses and on exercise performance. The test was performed twice by seven subjects [27 (2) years] according to a double-blind randomized crossover protocol. During the experimental trial (GLU), the subjects ingested 500 ml of glucose polymer solution containing 25 g glucose 15 min before starting the exercise. During the control trial (CON), the subjects received an equal volume of sweet placebo (aspartame). Exercise performance was assessed by calculating peak anaerobic power (W(an,peak)). Venous plasma lactate concentration increased significantly during the Fv test (P Blood glucose first decreased significantly from the beginning of exercise up to the 6-kg load (P glucose ingestion (P blood glucose and insulin concentrations decreased during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise, while blood lactate concentration increased markedly without any significant change in glucagon and epinephrine concentrations. Glucose ingestion altered metabolic and hormonal responses during the Fv test, but the performance as measured by W(an,peak) was not changed. PMID:9286597

  1. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes. PMID:24934070

  2. The effects of ingesting polylactate or glucose polymer drinks during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, T D; Larsen, J D; Brooks, G A; Colvin, W; Henderson, S; Lary, D

    1991-09-01

    Five trained, fasted male cyclists rode a cycle ergometer three times at 50% of VO2max for 180 min. Using a balanced order, double-blind procedure, subjects were given either a solution containing polylactate (PL: 80% polylactate, 20% sodium lactate, in 7% solution with water), glucose polymer (GP: multidextrin in 7% solution with water), or control (C: water sweetened with aspartame) 5 min before exercise and at 20-min intervals during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at 20-min intervals during exercise. In general, PL and GP rendered similar results except that pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-) were higher in PL. There were no differences between treatments in perceived exertion, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, heart rate, oxygen consumption, rectal temperature, or selected skin temperatures. These data show that polylactate may help maintain blood glucose and enhance blood buffering capacity during prolonged exercise and could be a useful component in an athletic fluid replacement beverage. PMID:1844999

  3. Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, D G; Storlien, L H; Furler, S M; Chisholm, D J

    1987-08-01

    The presence and physiologic importance of cephalic phase insulin release in humans remains controversial. The aim of these studies was to determine whether cephalic phase insulin release could be demonstrated in normal weight subjects and whether it would be associated with changes in blood glucose, free fatty acid, and pancreatic polypeptide levels. The studies were followed by a hyperglycemic clamp to determine whether cephalic responses would alter overall glucose disposal or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In all, 17 subjects were studied on two occasions with and without (control study) presentation of food stimuli. Tease-feeding alone (n = 6), or the administration of a sweet taste alone (aspartame, n = 5) failed to stimulate cephalic responses. However, the presentation of the combined stimuli (tease meals plus sweet taste, n = 7) resulted in a significant fall (P less than .005) in blood glucose levels and a variable rise in serum insulin (% insulin rise 38 +/- 15%, P less than .05) and C-peptide levels (7 +/- 6%, NS) within five minutes of the food presentation when compared with control studies, with no change seen in free fatty acid or pancreatic polypeptide levels. The blood glucose fall correlated strongly (r = .90, P less than .01) with a score of the subjective response to the food and taste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3298939

  4. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  5. Research Progress of the Relationship between Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes and NMDA Receptor and Subunits NR2%NMDA受体及其亚基NR2与糖尿病认知功能障碍发病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏; 黄永杰; 王芳; 邹英鹰

    2013-01-01

    糖尿病认知功能障碍(cognitive impairment in diabetes, CID)是糖尿病的慢性并发症之一,其发病机制目前尚未完全清楚。近年来随着人们对CID研究的深入,发现在糖尿病整个时期,N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体(N-methyl-D-aspartame receptor, NMDAR)及其亚基NR2A与NR2B的变化与CID的发病机制有着密切的联系,现就此作一综述,为以后进一步研究CID打下基础。%Diabetic cognitive impairment is one of the chronic complications of diabetes,and the pathogenesis has not yet been fully clarified. In recent years, more and more studies of CID showed that the changes of NMDA receptor and subunits NR2A and NR2B might be important during the period of the diabetes,and they are associated with the mechanism of cognitive impairment. This article makes a summary on these researches so as to lay the foundation for a further study.

  6. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  7. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon on the Metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum Using 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Parvazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is responsible for estimated 584,000 deaths in 2013. Researchers are working on new drugs and medicinal herbs due to drug resistance that is a major problem facing them; the search is on for new medicinal herbs. Cinnamon is the bark of a tree with reported antiparasitic effects. Metabonomics is the simultaneous study of all the metabolites in biological fluids, cells, and tissues detected by high throughput technology. It was decided to determine the mechanism of the effect of aqueous extract of cinnamon on the metabolome of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro using 1HNMR spectroscopy. Prepared aqueous extract of cinnamon was added to a culture of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and its 50% inhibitory concentration determined, and, after collection, their metabolites were extracted and 1HNMR spectroscopy by NOESY method was done. The spectra were analyzed by chemometric methods. The differentiating metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database and the metabolic cycles identified by Metaboanalyst. 50% inhibitory concentration of cinnamon on Plasmodium falciparum was 1.25 mg/mL with p<0.001. The metabolites were identified as succinic acid, glutathione, L-aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and 2-methylbutyryl glycine. The main metabolic cycles detected were alanine and aspartame and glutamate pathway and pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis and lysine biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, which are all important as drug targets.

  8. Study on the Preparation of Functional Effervescent Tablets%运动性泡腾片制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳茹

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了二十八烷醇为功能性添加剂的泡腾片。采用柠檬酸30%,碳酸氢钠35%,糊精5%的混合物为泡腾片赋形剂,以柠檬酸15%,阿斯巴甜0.5%,柠檬黄色素1.5%,橙浊0.15%为泡腾片辅料,冲饮时能够产生最佳的泡腾效果和感官品质。%A kind of functional effervescent tablets of octacosanol was studied in this paper.The optimum effervescing effect was produced at additions of citric acid,sodium bicarbonate and dextrin were 25%,35% and 5% of total ingredients respectively as excipients.The excellent sensory quality of effervescence beverage was produced at additions of citric acid,aspartame,emon yellow pigment and orange thickening were 15%,0.5%,1.5% and 0.15% of total ingredients respectively as assistant materials.

  9. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM: A NOVEL APPROACH TO DELIVERY OF LISINOPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POONAM PHASATE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery for patients. They are easy for application, no need to drink high amounts of water or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving film of Lisinopril as an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension, congestive heart failure and improved bioavailability of drugs as compared to conventional solid oral dosage forms. Method: The films were prepared using combination of Hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose E15 and PVA (polyvinylalcohol polymers by solvent casting method. Glycerine as plasticizer, aspartame as sweetener. Result: The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and the polymers. Satisfactory results obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as weight uniformity, thickness, folding endurance, drug content and disintegration time. Films in vitro drug release studies also done by using USP dissolution apparatus. In case of F4 and F5 formulations about 99.529% and 95.29% of drug was released at 2min. Conclusion: The Lisinopril mouth dissolving film was formulated. The given film disintegrates within eleven second which release drug rapidly and gives action.

  10. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  11. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  12. 昆参分散片处方工艺优选%Optimization of Prescription Technology of Kunshen Dispersible Tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立俏; 盛华刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To optimize molding process of Kunshen dispersible tablet. Method; With disintegration time as index, type of excipients were optimized by single factor test and the amount of excipients was optimized by uniform design test. Result; Optimum formulation was composed of extract powder 65% , microcrystalline cellulose 21% , cross-linked polyvinyl polyrrolidone (PVPP) 12% , aspartame 2%. Under theseconditions, disintegration time of formulation was less than 3 min, this tablet was dissolved quickly and completely. Conclusion; This optimized formulation was reasonable, and technology of it was feasible.%目的:优选昆参分散片的成型工艺.方法:以崩解时间为指标,采用单因素试验优选辅料种类;均匀设计试验优选辅料用量.结果:最佳处方组成为主药65%,交联聚乙烯吡咯烷酮12%,微晶纤维素21%,阿司帕坦2%.按该处方压片,崩解时间<3 min,溶出迅速且完全.结论:所优选处方合理,工艺可行.

  13. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki (Niigata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Niigata, (Japan))

    1989-09-25

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel diffusion and separation technique which exploits simultaneously the increase of vapor pressure and the difference of chemical affinities of fluids near the critical point. A solvent which is used as the supercritical fluid has the following features: the critical point exists in the position of relatively ease of handling, the solvent is applicable to the extraction of a physiological active substance of thermal instability. Carbon dioxide as the solvent is non-flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, cheap, and readily available of high purity. The results of studies on the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent for natural products in the fermentation and food industries, were collected. SC-CO{sub 2} extraction are used in many fields, examples for the application are as follows: removal of organic solvents from antibiotics; extraction of vegetable oils contained in wheat germ oil, high quality mustard seeds, rice bran and so on; brewing of sake using rice and rice-koji; use as a non-aqueous medium for the synthesis of precursors of the Aspartame; and use in sterilization. 66 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q 30 and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE 30 . From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent.

  15. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaraju Prasanna Lakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to mask the unpleasant taste of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate with mannitol by co-grinding method and to formulate it as an oral disintegrating tablet by direct compression method. Drug-mannitol complexes were taken in 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 ratios and tested for in vitro and in vivo bitter masking capacity of mannitol, drug content and molecular property. Different super-disintegrants like croscaramellose, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone was used as disintegrating agents. The prepared tablets were characterized for tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and In vitro and in vivo disintegration time. In addition, aspartame is used as sweetening agent which gives more pleasant taste in the mouth. Among all the formulations F1 to F6, Formulation F6 has good taste masking capacity and fast disintegration within 40sec. Furthermore, 96.7% of the drug has been released in 15min.The results disclosed that the productivity of taste masking of the drug has been done effectively with mannitol and 40mg of crosscarmellose sodium is efficient for rapid disintegrating of tablet.

  16. Determination of essential elements in dietetic sample by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais em alimentos dieteticos pela tecnica de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siquelli, Murilo V.; Maihara, Vera A. Maihara [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: murilo_siquelli@hotmail.com; vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    In the last years there has been an increase of the dietetic product consumption by people who suffer from diabetes, heart disease and by people concerned about having a healthy life as well. Despite the increase of dietetic product presents in the diet of the Brazilian population, the use of these products is still controversial. The analysis of the nutritional composition of these products is becoming important because a great number of people is changing their traditional food by dietetic products. In the literature, there is no information about the inorganic composition, mainly related to the essential elements, in the dietetic products: diet and light . In this study are presented preliminary results of the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cr, Fe, Na and Zn determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in aspartame, saccharin and cyclamate sodium , and stevia based sweetener samples. Gelatin samples, diet and light, were also analyzed. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2). (author)

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Dispersible Tablets of Lomefloxacin HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra K. Nanjwade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work an attempt has been made to prepare FDT of Lomefloxacin HCl with an view to enhance the patient compliance, and provide a quick onset of action, increasing the solubility and masking its bitter taste. Taste masking and solubility was enhanced by complexing Lomefloxacin HCl with hydroxyl propyl β cyclodextrin (HP-βCD by solvent evaporation method. Prepared complex was further compressed into tablets by direct compression using different superdisintegrant like Sodium starch glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Polyplasdone XL-10 in different concentration such as 1%, 1.5%, 2 % using aspartame as a sweetener and aerosil as lubricant. The drug release from FDT increase with increasing the concentration of superdisintegrants and was found to be highest with formulation F6 containing 1.5 % Croscarmellose Sodium and was consider to be the best formulation which release upto 100.68 % in 45 min. In vivo studies revealed that FDT of formulation (F 6 showed good bioavailability compared to conventional tablet. The fast dissolving tablet with HP-βCD complex can be formulated using different superdisintegrants by Direct Compression technique and was found to be disintegrate less than 2 minute, which provide faster effect and better patient compliance.

  18. 高效甜味剂的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周日尤

    2002-01-01

    因为成本、口味和营养成分等因素的驱动,在蔗糖占市场主导地位的同时,据并非无根据的预测,理论上认为:多达2000万吨的蔗糖有可能会被高效甜味剂轻而易举的替代.简述了甜味剂市场近期的发展状况,论述了高效甜味剂改进口味的技术及在部分国家准许合法使用的新型甜味剂三氯蔗糖(sucralose)、阿力甜(又称天胺甜精alitame)和纽甜(neotame,第二代二肽甜味剂)等的主要特性;同时提供了新型复配甜味剂(双甜Twinsweet)的相关市场信息,它是安赛蜜(acesulfame)的阿斯巴甜(aspartame)盐.近三十年甜味剂市场的发展表明,甜味剂市场商机无限,并将持续发展.

  19. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ONDANSETRON ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS AND ITS OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Bhasin et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron is the first of a new class of drugs, selective serotonin receptor antagonist (5 hydroxy tryptamine type 3 used as an anti emetic associated with cancer chemotherapy. Its Orally Disintegrating Tablet has been developed for patients who find swallowing difficult by freeze dried technology by RP Scherer Corporation and Scherer DDS. The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet that has high hardness and a fast disintegration rate using conventional tablet technology. Ondansetron ODT was prepared by using traditional technology like direct compression and wet granulation technique. As blend exhibited poor flow in direct compression process, so wet granulation process was finalized. Bitter taste of Ondansetron has been masked by use of sweetener like aspartame and peppermint flavor. Quick disintegration has been achieved by use of surfactant in the granulating solvent and superdisintegrant like crospovidone in both intra and extragranular part. Design space has been created by use of different concentrations of both binders as well as disintegrant with the help of DOE and a robust formulation has been made. In vitro release profile of both formulations prepared by freeze drying and wet granulation is matching. Formulation prepared by wet granulation process has been found acceptable to volunteers in term of taste, mouth feel and convenience of administration.

  20. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  1. Analysis of additives in dairy products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Ling, Yun; Lin, Yuanhui; Chang, James; Chu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was developed for the highly accurate and sensitive screening of 43 antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in dairy products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method for the determination of 42 different analytes in dairy products for the first time. After optimization, the maximum predicted recovery was 99.33% rate for aspartame under the optimized conditions of 10 mL acetionitrile, 1.52 g sodium acetate, 410 mg PSA and 404 mgC18. For the matrices studied, the recovery rates of the other 42 compounds ranged from 89.4% to 108.2%, with coefficient of variation 0.999. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.0001-3.6 μg kg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of antioxidants, preservatives and synthetic sweeteners in commercial dairy product samples, and it is very useful for fast screening of different food additives. PMID:24607030

  2. Terapia nutricional no diabetes gestacional Nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Padilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura científica sobre a terapia nutricional no Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, sem restrição de data e com fontes primárias indexadas nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed, Medline. Os resultados desta revisão apontam a intervenção nutricional como uma importante aliada no controle do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, trazendo potenciais benefícios à saúde materno-fetal. Na avaliação do estado nutricional materno devem ser empregados os indicadores antropométricos, dietéticos, bioquímicos, clínicos e funcional. Neste sentido, a avaliação dietética deve ser detalhada, com atenção para o fracionamento e composição das refeições, e grupos de alimentos presentes. No planejamento nutricional a distribuição de macronutrientes em relação ao consumo energético diário deve ser 45-65% de carboidratos, 15-20% de proteínas e 20-35% de lipídeos. Quanto a recomendação dos edulcorantes, são liberados para gestantes acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, sacarina e sucralose. A atividade física também deve fazer parte da estratégia de tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, embora o impacto do exercício nas complicações neonatais ainda mereça ser rigorosamente testado. Ademais, estudos associam a habilidade de aconselhamento nutricional com a melhorara na adesão ao cuidado nutricional. Diante desses achados, para sucesso no controle do DMG são necessários: a participação da equipe inter e multidisciplinar, o cuidado pré-natal precoce, com assistência nutricional oportuna e a garantia da assistência de qualidade ao longo da gestação.This is a scientific literature review about nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus, without date restriction and using the SciELO, PubMed and Medline databases. The results of this review show that nutritional intervention is an important tool for managing gestational diabetes mellitus, and potentially benefits the mother's and fetal health

  3. Preparation and quality evaluation of clonazepam orally disintegrating tablets%氯硝西泮口腔崩解片的研制及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丙英; 侯侠

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prepare clonazepam oral disintegrating tablets and to evaluate its quality. METHODS: Gelatian and aspartame were used as tastes masking. Microcrystalline celluose, low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and polyvininylpolyrrolidone were used as disintegrants. Clonazepam orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by wet granules. The in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, the relationship between hardness and disintegration time and the relationship between the usage of magnesium stearate and disintegration time were investigated, while taste and dissolution rate were also evaluated. RESULTS: When the gelatian/aspartame/poloxamer ratio was 30:0.5:1, the tablets had good oral feel and the uppermost dissolution rate. The dissolution rate of clonazepam oral disintegrating tablets which was evaluated by the method of common tablets could exceed 95% after 20 minutes. When the microcrystalline celluose / low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose / polyvininylpolyrrolidone ratio was 9:1: 3, the in vitro and in vivo disintegration time Was within 30 s. When the usage of magnesium stearate was 0.5% and the hardness ratio was in the range of 3-4 kg, disintegration time was within 30 s. CONCLUSION: According reasonable prescription and simple product craft, we can product qualified clonazepam oral disintegrating tablets.%目的:研制氯硝西泮口腔崩解片,并对其质量进行评价.方法:以甘露醇和阿司帕坦为矫味剂,以微晶纤维素、低取代羟丙基纤维素和交联聚乙烯吡咯烷酮为崩解剂,采用湿法制粒,制备氯硝西泮口腔崩解片,测定体内外崩解时限及口感,并考察了硬脂酸镁用量、硬度对崩解时间的影响,测定其溶出度.结果:甘露醇邝可斯巴甜/泊洛沙姆配比为30:0.5:1时口感最佳、溶出度最高,采用普通片的溶出度测定方法,测得口崩片在20 min时其溶出度已达到95%以上;当微晶纤维素/低取代羟丙基纤维素/交联聚乙

  4. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  5. Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection%固相萃取-高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法同时检测食品中5种人工合成甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 王彦; 王玉红; 周君裔; 阎超

    2012-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) in food. The sweeteners were extracted by 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid buffer solution. The extract of sample was cleaned up and concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Then the sweeteners were separated on a C18 column (3μm) using 0. 1% (v/v) formic acid buffer (adjusted to pH =3.5 with aqueous ammonia solution)-methanol (61: 39, v/v) as mobile phase, and finally detected by ELSD. The results showed that the reasonable linearity was achieved for all the analytes over the range of 30 - 1 000 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 997. The recoveries for the five sweeteners ranged from 85. 6% to 109. 0% at three spiked concentrations with the relative standard deviations ( RSDs) lower than 4. 0%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 2. 5 mg/L for both acesulfame-K and sucralose, 3 mg/L for saccharin sodium, 10 mg/L for sodium cyclamate, and 5 mg/L for aspartame. The method is simple,sensitive and low cost,and has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the five synthetic sweeteners in food.%建立了高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测仪( HPLC-ELSD)同时检测食品中安赛蜜、糖精钠、甜蜜素、三氯蔗糖和阿斯巴甜5种甜味剂的方法.甜味剂经0.1% (v/v)甲酸缓冲液提取后,利用C18固相萃取小柱净化浓缩,以3μmC18柱为分离柱,0.1% (v/v)甲酸(氨水调节pH =3.5)-甲醇(61∶39,v/v)为流动相,经高效液相色谱法分离,蒸发光散射检测器进行检测.结果表明,5种甜味剂在30~1 000 mg/L的范围内,具有良好的线性关系(相关系数大于0.997);在3个添加水平下,样品的平均回收率为85.6% ~ 109.0%,相对标准偏差小于4.0%;方

  6. Equivalência de dulçor e poder edulcorante de edulcorantes em função da temperatura de consumo em bebidas preparadas com chá-mate em pó solúvel Equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents in differents temperatures of consumption of tea drink in soluble power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Porto Cardoso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de consumo na equivalência de doçura e no poder edulcorante de diferentes agentes adoçantes em bebida de chá-mate em pó solúvel. Foram avaliados: aspartame, sucralose, mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1, Stevia e acessulfame-K, tendo como referência a sacarose. Todos os estudos foram realizados a 6±2ºC e a 45±2ºC. Primeiramente foi determinada a doçura ideal, utillizando-se escala do ideal com 30 provadores consumidores da bebida. Em seguida, foi determinada a doçura equivalente à sacarose (na doçura considerada ideal para cada edulcorante estudado, e seu poder edulcorante nas duas temperaturas de estudo. Para tal foi aplicado o método de estimação de magnitude, utilizando-se uma equipe de 10 provadores selecionados e treinados. A doçura ideal de sacarose foi de 8,3% para a bebida de chá-mate solúvel, sem diferença significativa entre as temperaturas de estudo. Ocorreram diferenças sensoriais importantes em função da temperatura, pois, enquanto para alguns edulcorantes o aumento de temperatura provocou diminuição na potência edulcorante, para outros foi observado aumento do poder edulcorante. Portanto, não se deve generalizar as alterações no poder edulcorante em função da temperatura, pois ela pode variar em função da classe química envolvida e do meio de dispersão em que se encontra.In this work the effect of temperature of consumption in the equi-sweetness and sweetening power of different sweetening agents was verified in tea drink in soluble powder. The panelists had evaluated: aspartame, sucralose, mixture of cyclamate/saccharin (2:1, Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni] and acesulfame-K as sweeteners, having sucrose as reference. All sensory tests were carried-out at 6±2ºC and 45±2ºC. Firstly the ideal sweetness was determined by just-about-right scale with 30 consumers of tea drink. After the ideal sweetness of sucrose determination, the

  7. 人工甜味剂在污水处理厂和自来水厂的归趋%Fate of Artificial Sweeteners in Waste Water and Drinking Water Treatment Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干志伟; 孙红文; 冯碧婷

    2012-01-01

    研究了7种常用的人工甜味剂[安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素、纽甜、阿斯巴甜和NHDC(新橙皮苷二氢查耳酮)]在污水处理厂及自来水厂的分布.7种人工甜味剂在污水处理厂进水中均被检出,质量浓度为6.4 ~ 31 671.0 ng/L.安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素在污水处理厂的出水中被检出,质量浓度为32.4 ~ 11 204.0 ng/L.这些甜味剂将随污水处理厂的出水排放而进入水环境.安赛蜜、三氯蔗糖、糖精、甜蜜素、纽甜在自来水厂进水中被检出,质量浓度为低于定量限~579.4 ng/L,其中前4种在自来水中被检出,质量浓度为23.3 ~504.2 ng/L.沉淀、絮凝、氯化消毒作用对人工甜味剂没有明显的去除作用.生物降解能有效去除糖精、甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、纽甜和NHDC,但对安赛蜜和三氯蔗糖去除率不高,去除率均小于20%.%The occurrence and removal of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, neotame, aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) in waste water treatment processes ( WWTP) and drinking water treatment processes (DWTP) were assessed. All of the seven investigated artificial sweeteners were detected in the influent of WWTP, with concentrations ranging from 6. 4-31 ,671. 0 ng/L. The first four artificial sweeteners ( acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin and cyclamate) were detected in the effluent, with concentrations ranging from 32. 4-11 ,204. 0 ng/L. They might be a contaminant source for surface water. Acesulfame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate and neotame were found in the source water of DWTP, with concentrations between < LOQ and 579.4 ng/L. The first four artificial sweeteners were detected in drinking water, with concentrations ranging from 23.3-504.2 ng/L. The sedimentation, flocculation and chlorination in DWTP could not significantly remove the investigated artificial sweeteners. Compared with the other five

  8. 超高效液相色谱-高分辨质谱法快速检测白酒中4种甜味剂%Rapid detection of 4 sweeteners in spirit by UPLC-HRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 俞心愉; 李磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish the rapid,sensitive and accurate detection method of 4 sweeteners (sodium cyclamate,sucralose,aspartame,and neotame) in spirit by ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry(UP-LC-HRMS).Methods Spirit sample was loaded into the column,eluted by methanol-water mobile phase,isolated with column Hypersil GOLD C18(100 mm ×2.1 mm,1.8 μm),and detected by Q-Exactive high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode,so qualitative and quantitative information was rapidly acquired.Results Under the conditions of full scan mode (120 m/z ~ 500 m/z) and 70 000 mass resolution,the four sweeteners (Cyclamate,Sucralose,Aspartame and Neotame) had good linear relationship (r ≥0.999) with the linear range between 2 μg/L and 400 μg/L.The LOQ (S/N =10) were 1 μg/L,0.3 g/L,1 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L respectively.The matrix recoveries were between 97.2% and 114.6%.The relative standard deviation RSD (n =3) were not exceeded 4%.Conclusion High resolution mass spectrum has a high selectivity.It substantially eliminates the sample matrix interference and simplifies the sample preparation.It can fully meet the requirements for rapid detection of sweeteners in spirit.%目的 建立白酒中甜蜜素、三氯蔗糖、阿斯巴甜和纽甜的快速、灵敏、准确的超高效液相色谱-高分辨质谱检测方法.方法 样品直接进样,经甲醇-水流动相洗脱,Hypersil GOLD C18(100 mm ×2.1 mm,1.8 μm)柱分离和Q-Ex-active高分辨质谱负离子模式检测,快速获得目标化合物定性、定量信息.结果 在质谱分辨率R=70 000、全扫描(fullscan)范围120m/z~500m/z检测条件下,4种甜味剂在2μg/L~ 400 μg/L浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系(r≥0.999);定量限LOQ(S/N=10)分别为1μg/L、0.3 μg/L、1μg/L和0.1μg/L.基质加标回收率在97.2%~ 114.6%之间,相对标准偏差RSD(n=3)≤4%.结论 该法具有的高选择性和高灵敏度,避免了样品基质干扰,节

  9. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids. Adverse impacts of LCS have appeared diminished in animals on dietary restriction, but were pronounced among males, animals genetically predisposed to obesity, and animals with diet-induced obesity. Impacts have been especially striking in animals on high-energy diets: diets high in fats and sugars, and diets which resemble a highly-processed 'Western' diet, including trans-fatty acids and monosodium glutamate. These studies have offered both support for, and biologically plausible mechanisms to explain, the results from a series of large-scale, long-term prospective observational studies conducted in humans, in which longitudinal increases in weight, abdominal adiposity, and incidence of overweight and obesity have been observed among study participants who reported using diet sodas and other

  10. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  11. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  12. Isolation, purification and characterisation of an organic solvent-tolerant Ca2+-dependent protease from Bacillus megaterium AU02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, J Deepa Arul; Divakar, K; Prabha, M Suriya; Selvam, G Panneer; Gautam, Pennathur

    2014-01-01

    A new organic solvent-tolerant strain Bacillus megaterium AU02 which secretes an organic solvent-tolerant protease was isolated from milk industry waste. Statistical methods were employed to achieve optimum protease production of 43.6 U/ml in shake flask cultures. The productivity of the protease was increased to 53 U/ml when cultivated under controlled conditions in a 7-L fermentor. The protease was purified to homogeneity by a three-step process with 24 % yield and specific activity of 5,375 U/mg. The molecular mass of the protease was found to be 59 kDa. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH (6.0–9.0), with an optimum activity at pH 7.0 and temperature from 40 to 70 °C having an optimum activity at 50 °C. The thermal stability of the enzyme increased significantly in the presence of CaCl2, and it retained 90 % activity at 50 °C for 3 h. The Km and Vmax values were determined as 0.722 mg/ml and 0.018 U/mg respectively. The metalloprotease exhibited significant stability in the presence of organic solvents with log P values more than 2.5, nonionic detergents and oxidising agent. An attempt was made to test the synthesis of aspartame precursor (Cbz-Asp-Phe-NH2) which was catalysed by AU02 protease in the presence of 50 % DMSO. These properties of AU02 protease make it an ideal choice for enzymatic peptide synthesis in organic media. PMID:24122712

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF LORATADINE FOR SUBLINGUAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanusiya A.Qadir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Loratadine is a second generation orally administered non-sedative antihistamine used in the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis, urticarial (hives and other skin allergies. In the work undertaken, an attempt was made to prepare quick release films of loratadine with the purpose of developing a dosage form for very quick onset of action, which will be beneficial in managing severe condition of allergies, aiding in enhancement of bioavailability and very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing & without using water. The drug has salty taste and hence an attempt was made to mask the taste by using artificial sweetener aspartame which also acts as a saliva stimulant. The films of loratadine were prepared by using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC & polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC by solvent casting method. The IR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer. They were evaluated for physicochemical tests such as thickness, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drug content, folding endurance, surface pH, tensile strength and % elongation, disintegration test, all of which showed satisfactory results. The formulations were also subjected for in vitro drug release by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug release was also carried out using porcine membrane as the model. All the formulation showed 70-92% release within 4 min by the in vitro method and 64-86% within 4 min during ex vivo drug release studies. The stability studies conducted showed that there was no appreciable change when stored at refrigeration temperature 2-8°C, room temperature 25-30°C and oven temperature 45-50°C.

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF LORATADINE FOR SUBLINGUAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanusiya A.Qadir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loratadine is a second generation orally administered non-sedative antihistamine used in the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis, urticarial (hives and other skin allergies. In the work undertaken, an attempt was made to prepare quick release films of loratadine with the purpose of developing a dosage form for very quick onset of action, which will be beneficial in managing severe condition of allergies, aiding in enhancement of bioavailability and very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing & without using water. The drug has salty taste and hence an attempt was made to mask the taste by using artificial sweetener aspartame which also acts as a saliva stimulant. The films of loratadine were prepared by using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC & polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC by solvent casting method. The IR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer. They were evaluated for physicochemical tests such as thickness, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drug content, folding endurance, surface pH, tensile strength and % elongation, disintegration test, all of which showed satisfactory results. The formulations were also subjected for in vitro drug release by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug release was also carried out using porcine membrane as the model. All the formulation showed 70-92% release within 4 min by the in vitro method and 64-86% within 4 min during ex vivo drug release studies. The stability studies conducted showed that there was no appreciable change when stored at refrigeration temperature 2-8°C, room temperature 25-30°C and oven temperature 45-50°C.

  15. Reaction kinetics and efficiencies for the hydroxyl and sulfate radical based oxidation of artificial sweeteners in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Janie E; Rickman, Kimberly A; Venter, Andre R; Kiddle, James J; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2012-10-11

    Over the past several decades, the increased use of artificial sweeteners as dietary supplements has resulted in rising concentrations of these contaminants being detected in influent waters entering treatment facilities. As conventional treatments may not quantitatively remove these sweeteners, radical-based advanced oxidation and reduction (AO/RP) treatments could be a viable alternative. In this study, we have established the reaction kinetics for both hydroxyl ((•)OH) and sulfate (SO(4)(•-)) radical reaction with five common artificial sweeteners, as well as their associated reaction efficiencies. Rate constants for acesulfame K, aspartame, rebaudioside A, saccharin, and sucralose were <2 × 10(7), (2.28 ± 0.02) × 10(9), (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10(8), <2 × 10(7), and (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for the sulfate radical, and (3.80 ± 0.27) × 10(9), (6.06 ± 0.05) × 10(9), (9.97 ± 0.12) × 10(9), (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9), and (1.50 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the hydroxyl radical, respectively. These latter values have to be combined with their corresponding reaction efficiencies of 67.9 ± 0.9, 52.2 ± 0.7, 43.0 ± 2.5, 52.7 ± 2.9, and 98.3 ± 3.5% to give effective rate constants for the hydroxyl radical reaction that can be used in the modeling of the AOP based removal of these contaminants. PMID:22900636

  16. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 μm, 2.1 mm ×150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%. PMID:23863365

  17. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat. PMID:21426952

  18. Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Sagne, I; Leblanc, J C; Verger, P

    2001-07-01

    In 1994, European Directive 94/35/CE authorised the use as food additives of five intense sweeteners for which Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) were established. The same directive stipulated that member states should organise a monitoring system to determine the consumption of these substances. Diabetic children are normally considered to constitute a group with a high consumption of sweeteners (European Commission, 1998. Report on Methodology for the Monitoring of Food Additives Intake across the European Union. Report of the Scientific Cooperation, Task 4.2 SCOOP/INT/REPORT/2. European Commission Directorate General III, Brussels.). A stepwise approach to the food additive intake in the general population had shown that three of the five authorised intense sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame K) are used at particularly high levels in sugar-free foods and are also very commonly utilised as table-top sweeteners. This paper presents the results of a food intake survey conducted in a group of French, insulin-dependent children in 1997, aimed at estimating the Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) for these three sweeteners and comparing this with the relevant ADI values. A 5-day diary questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of sugar-free, artificially sweetened foods and table-top sweeteners. When assessing the intake of each additive, all sugar-free products were assumed to be sweetened using a single sweetener at its maximum authorised level. This study was performed in five age groups, and based on the mean and 97.5th percentile of the distribution of consumption, demonstrated that it was unlikely that total exposure could rise above the ADI. PMID:11397521

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Two Preservatives and Three Sweeteners in Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage by HPLC Method%HPLC法同时测定乳酸菌饮料中2种防腐剂和3种甜味剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京京

    2012-01-01

    建立了一种高效液相色谱法同时测定乳酸菌饮料中2种防腐剂(苯甲酸、山梨酸)、3种甜味剂(乙酰磺氨酸钾、天门冬酰苯丙氨酸甲酯、糖精钠)的方法.样品经12%乙酸锌溶液和12%亚铁氰化钾溶液处理后,用C18色谱柱分离,以甲醇和0.02 mol/L乙酸铵溶液为流动相梯度淋洗,紫外检测波长为230,205 nm,可在30 min内将5种组分完全分离,测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.1%~4.3%(n=5),加标回收率为90%~102%.%A rapid and selective HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of two preservatives and three sweeteners including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K), L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame), saccharin sodium in lactic acid bacteria beverage. The preservatives and sweeteners in samples were extracted with 12% zinc acetate solution and 12% potassium ferrocyanide solution, separated on a Cl8 column using a mobile phase made up of methanol - 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate and ultraviolet detection wavelength was 230,265 nm. All the five additives were separated completely in 30 minutes. The recovery was in the range 90% - 102%, and the RSD of determination results was 1.1%-4.3%(n=5).

  20. Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts. PMID:17567713

  1. Selective continuous monitoring and analysis of mixtures of acesulfame-K, cyclamate, and saccharin in artificial sweetener tablets, diet soft drinks, yogurts, and wines using filter-supported bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolelis, D P; Pantoulias, S

    2001-12-15

    This work describes a technique for the rapid and sensitive electrochemical flow injection monitoring and analysis of mixtures of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, cyclamate, and saccharin using stabilized systems of filter-supported bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Injections of artificial sweeteners were made into flowing streams of a carrier electrolyte solution, and a transient current signal with duration of seconds reproducibly appeared in less than sweeteners. The magnitude of this signal was linearly related to the concentration of artificial sweeteners, which could be determined at micromolar levels. Repetitive cycles of injection of artificial sweeteners have shown no signal degradation during each cycle (30 sequential injections). The time of appearance of the transient response was different for each artificial sweetener and increased in the order of cyclamic acid, acesulfame-K, and saccharin. The difference in time of response has allowed selective detection and analysis of these artificial sweeteners in mixtures. The effect of potent interferences, including a wide range of compounds usually found in foods, proteins, and lipids was investigated. The results showed no interferences from these constituents of real food samples. The major interference from proteins (most common in lipid-film-based biosensors) can be eliminated by modulation of the carrier solution that does not allow adsorption of these compounds in BLMs. The technique was applied in real food samples, that is, in artificial sweetener tablets, diet soft drinks, wines, and yogurts that contain mixtures of these artificial sweeteners with aspartame and other compounds. A comparison of results using the present method and that of an Official Method of Analysis showed good agreement between the two methods. PMID:11791564

  2. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose. PMID:21255472

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners

  4. Dietary intake of four artificial sweeteners by Irish pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A; O'Reilly, Emer; Tlustos, Christina; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In spite of rigorous pre- and post-market reviews of safety, there remains a high level of debate regarding the use of artificial sweeteners in foods. Young children are of particular interest when assessing food chemical exposure as a result of their unique food consumption patterns and comparatively higher exposure to food chemicals on a body weight basis when compared with the general population. The present study examined the intakes of four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) in the diets of children aged 1-4 years using food consumption and sweetener presence data from the Irish National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (2010-11) and analytical data for sweetener concentration in foods obtained from a national testing programme. Four exposure assessment scenarios were conducted using the available data on sweetener occurrence and concentration. The results demonstrated that the mean daily intakes for all four sweeteners were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) (17-31%), even considering the most conservative assumptions regarding sweetener presence and concentration. High consumer intakes (P95) were also below the ADI for the four sweeteners when more realistic estimates of exposure were considered. Both sweetener occurrence and concentration data had a considerable effect on reducing the estimated intake values, with a combined reduction in intakes of 95% when expressed as a proportion of the ADI. Flavoured drinks were deemed to be a key contributor to artificial sweetener intakes in this population cohort. It was concluded that there is no health risk to Irish pre-school children at current dietary intake levels of the sweeteners studied. PMID:26939625

  5. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

    2012-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

  6. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  7. Comparison of hydrophilic interaction and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common steviol glycosides in popular beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to separate artificial and natural sweeteners approved for use in European Union (EU). Among three tested HILIC columns (BlueOrchid PAL-HILIC, Ascentis Express Si and Acclaim™ Trinity™ P2) the last one was selected for the development of HILIC method due to the best results obtained with it. Early eluting and coeluting compounds in HILIC (acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) were successfully separated by the HILIC-based approach for the first time. The developed HILIC method allows for determination of all high potency sweeteners in one analytical run. The calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity within the tested ranges. The limits of detection and quantitation were in the range 0.81-3.30ng/mL and 2.32-9.89ng/mL, respectively. The obtained recoveries used for trueness and precision estimation were from 98.6% to 106.2% with standard deviation less than 4.1%. Sample preparation was reduced to a necessary minimum and contained only proper dilution and centrifugation. More than twenty samples of beverages were analyzed with the developed HILIC method. Finally, the chromatographic parameters of peaks (reduced retention time, width at baseline, width at 50% of peak height, tailing factor and efficiency) obtained in HILIC mode and in RPLC mode were compared. Developed HILIC method along with RPLC method can be applied for rapid evaluation of sweeteners' content, quality and safety control. PMID:26782293

  8. Ubiquitous Detection of Artificial Sweeteners and Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media in Aquatic Environmental and Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Bach, Leu Tho; Van Dinh, Pham; Prudente, Maricar; Aguja, Socorro; Phay, Nyunt; Nakata, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Water samples from Vietnam, The Philippines, and Myanmar were analyzed for artificial sweeteners (ASs) and iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs). High concentrations (low micrograms per liter) of ASs, including aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, were found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents from Vietnam. Three ICMs, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide were detected in Vietnamese WWTP influents and effluents, suggesting that these ICMs are frequently used in Vietnam. ASs and ICMs were found in river water from downtown Hanoi at concentrations comparable to or lower than the concentrations in WWTP influents. The ASs and ICMs concentrations in WWTP influents and adjacent surface water significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.99, p < 0.001), suggesting that household wastewater is discharged directly into rivers in Vietnam. Acesulfame was frequently detected in northern Vietnamese groundwater, but the concentrations varied spatially by one order of magnitude even though the sampling points were very close together. This implies that poorly performing domestic septic tanks sporadically leak household wastewater into groundwater. High acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose concentrations were found in surface water from Manila, The Philippines. The sucralose concentrations were one order of magnitude higher in the Manila samples than in the Vietnamese samples, indicating that more sucralose is used in The Philippines than in Vietnam. Acesulfame and cyclamate were found in surface water from Pathein (rural) and Yangon (urban) in Myanmar, but no ICMs were found in the samples. The ASs concentrations were two-three orders of magnitude lower in the samples from Myanmar than in the samples from Vietnam and The Philippines, suggesting that different amounts of ASs are used in these countries. We believe this is the first report of persistent ASs and ICMs having ubiquitous distributions in economically emerging South Asian countries. PMID:26304512

  9. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  10. Stereoselective analysis of D and L dansyl amino acids as the mixed chelate copper(II) complexes by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S

    1984-09-01

    This paper reviews the mixed chelation approach to resolution of the optical isomers of D and L dansyl amino acids by high performance liquid chromatography. The use of eluants containing Cu(II) complexes of L-proline, L-arginine, L-histidine, and L-histidine methyl ester effected the separation of many D and L amino acids, including those with aliphatic, polar, and aromatic substituents. The mechanism of separation, which is based on the preferential ternary complex formation of the analyte amino acid and the chiral chelate with Cu(II) in the mobile phase, is discussed. The stereoselectivity depends mainly on the different steric interactions between the alkyl side chains of the amino acid analytes and the chiral ligands coordinating around Cu(II), although such parameters as pH, temperature, organic modifier, and concentration of the chiral additive also affect the chromatographic separation. Among the chiral ligands studied, L-histidine methyl ester is unique in that it possesses both achiral selectivity for the dansyl amino acids and chiral selectivity for the respective D and L enantiomers. With a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile in a buffer containing Cu(II) L-histidine methyl ester complex, a stereoselective procedure was devised for the analysis of D and L amino acid enantiomers, achieving the separation that the current amino acid analyzer could not perform. Finally, the use of the mixed chelation approach in two biomedical studies is described. In the first application, the histidine methyl ester gradient was adapted for analyzing amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid; in the second, an L-aspartame Cu(II) complex eluant was developed for measuring the urine concentration of D and L pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a metabolite of lysine. PMID:6490790

  11. Fast HPLC method using ion-pair and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for determination of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousa, Michal; Gibala, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A rapid procedure based on a direct extraction and HPLC determination with fluorescence detection of phenylephrine in pharmaceutical sachets that include a large excess of paracetamol (65 + 1, w/w), ascorbic acid (5 + 1, w/w), and other excipients (aspartame and sucrose) was developed and validated. The final optimized chromatographic method for ion-pair chromatography used an XTerra RP18 column, 3 microm particle size, 50 x 3.0 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (10 mM sodium octane-1-sulfonate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.2; 200 + 800, v/v), with a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 30 degrees C, and the injection volume was 3 microL. Fluorescence detection was performed at excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 and 310 nm, respectively. The mobile phase parameters, such as the organic solvent fraction (acetonitrile) in mobile phase as an organic modifier, the concentration of sodium octane-1-sulfonate as a counter-ion, temperature, and pH of mobile phase, were studied. As an alternative to ion-pair chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was investigated using a Luna HILIC column, 3 microm, 100 x 4.6 mm id. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and buffer (5 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, adjusted with H3PO4 to pH 2.5; 750 + 250, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The separation was carried out at 25 degrees C, and the injection volume was 5 microL. The proposed method has an advantage of a very simple sample pretreatment, and is much faster than the currently utilized HPLC methods using gradient elution and UV detection. Commercial samples of sachets were successfully analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. PMID:21140654

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids in urine and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Azumaya, H; Karmen, A

    1984-10-19

    Two different methods for analyzing amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both of which can separate D- and L- stereoisomers, have been used for studying the amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. One method, by which Dns derivatives of amino acids are separated as mixed chelate complexes with Cu(II) and a single stereoisomer of a second amino acid, was used to analyze CSF. CSF contains ca. 10 mumole/l per amino acid, compared to 100 mumole/l in serum. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection enabled complete analysis, starting with 50 microliter of fluid. The second method, which uses lower concentrations of both the copper and the second amino acid and detects amino acids by the change in absorbance of the copper complex, was used to measure the urine concentration of the lysine metabolite, pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a secondary amino acid that is difficult to detect by the more usual detection methods. Our procedure involves passing urine through a cation-exchange column, collecting the fraction containing pipecolic acid, and chromatographing it on a reversed-phase HPLC column with a mobile phase containing L-aspartame and Cu(II). To assess the utility of the method, urine samples from a patient given loading doses of D- or L-isomers were analyzed. When either isomer was administered, both D- and L-isomers were detected, but in different proportions. Varying proportions and concentrations of both isomers were also detected in the urines of patients with hyperpipecolatemia from different metabolic abnormalities. PMID:6501504

  13. Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenjau; Wang, Yun-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners. PMID:26380162

  14. ТЕНДЕНЦИИ В ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ САХАРОЗАМЕНИТЕЛЕЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Канарская, З.; Демина, Н.

    2012-01-01

    Показаны проблемы в производстве и применении сахара. Рассмотрены тенденции в создании специализированных продуктов питания на основе сахарозаменителей: сахарина, цикломата, аспартама, ацесульфама К, сукролозы, маннита, сорбита, ксилита, солодкового корня, стевиозида, изомальтулозы, маннозыThe issue of production and application of sugar has been shown. The tendency to creature of specialized foodstuffs based on sugar substitutes: saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralo...

  15. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanofibers based solid phase microextraction coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for selective determination of acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-adergani, Behrouz

    2015-03-01

    Sol-gel based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofiber was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique on the surface of a stainless steel bar. The manufactured tool was applied for on-line selective solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination of acesulfame (ACF) as an artificial sweetener with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The selective ability of method for the extraction of ACF was investigated in the presence of some selected sweeteners such as saccharine (SCH), aspartame (ASP) and caffeine (CAF). Electrospinning of MIP sol-gel solution on the stainless steel bar provided an unbreakable sorbent with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. Moreover, application of the MIP-SPME tool revealed a unique approach for the selective microextraction of the analyte in beverage samples. In this work, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propylamine (TMSPA) was chosen as a precursor due to its ability to imprint the analyte by hydrogen bonding, Van der Walls, and dipole-dipole interactions. Nylon 6 was also added as a backbone and support for the precursor in which sol could greatly growth during the sol-gel process and makes the solution electrospinable. Various effective parameters in the extraction efficiency of the MIP-SPME tool such as loading time, flow rate, desorption time, selectivity, and the sample volume were evaluated. The linearity for the ACF in beverage sample was in the range of 0.78-100.5 ng mL(-1). Limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.23 and 0.78 ng mL(-1) respectively. The RSD values (n=5) were all below 3.5%at the 20 ng mL(-1) level. PMID:25618677

  16. [Influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Yao, Shanshan; Jin, Micong

    2011-10-01

    The influences of ion-suppressors on retention behaviors of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation were investigated. The organic modification effects of acids, i. e. , trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and buffer salts, i. e. , TFA-ammonium acetate (AmAc) were studied emphatically. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percentages of ion-suppressors in the mobile phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, separately. The separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA (0.01%, v/v)-AmAc (2. 5 mmol/L) aqueous solution as the mobile phases. An RP-HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives in red wine. In the range of 10. 0 - 100. 0 mg/L, nine food additives showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients ( r2 ) larger than 0. 999 1. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 33 - 2. 36 mg/L and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 1. 11 - 7. 80 mg/L. The spiked recoveries were between 87. 61% and 108. 4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 2% -9. 4%. These results are of referential significance for the rapid establishment and accu- rate optimization of RP-HPLC separation for the simultaneous determination of food additives in other foods. PMID:22268355

  17. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples. PMID:23059992

  18. [Diet therapy in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo-Perin, P; Bodoni, P; Marena, S

    1997-12-01

    The main approach in NIDDM therapy is diet. Most patients present insulin resistance characterized by overweight, VLDL increase, minimal increase of LDL, decrease of HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. The overall goals of nutrition therapy are the maintenance of near normal glucose levels, and the achievement of optimal serum lipid levels with adequate calories for maintaining or attaining a reasonable body weight. In presence of obesity and hypertension even a slightly weight loss could achieve an improvement in metabolic control and in hypertension with a better life expectance. General-ly carbohydrate intake would represent the 50-60% of total caloric amount (with preference to those with low glycemic index), and lipids no more than 35% (less than 10% of these 10-15% from monounsaturated fats with less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol). If elevated very low density lipoproteins level is the primary problem, a beneficial approach is 10% of total caloric intake from saturated fats, 10% from polyunsaturated, and 15-20% from monounsaturated fats with less than 200 mg/day of cholesterol and 40% of carbohydrates. A large amount of fructose (20% of calories) may increase LDL levels but sweeteners as saccarine or aspartame are approved and determine a better diet compliance. Daily consumpion of 20-35 g of dietary fibres from food sources is recommended for metabolic control. Protein intake would be of about 10% of total caloric amount especially in presence of diabetic nepropathy. Alcohol would not exceed 30 g/day for men and 20 g/day for women keeping in mild that alcohol may worsen metabolic control, diet compliance, and may be dangerous itself. For people with hypertension a decrease of dietary sodium intake is recommended. Nutritional recommendations are developed to meet treatment goals and desired outcomes. Monitoring metabolic parameters, blood pressure, and body weight is very important to ensure successful outcomes. PMID:16501444

  19. Effects of supplemental carbohydrate ingestion during superimposed electromyostimulation exercise in elite weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Brown, Stanley P

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the effects of carbohydrate supplementation on blood parameters and force output during superimposed electromyostimulation (SEMS) single-leg isometric contractions. We hypothesized that carbohydrate ingestion before and during muscle contractions would lead to greater glucose availability and greater total force output for the session. Six elite resistance trained male subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind study. The subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (PL) or carbohydrate (CHO). The subjects in CHO consumed 1 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass loading dose and 0.17 g of carbohydrate · per kilogram of body mass every 6 minutes during the exercise protocol. The PL received an equal volume of a solution made of saccharin and aspartame. The exercise protocol consisted of repeated 20-second isometric contractions of quadriceps muscle at 50% maximal voluntary contraction followed by 40 seconds of rest until failure occurred. Importantly, quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction with SEMS was performed in the beginning and then every 5 minutes during the last 3 seconds of isometric contractions throughout the exercise protocol. Venous blood samples were taken preexercise, immediately postexercise, and at 5 minutes postexercise and analyzed for glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and glycerol. Our results indicate that CHO ingestion increased (p glucose, but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected for nonesterified fatty acids or glycerol. Importantly, total force output during exercise protocol was higher (p < 0.05) in CHO compared with that in PL. Therefore, our data suggest that CHO supplementation before and during exercise may be beneficial for individuals performing high-volume resistance training. PMID:23442284

  20. An empathetic look at overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, M

    1993-01-01

    The author contends that neither behavioral nor psychological factors are responsible for obesity or overweight, but that physiological and nutritional factors are. Obesity and overweight are relevant to natural family planning because they contribute to various problems of the female reproductive system. Body fat stores estrogen, and excess body fat increases estrogen levels which creates various problems. For example, elevated estrogen levels may contribute to endometrium build-up, resulting in heavy, prolonged bleeding during menstruation or in midcycle. They may kick off a reaction, causing suppressed ovulation, premenstrual spotting, and menstrual cramps. Other possible effects of high estrogen levels are fibroid tumors, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and amenorrhea. The consistent pressure of excess body fat on the uterus can result in uterine prolapse. Overweight may also be a symptom of a reproductive problem, e.g., ovarian failure. Hypoglycemia, including reactive hypoglycemia, caused by a diet high in sugar and white flour, plays a key role in overweight. Excessive insulin secretion in reactive hypoglycemic cases maintains high glucose levels, and the body stores the excess glucose in fat cells. Thus, a diet low in sugary foods and high in fiber-rich complex carbohydrates is the most successful way to lose weight. However, vitamins and minerals needed to maintain blood sugar levels must supplement this diet to be successful. These vitamins and minerals include the B vitamins, magnesium, and, perhaps, chromium. Iodine, vitamins A and E, zinc, and selenium help the thyroid gland operate optimally, so as to avoid excess blood sugar levels. Vitamin E, lecithin, and evening primrose oil assist the body in using fat better. Regular exercise is also important to burn excess fat. Aspartame (Nutrasweet) exacerbates hypoglycemia and is usually found in refined foods and non-foods. PMID:12318598

  1. Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J E; Keim, K S; Huisinga, J L; Willmann, P A

    1989-06-01

    To determine whether ingestion of sucrose-containing snacks would affect blood glucose (BG) control, 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in a 5-day double-blind study at a diabetes camp. Eight subjects in the sucrose group ate sucrose-sweetened snacks twice a day, and 8 subjects in the control group ingested snacks that were sweetened with aspartame. The percentage of total daily calories derived from added sucrose was 7% for the sucrose group and 1% for the control group. Metabolic control was assessed by daily capillary BG measurements obtained before meals and the bedtime snack and by determination of serum fructosamine (F) concentrations on arrival at camp (day 0) and after 5 days on the study protocol (day 5). No significant difference was seen between the groups on day 0 (sucrose group [mean +/- SD]: BG 9.9 +/- 3.6 mM, F 3.54 +/- 0.38 mM; control group: BG 9.1 +/- 2.8 mM, F 3.74 +/- 0.71 mM) or day 5 (sucrose group: BG 8.8 +/- 2.6 mM, F 2.94 +/- 0.32 mM; control group: BG 7.4 +/- 2.8 mM, F 2.92 +/- 0.59 mM). We conclude that ingestion of sucrose, added to snacks in an amount up to 7% of total energy intake, does not adversely affect short-term BG control. PMID:2659302

  2. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  3. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO – IN VIVO CHARACTERIZATION OF ORAL FAST DISINTEGRATING FILMS OF A DRUG MEANT FOR CHRONIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayalakshmi*, E. Surender , B. Pragna , Md. Zia Askary , Lohidasu Borubhadra , A.J. Balamurugan and Hemant Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to design oral FDFs of a drug meant for management of chronic disease like type-2 diabetes mellitus which affects mostly elderly population. Glimepiride was the drug of choice because of its low dose. Since in vitro dissolution rate is the rate limiting step in drug absorption for class II drugs, in the present work, it was also proposed to make a complex of the drug with hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPBCD to improve the physicochemical-pharmacokinetic characters of the drug. Various batches of FDFs were developed by the solvent casting method using water soluble polymers HPMC-E5 and Maltodextrin as film formers; Glycerol and PEG-600 as plasticizers; Sodium starch glycollate as super disintegrating/channeling agent; Sodium lauryl sulphate, polaxamer 407 and Tween-80 as surfactants; aspartame as a sweetener and brilliant blue as coloring agent. The drug was complexed with HPBCD by kneading method in the ratio of 1:1 and was incorporated in the film in the place of plain drug. Poloxamer containing films gave better physico-chemical characters than the other tested surfactants and addition of HPBCD complexed drug further improved the characters of the films. The formulation containing drug- HPBCD complex and polaxamer 407 as the surfactant gave lowest disintegration time, more uniform and faster dissolution profile, had better taste, highter Cmax and lower tmax values during in vivo studies. It can therefore be concluded that the drug in its most soluble form gives better physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characters which results in better management of the disease as patient compliance improves.

  4. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  5. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  6. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkalla Salwa W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers. Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group. Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts. The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose

  7. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  8. Análise descritiva quantitativa de edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDELLO Helena Maria André Bolini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Edulcorantes em solução, com a mesma equivalência de doçura, podem apresentar características sensoriais que os tornam diferentes entre si. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar Análise Descritiva Quantitativa de soluções de aspartame (APM, extrato de folhas de estévia (SrB e mistura ciclamato/sacarina 2:1 (C/S em diferentes níveis de doçura, ou seja, em equivalência de doçura a uma solução aquosa de sacarose a 3, 10, 20 e 30%. Onze provadores, pré-selecionados através de análise seqüencial, tendo como critério suas habilidades de discriminação, foram treinados após o levantamento da terminologia descritiva. Após o treinamento, os provadores foram selecionados através de seu poder de discriminação, reproducibilidade e concordância com a equipe no uso de escalas. Os termos descritivos dos edulcorantes, para todos os níveis de doçura, gerados através do método rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method foram: doçura inicial, doçura residual, amargo inicial, amargo residual, residual de alcaçuz, corpo e acidez. Os resultados obtidos para cada nível de doçura foram analisados através de análise de variância, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. A análise descritiva foi efetiva em caracterizar o perfil sensorial dos edulcorantes em diferentes concentrações, evidenciando as mudanças no perfil com o aumento de suas concentrações.

  9. 梯度洗脱HPLC法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中甜味剂含量%Gradient HPLC determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 金薇; 乐健; 杨永健

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中4种甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)的方法,并在2011年度国家药品质量评价性抽验工作中,按照所建方法对盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中的4种甜味剂进行测定和评价.方法:采用Agilent SB-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)柱,流动相A为0.02 mol·L-1磷酸二氢铵缓冲液(pH 4.4),流动相B为乙腈,流速1.0 mL·min-1,线性梯度洗脱,检测波长为200 nm(糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)和226 nm(安赛蜜).结果:安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦和甜菊糖、甜菊素分离完全,各辅料均无干扰,线性范围分别为0.00561 ~0.225 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00106 ~0.106 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00522 ~0.209 mg· mL-1(r =0.9999)和0.00517~0.296 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000);检测限分别为0.4 ng,0.4 ng,1.6 ng和15.5 ng;定量限分别为1.3 ng,1.5 ng,5.2 ng和51.7 ng;平均加样回收率(n=6)分别为98.8% (RSD=0.5%),99.5%(RSD=0.3%),100.6%(RSD=0.2%),99.1% (RSD=1.1%).结论:本法具有较高的选择性,结果稳定,通过测定甜味剂的含量可监控制剂生产过程中辅料投料是否与处方一致.%Objective: To develop a method for determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution including potassium acesulfame, sodium saccharine, aspartame and stevioside/steviosin. Methods: The separation was conducted on an Agilent SB - C18(4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) and coupled with DAD at 200 nm( sodium saccharine , aspartame and stevioside/steviosin) and 226 nm ( potassium acesulfame). The mobile phase consisted of 0. 02 mol · L-1 ammonium dihydrogen phosphate( pH 4. 4 ) ( A) and acetonitrile ( B ) with gradient program. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min . Results:Good separation of 4 sweeteners and other excipients were achieved. The linear ranges of potassium acesulfame,sodium saccharinem,aspartame and stevioside were 0. 00561 -0. 225 mg · mL-1 (r = 1.0000) ,0.00106 -0

  10. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting. PMID:24547668

  11. Rate of atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice long after discontinuation of cola beverage drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of cola beverages drinking on atherosclerosisand test the hypothesis whether cola beverages consumption at early life stages might affect the development and progression of atherosclerosis later in life. ApoE-/- C57BL/6J mice (8 week-old were randomized in 3 groups (n = 20 each according to free accessto water (W, sucrose sweetened carbonated cola drink(C or aspartame-acesulfame K sweetened carbonated 'light' cola drink (Lfor the next 8 weeks. Drinking treatment was ended by switching C and L groups to drinking water. Four mice per group and time were sequentially euthanized: before treatment (8 weeks-old, at the end of treatment (16 weeks-old and after treatment discontinuation (20 weeks-old, 24 weeks-old, 30 week-old mice. Aortic roots and livers were harvested, processed for histology and serial cross-sections were stained. Aortic plaque area was analyzed and plaque/media-ratio was calculated. Early consumption of cola drinks accelerated atherosclerotic plaque progression favoring the interaction between macrophages and myofibroblasts, without the participation of either T lymphocytes or proliferative activity. Plaque/media-ratio varied according to drink treatment (F2,54 = 3.433, p<0.04 and mice age (F4,54 = 5.009, p<0.03 and was higher in C and L groups compared with age-matched W group (p<0.05 at 16 weeks and 20 weeks, p<0.01 at 24 weeks and 30 weeks. Natural evolution of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice (W group evidenced atherosclerosis acceleration in parallel with a rapid increase in liver inflammation around the 20 weeks of age. Cola drinking within the 8-16 weeks of age accelerated atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice favoring aortic plaque enlargement (inward remodeling over media thinning all over the study time. Data suggest that cola drinking at early life stages may predispose to atherosclerosis progression later in life in ApoE-/- mice.

  12. 荷叶水果茶保健饮料的开发%Development of a Health Beverage of Lotus and Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春茹; 舒成亮; 单胜艳; 郭晓风

    2014-01-01

    A health beverage helping to reduce body fat was made using lotus leaf,mulberry leaf,and Pu’er tea as the major materials,specially adding the slimming factor of L-carnitine and the energy release factor of Isomaltulose. The results showed that the quality ratio of lotus leaf,mulberry leaf and Pu’er tea was 5∶2∶3;the best extracting condition was:the ratio of material to water 1∶50;the temperature 90℃; the extraction time 30 min. The optimal composition was 40% complex juice, 5 % pear juice, 3% melon juice, 2% hawthorn juice, 4.5% isomaltulose, 0.06% L-canitine, 0.04%citric acid, 0.02%baking soda, 0.005%aspartame, 0.005%acesulfame potassium.%以荷叶、桑叶、普洱茶为原料,添加山楂、冬瓜、梨等清汁调味,特别添加减肥因子左旋肉碱和能量缓释因子异麦芽酮糖,研制有助于减少体内脂肪的保健饮料。结果表明:荷叶、桑叶、普洱茶物料配比为5∶2∶3;最佳浸提条件为料水比1∶50,浸提温度90℃,浸提时间30min;调配比例为荷叶混合提取液40%,梨汁5%,冬瓜汁3%,山楂清汁2%,异麦芽酮糖4.5%,左旋肉碱0.06%,柠檬酸0.04%,小苏打0.02%,阿斯巴甜0.005%,安赛蜜0.005%。

  13. 薄荷型红枣南瓜复合保健饮料的研制%Development of Health Beverage Compound of Red date,Pumpkin and Peppermint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星; 单杨

    2011-01-01

    试验以红枣、南瓜、薄荷叶为主要原料,按最佳料水比和浸提时间进行浸提,煮泡等获得清液;采用单因素试验,选取最佳的枣汁、南瓜汁及薄荷茶的浓度,并在此基础上进行复配试验.通过正交试验,研制出最佳配方是:红枣50%,南瓜25%,薄荷12%,阿斯巴甜0.015%,柠檬酸003%;饮料复合稳定剂0.08%;可溶性固形物8%;pl值4.3.薄荷型红枣南瓜保健饮料营养丰富、风味独特,原料来源充足,价格相对低廉,生产方法简便易行,具有很高的开发利用价值和很好的市场前景.%Hhe red date, pumpkin and peppermint leaves were taken as main materials to acquire better compound health beverage through boiling and extracting these materials with optimum ratio of material to water and extracting time. A single factor experiment was used to select the optimum content of red date juice, pumpkin juice and peppermint juice, and then a compound experiment with orthogonal design was conducted to determine the optimum formula, which is as follows: 50% red date juice, 20% pumpkin juice, 15% peppermint juice, 0.02% aspartame and 0.03% citric acid, 0.08% beverage compound stabilizer, 8% soluble solid and pH=4.3. Finally, a nutritious health beverage with special flavor which compounded red date, pumpkin and peppermint had made. This health beverage has abundance resources of the materials with relatively low price, and simple producing method. So, this health beverage has high value of development and great marketing prospect.

  14. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  15. Possible pathomechanism of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The hepatotropic viruses, measles, and herpesviruses as well as different drugs were repeatedly shown to act presumably as a trigger in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AI-H). On the other hand, it is known that viral infections stimulate interferon production, which inactivates the cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of several endogenous substances and exogenous environmental agents. Moreover, it was reported that several cytokines, including interferons, as well as transforming growth factor beta1 and human hepatocyte growth factor, which are abundantly produced and released in the body during infections, also downregulated expression of major cytochrome P-450 and/or other biotransformation enzymes. It seems that all these factors, in addition to individual immune response and the nature and amount of the neoantigen(s) produced, impair the equilibrium of bioactivation and detoxication pathways, thus leading to the development of AI-H in a genetically predisposed person continually exposed to harmful environmental factor(s). Possible increased/decreased density of lysine residues at position D-related human leukocyte antigen locus (DR)beta71 of the antigen-binding groove may affect the eventual steroid-sparing effect of this critical amino acid at the cellular level. In addition, some food additives, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or aspartame regularly consumed in excessive amounts, may eventually disturb the delicate balance between a positively charged amino acid residue at position DRbeta71 (lysine or arginine) and a negatively charged amino acid residue at position P4 on the antigenic peptide (glutamic acid or aspartic acid). This may favor formation of a salt bridge between these amino acid residues within the hypervariable region 3 on the alpha-helix of the DRbeta polypeptide and facilitate autoantigen presentation and CD4 T-helper cell activation. MSG and aspartate may also depress serum concentrations of growth hormone, which

  16. 昂丹司琼口腔黏附片的制备及评价%Preparation and evaluation of ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友智; 王力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate an oral mucosal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochioride. Methods The tablets were prepared with carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used in preparing oral mucosal adhesive tablets. The study was appraised by different parameters such as drug content, swelling index, in vitro drug release studies, and mucoadhesive strength. Results The optimized formulation was composed of ondansetron (5 mg), CP 934 (30 rag), SCMC LV (165 mg), PEG-6000 (40 mg), lactose (10 mg), magnesium stearate (1.5 mg), and aspar-tame (2 mg). Conclusion Compared with ondansetron ordinary tablets, buccal adhesive ondansetron tablets have good dosage form, maximum release and permeation. Ondansetron oral mucosal adhesive tablets are an alternative route to bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of ondansetron.%目的 制备及评价盐酸昂丹司琼口腔黏附片.方法 采用相关的黏膜黏着剂卡波姆(CP934)、海藻酸钠、低黏度羧甲基纤维素钠( SCMCLV),用直接压片法压片,对黏附片的不同参数如药物含量,体外溶胀百分率、药物体外释放度和黏附力进行评价.结果 筛选出最佳配方:昂丹司琼5mg、CP934 30 mg、SCMC 165 mg、聚乙二醇-6000 40 mg,乳糖10mg、硬脂酸镁1.5 mg和阿斯巴甜2mg.结论 与昂丹司琼的普通片剂进行比较,昂丹司琼口腔黏附片体外药物释放和渗透都很好,既避免了肝脏首过效应,提高了昂丹司琼的生物利用度;又避免了昂丹司琼的苦味,更易于为患者所接受.

  17. Physical properties and bioactive constituents of powdered mixtures and drinks prepared with cocoa and various sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belscak-Cvitanović, Ana; Benković, Maja; Komes, Drazenka; Bauman, Ingrid; Horzić, Dunja; Dujmić, Filip; Matijasec, Matea

    2010-06-23

    with sweeteners (aspartame/acesulfame K and stevia extract), and there was a significant difference in the sensory attributes between the experimental mixtures and the control. The displayed results indicate the significant potential of using alternative sweeteners for the preparation of cocoa drink mixtures, which may provide good physical and sensory properties and also enhance the already existing beneficial effects of cocoa. PMID:20509612

  18. Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction with a buffer composed of formic acid and N,N-diisopropylethylamine at pH 4.5 in ultrasonic bath, extracts were cleaned up using Strata-X 33 μm Polymeric SPE column. The analytes were separated in gradient elution mode on C(18) column and detected by mass spectrometer working with an electrospray source in negative ion mode. To confirm that analytical method is suitable for its intended use, several validation parameters, such as linearity, limits of detection and quantification, trueness and repeatibilty were evaluated. Calibration curves were linear within a studied range of concentrations (r(2) ≥ 0.999) for six investigated sweeteners (CYC, ASP, ALI, DUL, NHDC, NEO). Three compounds (ACS-K, SAC, SCL) gave non-linear response in the investigated concentration range. The method detection limits (corresponding to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3) were below 0.25 μg mL(-1) (μg g(-1)), whereas the method quantitation limits (corresponding to S/N ratio of 10) were below 2.5 μg mL(-1) (μg g(-1)). The recoveries at the tested concentrations (50%, 100% and 125% of maximum usable dose) for all sweeteners were in the range of 84.2 ÷ 106.7%, with relative standard deviations sweeteners in drinks, yoghurts and fish products. The procedure described here is simple, accurate and precise and is suitable for routine quality control analysis of foodstuffs. PMID:21465096

  19. 高效液相色谱-四极杆飞行时间质谱法快速筛查饮料中6种人工合成甜味剂%Analysis of 6 Synthetic Sweeteners in Beverage by Liquid Chromatography--Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 王建华; 刘靖靖; 李立; 颜冬云

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱-四极杆飞行时间串联质谱快速检测饮料中糖精钠、甜蜜素、安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、纽甜、三氯蔗糖6种人工合成甜味剂的方法。样品经水提取,采用C18色谱柱,以甲醇和0.1%甲酸-10 mmol/L甲酸铵溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,四极杆飞行时间串联质谱电喷雾负离子模式检测。各化合物在0.02~2.0 mg/L范围内均呈现良好的线性关系,相关系数均大于0.998。样品平均添加回收率为63.0%~113.2%,测定结果的相对标准偏差均小于9.6%(n=5)。该方法简便快捷,选择性好,灵敏度高,可满足国内外现行法规的限量要求。%A new method was established for the determination of 6 synthetic sweeteners (sodium saccharin, cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, sucralose) in beverage, by using high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q TOF MS). The samples were extracted by water and measured directly by HPLC-Q TOF MS with electrospray ionization in negative mode. The compounds were separated by a C18 column with methyl alcohol and 0.1% formic acid-10 mmol/L ammonium formate solution as the mobile phase. A detailed fragmentation study for 6 synthentic sweeteners was carried out by time of flight. The 6 compounds behave linearly in the range of 0.02-2.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of more than 0.998. The recoveries were 63.0%-113.2%, with coefficients of variation below 9.6%(n=5). The method is suitable for routine qualitative and quantitative analyses of synthetic sweeteners in beverage.

  20. 液相色谱串联质谱法同时检测酱香型白酒中6种人工合成甜味剂%Simultaneous Detection of Six Artificial Sweeteners in Jiangxiang Baijiu(liquor) by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余磊; 王缅; 朱明

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱串联质谱法同时测定白酒中6种人工合成甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、纽甜及三氯蔗糖)的分析方法。样品直接稀释,过0.45滋m滤膜上机分析。采用C18柱分离,以0.1%甲酸水溶液-甲醇为流动相,梯度洗脱,以保留时间和质荷比对分离出的组分进行定性,用峰面积进行定量。结果表明,6种甜味剂的质量浓度与其峰面积在一定范围内呈良好线性关系,10~200 ng/mL范围内相关系数为0.9915~0.9943,20~500 ng/mL范围内相关系数为0.9961~0.9983,检出限均为10滋g/kg,相对标准偏差2.1%~7.9%。%In this study, we developed a method to simultaneously detect six artificial sweeteners(acesulfame K, saccharin sodium, sodium cycla-mate, aspartame, neotame and sucralose) in Jiangxiang Baijiu (liquor) by HPLC-MS/MS. Samples were diluted directly, and went through 0.45μm filter membrane. Then samples were separated by C18 column, using 0.1%formic acid and methanol as mobile phase, with gradient elu-tion. Qualitative analysis of the separated composition was carried out based on retention time and mass-charge ratio, and quantitative analysis was based on peak area. The results showed that, there was a linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area of the six sweeteners:within the range of 10~200 ng/mL, the correlation coefficient was 0.9915~0.9943, and within the range of 20~500 ng/mL, the cor-relation coefficient was 0.9961~0.9983. The detection limit was 10 μg/g, and the relative standard deviation was 2.1%~7.9%. (Trans. by HUANG Xiaoli).