WorldWideScience

Sample records for asparagus asparagus officinalis

  1. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species.

  3. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  4. Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-α/β-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 μmol/L.

  5. Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

    2008-10-01

    A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi.

  6. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  7. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  8. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  9. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  10. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs.

  12. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  13. Evaluación de siete poblaciones de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. Evaluation of seven asparagus populations (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA GATTI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Los materiales de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. utilizados hasta el momento por los productores son introducciones realizadas por las casas semilleras y han sido seleccionados para satisfacer requerimientos del mercado de los sitios de origen. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es evaluar siete poblaciones de espárrago (P1 a P7, con el fin de seleccionar genitores adecuados de manera de recurrir a la hibridación de ellos para obtener materiales adaptados a los requerimientos locales. Las evaluaciones se hicieron sobre plantas individuales, separadas por sexos y manejadas como espárrago blanco, durante los años 1993 y 1994, en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Universidad Nacional de Rosario, ubicado en Zavalla, provincia de Santa Fe. La evaluación se realizó sobre planta individual, durante un período de 40 días de cosecha y con los datos obtenidos se realizó un ANOVA y un análisis de agrupamiento. Para elegir progenitores femeninos con altos rendimientos y rendimiento de mercado se determinó que se deberá recurrir a las P1, P2 y P3, las cuales presentan también alto número de turiones. Para altos peso medio y diámetro de turión, así como producción tardía, son indicadas las P5 y P7 como genitores masculinos, teniendo en cuenta que, mientras la P7 presenta bajo rendimiento, la P5 aportaría mejores producciones.The materials of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. that growers have in use are imported by seed dealers and have been selected according to overseas markets requirements. With the aim of selecting proper parents to use in a breeding program, seven populations of Asparagus officinalis (P1 to P7, all rised as white asparagus, were tested during 1993 and 1994, at the Experimental Field of the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (Universidad Nacional de Rosario placed in Zavalla, Santa Fe, Argentina. The evaluation was made on individual plant in a 40 days of harvest period. ANOVA and a cluster

  14. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle.

  15. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade.

  16. Effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment on thiol contents in fresh-cut asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demrkol, Omca

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the impact of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated on the thiol content of asparagus. Fresh-cut asparagus was treated with H2O2 at varied oxidant concentrations and contact times. A significant decrease (alpha=0.05) was observed in N-acetylcysteine levels treated with 2.5% H2O2 for 10 min and with 5% H2O2 for 3, 5 and 10 min. Captopril and cysteine levels significantly decreased (alpha=0.05) in all and most treatment conditions, respectively. Glutathione levels only significantly decreased with 2.5% and 5% H2O2 for 10 min treatment. In order to determine whether asparagus undergoes oxidative stress, a well-known oxidative stress indicator-the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio-was calculated. This study showed that the common use of H2O2 as a disinfectant/sterilizer by the food industry could markedly diminish the important biothiols and develop oxidative stress in asparagus, and potentially in other vegetables as well.

  17. Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) prevented hypertension by an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, Matsuda; Yasuo, Aoyagi

    2013-06-12

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is known to be rich in functional components. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used to clarify whether green asparagus prevents hypertension by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Six-week-old male SHR were fed a diet with (AD group) or without (ND group) 5% asparagus for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AD: 159 ± 4.8 mmHg, ND: 192 ± 14.7 mmHg), urinary protein excretion/creatinine excretion, and ACE activity in the kidney were significantly lower in the AD group compared with the ND group. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the ND group. In addition, ACE inhibitory activity was observed in a boiling water extract of asparagus. The ACE inhibitor purified and isolated from asparagus was identified as 2″-hydroxynicotianamine. In conclusion, 2″-hydroxynicotianamine in asparagus may be one of the factors inhibiting ACE activity in the kidney, thus preventing hypertension and preserving renal function.

  18. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  19. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  20. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv. Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•− and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age.

  1. Effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); Efecto de la radiacion gamma en la actividad metabolica del meristemo apical de esparrago (Asparagus officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez E, A.; Orozco A, J.A.; Troncoso R, R.; Ojeda C, A.J.; Mercado R, J.N.; Gardea B, A.; Tiznado H, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Carretera a la Victoria km. 0.6, A.P. 1735, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Melendrez A, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. e-mail: aestrada@cascabel.ciad.mx

    2007-07-01

    The asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is an agricultural product whose production generates a great quantity of wages as well as foreign currencies for the country because a great part of its production is exported to international markets. In direct reason to the high metabolic activity of the apical meristem, this product it possesses a short shelf life under good conditions of commercialization. Due to the above mentioned, the present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of the gamma radiation in the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of turions of asparagus during the postharvest. Turions of asparagus variety Brock of standard quality was treated with gamma radiation to absorbed dose of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy using an irradiator of {sup 60}Co and stored in one controlled temperature camera maintained at 2 C during 8 days. During the experiment, the camera stayed in darkness and under conditions of high relative humidity by means of the water aspersion. Immediately before the one treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 days of storage, the asparagus were sampled to evaluate the breathing speed (VRCG) by means of gas chromatography and scanning differential calorimetry (VRCDB), ethylene production (PE) by means of gas chromatography and production of metabolic heat of the apical meristem of the asparagus by means of scanning differential calorimetry (Q). Its were not found effects due to the gamma radiation in the variables of VRCG, VRCDB and Q. However, for the PE case, it was found that the doses of 1.5 and 2.5 reduced the PE from the first day of storage, while the 3 kGy dose achievement to eliminate completely the ethylene production from the first day of storage. It was concluded that the gamma radiation at the used levels in the present experiment doesn't reduce the metabolic activity of the apical meristem of the turion of asparagus although it can to improve the postharvest quality from the asparagus when reducing the ethylene

  2. Genome-wide identification and validation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shufen; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Xu; Wang, Lianjun; Yuan, Jinhong; Deng, Chuanliang; Gao, Wujun

    2016-06-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, can also serve as a model dioecious plant species in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. However, limited DNA marker resources have been developed and used for this species. To expand these resources, we examined the DNA sequences for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 163,406 scaffolds representing approximately 400 Mbp of the A. officinalis genome. A total of 87,576 SSRs were identified in 59,565 scaffolds. The most abundant SSR repeats were trinucleotide and tetranucleotide, accounting for 29.2 and 29.1% of the total SSRs, respectively, followed by di-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octanucleotides. The AG motif was most common among dinucleotides and was also the most frequent motif in the entire A. officinalis genome, representing 14.7% of all SSRs. A total of 41,917 SSR primers pairs were designed to amplify SSRs. Twenty-two genomic SSR markers were tested in 39 asparagus accessions belonging to ten cultivars and one accession of Asparagus setaceus for determination of genetic diversity. The intra-species polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the 22 genomic SSR markers were intermediate, with an average of 0.41. The genetic diversity between the ten A. officinalis cultivars was low, and the UPGMA dendrogram was largely unrelated to cultivars. It is here suggested that the sex of individuals is an important factor influencing the clustering results. The information reported here provides new information about the organization of the microsatellites in A. officinalis genome and lays a foundation for further genetic studies and breeding applications of A. officinalis and related species.

  3. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  4. The effect of Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide on erythrocyte of S180 mice played in immunological reaction of lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chen-feng; MIN Yong-cui; JI Yu-bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To contrast the roles of Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide on erythroeyte of S180 mice played in immunological reaction of lymphocytes. To study the effect of Asparagus officinalis polysaecharide on the erythroeyte function of S180 mice. Methods Suspensions of lymphocytes (1×106/mL) and autologous plasma were respectively separated from anticoaguted whole blood of healthy mice with the lymphocyte separation medium. The erythrocytes (1×108/mL) were separated from whole blood of Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide mice. Using the autologous plasm as reactive medium, the role of erythrocytes in regulating the immunological reaction of lymphocytes was appraised. The expression of CD25 on lymphocytes was detected using flow cytometry. Results The immunogical regulating ability of erythrocyte in mice with control groups is much lower than that of normal groups, and the immunogical regulating ability of erythroeyte in mice with Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide groups is much higher than that of control groups. Conclusions According to the effects of erythrocyte CD35 on the immuno-response of lymphocyte and the different of the expression of CD25 on lymphocytes, we prove that Asparagus officinalis polysaecharide can improve the erythrocyte function of S180 mice.

  5. Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and their applications to palm oil/water Pickering emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Du, Guanhua; Li, Cong; Zhang, Hongjie; Long, Yunduo; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-10-20

    Nano cellulosic materials as promising emulsion stabilizers have attracted great interest in food industry. In this paper, five different sized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) samples were prepared from stem of Asparagus officinalis L. using the same sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions but different times (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5h). The sizes of these CNC ranged from 178.2 to 261.8nm, with their crystallinity of 72.4-77.2%. The CNC aqueous dispersions showed a typical shear thinning behavior. In a palm oil/water (30/70, v/v) model solution, stable Pickering emulsions were formed with the addition of CNC, and their sizes are in the range of 1-10μm based on the optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observation. The CNC sample prepared at 3h hydrolysis time, showed a relative efficient emulsion capacity for palm oil droplets, among these CNCs. Other parameters including the CNC, salt, and casein concentrations on the emulsion stability were studied.

  6. Possible regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the production of anthocyanins in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, F.B.; Oosterhaven, J.; Martinez-Madrid, M.C.; Romojaro, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the light-induced accumulation of anthocyanins in the epidermis of asparagus spears has been analysed. A correlation between the stimulation of PAL activity and the rise in total anthocyanin content has been observed. Light radiation induce

  7. Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2013-01-01

    To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant.

  8. Steroids from the Roots of Asparagus officinalis and Their Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Feng Huang; Yu-Ying Lin; Ling-Yi Kong

    2008-01-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis,and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells.

  9. Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    2000-04-01

    Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme.

  10. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

    2013-08-01

    This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (pAsparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets.

  11. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs.

  12. Progress on Study of Anti-tumor Effect of Asparagus Officinalis%芦笋抗肿瘤作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚明

    2013-01-01

    目的:芦笋是天门冬科天门冬属多年生草本植物,具有极高的营养价值,含有大量的营养物质和活性成分,同时具有多种生理活性,该文综述了芦笋抗肿瘤作用的研究进展。%Objective:Asparagus officinalis is a perennial herb plant, and it has abundant nutrition and many active components such as polysaccharide, saponin, flavonoids, tissue protein, and trace element. Many scientific studies showed Asparagus officinalis had many activities. In this paper, we summarize the progress on the study of anti-tumor effect of Asparagus officinalis.

  13. Characterization of the interaction between the dark septate fungus Phialocephala fortinii and Asparagus officinalis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Nassuth, A; Peterson, R L

    2001-08-01

    Phialocephala fortinii Wang & Wilcox is a member of root-inhabiting fungi known collectively as dark septate endophytes (DSE). Although very common and distributed worldwide, few studies have documented their interaction with roots on a structural basis. The objective of this study was to determine the early colonization events and formation of microsclerotia of P. fortinii in roots of Asparagus officinalis L., a species known to have DSE. A loose network of hyphae accumulated at the root surface, and coils formed around root hairs and external to epidermal cells overlying short cells of the dimorphic, suberized exodermis. Root penetration occurred via swollen, appressorium-like structures into epidermal cells where coiling of hyphae occurred along the periphery of the cells. Hyphae penetrated from the epidermis into short exodermal cells and from these into cortical cells. Hyphae colonized the cortex up to the endodermis and sometimes entered the vascular cylinder. Some root tips were colonized as well. Microsclerotia in epidermal and exodermal short cells accumulated glycogen, protein, and polyphosphate. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on distinct bodies visible in microsclerotial hyphae revealed high levels of phosphorus.

  14. 芦笋重要真菌病害研究进展%The Advance of Major Fungal Diseases Studies on Asparagus officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岳平; 陈光宇; 罗绍春; 瞿华香

    2012-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. Is an important high nutrition vegetable worldwide. In present, fungal diseases were the one of the severe limiting factors for Asparagus officinalis L. Production around the world. The major fungal diseases of Asparagus officinalis L. Included stem blight, root rot, Fusarium wilt, and brown spot. Among them, asparagus stem blight was the most devastating disease worldwide, especially in China. The authors of the present paper reviewed the advances in the areas of the physiology characterization and pathogenicity of the major fungal pathogens of Asparagus officinalis L., the host resistance, the key prevent and control technologies, and a prospect for the future was made as well. The mechanism of fungi pathogenisis and host resistance should be strengthened, as was helpful for resistance molecular breeding of Asparagus officinalis L. In future.%芦笋是重要的功能型蔬菜,芦笋真菌病害是威胁其生产的主要瓶颈之一,主要包括茎枯病、根腐病、枯萎病、褐斑病等.其中茎枯病是危害芦笋生产的世界性病害,特别是在中国,已成为生产中的突出问题.笔者简述了茎枯病等芦笋重要真菌病害在病原菌生物学特性、致病性、芦笋品种抗病性及病害关键防控技术等方面的研究进展,并展望了其发展趋势,认为今后应加强病原菌的致病和芦笋的抗病分子机制研究,为开展芦笋抗茎枯病分子育种提供基础.

  15. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  16. Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

    1983-12-15

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa.

  17. The Study on Mixed Drink Production from Asparagus officinalis Linu Juice and Aloc Juice%芦笋芦荟复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓敏; 顾文祥; 顾蓉芳

    2001-01-01

    利用正交实验设计,对芦笋、芦荟复合饮料制作进行探讨。芦笋汁的制作以芦笋头芽、主茎部分为主,辅以根基部分汁。芦笋的合理杀青条件为0.01mol/L柠檬酸,96℃,4min。芦荟汁中加入Vc、Na2SO3、柠檬酸均可增强其稳定性。芦笋汁和芦荟汁的最佳配比为V(芦笋):V(芦荟)=3:1。糖酸调整如下:加入m(蜂蜜)=10%~30%的蜂蜜,加入苹果酸调pH值为3.5~4。成品风味浓郁,口感柔和,具有保健、清凉止渴之功效。%The production of drink by mixing Asparagus officinalis Linu and aloe juice was studied by orthogonal test. Asparagus officinalis Linu juice was mainly drawing from Asparagus officinalis Linu bud and stem. The rational blanching condition was 0.01mol/L citric acid,96℃, 4 minutes. The stability of aloe juice could be improved by adding Vc, Na2SO3 or citric acid.The best quota of Asparagus officinalis Linu juice and aloe juice was 30% Asparagus officinalis Linu juice,10% aloe juice, 10%~30% honey, pH 3.5~4. The product has heavy flavour, soft taste and healthy function.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Migration and Accumulation of Bacillus subtilis in Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bian-Qing; Ma, Li-Ping; Qiao, Xiong-Wu

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis B96-II is a broad-spectrum biological control strain. It effectively suppresses soil-borne fungal diseases in vegetables. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) was expressed in B96-II to detect migration of B96-II into the root and stem of asparagus. The GFP-tagged B96-II (B96-II-GFP) strain exhibited bright green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope. GFP was stable and had no apparent effects on the growth of the strain. Asparagus plants were planted in the soil inoculated with B96-II-GFP. Our results showed that B96-II-GFP was detected in both the root and stem 15, 30, and 45 days after the asparagus seedlings were planted. B96-II-GFP was also detected in leaves but at a lower concentration. The highest concentration was detected in 15 days, and the number of bacteria decreased subsequently irrespective of duration of growth or sampling period. The highest concentration of B96-II-GFP was present in the root base suggesting that the root base served as the hub of bacterial migration from the soil to the stem.

  19. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  20. Top-down Targeted Metabolomics Reveals a Sulfur-Containing Metabolite with Inhibitory Activity against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yang, Zhigang; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-05-22

    The discovery of bioactive natural compounds containing sulfur, which is crucial for inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is a challenging task in metabolomics. Herein, a new S-containing metabolite, asparaptine (1), was discovered in the spears of Asparagus officinalis by targeted metabolomics using mass spectrometry for S-containing metabolites. The contribution ratio (2.2%) to the IC50 value in the crude extract showed that asparaptine (1) is a new ACE inhibitor.

  1. 石刁柏的种子繁殖方法与栽培管理技术%Seed propagation and planting management technology of the Asparagus officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振领; 张爱辉; 陆彩凤; 张国用

    2002-01-01

    @@ 石刁柏(Asparagus officinalis L.)通常称为芦笋、露笋,为百合科天门冬属多年生草本植物.直立生长,株高可达2m以上(结实植株),茎粗直径最大1.5cm.生育中后期因分枝多,纤细柔弱,头重,常俯垂.

  2. IN VITRO INOCULATION OF ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS TISSUE CULTURE SHOOTS WITH FUSARIUM PROLIFERA TUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.MoHD OMAR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificially inoculated asparagus tissue culture plantlets with a virulent fungus, Fusarium proliferatum showed signs of infection as early as 4 days after inoculat ion. Macroscopic observations revealed presence of early symptoms such as necrotic lesions at the affected area and light microscopic examinations clearly revealed the post-penetration events that took place including the destruction of surrounding cells. However, little is known of the hyphal activity or advancement on the host's surface at the initial stage after inoculation. Scanning electron microscopic examination clearly revealed the hyphal advancement on the surface and the mode of entrance into the host tissues beneath. Four days after inoculation, the fungi proceeded to spread out from the inoculation point onto the host surface which eventually developed into a sparse network of both aerial and non-aerial hyphae. Non-aerial hyphae form a network of mycelium that adheres to the surface and it's movement appeared to be oriented towards the stomata. Hyphal penetration occurs more often through the stomata, natural openings or wounds. In some cases, the hyphae crossed over the stomatal opening w ithout entering the host tissues. At places where the cuticle layer is absent or not well developed the hyphae successfully grew in between the epidermal cells into the tissues beneath.

  3. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  4. 芦笋不同组织水浸提液对辣椒的化感效应%Allelopathic Effect of Water Extracts from Different Parts of Asparagus officinalis L.on Hot Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严泽生; 徐冬梅; 贺忠群

    2011-01-01

    [目的]测定芦笋不同组织浸提液对辣椒的化感效应.[方法]以辣椒为侵体,通过测定芦笋不同部分水浸提液对辣椒种子萌芽和幼苗生长的影响,研究芦笋对辣椒的化感效应.[结果]芦笋地上部和地下部组织水浸提液对辣椒种子发芽率、发芽指数均表现出抑制作用;高浓度芦笋地上部和地下部组织水浸提液对辣椒幼苗的生长及叶绿素含量均具有抑制作用,而低浓度浸提液具有促进作用.芦笋不同组织部位水浸提液的化感作用强弱不同,地上部分水浸提液化感作用明显强于地下部分.[结论]该研究为选择芦笋的间作作物及其秸杆的再利用提供了依据.%[ Objective ] To discuss the allelopathic effect of water extracts from different parts of Allelopathy of Asparagus officinalis L. On hot pepper. [Method] Using hot pepper as the receptor, effect of water extracts from different parts of Asparagus officinalis L. On seed germination and seedling growth were determined, investigating the allelopathy of Asparagus officinalis L. To hot pepper. [ Result ] Water extracts of aboveground and underground parts of Asparagus officinalis L. Showed inhibitory effect on germination rate and germination index of hot pepper. High concentration water extracts all showed inhibitory effect on seedling growth and content of chlorophyll,while low concentration ones presented facilitating effect on them. In addition, ailelopathic effect of water extracts from above ground of Asparagus officinalis L. Was stronger than that from under ground. [ Conclusion] This work is of considerable value for selection of interculture of Asparagus officinalis L. And reuse of straw of it.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses ...

  6. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, ...

  7. Isolation of differentially expressed sex genes in garden asparagus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuan-liang; Wang, Ning-na; Li, Shu-fen; Dong, Tian-yu; Zhao, Xin-peng; Wang, Shao-jing; Gao, Wu-jun; Lu, Long-dou

    2015-09-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a dioecious species whose male and female flowers are found in separate unisexual individuals. A region called the M-locus, located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sexual dimorphism in asparagus. To date, no sex determining gene has been isolated from asparagus. To identify more genes involved in flower development in asparagus, subtractive hybridization library of male flowers in asparagus was constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization. A total of 107 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. BLASTX analysis showed that the library contained several genes that could be related to flower development. The expression patterns of seven selected genes believed to be involved in the development of asparagus male flower were further analyzed by semi-quantitative or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that AOEST4-5, AOEST12-40, and AOEST13-38 were strongly expressed in the male flower stage, whereas no transcript level of AOEST13-38 was detected in the female flower stage. The expression levels of AOEST13-87, AOEST13-92, AOEST13-40, and AOEST18-87 in the male flower stage were also higher than those in the female flower stage, although these transcripts were also expressed in other tissues. The identified genes can provide a strong starting point for further studies on the underlying molecular differences between the male and female flowers of asparagus.

  8. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  9. Flavonoid profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; Jaramillo, S; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G; Cermeño, P; Espejo, J A; Jiménez-Araujo, A; Guillén-Bejarano, R; Fernández-Bolaños, J; Rodríguez-Arcos, R

    2008-08-27

    The determination of flavonoid profiles from different genotypes of triguero asparagus and their comparison to those from green asparagus commercial hybrids was the main goal of this study. The samples consisted of 32 commercial hybrids and 65 genotypes from the Huetor-Tajar population variety (triguero). The analysis of individual flavonoids by HPLC-DAD-MS has allowed the determination of eight naturally occurring flavonol derivatives in several genotypes of triguero asparagus. Those compounds included mono-, di-, and triglycosides of three flavonols, that is, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol. The detailed analysis of the flavonoid profiles revealed significant differences among the distinct genotypes. These have been classified in three distinct groups as the result of a k-means clustering analysis, two of them containing both commercial hybrids and triguero asparagus and another cluster constituted by 21 genotypes of triguero asparagus, which contain several key flavonol derivatives able to differentiate them. Hence, the triglycosides tentatively identified as quercetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside have been detected only in the genotypes grouped in the above-mentioned cluster. On the other hand, the compound tentatively identified as isorhamnetin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in most genotypes of triguero asparagus, whereas it has not been detected in any of the commercial hybrids.

  10. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  11. Asparagus racemosus--an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a galactogogue. A. racemosus has also been used successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorders, inflammation, liver diseases and certain infectious diseases. However, no scientific proof justifying aforementioned uses of root extract of A. racemosus is available so far. Recently few reports are available demonstrating beneficial effects of alcoholic and water extracts of the root of A. racemosus in some clinical conditions and experimentally induced diseases, e.g. galactogogue effect, antihepatotoxic and immunomodulatory activities. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacological properties of the root extract of A. racemosus reported so far.

  12. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  13. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  14. Detoxification of phytotoxic compounds by TiO2 photocatalysis in a recycling hydroponic cultivation system of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Kayano; Ding, Xin Geng; Utami, Melia Sandya; Kawashima, Yoko; Miyama, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2008-06-25

    TiO 2 photocatalytic decomposition and detoxification of phytotoxic compounds released by the roots of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated from the viewpoint of conservation-oriented cultivation. The phytotoxically active fraction was extracted either from dried asparagus roots or from the recycled nutrient solution of an asparagus hydroponic cultivation system. We found that the phytotoxic activity gradually decreased in the fraction with TiO 2 powder under irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light at an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2). The growth of asparagus plants under actual cultivation conditions was also investigated by comparing asparagus grown in a hydroponic system where recycled waste nutrient solution was photocatalytically treated with solar light and a system with untreated recycled waste nutrient solution. The results showed, as measured by growth indices such as stem length and stem thickness, that asparagus growth in the photocatalytically treated system was superior to the untreated one. Furthermore, the yield of asparagus spears was 1.6-fold greater in the photocatalytically treated system, demonstrating the detoxification effect on the phytotoxic compounds and also the killing effect on pathogenic microorganisms.

  15. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  16. Alergia al espárrago Allergy to the asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tabar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago (Asparagus officinalis, ampliamente cultivado a escala mundial, forma parte, junto con el ajo, la cebolla y el puerro de la familia de Liliáceas. Se ha descrito hipersensibilidad al espárrago en forma de reacciones retardadas mediadas por células, y de reacciones inmediatas mediadas por IgE. Mientras que las primeras (dermatitis alérgica de contacto son una causa relativamente frecuente de patología ocupacional, la literatura sólo muestra casos puntuales de alergia IgE mediada. Las reacciones mediadas por IgE ocurren principalmente en individuos atópicos y se pueden clasificar en alergia alimentaria y reacciones secundarias a la exposición cutánea o inhalada, generalmente ocupacional, a proteínas del espárrago. La manifestación clínica más frecuente de la alergia alimentaria es la anafilaxia mientras que en las segundas, la urticaria de contacto, la rinitis y el asma ocupacional pueden coexistir o aparecer aisladas. La diferente forma de presentación clínica de las reacciones mediadas por IgE es probablemente consecuencia de la sensibilización a diferentes alergenos. La importancia de la detección y el diagnóstico diferencial de estas manifestaciones radica en su diferente tratamiento y pronóstico. En este artículo revisamos nuestra experiencia en los últimos 5 años.Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis is a widely grown vegetable; together with garlic, the onion and the leek, it belongs to the Liliaceae family. Both delayed cell-mediated reactions and IgE-mediated reactions secondary to asparagus have been described. While the former (allergic contact dermatitis are a fairly common cause of occupational disease, only a few case-reports of IgE-mediated reactions have been published. IgE-mediated reactions can be further grouped into food allergy and reactions due to cutaneous or respiratory exposure, which is often occupational. Anaphylaxis is the most common clinical picture of food allergy, while contact

  17. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  18. Impacto de técnicas innovadoras aplicadas a la cadena agroalimentaria espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. para optimizar el posicionamiento en diferentes mercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P. Guisolis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. es un producto delicado cuyo destino son segmentos de mercados muy exigentes en la presentación y cada vez más proclives a la adquisición de productos IV Gama, presentados en bandeja y listos para consumir. Actualmente, existen técnicas innovadoras de manejo productivo (empleo de plantines y manejo poscosecha (empleo de bandejas. Con el objetivo de estudiar el impacto sobre el rendimiento de densidades (D1: 35.714; D2: 23.810 y D3: 17.857 pl/ha, tamaños de plantines PG:celda grande (70 cm3, PM:celda mediana (50 cm3 y PP:celda pequeña (20 cm3 y la pérdida de peso fresco durante la poscosecha de turiones de distintos calibres (Large L, Medium M y Small S acondicionados en bandejas con (CF y sin film (SF, se realizó un ensayo, en la Facultad de Agronomía, UNCPBA, en donde se evaluaron las variables: productividad neta comercial (PNCH (kg/ha; por cosecha (PNCC (kg/cosecha; Nº de turiones (NT y peso promedio por turión (PPT. PNCH fue 1º año: 8012,6 kg/ha; 2º año: 4468,86 kg/ha (p < 0,05, mientras que PG:5.757, PM:6.213 y PP:6.688 kg/ha. El PPT de PG:10,46; PM:9,86 y PP:10,77 g/turión. D1 produjo 1069,14 kg/ha más y la mayor cantidad de turiones/ha (648,033. El peso fresco de los turiones acondicionados CF resultó estadísticamente superior (p < 0,05, obteniéndose en promedio 13,0 y para SF 10,45 g/turión. Respecto de los calibres los mayores perdieron menos peso (CF-L:5; CF-M:5; CF-S:9,1 %; SF-L:26; SF-M:35; SF-S: 36,36 %. Solo se conservaron características organolépticas en CF; L:50, M:28,57 y S:14,28 %. Por lo expuesto convendría utilizar D1 y el empleo de bandejas para su acondicionamiento.

  19. Identification of Marchfeld asparagus using Sr isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, S.; Brunner, M.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Prohaska, T. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry-VIRIS Project, Vienna (Austria); Horacek, M. [Austrian Research Centers GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2008-01-15

    This work focuses on testing and application of Sr isotope signatures for the fast and reliable authentication and traceability of Asparagus officinalis originating from Marchfeld, Austria, using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after optimised Rb/Sr separation. The major sample pool comprises freeze-dried and microwave-digested asparagus samples from Hungary and Slovakia which are compared with Austrian asparagus originating from the Marchfeld region, which is a protected geographical indication. Additional samples from Peru, the Netherlands and Germany were limited in number and allowed therefore only restricted statistical evaluation. Asparagus samples from Marchfeld were harvested within two subsequent years in order to investigate the annual variation. The results show that the Sr isotope ratio is consistent within these 2 years of investigation. Moreover, the Sr isotope ratio of total Sr in soil was found to be significantly higher than in an NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extract, reflecting the mobile (bioavailable) phase. The isotope composition in the latter extract corresponds well to the range found in the asparagus samples in Marchfeld, even though the concentration of Sr in asparagus shows no direct correlation to the concentration of Sr in the mobile phase of the soil. The major question was whether the 'Marchfelder Spargel' can be distinguished from samples from the neighbouring countries of Hungary and Slovakia. According to our findings, they can be clearly (100%) singled out from the Hungarian samples and can be distinguished from the Slovakian asparagus samples with a probability of more than 80%. (orig.)

  20. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Aimin; Picard, Kelsey; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Cheetamun, Roshan; Beahan, Cherie; Cassin, Andrew; Lonsdale, Andrew; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT) activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s) of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4) acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B) with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation.

  1. Asparagus Spears as a Model to Study Heteroxylan Biosynthesis during Secondary Wall Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    Full Text Available Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. is a commercially important crop species utilized for its excellent source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. However, after harvest the tissue hardens and its quality rapidly deteriorates because spear cell walls become rigidified due to lignification and substantial increases in heteroxylan content. This latter observation prompted us to investigate the in vitro xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT activity in asparagus. The current model system for studying heteroxylan biosynthesis, Arabidopsis, whilst a powerful genetic system, displays relatively low xylan XylT activity in in vitro microsomal preparations compared with garden asparagus therefore hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanism(s of heteroxylan assembly. Here, we analyzed physiological and biochemical changes of garden asparagus spears stored at 4 °C after harvest and detected a high level of xylan XylT activity that accounts for this increased heteroxylan. The xylan XylT catalytic activity is at least thirteen-fold higher than that reported for previously published species, including Arabidopsis and grasses. A biochemical assay was optimized and up to seven successive Xyl residues were incorporated to extend the xylotetraose (Xyl4 acceptor backbone. To further elucidate the xylan biosynthesis mechanism, we used RNA-seq to generate an Asparagus reference transcriptome and identified five putative xylan biosynthetic genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9-L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14_A, AoIRX14_B with AoIRX9 having an expression profile that is distinct from the other genes. We propose that Asparagus provides an ideal biochemical system to investigate the biochemical aspects of heteroxylan biosynthesis and also offers the additional benefit of being able to study the lignification process during plant stem maturation.

  2. Chemical, Physicochemical and Functional Characteristics of Dietary Fiber Obtained From Asparagus byproducts (Asparagus officinalis L. / Características Químicas, Físicoquímicas y Funcionales de la Fibra Dietaria Obtenida de los Subproductos del Espá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Lorena Agudelo Cadavid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Due to its mechanical and biochemical properties,dietary fiber is part of a healthy diet. Containing good levels ofprebiotics, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. produces healthyeffects when incorporated into processed foods. The objective ofthe current study was to obtain fiber from asparagus byproductsand determine its chemical composition [Total Dietary Fiber (TDF,protein, moisture and ash] and physicochemical [pH, and wateractivity (aw] and functional characteristics [Water AbsorptionIndex (WAI, Water Solubility Index (WSI, Oil Absorption Index(OAI and Swelling Volume (SV]. The plant material was treatedthrough extraction and dehydration thermal treatments. Aresponse surface model was applied to evaluate the effects ofextraction and drying temperatures. The TDF ranged from 60.7 to79%. Significant differences were only observed for TDF, moistureand aw (P ≤ 0.05. The WAI, WSI, OAI and SV were found to bewithin the range observed for similar plant materials. Due totheir functional properties and elevated TDF content, asparagusbyproducts can be used as active biological components in foodproduction. This innovative utilization will contribute to reducingthe environmental impact of the industrial processing of thisvegetable. / Resumen. Por sus propiedades mecánicas y bioquímicas, la fibradietética puede formar parte de una alimentación saludable. Alser incorporado en los alimentos en el proceso de elaboración, elespárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. tiene efectos benéficos parala salud del consumidor, debido a su contenido de prebióticos. Elobjetivo del estudio fue obtener fibra a partir de los subproductos delespárrago para determinar su composición química [Fibra DietariaTotal (FDT, proteína, humedad y cenizas] y sus propiedadesfísicoquímicas [pH y actividad del agua (aw] y funcionales [Índicede Absorción del Agua (IAA, Índice de Solubilidad del Agua (ISA,Índice de Absorción de Aceite (IAAc y Volumen de

  3. Producción de Bacillus thurigiensis H-14 var. israelensis utilizando espárrago (Asparagus officinalis) y sus uso potencial para el control de la malaria en La Libertad - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas V, Franklin; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Roldán R, Judith; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Zavaleta E, Gina; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; M, Gil; Ampuero R, Cynthia; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Burga, Ana; Dirección Regional de Salud La Libertad; Moreno, Bertha; Dirección Regional de Salud La Libertad; Vergara D, Carlos; Sanidad Policial III, Región La Libertad; Ventosilla L, Palmira; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: Estandarizar un medio de cultivo utilizando la infusión de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis) para la producción masiva de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti) H-14 var. israelensis y determinar el efecto biolarvicida del Bti sobre Anopheles sp en criaderos naturales del distrito Laredo durante los meses de Enero a Diciembre del 2000. Materiales y métodos: Se ensayaron 3 medios a base de infusión de espárrago blanco: M1: 100 mL de la infusión, pH 9; M2: 50 mL de la infusión con 50 mL de buff...

  4. Producción de Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 var. Israelensis utilizando espárrago (Asparagus officinalis) y su uso potencial para el control de la Malaria en la Libertad- Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Vargas V; Judith Roldán R; Gina Zavaleta E; Miriam Gil F; Cynthia Ampuero R; Ana Burga; Bertha Moreno; Carlos Vergara D; Palmira Ventosilla L

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: Estandarizar un medio, de cultivo utilizando la infusión de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis) para la producción masiva de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti) H-14 var. israelensis y determinar el efecto biolarvicida del Bti sobre Anopheles sp en criaderos naturales del distrito Laredo durante los meses de Enero a Diciembre del 2000. Materiales y métodos: Se ensayaron 3 medios a base de infusión de espárrago blanco: M1: 100 mL de la infusión, pH 9; M2: 50 mL de la infusión con 50 mL de buf...

  5. Study on Biological Characters of Asparagus macowanii Baker.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Asparagus macowanfi Baker, is a climbing herbaceous foliage species in genus Asparagus of Liliaceae, This paper summarized its multiple uses, morphologi- cal characteristics, biological habit, reproduction methods, management after cultiva- tion, prevention and control of pests and disease, as well as harvest and grading, with the objective to provide references for the exploitation and utilization of As- paragus macowanii Baker.

  6. White Asparagus Harvest Date Discrimination Using Nirs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarén, C.; Arazuri, S.; García, M. J.; Arnal, P.; Arana, J. I.

    2006-03-01

    Asparagus is still an important resource for mid-size and small farms. It has been traditionally believed that factors such as the asparagus harvesting date have an influence on its quality. This research sought to identify the harvesting dates of different fruits by using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology as quality indicators and the best zone a long of the asparagus to acquire the spectrum. All the asparagus tested came from the same manufacturer but had been canned on three different dates, giving a total of nine lots. There were one hundred asparagus per lot and the experiment data were taken from three different parts (tip, middle, and base) of each spear. Reflectance spectrum in the near infrared between 800 1700 nm was determined. Differences NIRS among the asparagus harvested on different dates were found. NIRS technology was able to classify the asparagus correctly in terms of harvest dates (71% well classified). The base of the asparagus turned out to be the best part to use in order to establish the harvest date.

  7. Effect of Asparagus polysaccharide on the number and activity of erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CD35) of S180 mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yu-bin; MIN Yong-cui; JI Chen-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide on the number and activity of erythroeyte complement receptor 1 in S180 mice. Methods Red blood cells from mice venous blood were labeled by rat anti-mouse CD35 monoclonal antibody and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse antibody. Using flow cytometry, we determined the number of ECR1. Using microscope, we studied the adherence between erythrocyte immunity and C3b receptor or tumor-cell by RBC-C3bRR and DTER. Results Comparing the mean value of the number of CR1 on each RBC of high and middle groups with control groups, the mean value of the number of CR1, RBC-C3bRR and DTER of Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide groups are increased significantly. Conclusions Asparagus officinalis polysaccharide can improve the erythrocyte function of S180 mice, which may be one of its most important antitumor mechanisms.

  8. Two New Furostanol Glycosides from Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new furostanol oligoglycosides named as aspacochioside A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{β-D-glucopyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopy- ranosyl]-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,22α,26-triol 1 and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{(-D-glu- copyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-22α-methoxy-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,26-diol 2 on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods.

  9. Effect of chitosan coatings on postharvest green asparagus quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Jiang, Hengjun; Ren, Gerui; Huang, Jianying; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-02-15

    Fresh postharvest green asparagus rapidly deteriorate due to its high respiration rate. The main benefits of edible active coatings are their edible characteristics, biodegradability and increase in food safety. In this study, the quality of the edible coatings based on 0.50%, 0.25% high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), and 0.50%, 0.25% low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) on postharvest green asparagus was investigated. On the basis of the results obtained, 0.25% H-chitosan and 0.50% L-chitosan treatments ensured lower color variation, less weight loss and less ascorbic acid, decrease presenting better quality of asparagus than other concentrations of chitosan treatments and the control during the cold storage, and prolonging a shelf life of postharvest green asparagus.

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; R. K. NEMA

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  11. An Application of Image Analysis and Colorimetric Methods on Color Change of Dehydrated Asparagus (Asparagus maritimus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Lukinac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Shape and color are key factors in quality evaluation of fresh asparagus (Asparagus maritimus L.. Typical green color of asparagus comes from the chlorophyll, pigment which has been degradated during drying process. The aim of this paper was to compare color changes of asparagus dried in laboratory tray drier equipment at different temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C at airflow velocity of 2.75 ms-1. Color changes were obtained by digital image analysis in RGB color model and by chromameter in L*a*b* color model. Basic elements of image analysis system were low voltage halogen lamps with reflector, digital camera and programs for image pre-processing and analysis.Mean values of color parameters, color changes and correlation coefficients for asparagus were calculated for both color models. An analysis showed statistically significant influence of drying temperature on hue angle and total color change for both chosen color models of dehydrated asparagus. Represented results show that there was no statistically significant difference according to color changes between drying at 50 °C and 60 °C. Calculated correlation coefficient between color changes for used models was found to be 0.9167.

  12. Asparagus racemosus--ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopana, Nishritha; Saxena, Sanjay

    2007-03-01

    Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone replacement therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens has increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus particularly important. The plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has potent antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. This article aims to evaluate the biological activities, pharmacological applications and clinical studies of Asparagus racemosus in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact that it is the active principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant; consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform drug efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems, the availability

  13. Three new species of Asparagus (Asparagaceae from South Africa, with notes on other taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Asparagus L. are described from South Africa: Asparagus elephantinus S.M.Burrows, A. hirsutus S.M.Burrows and A. sylvicola S.M.Burrows; and the past confusion between Asparagus acocksii Jessop and A. lynetteae (Oberm. Fellingham & N.L.Mey. is discussed.

  14. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  15. DAMAGE RESEARCH WITH P. PENETRANS IN ASPARAGUS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, J; Molendijk, L P G

    2014-01-01

    During cultivation of asparagus plants growth can be inhibited and yield can be reduced by plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant raising companies assume that the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) can cause severe yield loss in asparagus plants. However quantitative information about yield reduction in relation to the degree of infestation of this nematode species in the field is lacking. Research was done in The Netherlands by Applied Plant Research (part of Wageningen University and Research Centre) to determine the maximum degree of yield loss of asparagus plants at high infestation levels of P. penetrans and to establish the height of the tolerance limit for this nematode species. Also was investigated whether a field application of a granular nematicide could prevent or reduce yield loss caused by P. penetrans. Research was done in the field at sandy soils at the PPO location near Vredepeel in The Netherlands over a period of two years. In the first year the most suitable field was selected and on this field different infestation levels of P. penetrans were created. In the second year asparagus was cultivated and plant yield (number and quality of deliverable plants and financial yield) was calculated. At high infestation levels of Pratylenchus penetrans maximum yield loss was 12% (which can mean a financial loss of 7.000 C per ha). Yield started to decrease at very low infestation levels of P. penetrans and no statistical reliable tolerance limit could be calculated. Field application of 40 kg per ha of Vydate 10 G just before sowing of asparagus, could almost completely prevent yield loss caused by P. penetrans. After harvest infestation levels of P. penetrans were much lower than could be expected if asparagus was a non-host for this nematode species. In this paper therefore it is suggested that asparagus plants are (actively) controlling P. penetrans.

  16. Acquisition and diversification of cladodes: leaf-like organs in the genus Asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-03-01

    The genus Asparagus is unusual in producing axillary, determinate organs called cladodes, which may take on either a flattened or cylindrical form. Here, we investigated the evolution of cladodes to elucidate the mechanisms at play in the diversification of shoot morphology. Our observations of Asparagus asparagoides, which has leaf-like cladodes, showed that its cladodes are anatomically and developmentally similar to leaves but differ in the adaxial/abaxial polarity of the vasculature. In addition to the expression of an ortholog of KNAT1, orthologous genes that are normally expressed in leaves, asymmetric leaves1 and HD-ZIPIII, were found to be expressed in cladode primordia in a leaf-like manner. The cylindrical cladodes of Asparagus officinalis showed largely similar expression patterns but showed evidence of being genetically abaxialized. These results provide evidence that cladodes are modified axillary shoots, suggest that the co-option of preexisting gene networks involved in leaf development transferred the leaf-like form to axillary shoots, and imply that altered expression of leaf polarity genes led to the evolution of cylindrical cladodes in the A. officinalis clade.

  17. Antiradical capacity and polyphenol composition of asparagus spears varieties cultivated under diff erent sunlight conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kulczyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asparagus offi cinalis has a high nutritional value. Asparagus is rich in a number of bioactive compounds, mainly fl avonoids (quercetin, glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, fructans (inulin and fructooligosaccharides and phytosterols (b-sitosterol. These compounds may play an important role in human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant potential and polyphenol composition of white, pale-colored and green asparagus spears of diff erent cultivars. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted on diff erent asparagus spear extracts. The study included three colors of asparagus (white, pale-colored and green from fi ve diff erent cultivars subjected to the ethanol extraction procedure. Total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Polyphenol (phenolic acids and fl avonols composition was estimated using the HPLC method. The antioxidant properties of extracts were examined using DPPH, ABTS and metal ion chelating assays. Results. The highest contents of phenolic and fl avonoids were observed in green asparagus from Grolim and the lowest in pale-colored asparagus from Gyjmlin. It was found that both the color of asparagus and the cultivar had a signifi cant eff ect on the composition of phenolic acid and fl avonols. Radical scavenging activity toward DPPH• and ABTS was highest for green asparagus cv. Grolim and Eposs. The greatest number of Fe ions was chelated by samples of green asparagus cv. Grolim and Huchel’s Alpha and pale-colored asparagus cv. Huchel’s Alpha. Conclusion. It was shown that the antioxidant activity of asparagus spears measured by antiradical and chelating activity test depends on variety and color. The highest activity was found in green asparagus and the lowest was identifi ed in white asparagus extracts. It has also been clarifi ed that changes in fl avonol and phenolic acid composition and increases in their diversity depends on growing with

  18. A preliminary study on the identification of male-asparagus and female-asparagus plants%芦笋雌雄株鉴定方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莉; 寿森炎; 李敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ 芦笋(Asparagus officinalis L.),又名石刁柏、龙须菜,属百合科天门冬属多年生草本植物.芦笋嫩茎营养丰富,脆而多汁,风味独特,是一种具有较高药用、营养和保健价值蔬菜.近几年,芦笋已成为"世界蔬菜之王",我国种植面积也逐年扩大.

  19. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Study on the salted asparagus food%盐渍芦笋食品的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜丽; 韩晓静; 杨红; 李久长

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, use asparagus as raw materials, the research on salted asparagus food, as spicy asparagus and pickled asparagus. After a lot of experiments,we have decided the suitable processing technology and the best prescription, and then the main physical and chemical properties of the asparagus production were determined.%利用新鲜芦笋为原料,进行盐渍芦笋食品芦笋泡菜、麻辣芦笋的研制,通过试验,确定配方及生产工艺,并对成品的理化指标进行测定。

  2. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2013-06-01

    The asparagus miner is an obligatory feeder on asparagus and a putative vector for pathogenic fungi implicated in the early decline of asparagus fields. To date, the distribution of the asparagus miner over space and time is poorly understood. Our study evaluated the spatial and temporal pattern of adult asparagus miners in commercial asparagus fields in Michigan in 2011 and 2012. We sampled adults and damage weekly during the growing season using yellow sticky traps outside, at the edge, and inside commercial fields. Yellow sticky traps at each trapping location were placed at the canopy and ground level to determine vertical distribution of adults. During the first generation, adults were more evenly distributed throughout the field. In the second generation, adults were more commonly found on the edge of the field. Overall, there was a greater percent of mining damage near the edge of the field. Additionally, three times as many asparagus miners were found in the canopy compared with ground-level traps. There were 12 times as many asparagus miner adults on edges bordered by another asparagus field than on ones bordered by forest. Taken together, our results indicate that while asparagus miner management in the beginning of the growing season should focus on the entire field, in the latter half of the season, growers could save money and resources by targeting miner adults at the edges of fields. Finally, conserving the remaining naturally forested landscape and planting borders of trees may help ameliorate pest pressure in asparagus fields.

  3. Asparagus byproducts as a new source of peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Lopez, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    Soluble peroxidase (POD) from asparagus byproducts was purified by ion exchange chromatographies, and its kinetic and catalytic properties were studied. The isoelectric point of the purified isoperoxidases was 9.1, and the optimum pH and temperature values were 4.0 and 25 °C, respectively. The cationic asparagus POD (CAP) midpoint inactivation temperature was 57 °C, which favors its use in industrial processes. The Km values of cationic asparagus POD for H₂O₂ and ABTS were 0.318 and 0.634 mM, respectively. The purified CAP is economically obtained from raw materials using a simple protocol and possesses features that make it advantageous for the potential use of this enzyme in a large number of processes with demonstrated requirements of thermostable POD. The results indicate that CAP can be used as a potential candidate for removing phenolic contaminants.

  4. Improvement of crop technology in Asparagus plumosus Bak. A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAHARIA

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of crop technology in Asparagus plumosus Bak. A 0,1% nutritive solution of the N, P, K, elements in raport of 3:1:2; 4:2:3 and 4:3:3 respectively was used to fertilise the plants Asparagus plumosus Bak., for the period between February and Octomber. A 29,8 to 35,20 posesive semnificative increase production of the shoot number per m2 was obtained. The quality of the shoots was not semnificatively influenced by the applied fertilisation system but it appeared to be determined by the cultural factors, light and temperature.

  5. Early selection of elite plants in Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COINTRY ENRIQUE LUIS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an efficient selection criterion the variability in three asparagus populations was evaluated defining the most important yield components and analysing its evolution along three growing seasons. The yield components, coefficient of variation (CV and the proportion of plants contributing to 80% of the total yield were estimated. The elite plants were selected by mean of total yield and clusters techniques. Multiple regression showed that spear number (SN and spear weight (SW were the most important yield components. In every population, total yield (TY and SN showed the highest values of CV, independently of sex. 69% of the plants contributed to the 80% of the total yield in the first year while in the second and third year the contribution was 57%. At the end of the third year, 17 plants were selected by the average of the total yield and 43 by clusters. It is suggested to select for SW in the first year, reducing in 68% the experimental material. In the second year, the selection for SN would reduce to 5% the plants to evaluate for total yield in the third year. In this way the selected plants are the same but the number of plants to evaluate is dramatically reduced along the years, therefore facilitating the breeders work.

  6. Producción de Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 var. Israelensis utilizando espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y su uso potencial para el control de la Malaria en la Libertad- Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Vargas V

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estandarizar un medio, de cultivo utilizando la infusión de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis para la producción masiva de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bti H-14 var. israelensis y determinar el efecto biolarvicida del Bti sobre Anopheles sp en criaderos naturales del distrito Laredo durante los meses de Enero a Diciembre del 2000. Materiales y métodos: Se ensayaron 3 medios a base de infusión de espárrago blanco: M1: 100 mL de la infusión, pH 9; M2: 50 mL de la infusión con 50 mL de buffer fosfato, pH 7; y M3: 25 mL de la infusión con 75 mL de agua destilada, pH 9. Como control se utilizó el medio estándar TPH. La producción de Bti en los medios de cultivo fueron evaluadas para determinar la efectividad biolarvicida a través del LC50 y LC90. El medio de cultivo óptimo (menor LC50 y LC90 sirvió para la producción masiva del Bti, el cual se sometió a bioensayos de laboratorio y aplicaciones en criaderos naturales. La efectividad fue determinada mediante la densidad larvaria pre y post aplicación del Bti. Resultados: El medio de cultivo óptimo para la producción de Bti fue M1 mostrando alta efectividad, con 100% de mortalidad en condiciones de laboratorio y 71-97% de mortalidad en el campo a las 24 horas de exposición con 3 aplicaciones realizadas semanalmente. Conclusiones: M1 es el medio optimo para cultivar Bti, con alta efectividad para controlar larvas de Anopheles en el laboratorio y en el campo.

  7. 超声波辅助提取芦笋总皂苷的工艺%Use of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Total Saponins from Asparagus officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若洁; 王鲁峰; 缪文华; 徐晓云; 潘思轶

    2011-01-01

    采用Box—Behnken设计和响应面分析法,对芦笋总皂苷的超声辅助提取工艺进行优化。以提取温度、提取时间及超声功率为自变量,芦笋总皂苷得率为响应值,研究各自变量及其交互作用对超声波辅助提取法提取芦笋总皂苷得率的影响。结果表明:最佳工艺条件为乙醇体积分数95%、提取温度71℃、提取时间23min、超声功率70W、提取次数2次,在此条件下获得总皂苷的提取率为23.96mg/g。%Response surface methodology based on a three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of total saponins from Asparagus officinalis L. The extraction yield of total saponins was investigated with respect to temperature, extraction time and ultrasonic power. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be: ethanol concentration 95%, temperature 71 ℃, extraction time 23 min, ultrasound power 70 W, and number of extractions 2. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of total saponins was 23.96 mg/g.

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeed Ahmed Wani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus root at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydro-alcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg/kg. body weight and aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight showed moderate aphrodisiac property. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the extracts of Asparagus racemosus exert significant aphrodisiac activity. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in-vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients suffering from sexual disorders.

  9. Competitiveness and Prospects of Greek Asparagus: The European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyrios D. Kolokontes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The revisions and the anticipated abolition of CAP will change the agricultural structure in member states of EU. Although the asparagus, without government interventions, from the decade of 90' has been transformed at one of more promising, in exports terms, cultivation for Greece, however under the existing circumstances it has a doubtful future. Approach: This research studied the diachronic evolution of competitiveness of white fresh Greek asparagus into the European context. A scheme of trade indices, based on post-trade and post-production data, had been estimated in respect of absence from the literature of a single generally accepted measure of competitiveness. Results: The results demonstrated that the Greek asparagus presents both a highly dependency of the German market and a penetration weakness into other markets, except from the Dutch one. The lack of Greek large retail chains with considerable geographic dispersion in West Europe contributes to trading problem. The feeble domestic consumption in Greece in combination with the enlargement of German production and the implied diminishing of its imports, cause restlessness for the future of cultivation and the producers'income in Greece. Conclusion: A long term trading pattern for bonds creation in foreign supply channels and the growth of domestic consumption in Greece are indispensable to support and expand the future prospects of Greek asparagus.

  10. Retrotransposon Proliferation Coincident with the Evolution of Dioecy in Asparagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Abbate, Loredana; McKain, Michael; Pires, J. Chris; Sala, Tea; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion, or to retrotransposon proliferation in dioecious species. We first estimate genome sizes, or use published values, for four hermaphrodites and four dioecious species distributed across the phylogeny, and show that dioecious species typically have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Utilizing a phylogenomic approach, we find no evidence for ancient polyploidization contributing to increased genome sizes of sampled dioecious species. We do find support for an ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) event predating the diversification of the Asparagus genus. Repetitive DNA content of the four hermaphroditic and four dioecious species was characterized based on randomly sampled whole genome shotgun sequencing, and common elements were annotated. Across our broad phylogenetic sampling, Ty-1 Copia retroelements, in particular, have undergone a marked proliferation in dioecious species. In the absence of a detectable WGD event, retrotransposon proliferation is the most likely explanation for the precipitous increase in genome size in dioecious Asparagus species. PMID:27342737

  11. Primary investigation of infection diseases in asparagus in Henan province%河南省芦笋侵染性病害调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康业斌; 郭岩; 王进涛

    2000-01-01

    @@ 芦笋(Asparagus officinalis L.),又名石刁柏,是百合科天门冬属多年生草本植物,其嫩茎作为蔬菜和特殊医疗用品,可加工成罐头或直接速冻出口,为国际市场上的畅销品.

  12. New combinations and a complete list of Asparagus species in southern Africa (Asparagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Fellingham

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available With only flower sexuality differing. Protasparagus can not be separated from  Asparagus, neither at generic nor at subgeneric level. No significant differences in the degree to which filaments were connivent were observed between species placed under  Myrsiphyllum and those under  Protasparagus/Asparagus. All southern African species of Asparagaceae are therefore reinstated under Asparagus and listed here without recognition of subgenera. Several new combinations are made.

  13. 青贮添加剂对芦笋茎叶青贮品质的影响%Effect of additives on the quality of Asparagus officinalis stem leaf silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海明; 朱雯; 张勇; 黄文明; 焦阳; 叶均安

    2016-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨不同添加剂对青贮芦笋茎叶品质的影响。试验在芦笋茎叶鲜样中分别添加乳酸菌、乳酸菌+纤维素酶、乳酸菌+米糠和乳酸菌+纤维素酶+米糠进行青贮调制,乳酸菌、纤维素酶和米糠的添加剂量分别为5×105 cfu/g、0.6 IU/g、30 mg/g,贮存90 d 后开包。综合评定芦笋茎叶的青贮质量,测定常规营养成分,浸提液的 pH 值、氨态氮和有机酸的含量。试验结果表明,与对照组相比,添加乳酸菌提高了乙酸的含量、降低了有氧损失(P <0.05),提高了芦笋青贮料的有氧稳定性;在添加乳酸菌基础上,同时添加米糠和纤维素酶有降低青贮品质的趋势。仅添加乳酸菌即可获得优质芦笋茎叶青贮料。%The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different additives on the quality of Asparagus officinalis silage (stem and leaf).Lactobacillus,lactobacillus+cellulose,lactobacillus+rice bran and lactobacillus+cellulose+rice bran were added to silage;the concentration of lactobacillus,cellulose and rice bran were 5×10 5 cfu/g,0.6 IU/g,30 mg/g of fresh weight respectively.After being ensiled for 90 days, the quality of A.officinalis stem leaf silage was assessed.The chemical composition,pH,NH 3-N and organic acid content of fermented juice were analysed.The data showed that,compared with the control group,the ad-dition of lactobacillus increased the acetic acid content,reduced aerobic deterioration (P <0.05)and improved the aerobic stability.Lactobacillus with rice bran and cellulose tended to lower the quality of A.officinalis stem leaf silage.The results demonstrated that high quality A.officinalis stem leaf silage can be obtained with addition of lactobacillus only.

  14. Skill Acquisition in "High Tech" Export Agriculture: A Case Study of Lifelong Learning in Peru's Asparagus Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the world's largest exporters of asparagus, Peru has developed a high-tech system of asparagus production, processing and delivery that requires well-trained and responsive workers. In this study we examine the role of both private and public sectors in preparing workers for the asparagus industry and the implications of this skill…

  15. Stress Physiology and Virulence Characterization of Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) Bub6k isolated from Asparagus in Jiangxi Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueping ZHANG; Guangyu CHEN; Shaochun LUO; Huaxiang QU; Yongping TANG; Qixin XIE; Jinsong ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Fungal pathogen of asparagus stem blight was isolated. No significant ge- netic difference was detected among the three strains with 492 bp long ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 sequence. It was then identified through colony growth, conidia morphology, and molecular characterization. The physiological response to oxidation and osmosis stress, and virulence to Asparagus officinalis L. were analyzed. The results showed that the pathogen causing asparagus stem blight for A. officinalis L. in Jiangxi Province is Phomopsis asparagri (Sacc.) Bubok. Under pure culture conditions, the conidia were oval-shaped (a-type), with colorless single spore and single nucleus, containing 0-2 oil balls. Its vegetative growth rate was higher when cultured on 0.2 x potato dextrose agar (0.2 x PDA) medium than that on oatmeal agar (OA) medium. However, the pycnidia appeared earlier on OA medium than on 0.2 earlier PDA medium. The vegetative growth rate was depressed under oxidation (H202) or osmo- sis (NaCI) stress conditions, and totally inhibited under 7 mmol/L H202 or 2.4 mol/L NaCI. All the strains caused typical pathogenic symptoms to Asparagus officinalis L. at 7 days-post-inoculation (dpi) with conidia.

  16. Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus racemosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege N

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity, therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions, which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52, compared to that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8. These findings support our hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of post-operative adhesions.

  17. Cell wall bound anionic peroxidases from asparagus byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; López, Sergio; Vazquez-Castilla, Sara; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocio; Guillen-Bejarano, Rafael

    2014-10-08

    Asparagus byproducts are a good source of cationic soluble peroxidases (CAP) useful for the bioremediation of phenol-contaminated wastewaters. In this study, cell wall bound peroxidases (POD) from the same byproducts have been purified and characterized. The covalent forms of POD represent >90% of the total cell wall bound POD. Isoelectric focusing showed that whereas the covalent fraction is constituted primarily by anionic isoenzymes, the ionic fraction is a mixture of anionic, neutral, and cationic isoenzymes. Covalently bound peroxidases were purified by means of ion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. In vitro detoxification studies showed that although CAP are more effective for the removal of 4-CP and 2,4-DCP, anionic asparagus peroxidase (AAP) is a better option for the removal of hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main phenol present in olive mill wastewaters.

  18. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from several asparagus cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Jaramillo, Sara; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Espejo, Juan Antonio; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Heredia, Antonia; Jiménez, Ana

    2005-06-29

    Three different methods (antiradical activity, inhibition of primary oxidation, and ferric reducing power) have been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of eight different asparagus cultivars and byproducts: white and green asparagus from Alcalá del Río (Guadalquivir Valley, Seville) and American hybrids, native spears, and their byproducts from Huétor-Tájar (Vega de Granada). The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenol content was studied. Six standards were also tested to validate the modified methods for antioxidant activity determination. Results obtained for antiradical capacity and reducing power were very similar, and a high correlation with phenols was found (R > or = 0.9 for both tests). Sample origin was an important factor, spears from Huétor-Tájar having higher values (ARC between 7 and 10 and P(R) of 0.25-0.33) than those from Alcalá del Río (ARC 0.6-2 and P(R) of 0.05-0.07). Significant differences were found between spears with the same origin, suggesting that genetics are another factor to take into account. Asparagus inhibits lipid primary oxidation, but no correlation between the inhibition percentage and phenols was observed. Asparagus origin was the only factor that led to significant differences: samples from Huétor-Tájar had higher values (POIC between 18 and 32) than those from Alcalá del Río (POIC of 5-9). Byproducts from the canning industry at Huétor-Tájar were also assayed for antioxidant activity; the results obtained suggested that byproducts could be considered as an excellent source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Genetic and physical maps around the sex-determining M-locus of the dioecious plant asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann-Rauber, Alexa; Jamsari, Ari; Kinney, Michael S; Pires, J Chris; Jung, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is a dioecious plant. A region called the M-locus located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes controls the sexual dimorphism in asparagus. The aim of this work was to clone the region determining sex in asparagus from its position in the genome. The structure of the region encompassing M should be investigated and compared to the sex-determining regions in other dioecious model species. To establish an improved basis for physical mapping, a high-resolution genetic map was enriched with AFLP markers closely linked to the target locus by carrying out a bulked segregant analysis. By screening a BAC library with AFLP- and STS-markers followed by chromosome walking, a physical map with eight contigs could be established. However, the gaps between the contigs could not be closed due to a plethora of repetitive elements. Surprisingly, two of the contigs on one side of the M-locus did not overlap although they have been established with two markers, which mapped in a distance as low as 0.25 cM flanking the sex locus. Thus, the clustering of the markers indicates a reduced recombination frequency within the M-region. On the opposite side of the M-locus, a contig was mapped in a distance of 0.38 cM. Four closely linked BAC clones were partially sequenced and 64 putative ORFs were identified. Interestingly, only 25% of the ORFs showed sequence similarity to known proteins and ESTs. In addition, an accumulation of repetitive sequences and a low gene density was revealed in the sex-determining region of asparagus. Molecular cytogenetic and sequence analysis of BACs flanking the M-locus indicate that the BACs contain highly repetitive sequences that localize to centromeric and pericentromeric locations on all asparagus chromosomes, which hindered the localization of the M-locus to the single pair of sex chromosomes. We speculate that dioecious Silene, papaya and Asparagus species may represent three stages in the evolution of XX, XY sex

  20. The potential of Asparagus-P to inactivate reactive oxygen radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartsch, Peter C

    2008-02-01

    Asparagus-P is a traditional herbal medicinal product consisting of a combination of asparagus roots and parsley leaves in equal shares. It is used to support aquaretic kidney function. The present study was undertaken to shed light on the antioxidative effects of both main ingredients and their combination as in Asparagus-P. For that purpose, differentiated promyelocytic HL60 cells (functional neutrophils) capable of generating superoxide radicals upon stimulation, were used. Parsley leaves and, hence, also Asparagus-P had a marked dose-dependent antioxidant effect, whereas asparagus roots had only a minor efficacy in this respect. In conclusion, Asparagus-P does not only support kidney function, but is also able to inactivate reactive oxygen radicals which might occur by a metabolic or exogenous overload (oxidative stress) or in the course of inflammatory processes. This antioxidant efficacy is primarily related to the content of parsley leaves; asparagus roots seem to enhance this efficacy by promoting the potential of parsley leaves, thus generating a synergistic effect in the combination product Asparagus-P.

  1. HPLC法同时测定芦笋黄酮中5个黄酮苷的含量%HPLC simultaneous determination of five flavonoid glycosides in Asparagus officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜云云; 叶光明; 范国荣; 陈云红

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定芦笋黄酮中槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖-芸香糖苷、芦丁、异鼠李素-3 -O-葡萄糖-芸香糖苷、烟花苷和水仙苷的含量.方法:采用Diamonsil(钻石)C18柱(200 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-甲醇-0.1%醋酸水(8∶16∶76),流速1.0mL·min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长260 nm.结果:芦笋黄酮中槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖-芸香糖苷、芦丁、异鼠李素-3-O-葡萄糖-芸香糖苷、烟花苷和水仙苷浓度分别在30.38~70.88μg·mL-1(r=0.9996)、60.75 ~141.75μ·mL-1(r=0.9995)、29.40 ~68.60 μg· mL-1(r =0.9997)、29.63~69.13 μg·mL-1 (r=0.9996) 、18.00~42.00 μg·mL-1(r =0.9998)范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系.方法的加样回收率(n=6)分别为99.4%,99.2%,99.2%,102.6%,101.4%;RSD分别为2.0%,1.6%,1.8%,1.3%,2.2%.结论:本法快速、简便、准确,重复性好,适用于芦笋黄酮的质量控制.%Objective:To develop an HPLC method for simultaneous determining quercetin - 3 - 0 - glucosyl - ru-tinoside,rutin,isorhamnetin -3 - 0 - glucosyl - rutinoside, nicotiflorin and narcissin in total flavonoids of Asparagus officinalis L. Methods;The separation was carried out on a Diamonsil CI8(200 mm×4. 6 mm,5μm)column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile -methanol -0. 1% acetic acid(8:16:76) at a flow rate of 1.0 mLo min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 260 nm and the column temperature was 30℃. Results;The linear ranges of quercetin - 3 - 0 - glucosyl - rutinoside, rutin, isorhamnetin - 3 - 0 - glucosyl - rutinoside, nicotiflorin and narcissin were 30. 38 - 70. 88 μg·mL-1(γ =0.9996),60.75-141.75 μg o mL-1 (r= 0.9995) ,29.40-68.60 μg o mL-1(r=0.9997),29.63-69. 13 μg o mL-1(r =0. 9996)and 18.00-42.00 μg o mL-1(r=0.9998) ,respectively . The average recoveries (n- 6) of quercetin - 3-0- glucosyl - rutinoside, rutin, isorhamnetin - 3 - 0 - glucosyl - rutinoside, nicotiflorin and narcissin were 99. 4% , 99. 2% , 99. 2

  2. Establishment of a resistance-identification method on asparagus stem blight and evaluation of Asparagus officinalis germplasms%芦笋茎枯病抗性鉴定方法的建立及芦笋抗病种质资源的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迎青; 李湘民; 孟凡; 兰波

    2012-01-01

    Asparagus stem blight is a worldwide devastating disease and the screening of resistant varieties is the most economical and effective control method. However, there hasn' t been a simple, fast and effective resistance-identification method. Four inoculation methods at the seedling stage, i. e. the mycelial pellet sticking on the base of stems, on the middle of stems, both on the bases and the middle of stems and the spore-spraying method, were firstly compared, with JK701 and TX-4/SD as the material. The result revealed that the spore-spraying method was easier for operation, faster for causing diseases symptoms and more convenient to divide the disease grades, while other three methods could only cause light symptoms. Then the spore-spraying method was optimized in two aspects, including isolate virulence and sprayed concentrations of spore suspension. The results showed that the isolate FJ2 behaved the strongest virulence and was used for resistance identification , 1 × 106 spore/mL was the best inoculation concentration. To verify the accuracy of the spore-spraying method, 5 varieties with different resistant levels were tested both at the seedling and the adult phase and the identification results of the seedling phase were almost consistent to those of the adult phase. Finally, 31 resources were carried out resistant identification using the established spore-spraying method. The results revealed that the disease indexes of the wild asparagus were 0, which was identified as a immunity germplasm resource, the disease indexes of TX4/SD、Shuofeng and UC157 were slow, which were identified as resistant germplasm resources, while others were susceptible.

  3. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  4. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  5. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  6. Analysis on Pollution Factors in Asparagus Production and Research on Safety Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping; MA; Bianqing; HAO; Xiongwu; QIAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the infection degree,infection law and influencing factors of the main diseases on asparagus and the analysis on the pollution factors in asparagus production such as blind pesticide use,atmospheric pollution and acid rain,the pollution of soil and fertilizer,this article proposes asparagus safety production technologies which include the selection of disease-resistant variety and suitable planting field,scientific and reasonable disease control,balanced fertilization,rational irrigation,making a good job of field management, etc.,to reduce pathogenic factors.

  7. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  8. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage.

  9. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  10. Short communication. Employment of molecular markers to develop tetraploid “supermale” asparagus from andromonoecious plants of the landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose J. Regalado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the development of new “supermale” genotypes retaining the highest genetic diversity possible of the tetraploid asparagus landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’. The elite andromonoecious male HT664 of the ‘Morado de Huétor’ asparagus landrace and the andromonoecious hybrid male HC027, obtained by crossing between this landrace and a commercial cultivar of Asparagus officinalis, were selected for self-pollination to produce possible “supermales” with genes of ‘Morado de Huétor’ (SMHT. To confirm the hybrid nature of HC027, we characterized this genotype with EST-SSR (Expressed Sequence Tag-derived Simple Sequence Repeats markers. We also adopted the sex-linked marker Asp1-T7 for sex determination in ‘Morado de Huétor’ and the resulting hybrids between this landrace and other commercial cultivars. Asp1-T7 marker was used for the selection and genotyping of SMHT. “All-male” cultivars with a different genetic background can be generated by crossing females with these new “supermale” genotypes, and the agronomical traits of these new cultivars would be very different from the “all-male” cultivars currently available in the market, making them extremely interesting for asparagus breeding programs.

  11. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors < 10), but is not considered a good potential phytoremediation candidate.

  12. Keeping soil in the field - runoff and erosion management in asparagus crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziolomski, Joanna; Simmons, Robert; Rickson, Jane; Hann, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Row crop production (including potatoes, onions, carrots, asparagus, bulbs and lettuce) is regarded as one of the most erosive agricultural cropping systems. This is a result of the many practices involved that increase erosion risk including: fine seedbed preparation, a typically short growing season where adequate ground cover protects the soil, permanent bare soil areas between crops, and often intensive harvesting methods that can damage soil structure and result in soil compaction. Sustained exposure of bare soil coupled with onsite compaction on slightly sloping land results in soil and water issues in asparagus production. Asparagus production is a growing British industry covering > 2000 ha and is worth approximately £30 million yr-1. However, no tried and tested erosion control measurements currently exist to manage associated problems. Research has recently been undertaken investigating the effectiveness of erosion control measures suitable for asparagus production systems. These consisted of surface applied wheat straw mulch and shallow soil disturbance (asparagus farm in Herefordshire, UK. Testing was conducted between May and November 2013. Rainfall-event based runoff and erosion measurements were taken including; runoff volume, runoff rate and total soil loss. Runoff and soil erosion was observed from all treatments. However, the surface application of straw mulch alone out performed each shallow soil disturbance practice. This suggests that runoff and erosion from asparagus production can be reduced using the simple surface application of straw.

  13. Anticancer effects of deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianfeng; Xiang, Yanjie; Lin, Shengming; Xin, Dongwei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Weng, Lingling; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Minguang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in the world whose chemoprevention became increasingly important in HCC treatment. Although the anticancer effects of asparagus constituents have been investigated in several cancers, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma have not been fully studied. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on the hepatocellular carcinoma cells using the in vitro and in vivo experimental model. Our data showed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might act as an effective inhibitor on cell growth in vitro and in vivo and exert potent selective cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. Further study showed that it could potently induce cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in the more sensitive Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Moreover, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide potentiated the effects of mitomycin both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might exert its activity through an apoptosis-associated pathway by modulating the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. In conclusion, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide exhibited significant anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cells and could sensitize the tumoricidal effects of mitomycin, indicating that it is a potential therapeutic agent (or chemosensitizer) for liver cancer therapy.

  14. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kazakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  15. Identification of flavonoid diglycosides in several genotypes of asparagus from the Huétor-Tájar population variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alventosa, José María; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Cermeño, Pedro; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío

    2007-11-28

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of flavonoids from the Huétor-Tájar population variety of asparagus (commonly known as " triguero") was investigated. Flavonoids were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) under identical HPLC conditions was used to verify the identities of the flavonoid glycosides from triguero asparagus. The quantities of asparagus flavonoids were calculated according to concentration curves constructed with authentic standards. Total flavonoid contents, calculated as the sum of individual compounds, were determined and ranged from 400 to 700 mg/kg fresh weight. The most abundant was rutin, which represented 55-98% of the total flavonoid complement. Triguero asparagus were revealed to be an important source of not only quercetin derivatives but also kaempferol and isorhamnetin glycosides. Significant differences (p asparagus genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar population variety.

  16. Effects of genetic, pre- and post-harvest factors on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Eleftherios; Siomos, Anastasios S; Koukounaras, Athanasios; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kazakis, Evangelos

    2009-12-16

    The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color) and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking) on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  17. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract and its constituents in hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Nishizawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Asparagus (Asparagus officinalisL. is one of the most ancient vegetablesin the world, andis rich in asparagine. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS™; Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan is the final product of enzyme-treatment of asparagus stems and subsequent extraction. Two constituents were purified from ETAS and identified: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF, an abundant constituent, and (S-asfural, a novel constituent, which is a derivative of HMF. ETAS has been reported to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs, which are essential for the repair or removal of defective proteins. The expression of Hspfamily genes is regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. It is unknown whether ETAS and its constituents elicit anti-inflammatory effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide (NO, an inflammatory mediator synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in interleukin (IL-1β-treated hepatocytes. Objective:To examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ETAS, we treated rat hepatocytes with ETAS, or its constituents (S-asfural or HMF, and IL-1β, beforethen analyzingthe expression of the iNOSgene and other genes involved in inflammation.Methods:Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were prepared by collagenase perfusion. ETAS, (S-asfural, or HMF was added to the medium with IL-1β and incubated at 37 °C. When necessary, an inhibitor of HSF1 was added. NO in the medium was measured by the Griess method, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were determined. To analyze the mRNA expression, a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Antibody arrays were used to determine the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the medium.Results:ETAS suppressed NO production in IL-1β-treated hepatocytes without causing cytotoxicity. ETAS decreased the levels of both iNOS mRNA and the antisense transcript, whereas it increased the levels of Hsf1 m

  19. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  20. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on green asparagus quality during cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shaojin; Wu, Zhishuang

    2012-10-01

    Green asparagus was treated with 1-methylcyclopropene at three concentration levels at room temperature for 24 h after harvest to evaluate the postharvest quality during cold storage at 4°C. Comparing with the controls, the loss of vitamin C, decomposition of chlorophyll, and accumulation of the malonydiadehyde under treatments of 1-methylcyclopropene were reduced during storage. The enzyme activities in asparagus including peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene treatments, while the activity of superoxide dismutase was enhanced. Based on non-significant difference of the treated samples with 6 ìl l-1, 1-methylcyclopropene treatments at 4 ìl l-1 could be selected to maintain postharvest quality of green asparagus and provide long storage life.

  1. BROWN SPOT CAUSED BY CURVULARIA SPP., A NEW DISEASE OF ASPARAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SALLEH

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, aetiology and symptomatology of a new disease on asparagus ferns, which we have termed brown spot, is described. Descriptions of and a key to identification of the causal organisms, Curvularia brachyspora, C. eragrostidis, C. lunata and C. pallescens, are also presented. Pathogenicity tests showed that C. lunata was the dominant and most virulent of the four species. Inoculation with conidial suspensions or mycelial transfers through wounded ferns were more effective in inducing the disease than inoculations on unwounded ferns. This is the first record of C. brachyspora in Malaysia and the first report of this disease on asparagus.

  2. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  3. Genetic evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen; A Kumar; H.S.Ginwal

    2011-01-01

    A field trial of 20 seed sources of Asparagus racemosus was conducted at the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India to evaluate their performance of different economic traits. Genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV)and phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) for number of shoots,shoot height, shoot weight, number of roots, root length, root diameter and root weight were calculated. Maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed in shoot height among the shoot - related traits and root length among the root - related traits. For the shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance,phenotypic coefficient of variance were 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80,23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among the shoot-related traits and root length among the root-related traits. Index values were developed for all the seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand),Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh), were promising seed sources for root production.

  4. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress.

  5. Research Progresses of Asparagus in Cultivation Technology and Post-harvest Processing Technology in China%我国芦笋栽培及采后贮藏加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮萍; 贺超兴; 戴雄泽; 孙超; 马庆辉; 李振泉

    2011-01-01

    The trend of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) planting all over the world is that developed countries reduce the areas, but the developing countries expand the areas gradually.Planting asparagus developed rapidly in China.China is the biggest country of asparagus production and export in the world.Recent research progress on its cultivation technology, post-harvest physiology, preservation,nutritional and medical function are reviewed.The existing problems in asparagus production are analyzed,and the future development prospect for asparagus industry is expected in this paper.%全世界芦笋种植的趋势是发达国家面积不断减少,发展中国家面积逐渐扩大,绿芦笋种植面积增加,白芦笋面积减少.我国在20世纪80~90年代芦笋种植发展较快,截至2008年全世界芦笋栽培面积约为25.3万hm2,其中亚洲达12万hm2,而我国约占10万hm2,我国已成为世界上栽培面积最大的芦笋生产国和产品出口国.本文综述了我国芦笋栽培技术、采后贮藏加工技术及营养功能成分等方面的研究进展,并对生产中存在的问题进行了分析,对芦笋产业的发展前景进行了展望.

  6. Host-plant finding by the asparagus fly, Plioreocepta poeciloptera (Diptera: Tephritidae), a monophagous, monovoltine tephritid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibout, E; Pierre, D; Mondy, N; Lecomte, C; Biémont, J C; Auger, J

    2005-10-01

    The role of various olfactory and visual stimuli was studied in host-plant finding by the asparagus fly Plioreocepta poeciloptera (Schrank), a monophagous monovoltine tephritid causing serious damage to asparagus spears. Volatiles released by asparagus plants were extracted by diethyl ether after cryotrapping concentration, and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twelve of the 13 compounds identified were tested using electroantennography to measure the response of the fly. Behavioural response was analysed using two different flight tunnels according to circadian rhythm, age and sex of adults, presence of the plant and of different coloured lures, presence of a male congener, or exposure to four pure asparagus odour compounds that elicited responses in electroantennography, i.e. hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol and decanal. Data showed that males locate the host plant more quickly than females. Females are attracted mainly by the blend of plant odour and male pheromone. Both sexes respond to a complex of stimuli only during the afternoon. These findings will be helpful in developing new and effective approaches to control this pest insect.

  7. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers.

  8. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods.

  9. Relationships between Fusarium population structure, soil nutrient status and disease incidence in field-grown asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Sommerville, D.W.; Maheux, E.; Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Whalen, J.K.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species cause important diseases in many crops. Lack of knowledge on how Fusarium species and strains interact with their environment hampers growth management strategies to control root diseases. A field experiment involving asparagus as host plant and three phosphorus fertilization levels

  10. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  11. Automatic harvesting of asparagus: an application of robot vision to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattoni, Paolo; Cumani, Aldo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pettiti, Giuseppe

    1994-02-01

    This work presents a system for the automatic selective harvesting of asparagus in open field being developed in the framework of the Italian National Project on Robotics. It is composed of a mobile robot, equipped with a suitable manipulator, and driven by a stereo-vision module. In this paper we discuss in detail the problems related to the vision module.

  12. Study on the Technical Parameters of Asparagus Juice Extraction and Asparagus Wine Fermentation%芦笋汁浸提及芦笋酒发酵工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍朋宝; 陈海菊; 常学东; 王玉军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]得出芦笋汁浸提及芦笋酒发酵工艺参数.[方法]采用正交试验设计对芦笋汁浸提影响因素进行研究,并采用3种不同工艺对芦笋酒进行了酿造.[结果]芦笋汁浸提的最佳工艺参数为浸提温度35℃,pH 4.0,浸提时间8h,酶用量0.03 g/L,该浸提条件下,芦笋汁的提取率为58.12%.该试验条件下浸提后的芦笋浆对芦笋渣进行全程浸渍发酵所得芦笋酒质量最好,皂土澄清该芦笋酒的最佳用量为600 mg/L.[结论]研究为芦笋下脚料在酿酒方面的开发利用提供了参考.%[Objective] The aim was to obtain the technical parameters of asparagus juice extraction and asparagus wine fermenting. [ Method] The orthogonal experimental design was used to study the influencing factors of asparagus juice, and three different processes for making asparagus wine were studied. [ Result ] The optimal extraction conditions of asparagus juice were as follows: the extraction temperature was 35℃ , pH was 4.0, extraction time was 8 h and the enzyme dosage was 0.03 g/L. Under this condition, the yield of asparagus juice was up to 58.12%. High quality asparagus wine can be made by the process of macerating asparagus from start to end during fermenting, suitable bentonite dosage for clarificating asparagus wine was 600 mg/L. [ Conclusion] The research provides reference for development and utilization of leftover parts of asparagus in aspect of making asparagus wine.

  13. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gallenmüller

    Full Text Available Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots. Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar. In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1 a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2 occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3 failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm² and (4 failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species.

  14. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).

  15. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  16. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  17. Automatic Recognition Of Moving Objects And Its Application To A Robot For Picking Asparagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylou, P.; Amor, B. El Hadj; Bousseau, G.

    1983-10-01

    After a brief description of the robot for picking white asparagus, a statistical study of the different shapes of asparagus tips allowed us to determine certain discriminating parameters to detect the tips as they appear on the silhouette of the mound of earth. The localisation was done stereometrically with the help of two cameras. As the robot carrying the system of vision-localisation moves, the images are altered and decision cri-teria modified. A study of the image from mobile objects produced by both tube and CCD came-ras was carried out. A simulation of this phenomenon has been achieved in order to determine the modifications concerning object shapes, thresholding levels and decision parameters in function of the robot speed.

  18. Characterisation of kiwifruit and asparagus enzyme extracts, and their activities toward meat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-15

    Two plant enzyme extracts from kiwifruit and asparagus were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse commercially available substrates and proteins present in both beef connective tissue and topside myofibrillar extracts. The results show significant differences in protease activity depending on the assay used. Protease assays with connective tissue and meat myofibrillar extracts provide a more realistic evaluation of the potential of the enzymes for application in meat tenderization. Overall, the kiwifruit protease extract was found to be more effective at hydrolysing myofibrillar and collagen proteins than the asparagus protease extract. The two protease extracts appeared to target meat myofibrillar and collagen proteins differently, suggesting the potential of a synergistic effect of these proteases in improving the tenderness of specific cuts of meat, based on their intrinsic protein composition.

  19. Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingfu; Tadmor, Yaakov; Wu, Qing-Li; Chin, Chee-Kok; Garrison, Stephen A; Simon, James E

    2003-10-01

    A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method with selected ion monitoring was developed and validated to analyze the contents of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus. The distribution of rutin and protodioscin within the shoots was found to vary by location, with the tissue closest to the rhizome found to be a rich source of protodioscin, at an average level of 0.025% tissue fresh weight in the three tested lines, while the upper youngest shoot tissue contained the highest amount of rutin at levels of 0.03-0.06% tissue fresh weight. The lower portions of the asparagus shoots that are discarded during grading and processing should instead be considered a promising source of a new value-added nutraceutical product.

  20. 芦笋保鲜技术研究进展%Advances in Preservation Technology of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿华香; 张岳平; 宋晓; 郑立平; 陈光宇

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus is an important high nutrition vegetable and rich in a variety of bioactive substance,which has good nutritional and medicinal properties.In recent years,the development of asparagus industry was rapid in China.However,as a fresh edible vegetable,preservation technology of asparagus is a growing key point due to its high breathing and strong metabolic characteristics after harvest.In this paper,the current status of asparagus preservation technology system and mechanism of affecting asparagus quality after harvest were reviewed,moreover,the developing trend of asparagus preservation technology was prospected.These results can provide a reference to the further study on asparagus preservation technologies in future.%芦笋是重要的功能型蔬菜,富含多种生物活性物质,具有很好的营养和药用功效.近年来,我国芦笋产业发展迅速,但作为鲜食为主的蔬菜,芦笋采收后高呼吸、强代谢等特点,使芦笋保鲜技术日益受到关注.综述了芦笋保鲜技术体系及影响采收后芦笋品质的机制的研究现状,并展望了其发展趋势,以期为芦笋保鲜技术深入研究提供一定的借鉴和参考.

  1. Lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of Asparagus racemosus in hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is associated with hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, treatment of hyperlipidemia is one of the major approaches to decrease the atherogenic process. Many studies revealed that Asparagus racemosus (AR possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential, but results were not consistent. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of AR root powder in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced in normal rats by including 0.75 gm% cholesterol and 1.5 gm% bile salt in normal diet and these rats were used for the experiments. Dried root powder of Asparagus racemosus was administered as feed supplement at 5 gm% and 10 gm% dose levels to the hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, catalase and superoxide dismutase were estimated using standard methods. Statistical analysis was done by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Feed supplementation with 5 gm% and 10 gm% Asparagus racemosus resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, LDL and significant increase in HDL. But there were no significant decrease in triglycerides and VLDL. The feed supplementation increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid content increased significantly in both the experimental groups (5 and 10 gm% supplemented groups. But there was no significant change in the concentration of malondialdehyde in these groups. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that addition of Asparagus racemosus root powder at 5 gm% and 10 gm% level as feed supplement reduces the plasma lipid levels and also acts as an antioxidant. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 168-173

  2. A New Furost-20(22)-ene Oligoglycoside from Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new furost-20(22)-ene oligoglycoside named as aspacochioside C was isolated from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.. Its structure was elucidated to be 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5β-furost-20(22)-en-3α,26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D- glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  3. Total Polyphenol, Flavonoid and Other Bioactive Materials in Different Asparagus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária TAKÁCS-HÁJOS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The favourable active ingredient composition of numerous vegetables is published frequently; however its value is often influenced by the variety and the given production year. In the current experiment the main aim was to determinate the bioactive materials (total polyphenol, flavonoid, vitamin C, sulphate-S, protein, nitrate-ion of blanched (white asparagus for three widely known varieties (‘Cumulus’, ‘Vitalin’, ‘Grolim’, grown on mouldy brown sandy soil, in 3 consecutive years (2012-2014. A significant difference has been found among the varieties in the average of the observed data. ‘Vitalin’ was prominent with its high total polyphenol (35.16 mg/100 g, vitamin C (59.34 mg/100 g and flavonoid (0.52 mg/100 g content. High sulphate-S content - which is characteristic for asparagus - has been measured in the case of ‘Cumulus’ (287.77 mg/100 g, together with the highest protein content (2.23%. The vitamin C content of the spears is significantly influenced by the production year, therefore higher temperature fluctuations had a negative effect on it, which resulted in its value reducing to one-tenth of the best years in some cases (89.06 mg/100 g. Additionally, it has been found that white asparagus develops under etiolated circumstances, it is not inclined to nitrate accumulation, which is well represented by the values under 20 mg/kg. Selecting the proper cultivar is important for raw asparagus extract production, which can be produced only of raw materials rich in bioactive materials (including high sulphur content. In this regard ‘Vitalin’ and ‘Cumulus’ seemed to be the most advantageous choices.

  4. Caracteres agronómicos en el cultivo de espárrago de diferentes edades y manejos Agronomic characters in asparagus of different ages and crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Diego Asprelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la edad de la planta y la respuesta a los manejos en 11 híbridos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L.. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos aleatorios con tres repeticiones de 20 plantas por parcela, con tres y cuatro años de edad, según dos sistemas de manejo: con surcos alomados para la producción de espárrago blanco y surcos sin alomar para espárrago verde. Con el manejo para espárrago blanco se obtuvieron mayores valores promedio para días a brotación, rendimiento de mercado, rendimiento total, número de turiones y peso promedio del turión. Sin embargo, la tasa de incremento del primer al segundo año de cosecha para rendimiento de mercado y rendimiento total resultó superior en el manejo verde debido a una tasa de incremento superior para número de turiones. Para días a brotación y peso promedio del turión, la respuesta debida al efecto del manejo y de la edad del cultivo fue similar, mientras que días al 50% de parcela brotada se vio afectada principalmente por la edad de la planta.Age and crop system effects on agronomic response were evaluated in 11 hybrids of Asparagus officinalis L. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with three replicates of 20 plants of 3 or 4 years old, conducted either in mounded soil over plants for blanched asparagus, or in raised beds without ridging for green asparagus. The highest mean values were obtained under the blanched production for days to harvest, market yield, total yield, spears number and the spear mean weight. However, under the green production, the rate of increment from first to second year was superior for market yield and total yield due to an augmented rate of increment of spears number. Type and year of production effects were similar for days to first harvest and spears mean weight, meanwhile days to 50% of sprout plot was affected mainly by the year of production.

  5. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  6. 中药天冬研究进展%Research Progress of Chinese Medicine Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦树根; 马小军; 柯芳; 黄宝优; 付金娥

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr was a kind of perennial liana plant from Asparagus Linn, of liliaceae and was one of the traditional Chinese medicine. The study on resource distribution, chemical composition, pharmacological activi-ty and clinical applications of A. Cochinchinensis in last decade was summarized. It provided a reference for the further de-velopment of A. Cochinchinensis.%天冬[Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.)Merr]为百合科天门冬属藤本植物,是中国传统的常用大宗中药材之一.文章分析了近十几年来国内外对天冬的研究概况,对其资源分布、化学成分、药理活性及临床应用等方面的进展进行了阐述,为天冬的进一步开发利用研究提供参考依据.

  7. ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF COIX LACHRYMA LINN. AND ASPARAGUS COCHINCHINENSISLINN. AS BREAST ANTICANCER DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RESMI MUSTARICHIE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic crisis, the use of plant medicine forcancer prevention should be investigated. Coix lachryma Linn and Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn are among eleven of species of medicinal plants that are noted as plant medicine for cancer in Indonesia, although their mechanism of action are still unknown. The eleven plants were screened using in vitro methods, Sulforhodamin B against breast cancer cells (MCF"7 and skin (KB. The research included a maceration process using ethanol as solvent and an anti"cancer testing process in vitro using Sulforhodamin B indicated by the value of percentage viability. Extracts were classed as being 'active anticancer' if they showed IC50 values below 100 ppm.. Coix lachryma Linn. and Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn. show breast and skin anticancer activity withIC50 values 6.51 ppm and 11.3 ppm of MCF"7 cells. The ethanol plant extracts were further extracted using various solvents with increasing polarity: n"hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate. The methylene chloride extract of Coix lachryma Linn. had IC50 = 2.75 ppm against MCF"7 cells. Against KB cells, methylene chloride extracts of Coix lachryma Linn. gave IC50 = 5.16 ppm. For Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn., an ethyl acetate extract had IC50 = 3.70 ppm against KB cancer cells and IC50 = 9.80 ppm against MCF"7 cancer cells. These data indicated that both plants can be used as anticancer drugs on breast and skin cancers.

  8. 我国芦笋育种研究进展%Research Progress in Asparagus Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天翔; 林宗铿; 蔡坤秀; 杨俊杰

    2011-01-01

    概述了近年来我国芦笋育种中取得的主要研究进展,介绍了芦笋在选择育种、杂交育种、多倍体育种、全雄育种、航天诱变育种等方面的研究成果,并提出了我国芦笋育种的前景和发展方向.%This paper summarized the main research progresses of asparagus breeding in China in recent years, including the research achievements in selective breeding, hybrid breeding, polyploid breeding, supermale breeding and space mutation breeding of asparagus.In addition, the author discussed the prospects and developmental direction of asparagus breeding in China in the future.

  9. 芦笋酒发酵工艺参数的优化研究%Optimize the Technical Parameters of Asparagus Wine Fermenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学东; 侍朋宝; 孟军; 张建才; 刘颜龙

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to obtain the suitable technical parameters of asparagus wine fermenting. [ Method] Three kinds of yeasts were used to make asparagus wine, and orthogonal experimental design was used to study the influential factors of asparagus wine. [ Result] The suitable yeast for making asparagus wine was danbaoli yeast, and the optimal ferment conditions of asparagus wine were as follows; 170 g/L the sugar content, 7 U/g proteinase dosage and citric acid dosage was 2 g/L. [ Conclusion] The research provided reference for development and utilization of leftover parts of asparagus in aspect of making asparagus wine.%[目的]研究芦笋酒发酵最适工艺参数.[方法]采用3种酵母对芦笋汁进行发酵,再以正交试验设计对芦笋酒的发酵影响因素进行研究.[结果]丹宝利酵母最适于芦笋酒的发酵,且最佳工艺参数为糖度170 g/L,蛋白酶用量7 U/g,柠檬酸用量为2 g/L.[结论]该研究为芦笋下脚料在酿酒方面的开发利用提供了依据.

  10. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  11. PELADO QUIMICO Y TERMOFISICO DE ESPARRAGOS CHEMICAL AND STEAM PEELING OF ASPARAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. GARROTE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el pelado químico y termofísico en una etapa de espárragos de la variedad Argentuil. Para el pelado químico se utilizó la Metodología de la Superficie de Respuesta, evaluando el efecto que las variables concentración del baño de NaOH (20, 40, 60 g/kg, temperatura del baño (55, 70, 85ºC y tiempo de pelado (30, 75, 120 segundos tienen sobre el rendimiento de la operación y la calidad del pelado. Para el pelado termofísico se estudió el efecto que el tiempo de pelado (10, 20, 30 segundos y el tamaño del espárrago ejercen sobre las respuestas mencionadas. Se determinó que los modelos estadísticos obtenidos para el pelado químico fueron apropiados, encontrándose que la mejor calidad de pelado y más altos rendimientos se ubican para condiciones de baja concentración de NaOH, corto tiempo y alta temperatura. En el pelado termofísico el tiempo óptimo de procesamiento, para ambos tamaños de espárragos, fue de 20 segundos, para una presión de trabajo de 5,1 kg/m2.One stage chemical and steam peeling of asparagus, Argentuil variety, has been studied. Response Surface Methodology was used to evaluate the effect of the variables, NaOH concentration of bath (20, 40, 60 g/kg, bath temperature (55, 70, 85ºC and the peeling time (30, 75, 120 seconds on yield and peeling quality. For steam peeling process the effect of peeling time (10, 20, 30 seconds and asparagus size on the mentioned responses was also studied. Statistical models developed for chemical peeling of asparagus were appropriate; processing conditions for optimum peeling quality and highest yield were found in regions of low NaOH bath concentration, short peeling time and high bath temperature. The optimum steam peeling time, for both asparagus sizes, was 20 seconds, for a steam pressure of 5.1 kg/cm2.

  12. Anatomical observation on the developmental stages of Asparagus of ficinalis L.staminate and pistillate flowers%芦笋雌雄花发育过程的解剖学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡淑明; 陈海媛; 王海燕; 乜兰春

    2013-01-01

    To study and ascertain the relations among Asparagus officinalis L. bisexual flowers in duction, differential gene segregation critical period and bud size, paraffin section method was applied to observe Asparagus flower buds of different diameter morphologically. The results showed that stamens and carpel are initiated in both staminate and pistillate flowers in prophase. However, as flowers developing, stamens and carpel stopped growth both in male and female individuals. It's the critical period for male Asparagus's bud when pistillate organs in it stopped developing and it's diameter was 2. 0 millimeters. The results are referential for inducing male bisexual flowers and choosing differential gene segregation time of sex differentiation.%为了研究并确定芦笋(Asparagus of ficinalis L.)两性完全花诱导和差异基因分离的关键时期与花蕾大小的关系,采用石蜡切片技术,对不同直径芦笋花蕾的性别分化过程进行了形态学观察.结果表明:在雄株和雌株的花器官发育早期,两者都有雄蕊和心皮.在随后的发育过程中,雄蕊和心皮分别在雌性和雄性个体中停止发育.雄花花蕾直径2.0 mm,是芦笋雄花雌性器官发育停滞的关键时期,为雄性两性完全花诱导和性别分化差异基因分离时期的选择提供了参考.

  13. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  14. A new pest species of Copitarsia Hampson from the Neotropical Region feeding on Asparagus and cut flowers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The egg, first- and last- instar larva, and adult of Copitarsia corruda, n. sp. from Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are described and illustrated. Larval host-plant genera include Asparagus (Liliaceae) (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador), Iris (Iridaceae) (Ecuador), Ammi (Apiaceae) (Ecuador), Lysimachi...

  15. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  16. Low temperature phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2008-12-01

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with diluted pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2 degrees C was studied to control western flower thrips and to determine effects on the quality of the treated products. Total thrips control was achieved in > or = 18-h fumigation treatments with > or = 250 ppm phosphine. One day fumigation treatment with 1,000 ppm phosphine was tested on lettuce and broccoli. One-day fumigation treatments with 500 ppm and 1,000 ppm phosphine were tested on asparagus and strawberry. Visual quality of lettuce, broccoli, and asparagus was evaluated after 2-wk posttreatment storage. Strawberry quality was evaluated immediately after fumigation and after 1-wk posttreatment storage. For all the products, there were no significant differences between the treatments and the controls in postharvest quality, and there were no injuries caused by the fumigation treatments. Therefore, phosphine fumigation at low temperature was promising for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.

  17. STUDY ON CO2 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF URSOLIC ACID FROM ASPARAGUS%CO2超临界流体萃取芦笋中熊果酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔星明; 王勇为; 陈光宇

    2004-01-01

    用CO2超临界流体萃取得到的芦笋(Asparagus officinalis L.)提取物,用甲醇抽提醇溶部分,经用液质联用仪检测,得到56个紫外检测峰.其中,有保留时间与熊果酸基本一致的峰.其质谱的分子离子峰及特征碎片峰也与熊果酸的一致.确定该化合物为熊果酸.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND INVITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF Asparagus racemosus Willd., (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durai Prabakaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus Willd.(Shatavari is a well known plant in Ayurvedic systems of medicine. ‘Shatavari’ is a reputed classical drug and said to possess therapeutic properties as Rasayana drugs of Ayurveda. The present study is aimed at the development of phytochemical parameters and invitro cytotoxic activity of various extracts of the leaves of Asparagus racemosus plant. The plant material was successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity namely n-Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol in a soxhlet extractor. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatographic studies were carried out for all the extracts. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were screened for invitro cytotoxic activity by MTT assay using EAC (Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma cell line. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and flavonoids. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity when compared to ethanol extract against the above mentioned cancer cell line.

  2. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  3. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  4. Complete genome sequences of two biologically distinct isolates of Asparagus virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, S; Lesker, T; Maiss, E

    2015-02-01

    The complete genome sequences of two asparagus virus 1 (AV-1) isolates differing in their ability to cause systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana were determined. Their genomes had 9,741 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoded a polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids, and shared 99.6 % nucleotide sequence identity. They differed at 37 nucleotide and 15 amino acid sequence positions (99.5 % identity) scattered over the polyprotein. The closest relatives of AV-1 in amino acid sequence identity were plum pox virus (54 %) and turnip mosaic virus (53 %), corroborating the classification of AV-1 as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus.

  5. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio.

  6. REVERSAL EFFECT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD (LILIACEAE ROOT EXTRACT ON MEMORY DEFICITS OF MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwlayan Vrish Dhwaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus racemosus wild (Liliaceae was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p. were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p. were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic root extract (150 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (p<0.05 improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

  7. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis.

  8. Asparagus IRX9, IRX10, and IRX14A Are Components of an Active Xylan Backbone Synthase Complex that Forms in the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Picard, Kelsey L; Song, Lili; Wu, Ai-Min; Farion, Isabela M; Zhao, Jia; Ford, Kris; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2016-05-01

    Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta. To better understand the XSC structure and its composition, we carried out coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis to show the molecular interactions between these three IRX proteins. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we showed that the DxD motifs of AoIRX10 and AoIRX14A are crucial for the catalytic activity. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first lines of biochemical and cell biological evidence that AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A are core components of a Golgi-localized XSC, each with distinct roles for effective heteroxylan biosynthesis.

  9. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression.

  10. Viabilidad económica de la producción de espárrago en la Región del Maule, Chile Economic viability of asparagus production in the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán L Andrade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de viabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. en Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos fueron tomados de los registros históricos de un predio localizado en la zona de Linares, Región del Maule, Chile. Los indicadores de viabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN, razón beneficio-costo (RBC, y período de recuperación del capital (PRC. Los indicadores de eficiencia económica fueron el costo medio total (CMET, margen unitario ponderado (MUP y la rentabilidad sobre capital (RSC. Como unidad de análisis se consideró una hectárea. Para productores con tierra, los resultados obtenidos en la situación estándar fueron: Ch$1,52 millones (VAN, 12,1% (TIR, 0,3 (IVAN, 1,1 (RBC y 10 años (PRC. Para la etapa de producción se proyectó un CMET mínimo de Ch $317,8 kg-1, un MUP máximo de Ch$407 kg-1 y una RSC de 20,3%. La principal conclusión es que el cultivo de espárrago en la región del Maule, en Chile, es viable para los productores con tierra.Viability and economic efficiency indicators for asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. production in Chile were evaluated. Technical parameters were obtained from an historical farm located in Linares area, Maule Region, Chile. Viability was assessed by means of net present value (VAN, internal rate of return (TIR, net present value index (IVAN, cost-benefit ratio (RBC, and investment recovery period (PRC. Economic efficiency was assessed through production average cost (CMET, weighted unit margin (MUP, and return on equity (RSC. The analysis was based upon one hectare. Results for producers who own their land were US$ 2,529 ha-1 (VAN, 12.14% (TIR, 0.25 (IVAN, and 1.1 (RBC. The minimum CMET was estimated at US$ 0.53 kg-1 the maximum MUP at US$ 0.68 kg-1, and RSC until 20.3%. The main conclusion is that asparagus production in the

  11. Effects of Different Amount of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Yield and Nutrient Quality of Green Asparagus%不同磷肥用量对绿芦笋产量及营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒山; 谷永丽; 张瑞富; 刘晶

    2011-01-01

    In experimental farm of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities from March to July in 2008, using four-year Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Apollo as experimental material, the effects of different amount of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and nutrient quality of green asparagus were studied. The results showed that the yield of green asparagus increased first and then slightly decreased with the increase of the amount of phosphorus fertilizer during the harvesting time when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was within P 0 - 90 kg ha. The weight of per branches and the increase of branches were the major reasons for the increase of the yield of green asparagus. With the increase of amount of phosphorus fertilizer, the content of chlorophyll a and b increase, and the content of carotenoid had no obvious change, and the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid in later period was higher than those in prophase and metaphase. The content of soluble sugar, crude protein, soluble protein all increased with the increase of amount of phosphorus fertilizer. The content of mineral elements were much higher when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was appropriate, but which was lower when the amount of phosphorus was too much or little. Under this experimental condition, when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was about P 72 kg ha, green asparagus not only has higher yield and better nutrient quality.%2008年3~7月在西辽河平原的内蒙古民族大学实验农场,以4年生芦笋阿波罗(Asparagus officinalis L.cv.Apollo)为试材,研究了不同磷肥用量对绿芦笋产量及营养品质的影响.结果表明,施磷量在0~90kg hm-2的范围内,绿芦笋产量随施磷量的增加呈先升高后略有降低的变化趋势,单支重和支数均有不同程度的增加.随着磷肥用量的增加,叶绿素a、叶绿素h的含量增加,而类胡萝卜素的含量变化不大;采笋后期叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素含量均明显地

  12. Study on HepG-2 apoptosis induced by saponins isolated from Asparagus and the effects on the activities of caspase-3,8,9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yu-bin; XU He; JI Chen-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of saponins of asparagus on apoptosis and the variations of caspaseS, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in the process of asparagus induced apoptosis in HepG-2, to investigate the apoptosis mechanism further. Methods Asparagus on apoptosis effects on tumor cells cultured-HepG-2 with different concentrations at different time, IC50 value was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis rate was determined by FCM with AnnexinV/PI staining, their apoptotic morphology were observed by electron microscopy and Colorimetric method was used to measure caspase-8,9 and caspase-3 activities. Results Experiments of antitumour in vivo showed that saponins of asparagus can inhibit the growth of tumor cell of HepG-2 in evidence, IC50 was 101.15 mg·L-1. Cultured for 72 h, the apoptosis rate had positive increased with concentrations. Apoptotic morphology was observed by electron microscopy. The activities of caspase-8, easpase-9 and caspase-3 had positive increased with concentrations. And have significant difference compared with negative control group(P<0.01). The activities of caspase-8 were high at 24 h, but the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 is high at 48 h. Conclusions Aaponins of asparagus can inhibit the growth of tumor cell of HepG2, and the underlying mechanism might be related to up regulation of caspase-8, 9 activity which subsequently transforms caspase-3 into its active form.

  13. Methyl Protodioscin from the Roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Inhibiting Cytokine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find pharmacologically active compound against airway inflammation from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of the roots of A. cochinchinensis (ACE was found to inhibit IL-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549 and the major constituent, methyl protodioscin (MP, also strongly inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α from A549 cells at 10–100 μM. This downregulating effect of proinflammatory cytokine production was found to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun activation pathway. When examined on an in vivo model of airway inflammation in mice, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury, ACE, and MP significantly inhibited cell infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by the oral treatment at doses of 100–400 mg/kg and 30–60 mg/kg, respectively. MP also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lung tissue. All of these findings provide scientific evidence supporting the role of A. cochinchinensis as a herbal remedy in treating airway inflammation and also suggest a therapeutic value of MP on airway inflammatory disorders.

  14. Purification and characterization of novel cationic peroxidases from Asparagus acutifolius L. with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Vincenzo; Cantarella, Maria; Chambery, Angela; Mezzacapo, Maria C; Parente, Augusto; Landi, Nicola; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2014-08-01

    Four novel basic peroxidases, named AaP-1, AaP-2, AaP-3, and AaP-4, were purified from Asparagus acutifolius L. seeds by cation-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The four proteins showed a similar electrophoretic mobility of 46 kDa while, by MALDI-TOF MS, different Mr values of 42758.3, 41586.9, 42796.3, and 41595.5 were determined for AaP-1, AaP-2, AaP-3, and AaP-4, respectively. N-terminal sequences of AaPs 1-4 up to residue 20 showed a high percentage of identity with the peroxidase from Glycine max. In addition, AaP-1, AaP-2, AaP-3, and AaP-4 were found to be glycoproteins, containing 21.75, 22.27, 25.62, and 18.31 % of carbohydrates, respectively. Peptide mapping and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of AaPs 1-4 showed that the structural differences between AaP-1 and AaP-2 and AaP-3 and AaPs-4 were mainly due to their glycan content. We also demonstrate that AaPs were able to remove phenolic compounds from olive oil mill wastewaters with a higher catalytic efficiency with respect to horseradish peroxidase, thus representing candidate enzymes for potential biotechnological applications in the environmental field.

  15. Asparagus chain: Fifth year production of different genotypes and postharvest behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kirschenbilder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study greenhouse precocious spears yield of three genotypes of asparagus on its fifth harvest season. The trial was established at the Faculty of Agricultural, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, on November, 15, 2006. 19 different harvests were made from 04/09/2012 to 22/10/2012, one every two days. A multifactor ANOVA-LSD test (P>0.05 was performed. Variables analyzed were: total productivity and commercial productivity (PFT and PFC, total number of spears and commercial number of spears (NTT and NTC; caliber distribution (DC: Jumbo (J, Extra-Large (XL, Large (L, Medium (M and Small (S and finally, quality defects (D: spiked spears (TE; short spears (TC and other defects (OD. During the post-harvest period, bundles (A, trays (BA and polyethylene bags were used to study fresh weight evolution (EPF; daily fresh weight loss (PPFD and average fresh weight during the post-harvest period (PPFP. Italian breeds yielded above 9 t/ha, twice the Argentinean national average. According to the production results, Giove stood out regarding PFT, PFC, NTT, NTC and a proper DC, where the 70% of spears measured L and XL. With regard to postharvest behavior, it was found that the lowest degree of dehydration was obtained by using bags and trays.

  16. 低温对芦笋萌芽及其激素含量的影响%Effect of Low Temperature on Bud Break and Changes of Endogenous Hormones of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗金龙; 乜兰春; 石立哲; 高飞; 贾丽丽

    2011-01-01

    以芦笋'Applo'为试材,在河北保定研究了低温对其萌芽及内源激素含量变化的影响.结果表明:自然条件下,芦笋在10月30日保温,仍可迅速萌芽生长;但11月14日和11月29日保温,萌芽数和采笋数显著减少;而在12月14日或之后保温,萌芽数与10月30日保温无显著差异,采笋数显著多于10月30日保温.说明芦笋在低温作用下一旦进入休眠阶段,需要满足一定的低温积累量,才能在保温后恢复正常生长.不同低温处理表明,2℃30 d或5℃45 d可满足'Applo'对低温的需求.芦笋在经历自然低温和低温处理过程中,鳞芽中GA3、IAA、ZR含量相对稳定,ABA含量先上升后又迅速下降,ABA含量变化与与芦笋休眠及休眠解除有密切关系.%Three-year-old plants of ‘Applo' were used to study the effect of low temperature on bud break and changes of endogenous hormones in bud of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis Linn) . The results showed that asparagus plant showed rapid bud break and spear growth when it was incubated on Oct. 30.But when it was incubated on Nov. 14 or 29, bud break and spear harvest decreased. While when it was incubated on Dec. 14 or later, the bud break had no difference with that incubated on Oct. 30, but spear harvest increased. These results suggested that once asparagus plants underwent the period of dormancy induced by the chilling in winter, they needed sufficient chilling duration to restore the activity of bud break and spear growth. The experiment of different low temperature treatment revealed that 2 ℃ 30 d or 5 ℃ 45 d could sastify the chilling duration of‘Applo'. During natural or treated chilling period, the content of GA3, IAA and ZR in bud of asparagus was relatively stable, but the content of ABA increased during dormancy stage, and then decreased rapidly to a lower level. The changes of ABA content had close relationship with dormancy and dormancy-breaking of asparagus.

  17. Composition Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of the Asparagus%芦笋营养成分的分析评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠霞; 毛箬青; 李志忠; 王永刚; 刘晓风

    2011-01-01

    本试验测定了97-2芦笋的营养成分,并对其营养价值与其他几个品系以及日常蔬菜进行了比较.结果表明,97-2芦笋含有较高的营养成分,每100 g该芦笋所含蛋白质、脂肪、总糖分别为3.25 g、0.25 g、2.64g,检测到了18种氨基酸,其中天冬氨酸115.13mg,占总氨基酸的3.05%,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的34.95%.该芦笋的必需氨基酸评分和化学评分表明其第一限制性氨基酸为蛋氨酸+胱氨酸,必需氨基酸指数为41.13.该品系维生素含量丰富,其中VB1 0.39 mg、VB2 0.68 mg、VB3 0.38 mg、VB6 4.88 mg.此外还含有丰富的矿物质元素,其中Fe、Mg、Zn、Ca等元素含量较高于蔬菜.比较结果表明此芦笋含有较高的营养成分.此芦笋具有较高的营养价值,因此具有较好的开发前景.%The composition and nutrition of the hero asparagus new strain 97-2 asparagus was analyzed and compared with those of common vegetables. Contents of protein, fat and sugar in each 100 g of this asparagus were 3.25 g, 0.25 g and2.64 g, respectively. Eighteen amino acids in 97-2 asparagus were found, in which aspartic acid content was 115.13 mg, being 3.05% of total amino acids. The ratios of total essential amino acids to total amino acids (EAA/TAA) were 34.95%. According to the nutritional evaluation on amino acid score (AAS) and chemical score (CS), the first limited amino acids were methionine and cystine. The asparagus was rich of vitamin, containing VB1 0.391 mg, VB2 0.679 mg, VB3 0.380 mg, and VB6 4.880 mg. It was also rich in minerals, including Fe, Mg, Zn, Ca and other elements, which were high than those in vegetables. These results indicate that 97-2 asparagus possessed high nutritional value and health care function and thus has promising prospects for further development.

  18. 芦笋皮微晶纤维素的制备%Preparation of microcrystalline cellulose from asparagus peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美玲

    2012-01-01

    以芦笋皮为原料,酶法制得膳食纤维后,采用盐酸水解,以溶胀性为指标确定制备微晶纤维素的工艺条件,为芦笋皮的加工利用提供一个新的途径。试验结果表明:在75℃下,盐酸浓度4 mol/L,料酸比1g∶5 mL,酸解时间5 h,制备出的微晶纤维素溶胀性可达6.90 mL/g,比芦笋皮中膳食纤维的溶胀性(4.80 mL/g)高2.10 mL/g。%Using asparagus as raw materials,microcrystalline cellulose was prepared in the best experimental conditions,determined by hydrochloric acid in different acidolysis time,acid concentration and proportion of material to acid,which took swelling as an index.And the best experimental conditions for preparation of microcrystalline cellulose provides a new way to process the asparagus.The results show that the best preparation conditions were the concentration of hydrochloric acid 4 mol/L,the proportion of material to acid 1∶5,acidolysis time 5 h,at 75 ℃.In the above conditions,the swelling of microcrystalline cellulose can be up to 6.90 mL/g,which is 2.10 mL/g more than the swelling(4.80 mL/g)of dietary fiber from the asparagus peel.

  19. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem.

  20. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy vegetable

  1. Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-05-01

    Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is used worldwide as a medicinal plant. In the present study, the anxiolytic activity of standardized methanolic extract of root of AR (MAR) was evaluated in open-field test (OFT), hole-board, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Rats received oral pretreatment of MAR in the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg daily for 7 days and then were evaluated for the anxiolytic activity in different animal models. Both MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the grooming behavior, number of central squares crossed, and time spent in the central area during OFT. Further, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the head-dip and head-dip/sniffing behavior, and decreased sniffing activity in hole-board test. Furthermore, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the percentage entries and time spent to open arm in EPM test paradigm. The anxiolytic activity in the experimental models was similar to that of diazepam. MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) enhanced the level of amygdalar serotonin and norepinephrine. It also increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala. In another set of experiment, flumazenil attenuated the anxiolytic effect of minimum effective dose of MAR (100 mg/kg) in OFT, hole-board, and EPM tests, indicating GABAA-mediated mechanism. Moreover, the anxiolytic dose of MAR did not show sedative-like effect in OFT and EPM tests compared to diazepam (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, the anxiolytic response of MAR may involve GABA and serotonergic mechanisms. These preclinical data show that AR can be a potential agent for treatment of anxiety disorders.

  2. Asparagus racemosus ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities and augments its antileishmanial activity by immunomodulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Heena; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2014-02-01

    Current drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are inadequate and their efficacies are also compromised due to suppression of immune function associated during the course of infection. To overcome this problem, efforts are needed to develop therapies with effective immunomodulatory agents where decrease of parasitic burden and simultaneous enhancement of adaptive immunity can be achieved. In this study we have evaluated a new therapeutic approach based on combination of Asparagus racemosus, an immunomodulatory drug, in combination with cisplatin against Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice. We demonstrate that A. racemosus (650 mg/kg b.wt./day for 15 days, orally) in combination with cisplatin (5 mg/kg b.wt./day for 5 days, intraperitoneally) enhanced the clearance of parasites as determined by Giemsa-stained liver impression smears. Besides having better killing activity, this combination group achieved increased production of disease resolving Th-1 response (IFN-gamma, IL-2), heightened DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity) response and augmented levels of IgG2a. Moreover, A. racemosus in combination with cisplatin not only provided enhanced protective immune response but also resulted in remarkable improved kidney and liver function tests as manifested by normal levels of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea in blood plasma with normal histological observations as compared to only cisplatin treated L. donovani infected BALB/c mice. Through this study we have ascertained that A. racemosus in combination with cisplatin in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice boosted as well as restored both cellular and humoral immunity. Thus in view of severe immunosuppression in visceral leishmaniasis, a better and effective strategy for optimum efficacy of future antileishmanial drugs would direct not only killing of parasite by the drug, but also simultaneous generation of immunity against the disease.

  3. Asparagus Root Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesteremic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant P. Visavadiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia are major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Root of Asparagus racemosus (AR is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is known for its steroidal saponin content. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesteremic and antioxidant potential of AR root in both normo- and hypercholesteremic animals. Normal and hypercholesteremic male albino rats were administered with root powder of AR (5 and 10 g% dose levels along with normal and hypercholesteremic diets, respectively, for a duration of 4 weeks. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, fecal sterol, bile acid excretion and hepatic antioxidant activity were assessed. Inclusion of AR root powder in diet, resulted in a dose-dependant reduction in plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol and bile acid along with increases in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesteremic rats. Further, AR root also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD and ascorbic acid levels. No significant changes in lipid and antioxidant profiles occurred in the normocholesteremic rats administered with AR root powder. AR root appeared to be useful as a dietary supplement that offers a protection against hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia in hypercholesteremic animals. The results of the present study indicate that the potent therapeutic phyto-components present in AR root i.e. phytosterols, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, could be responsible for increased bile acid production, elimination of excess cholesterol and elevation of hepatic antioxidant status in hypercholesteremic conditions.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  5. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  6. Effect of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on Psychological Stress in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanari, Jun; Nakahigashi, Jun; Sato, Atsuya; Waki, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Shogo; Uebaba, Kazuo; Hisajima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract (ETAS) on improving stress response. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was undertaken in healthy volunteers. ETAS (150 mg/d) or a placebo was consumed for 28 d, with a washout period. Psychological parameters were examined using a self-report scale questionnaire and psychological stress was applied using the Uchida-Kraepelin (U-K) test. During the stress load, autonomic nervous function was analyzed. After the stress load, a profile of mood states (POMS) psychological rating was performed, and serum cortisol, plasma catecholamine, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and salivary cortisol were analyzed. ETAS intake improved the self-reported rating for the items "Feel tired," "Hard to get up," and "Feel heavy" in the psychological questionnaire; ameliorated the self-reported rating for the items "Depression-Dejection" and "Fatigue" in the POMS questionnaire; and increased salivary sIgA levels after the U-K test. In contrast, serum and salivary cortisol levels, and plasma catecholamine did not change. During the U-K test, ETAS significantly upregulated the sympathetic nerve activity. Furthermore, ETAS intake significantly increased the number of answers and the number of correct answers in the U-K test, suggesting that it might improve office work performance with swiftness and accuracy under stressful conditions. In conclusion, ETAS supplementation reduced feelings of dysphoria and fatigue, ameliorated quality of sleep, and enhanced stress-load performance as well as promoted stress response by increasing salivary sIgA levels. These data suggest ETAS intake may exert beneficial effects, resulting from well-controlled stress management, in healthy individuals.

  7. Application of Feature Space in Extraction of Asparagus Planting Area Using Renote Sensing%芦笋种植面积遥感提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 隋学艳; 梁守真; 姚慧敏; 侯学会

    2016-01-01

    The traditional method of extracted cash crop planting area by remote sensing has been widely carried out. However,it is not suitable for the planting area extraction of asparagus.Aiming the deficiency of the existing methods,this paper considered the characteristics of asparagus production.Taking Caoxian county as the study area,the paper studied the method of extraction of asparagus planting area by using Landsat 8 images.By comparing the different NDVI between the asparagus planting area and other objects,this paper first removed the water and wheat field by NDVI threshold segmentation method,and found the distribution of soil line by further analyzing the two-dimensional feature space of the asparagus planting area,buildings and roads.Finally,the asparagus planting area was extracted through the defined thresholds.The results showed that the asparagus planting area is 14626.55ha2 acres in Caoxian county,where the accuracy achieves 84.85%.%针对传统遥感技术提取芦笋种植面积精度不高的问题,根据芦笋的种植特点,该文以山东省曹县为研究区域,以 Landsat 8影像为研究数据,提出了芦笋种植面积的提取方法。通过分析芦笋种植区与其他地物归一化差值植被指数特征,首先利用阈值分割方法去除水体、小麦地物,进一步分析芦笋种植区、建筑物和道路等的影像二维特征空间,发现芦笋种植区的土壤线分布规律,并通过波段运算结果确定芦笋种植区阈值,最后进行芦笋种植面积提取。结果表明,曹县的芦笋种植面积为14626.55ha2,总体精度为84.85%。

  8. Chemical analysis reveals the botanical origin of shatavari products and confirms the absence of alkaloid asparagamine A in Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Yukie; Maruyama, Takuro; Wakana, Daigo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Shatavari-a famous Ayurveda materia medica used mainly as a tonic for women-is distributed in health food products all over the world. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India identifies the botanical origin of shatavari as the tuberous root of Asparagus racemosus. We recently investigated by DNA analysis the botanical origin of shatavari products on the Japanese market. The results suggested that their botanical origin was Asparagus; however, species identification was difficult. In this study, we analyzed steroidal saponins, including those specific to this plant, in these products and confirmed their origin as A. racemosus. Next, alkaloid analyses of an authentic A. racemosus plant and these products were performed, because several papers have reported the isolation of a pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloid, asparagamine A, from this plant. Our results suggest that neither plant material nor products contained asparagamine A. It has been pointed out that Stemona plants are sometimes mistaken for shatavari, because their tuberous roots have a similar shape to that of A. racemosus, and pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloids are thought to be Stemona-specific. These data strongly suggest that A. racemosus does not contain asparagamine A, and that previous isolation of asparagamine A from materials claimed as originating from A. racemosus was likely caused by misidentification of Stemona plants as A. racemosus.

  9. Effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract on heat shock protein 70, stress indices, and sleep in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Goto, Kazunori; Takanari, Jun; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a novel anti-stress functional food ingredient that is produced from asparagus. Two human intervention trials with ETAS were conducted in healthy adult male volunteers. Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of ETAS on expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in blood and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ETAS group showed a tendency to enhance HSP70 mRNA expression level compared to the placebo group. Several ANS condition parameters were significantly improved in the ETAS group when compared to the placebo group. In Study 2, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial investigated the influence on stress-related hormones and sleep. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were significantly elevated compared to baseline during the placebo period, but remained unchanged during the ETAS period. The salivary chromogranin A level was significantly decreased in the ETAS-treated subjects compared to their baseline levels. The actual sleep time was not significantly different between ETAS and placebo. However, when the subjects were divided into two categories based on sleep efficiency or the average of night sleeping time, ETAS intake was effective to modulate the sleep state among those with low sleep efficiency or excess sleep time.

  10. Development of a rapid HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of protodioscin and rutin in white and green asparagus spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears are rich in bioactive compounds such as protodioscin, a saponin, and rutin, a flavonoid. Protodioscin and rutin are routinely quantified separately, and an approach permitting simultaneous measurement would significantly improve speed of analysis. We have optimized an extraction procedure and modified a method of high-performance liquid chromatography by coupling to an ultraviolet detector to simultaneously analyze protodioscin and rutin in asparagus extracts. An acidic ethanol solvent was more efficient than methanol, acetonitrile, or water in coextraction of protodioscin and rutin. Protodioscin and rutin were detected at 210 nm, with retention times of 12.6 min and 7.9 min, respectively. The method was validated by high linear correlations between 3.13 and 1000.0 μg/mL for protodioscin (r(2)= 0.9999), and between 0.3 and 1087.5 μg/mL for rutin (r(2)= 0.9997). The limit(s) of detection and quantification for protodioscin were 1.6 μg/mL and 3.13 μg/mL, respectively, and for rutin 0.2 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. White asparagus spears and the crown of the plants were revealed to be rich sources of protodioscin and contained 2.59 to 10.4 mg/g dry weight. Green asparagus spears, particularly the upper portion, were rich in rutin and contained between 1.51 and 7.29 mg/g dry weight.

  11. 速溶芦笋粉对小鼠免疫功能的影响%Effects of Instant Asparagus Powder on Immune Function of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉臣; 赵希艳; 刘绍军; 彭友顺

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the effects of instant asparagus powder on immune function of mice. [ Method] According to the method recorded in the Technical Standards for Testing & Assessment of Health Food (2003), the mice were given instant asparagus powder (referred to as the extract of Asparagus offwinalis) for successive 30 days by intragastric administration. [ Result ] Instant asparagus powder could improve evidently funtions of cellular immunity, humoral immunity, mononuclear macrophage and activity of NK on mice. But apparent effect to weights of spleen, thynuis and body were not seen in the trials. [ Conclusion] Instant asparagus powder can improve the immune function of mice.%[目的]研究速溶芦笋粉对小鼠免疫功能的影响.[方法]根据《保健食品检验与评价技术规范》(2003年版)的方法,将速溶芦笋粉(芦笋提取物)对小鼠进行灌胃给药,持续30 d,检验其对小鼠免疫能力的影响.[结果]速溶芦笋粉能明显增强小鼠细胞免疫和体液免疫能力,也能明显增强小鼠单核-巨噬细胞功能和NK细胞活性,但对各剂量组小鼠体重及脾脏和胸腺的脏器指数无明显影响.[结论]速溶芦笋粉具有增强免疫力的功能.

  12. Effect of Chemical Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Green Asparagus%化肥施用对绿芦笋产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟海翔; 杨斌; 焦彩菊

    2011-01-01

    A field experience was conducted to study the effect of NPK fertilization on yield and quality of green asparagus. The result showed that the branches of green asparagus, weight of per branch and yield of green asparagus in NPK treatment had the maximum values among those five treatments. The branches of green asparagus and weight of per branches in treatment of PK, NK and NP were much lower than NPK at different level. The content of crude protein, soluble protein, soluble sugar and content of mineral element in NPK treatment were much higher than in the other treatments. We concluded that balanced nutrient applications could not only increased yield, but also improved quality of green asparagus.%在大田条件下,研究了不同氮磷钾肥对绿芦笋产量及品质的影响.结果表明,绿芦笋支数、单支质量以及总产量均以NPK处理最高;PK,NK以及NP处理的芦笋支数、单支质量均不同程度降低,最终导致减产.芦笋粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖以及不同矿质元素含量均以NPK处理最高.可见,平衡的养分供给不仅可以提高绿芦笋产量,而且还可以有效改善芦笋的品质.

  13. Characterization of Fusarium isolates from asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario and influence of soil organic amendments on Fusarium crown and root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Benjumea, Ana; Basallote-Ureba, María J; Melero-Vara, José M; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR) of asparagus has a complex etiology with several soilborne Fusarium spp. as causal agents. Ninety-three Fusarium isolates, obtained from plant and soil samples collected from commercial asparagus fields in southwestern Ontario with a history of FCRR, were identified as Fusarium oxysporum (65.5%), F. proliferatum (18.3%), F. solani (6.4%), F. acuminatum (6.4%), and F. redolens (3.2%) based on morphological or cultural characteristics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with species-specific primers. The intersimple-sequence repeat PCR analysis of the field isolates revealed considerable variability among the isolates belonging to different Fusarium spp. In the in vitro pathogenicity screening tests, 50% of the field isolates were pathogenic to asparagus, and 22% of the isolates caused the most severe symptoms on asparagus. The management of FCRR with soil organic amendments of pelleted poultry manure (PPM), olive residue compost, and fish emulsion was evaluated in a greenhouse using three asparagus cultivars of different susceptibility in soils infested with two of the pathogenic isolates (F. oxysporum Fo-1.5 and F. solani Fs-1.12). Lower FCRR symptom severity and higher plant weights were observed for most treatments on 'Jersey Giant' and 'Grande' but not on 'Mary Washington'. On all three cultivars, 1% PPM consistently reduced FCRR severity by 42 to 96% and increased plant weights by 77 to 152% compared with the Fusarium control treatment. Populations of Fusarium and total bacteria were enumerated after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of soil amendment. In amended soils, the population of Fusarium spp. gradually decreased while the population of total culturable bacteria increased. These results indicate that soil organic amendments, especially PPM, can decrease disease severity and promote plant growth, possibly by decreasing pathogen population and enhancing bacterial activity in the soil.

  14. Study on the sleep improvement effect of the instant asparagus powder%速溶芦笋粉改善睡眠功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑凤; 王芳; 李汉臣; 常学东; 王周平; 黄云祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the sleep improvement effect of instant asparagus powder on mice.Methods:Healthy KM male mice with the body weight of 18~22g were divided into groups randomly,then mice were gavaged with the different dosage of instant asparagus powder and jujubosided respectively everyday,and the direct sleep effect of the test material on mice were observed.30d later,the hypnosis test under subthreshold dose of Sodium Pentobarbital,the incubation period test with Barbital Sodium and the sleep extending test with Sodium Pentobarbital were conducted.Results:The sleep rate of low,medium and high dose group of instant asparagus powder were 25.00%,33.33% and 41.67% respectively,significantly raised the sleep rate comparing with the control group,it showed that the instant asparagus powder had hypnotic effect under the threshold hypnotic dosage of pentobarbital sodium.The sleeping incubation period of low,medium and high dose group of instant asparagus powder were 23.09,20.29,20.22min respectively,compared with the control group time 32.36min,instant asparagus powder significantly shorten the sleep incubation period of mice.The sleep time of low,medium and high dose group of instant asparagus powder were 35.89,40.62,45.78min respectively,the result showed that instant asparagus powder could significantly prolong sleep time that induced by pentobarbital sodium.Conclusion:Instant asparagus powder could improve the sleeping quality of mice.%目的:研究速溶芦笋粉对小鼠改善睡眠的影响。方法:18~22g健康雄性昆明种小鼠,按体重随机分组,每天经口灌胃不同剂量速溶芦笋粉和阳性对照物(酸枣仁皂苷),观察小鼠直接睡眠作用,连续给予受试物30d后,进行戊巴比妥钠阈下剂量催眠实验、巴比妥钠睡眠潜伏期实验、延长戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间实验。结果:速溶芦笋粉的低中、高剂量组的睡眠发生率分别为25.00%、33.33%和41.67%,均比空白对照组显著增

  15. 光照对绿芦笋汁色泽稳定性的影响%Effect of Light Exposure on Color Stability of Green Asparagus Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学红; 秦卫东; 马利华; 郑永华; 郁步青

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effect of light exposure on color stability of green asparagus juice during storage time ,the pasteurized juice were exposed to natural light and dark at ambient temperature .The changes of color ,chlorophyll ,carotenoids ,vitamin C ,total phenolics ,reducing sugar and amino acids con‐tents we re studied in green asparagus juice during storage time .The results showed that light exposure sig‐nificantly affected the color stability of green asparagus juice .The decrease of chlorophyll and the increase of carotenoids contents were inhibited by dark storage .At the same time ,the greenness of asparagus juice was kept .Vitamin C ,total phenolics and reducing sugar contents were closely correlated with the color of green asparagus juice .There was no significant correlation between amino acids and color of green aspara‐gus juice .The decrease of vitamin C ,total phenolics and reducing sugar contents were prevented by dark storage and the color stability of green asparagus juice was effectively kept .%为了探讨光对绿芦笋汁色泽稳定性的影响,将杀菌处理后的绿芦笋汁于自然光及黑暗(避光)条件下常温贮藏,研究绿芦笋汁在贮藏期间的色泽、叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、维生素C、总酚、还原糖和氨基酸质量浓度的变化。结果表明:光照对绿芦笋汁的色泽稳定性影响显著;避光贮藏可有效延缓绿芦笋汁叶绿素的降解,抑制类胡萝卜素质量浓度的上升,保持绿芦笋汁的绿色;维生素C、总酚和还原糖与绿芦笋汁的色泽密切相关,氨基酸与其色泽无显著相关性,避光贮藏可有效抑制维生素C、总酚和还原糖质量浓度的降低,从而有效地维持了绿芦笋汁的色泽稳定性。

  16. Studies on Immune Regulation Effect of Ethanol Extract from Asparagus%芦笋醇提取物的免疫调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 马淑凤; 李汉臣; 王周平; 黄云祥; 代卉

    2013-01-01

    In this study,air dried asparagus was ultrasonic extracted with 75 % (v/v)ethanol. The immune function of this extract on mice were investigated . Mice were orally administrated with asparagus extract at three dose levels (7,70,140 mg/Kg BW) for 30 days. At the organ level, thymus and spleen were weighed and their indices were calculated. The macrophage phagocytosis ability in vitro, transformation of spleen lyphmocytes, and serum hemolysin were investigated to assess the immune functions. The results showed that the middle and high dosage of asparagus extract promoted the spleen index and the phagocytic function of murine peritoneal macrophages. the middle and high dosage of asparagus extract significantly enhanced the transformation of spleen lyphmocytes and serum hemolysin (HC50). This suggest that asparagus extract can enhance both the specific and non-specific immune functions in normal mice. Moreover, the specific immune effects of asparagus extract especially depended on the dosage.%分析芦笋醇提取物对机体免疫功能的调节作用.将风干芦笋用75%体积分数的乙醇溶液进行超声提取,获得芦笋醇提取物.对实验小鼠灌胃芦笋醇提取物,剂量分别设为7、70、140 mg/kg,另设一个空白对照组灌胃等体积生理盐水,连续30 d灌胃后,分别进行小鼠脏器/体重、腹腔巨噬细胞吞噬实验、淋巴细胞转化实验及半数溶血值实验.结果显示,中、高剂量组的芦笋提取物可显著提高小鼠的脾脏指数和腹腔巨噬细胞的吞噬能力;中、高剂量组的芦笋提取物具有显著增强淋巴细胞增值能力的作用,对提高血清溶血素含量作用极显著,并具有剂量依赖性.表明芦笋提取物能增强正常小鼠的非特异性和特异性免疫功能.

  17. 不同钾肥用量对绿芦笋产量及营养品质的影响%Effects of Different Amount of Potassium Fertilizer on Yield and Nutrient Quality of Green Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞富; 杨恒山; 刘晶; 李国红; 王翠花

    2013-01-01

    In experimental farm of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities from March to July in 2009, using 5-year Asparagus officinalis L.‘Apollo’as experimental material, the author studied the effects of different amount of potassium fertilizer on yield and nutrient quality of green asparagus. The results were as the following:the yield of green Asparagus and the weight of per branches of green asparagus was the first increase after decreasing trend with the increase of the amount of potassium fertilizer when the amount of potassium fertilizer was within 0-375 kg/hm2. And the yield and the weight of per branches was the highest when the amount of potassium fertilizer was respectively 300 kg/hm2 and 225 kg/hm2; the number of green Asparagus went up with the increase of the amount of potassium fertilizer. The content of soluble protein at each stage was gradually increased with the increase of the amount of potassium fertilizer. The content of soluble sugar in the early and middle increased first and then decreased of which the highest was the amount of potassium fertilizer of 225 kg/hm2 in the early, was the amount of potassium fertilizer of 330 kg/hm2 in the middle, gradually increased in the late. The content of crude protein went up with the increase of the amount of potassium fertilizer and other nutritional content had no obvious change. Ca, Mg elements gradually decreased with increasing potassium fertilizer and other mineral elements with no obvious relation of potassium fertilizer. Under this experimental condition, the combination of yield and nutrient quality, the amount of potassium fertilizer of 300 kg/hm2 was appropriate for green Asparagus.%2009年3-7月在西辽河平原的内蒙古民族大学实验农场,以5年生芦笋‘阿波罗’(Asparagus officinalisL.‘Apollo’)为试材,研究不同钾肥用量对绿芦笋产量及营养品质的影响。结果表明,施钾量在0~375 kg/hm2的范围内,随着钾肥用量的增加绿芦笋产量

  18. Produtividade do aspargo sob irrigação na região do Submédio São Francisco Asparagus yield under irrigation at the Submédio São Francisco region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio O. B. D'Oliveira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar uma coleção de cultivares e híbridos de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L., quanto à produtividade e adaptabilidade às condições do Submédio São Francisco. A avaliação foi realizada no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro (Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE, durante o período de 1991 a 1994. A coleção, constituída por duas cultivares e doze híbridos provenientes de Pelotas - RS, dez híbridos da França e três híbridos dos Estados Unidos, foi implantada em 15 de agosto de 1990. Na avaliação da produtividade, considerou-se apenas os turiões brancos, retos, sem manchas ou lesões, com diâmetro acima de 8 mm e comprimento variando de 15 a 20 cm. A produtividade média por genótipo durante o período de 1991 a 1994 variou de 1,74 a 6,33 t. ha-1. O ano de 1992 destacou-se com a maior produtividade média (4,46 t. ha-1. Os híbridos de origem francesa apresentaram uma acentuada mortalidade de plantas, indicando uma provável inadaptação às condições da região. Os híbridos W 12 x 14, G 4 x 14 e G 103 x 14, procedentes de Pelotas, destacaram-se com produtividades médias superiores a 4,40 t. ha-1. A cultivar New Jersey 220 apresentou o melhor desempenho, com 3,69 t. ha-1. Estes dados indicam o aspargo como uma boa alternativa agrícola para os perímetros irrigados da região Nordeste do Brasil, oferecendo, inclusive, condições de a região competir nos mercados interno e externo.The objectives of this study were to evaluate genotypes of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in terms of yield and adaptation to conditions of the Submédio São Francisco region. The research was conducted between 1991 and 1994 at the Bebedouro Experimental Station of Embrapa Semi-Árido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. Two standard cultivars and twelve Brazilian hybrids (Pelotas and Rio Grande do Sul, ten French hybrids, and three hybrids from the United States were tested. Only straight spears

  19. Asparagus cochinchinensis Extract Alleviates Metal Ion-Induced Gut Injury in Drosophila: An In Silico Analysis of Potential Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions and sulfate are components of atmospheric pollutants that have diverse ways of entering the human body. We used Drosophila as a model to investigate the effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (A. cochinchinensis extracts on the gut and characterized gut homeostasis following the ingestion of metal ions (copper, zinc, and aluminum. In this study, we found that the aqueous A. cochinchinensis extract increased the survival rate, decreased epithelial cell death, and attenuated metal ion-induced gut morphological changes in flies following chronic exposure to metal ions. In addition, we screened out, by network pharmacology, six natural products (NPs that could serve as putative active components of A. cochinchinensis that prevented gut injury. Altogether, the results of our study provide evidence that A. cochinchinensis might be an effective phytomedicine for the treatment of metal ion-induced gut injury.

  20. ETAS, an enzyme-treated asparagus extract, attenuates amyloid beta-induced cellular disorder in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Sakurai, Takuya; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Izawa, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ishida, Hitoshi; Takabatake, Ichiro; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    One of the pathological characterizations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in cerebral cortical cells. The deposition of Abeta in neuronal cells leads to an increase in the production of free radicals that are typified by reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby inducing cell death. A growing body of evidence now suggests that several plant-derived food ingredients are capable of scavenging ROS in mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS), which is rich in antioxidants, is one of these ingredients. The pre-incubation of differentiated PC 12 cells with ETAS significantly recovered Abeta-induced reduction of cell viability, which was accompanied by reduced levels of ROS. These results suggest that ETAS may be one of the functional food ingredients with anti-oxidative capacity to help prevent AD.

  1. Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation of a 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural derivative, asfural, from enzyme-treated asparagus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Sato, Atsuya; Ono, Tomoko; Goto, Kazunori; Maeda, Takahiro; Takanari, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2013-09-25

    A novel 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF; 1) derivative, which is named asfural (compound 2), was isolated from enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) along with HMF (1) as a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inducible compound. The structure of compound 2 was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data from HREIMS and NMR, whereas the absolute configuration was determined using chiral HPLC analysis, compared to two synthesized compounds, (S)- and (R)-asfural. As a result, compound 2 derived from ETAS was assigned as (S)-(2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl 5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate. When compound 2, synthesized (S)- and (R)-asfural, and HMF (1) were evaluated in terms of HSP70 mRNA expression-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells, compound 2 and (S)-asfural significantly increased the expression level in a concentration-dependent manner. HMF (1) also showed significant activity at 0.25 mg/mL.

  2. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Borrego-Benjumea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum (Fo, F. proliferatum (Fp and F. solani (Fs are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM, its pellet (PPM, or olive residue compost (ORC and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days. However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus `Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5, after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation. Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubation period and temperature.

  3. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Benjumea, A.I.; Melero-Vara, J.M.; Basallote-Ureba, M.J.

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), F. proliferatum (Fp) and F. solani (Fs) are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM), its pellet (PPM), or olive residue compost (ORC) and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs) in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days). However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5), after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation). Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubat. (Author)

  4. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  5. Selección de progenitores en espárrago Parent selection in asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gatti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi determinar as variáveis que melhor explicam a variação entre indivíduos dentro da população de aspargos originária da cultivar Argenteüil e selecionar plantas superiores para compor novas populações. O ensaio, composto por 1280 plantas, foi instalado no campo experimental da Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina, em 1996. Durante os anos de 1997 e 1998, foram avaliadas as variáveis: número de turiões por planta (TU; peso médio do turião (PM; diâmetro do turião (DI; produção total por planta (RE; produção comercial por planta (RM; número de dias para início da colheita (DAC; número de hastes por planta (NUTA; altura da haste principal (ALT e peso fresco da massa verde (MASAV. De acordo com a análise de componentes principais, as variáveis RE, RM, PM, DI e TU, são responsáveis por 60% da variação existente dentro da população avaliada. A análise de agrupamento baseada nestas variáveis, permitiu a identificação de cinco grupos distintos para os dois sexos. Os grupos G5 de plantas estaminadas e G5 de plantas pistiladas (7,51% da população total apresentaram as melhores características de RE e qualidade. Destes grupos, foram selecionadas 6 plantas estaminadas e 8 plantas pistiladas para serem utilizadas como genitores no programa de melhoramento de aspargos.The principal aim of this experiment was to ascertain what the variables are which best explain the variations among individuals within the populations of asparagus which originates from the cultivar Argenteüil and as a result select better plants to form new populations. The test, using 1,280 plants, was carried out at he experimental farm in the Facultad Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fé, Argentina, in 1996. During 1997 and 1998 the number of spears per plant (TU, the mean weight of spears (PM, mean diameter of spears (DI total yield

  6. 3个芦笋品种产量及农艺性状的研究%Study on yields and agronomic characters of three different asparagus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷永丽; 杨恒山; 王红霞

    2015-01-01

    In experimental farm of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, eleven years three asparagus species (Apollo and Grande and Atlas) as experimental material, the yields and agronomic characters of different asparagus species were studied in 2015. The results were as follow: In three experimental species, the yield of different grades asparagus of Grande was highest, average output rate per day;weight of per plant;stem number per plant; and branches per plant of Grande were also highest. In general, grande was much better than others.%2015年在西辽河平原的内蒙古民族大学试验农场,以11年生的阿波罗、格兰德、阿特拉斯3个芦笋品种为试验材料,研究了不同芦笋品种的产量及农艺性状。结果表明:在3个品种中,格兰德品种的各级笋产量均最高,日均产笋速率、单支重、笋径及单株采笋支数均最高。

  7. Confirmation of Fructans biosynthesized in vitro from [1-13C]glucose in asparagus tissues using MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Tomoo; Grant, Suzanne; Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter

    2013-05-15

    Accumulation of Fructans was confirmed in asparagus tissues that had been cultured for 2 days on media supplemented with glucose. It is very common that Fructans are biosynthesized from sucrose. We hypothesized however that Fructans could also be biosynthesized from glucose. Stem tissues of in vitro-cultured asparagus were subcultured for 72 h on a medium containing 0.5M of [1-(13)C]glucose. A medium containing 0.5M of normal ((12)C) glucose was used as control. Carbohydrates were extracted from the tissues and analyzed using HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS. HPLC results indicated that the accumulation of short-chain Fructans was similar in both (13)C-labelled and control samples. Short-chain Fructans of DP=3-7 were detected using MALDI-TOF MS. The molecular mass of each oligomer in the (13)C-labelled sample was higher than the mass of the natural sample by 1 m/z unit per sugar moiety. The results of ESI-MS on the HPLC fractions of neokestose and 1-kestose showed that these oligomers (DP=3) were biosynthesized from exogenous glucose added to the medium. We conclude that not only exogenous sucrose but glucose can induce Fructan biosynthesis; fructans of both inulin type and inulin neoseries are also biosynthesized from glucose accumulated in asparagus tissues; the glucose molecules (or its metabolic products) were incorporated into Fructans as structural monomers.

  8. Study on processing technology of the compound asparagus juice%复合芦笋汁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾振新; 吕凤霞; 陈元民; 史志营

    2001-01-01

    Amount of juice squeezed from spear peel of asparag us was ashigh as 52.5% with 3.8% of soluble solids. The bitterness of asparagus could be shielded when 10%~25% apple juice was added into 25%~40% asparagus. A compound beverage made up of 35% asparagus juice,15% apple juice,3% sugar,0.15 % citric acid,0.03% aspartame and fresh water had a flavorite flavour.%以芦笋弃料(笋皮)为原料,经破碎、榨汁后,出汁率为52.5%,含可溶性固形物3.8%。将25%~40%的芦笋原汁与10%~25%苹果原汁复合时,可较好地掩盖芦笋皮带入的苦味,而芦笋特有的清香味不受影响。芦笋原汁35%、苹果原汁15%、白砂糖3%、柠檬酸0.15%、阿斯巴甜0.03%与清水组成复合芦笋汁具有浓郁的芦笋清香味,略带苹果香味,甜酸适口。

  9. ITS序列在天门冬属物种DNA条形码构建中的应用研究%Application research of ITS sequences DNA barcoding in asparagus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋向辉; 曾桂萍; 欧立军; 佘朝文; 许栋

    2011-01-01

    在对天门冬属4个种ITS(internal transcribed spacer)序列克隆测序的基础上,并对4个种进行序列比较分析.结果表明:(1)4个物种的亲缘关系很近,它们间的ITS序列的变异小,GC含量高,在60%左右.(2)4个物种在系统树上聚为一类,文竹与其他3种天门冬的亲缘关系相对较远,处于系统树的一支,其中,非洲天门冬与新疆天门冬的亲缘关系较近,处于系统树的一支.(3) ITS序列的种间差异值略有不相,短梗天门冬与非洲天门冬的差异值为2.8%,与新疆天门冬的差异值为3.5%,与文竹的差异值为8.5%,非洲天门冬与新疆天门冬的差异值为2.1%,与文竹的差异值为8.3%,新疆天门冬与文竹的差异值为9.1%.综合分析认为:以ITS序列为DNA条形码可真实反应天门冬属物种间差异.%This study made cluster analysis among the 4 spices of Asparagus, based on ITS (internal transcribed spacer) cloning sequencing. Firstly the result showed that there has close relationship and little variation of ITS sequence among 4 spices, with the highly 60% of GC content. Secondly, four spices belong to one kind, while Asparagus setaceus, in one branch of pylogenentic tree, has far genetic relationship with the other 3 Asparagus Species. And thirdly the result was in line with lianghu qu etal got . Once he got the interspesfic difference value of most family and genus ITS sequence of angio-sperm varies from 1. 2 % to 10. 2 % via comparison with different live groups,and inter-generic difference value fluctuates from 9. 6 % to 28. 8 %. The interspecific difference value between Asparagus lycopodineus and Asparagus densiflorus, Asparagus neglec-tus, Asparagus setaceus is as follows; 2.8%, 3. 5%, 8. 5%. The difference value between Asparagus densiflorus and Asparagus neglectus, Asparagus setaceus is as follows :2. 1% and 8. 3%. The difference value between Asparagus neglectus and Asparagus setaceus is 9. 1%. Our analysis suggests ITS sequences

  10. Present Situation,Problems and Countermeasures of Chongming Asparagus Industry%崇明芦笋产业发展现状、问题及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泉生; 孟凡磊

    2014-01-01

    崇明芦笋产业经过30a的发展,已形成种植面积近667hm2,年产值超亿元的规模,是当地农民增收的主栽品种。该文从崇明芦笋产业现状出发,结合国内外芦笋市场需求,通过调研,分析了崇明芦笋产业发展存在的问题,提出了确保崇明芦笋产业健康发展的对策建议,为实现芦笋产业的可持续发展提供参考。%Chongming Asparagus industry has formed a considerable scale that the plant area is nearly 667hm2 and annual output value is over one hundred million yuan after more than 30 years of develop-ment. As a result,Asparagus has become the main cultivar to increase the income of local farmers. The study embarks from the present situation of Chongming Asparagus industry,combining with market demand both at home and abroad to analyse the problems in the development of chongming Asparagus industry and put forward countermeasures and suggestions to ensure the healthy and sustainable development of As-paragus industry.

  11. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  12. Germination and vigour of primed asparagus seeds Germinação e vigor de sementes de aspargo osmoticamente condicionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lúcio de Carvalho Bittencourt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic conditioning or priming is considered a promising technique to speed up germination and to improve seed performance. Four seed lots of asparagus, Mary Washington cultivar, were primed at 25°C for seven or 14 days using PEG 6000 at -1.0 or -1.2 MPa, or sea water at -3.3 MPa; or for three days in distilled water. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by standard germination, first count germination, speed of seedling emergence, and germination percentage and seedling fresh and dry weights after controlled deterioration test. Primed seeds presented higher germination speed, independently of their initial physiological quality. Beneficial effects of priming on germination and vigour were more expressive in the seed lot of low physiological quality. Priming in PEG 6000 at -1.0 MPa for 14 days was the most beneficial treatment to improve asparagus seeds performance.O condicionamento osmótico ou priming tem sido considerado uma técnica promissora para acelerar a germinação e melhorar o desempenho das sementes. Sementes de quatro lotes de aspargo, cv. Mary Washington, foram condicionadas em PEG 6000 a -1,0 e -1,2 MPa, por 7 e 14 dias, em água do mar a -3,3 MPa, por 7 e 14 dias e em água destilada por 3 dias, em BOD a 25°C. Sementes não condicionadas foram usadas como testemunha. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada pela germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, velocidade de emergência e pela porcentagem de geminação e pesos da matéria fresca e seca das plântulas obtidas no teste de deterioração controlada (45°C/24 horas. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Duncan a 5%. Sementes de aspargo condicionadas osmoticamente apresentaram maior velocidade de germinação, independentemente de sua qualidade fisiológica inicial. Efeitos benéficos do condicionamento osmótico, na

  13. The maximum residue limits and determination of pesticide residues in asparagus%芦笋中农药最大残留限量及检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欢; 车兰兰; 林勤保; 王蓉珍

    2012-01-01

    总结了芦笋中常用农药及欧盟、日本、美国和我国对其最大残留限量规定,并对农药残留相关检测方法在芦笋等果蔬中的应用进行综述,以期为我国芦笋中农药残留检测和控制提供参考。%Common pesticides used in asparagus planting and the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of those in European Union,Japan,USA and China were summarized,and also the application of relevant determination methods of pesticide residues to asparagus ,vegetables and fruit were reviewed. The paper is aimed at providing reference for pesticide residue determination and controlling in Chinese asparagus field.

  14. 冰温贮藏对绿芦笋品质及酶活性的影响%Effect of ice-temperature preservation on quality and enzymatic activity of Green Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀香; 鲁晓翔; 陈绍慧; 李江阔

    2013-01-01

    To 4℃ refrigerated storage for comparison,the effect of ice-temperature preservation on quality and enzymatic activity of Green Asparagus was investigated.The results showed that the storage life of Green asparagus was increased 14d,and its organoleptic quality was improved by ice-temperature preservation.While the firmness and tincture of Green asparagus was kept,the decrease of the V c content was slowed down,and its commodity value was improved by ice-temperature preservation.The activity of PPO and POD of Green asparagus was increased,and the activity of PAL was decreased under ice-temperature.So the protection ability of Green asparagus was enhanced,and the aging of Green asparagus was delayed.The control effect of ice-temperature preservation on respiration and ethylene production was unconspicuous.%以4℃冷藏作为对照,研究了冰温贮藏对绿芦笋品质及酶活性的影响.结果表明:冰温贮藏延长了绿芦笋贮藏期14d,提高其感官品质;同时,冰温贮藏保持了绿芦笋的硬度和色泽,减缓了Vc含量的降低,提高了其商品价值;冰温条件下绿芦笋多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性提高,苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性降低,增强了自身保护能力,延缓绿芦笋衰老;但冰温贮藏对绿芦笋呼吸作用和乙烯生成量的抑制效果不明显.

  15. Safety Evaluation of Different Kinds of Herbicides on Asparagus Seedlings%不同类型除草剂对苗期芦笋的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聚莹; 贾海民; 蒋晓丽; 陈丹

    2014-01-01

    To choose the best herbicides types for controlling weeds in asparagus seedling field and determine its safety evaluation for asparagus, experimental studied the influence on asparagus seedling of seven pre-emergence spraying herbicides and seven post-emergence herbicides.The results showed that 330 g/L pendimethalin EC (750 mL/hm2) had little influence on the emergence of asparagus, 15% fluazifop-P EC (500 mL/hm2) had no significant phytotoxicity on asparagus seedling.The two kinds of herbicides could be used in asparagus seedling fields, and other herbicides could cause different extents of phytotoxicity.%为探索防治芦笋育苗田杂草的适宜除草剂类型及其对苗期芦笋的安全性,利用花盆种植芦笋,在温室内分别进行了7种封闭类除草剂和7种苗后除草剂对芦笋幼苗生长的安全性评价。结果表明:播后苗前施用330 g/L二甲戊灵乳油750 mL/hm2对芦笋出苗影响不明显,苗后施用15%精吡氟禾草灵乳油500 mL/hm2对芦笋幼苗生长无明显的药害症状,2种除草剂均可以在芦笋育苗田使用。

  16. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement.

  17. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples.

  18. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents.

  19. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus.

  20. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2007-02-01

    Crops grown in heavy metal contaminated soils are an important avenue for these toxic pollutants entering the human food chain. Information on how crops respond to soil contaminations of single versus multiple metals is scarce and much needed. This study investigated the accumulation of Cd by 24 cultivars of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis L., family Fabaceae) under a low level (0.8 mg kg-1) and a high level (11.8 mg kg-1) of Cd exposure in a garden experiment, and that in a field experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 486, and 1114 mg kg-1, respectively) contaminated soil. Both experiments showed that there were highly significant variations among the tested cultivars in Cd accumulation by roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of asparagus bean. In the garden experiment, all cultivars under the low Cd exposure and 41.7% of the tested cultivars under the high Cd exposure bore fruits (pods) whose Cd concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg kg-1 fw and therefore were safe for consumption. In addition, the fruit Cd concentrations of cultivars with black seed coats were significantly lower than those with red or spotted seed coats. These results suggest that asparagus bean is a hypo-accumulator to Cd pollutant and the trait of Cd accumulation is genetic-dependent among cultivars. In the field experiment, correlation between fruit Cd and Pb concentrations was significantly positive (p pollution-safe-cultivars (PSC) in multi-metal polluted condition could refer to the PSCs selected under a high level exposure of a single heavy metal.

  1. Study on Ecological Adaptability and High -efficient Technology of Asparagus Production in Nantong%南通市芦笋生产的生态适应性及高效种植技术途径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建; 魏亚凤; 杨美英; 季桦

    2012-01-01

    从温度、光照、土壤水分和空气湿度、土壤、不良环境与劣质异形笋的发生等方面,分析了芦笋生长的适宜环境.根据温光资源条件和水土环境特征,明确了南通市芦笋生产的生态适应性.提出了南通市芦笋生产的高效种植技术途径和播种育苗、移栽定植、田间管理等标准化生产技术.%This paper analyzed the suitable environment for the growth of asparagus from the aspects of temperature, light, soil moisture, air humidity, soil, bad environment, the occurrence of inferior abnormal asparagus and so on. According to the temperature and light conditions as well as the water and soil environmental characteristics, the ecological adaptability of asparagus production in Nantong city was nailed down. The high - efficient cultivation technology of asparagus in Nantong city and its some standardized technologies of seeding, seedling - raising, transplanting and field management were also pointed out.

  2. Utilization Status and High-efficient Development Countermeasures of Asparagus Waste Straws%芦笋废弃秸秆利用现状与高效开发对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新龙; 张岳平; 陈光宇

    2015-01-01

    简述了芦笋废弃秸秆的利用价值及在动物饲料、食用菌培养、食品工业、沼气应用和土壤改良等方面的研究利用现状,并有针对性地提出了几点高效开发对策,以期为芦笋产业的进一步发展提供参考。%In this paper, the utility value of garden asparagus waste straws was briefly reviewed , the current research and utili-zation statuses of asparagus waste straws in animal feed , edible mushroom culture, food industry, marsh gas use and soil improve-ment were summarized, and several high -efficient development countermeasures of asparagus waste straws were pointedly put for -ward, in order to provide a reference for the further development of asparagus industry in future .

  3. 海芦笋膳食纤维提取技术%Extraction Techniques of Dietary Fiber from Sea Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 王朋; 何键东; 罗红宇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective was to study the technology condition for extracting the dietary fiber from the sea asparagus and prepare the soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. [ Method ] The method of combining the enzyme and chemical was used to prepare the 2 kinds of dieta ry fiber. [ Result ] Under the conditions as pH in cellulose of 4 - 5, pH in neutral protease solution of 6 - 7, temperature of 48- 50 ℃, cellu lose of 800 U/g, protease of 2 000 U/g, enzyme solution time of 2 h, the best enzymatic hydrolysis results were obtained. The isolated soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber were obtained after extracting the crude fiber with 2.25% sodium carbonate solution (40 times) for 1h at 50 t. The insoluble dietary fiber was first boiled with 0. 75% sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min, then with 1.5% hydrochloric acid so lution for 20 min. The insoluble dietary fiber could be mixed with the soluble dietary fiber. [ Conclusion] The preparation of the dietary fiber from the sea asparagus under the optimized process could get the yield of 21.28% , in which the ratio of soluble dietary and fiber insoluble di etary fiber was 1:3.%[目的]研究从海芦笋提取膳食纤维的工艺条件,并制备可溶性和不溶性膳食纤维.[方法]采用酶与化学法相结合的方法,制备2种膳食纤维.[结果]纤维素酶pH4 ~5,中性蛋白酶pH 6 ~7,温度均为48~50℃,纤维素酶800 U/g,蛋白酶2 000 U/g,酶解时间各为2h的条件下,获得最佳酶解效果;酶解后的粗纤维用40倍2.25% Na2CO3溶液,在50℃条件下提取1h,分离得到可溶性和不溶性膳食纤维,不溶性膳食纤维先用0.75% NaOH溶液碱煮30 min,再用1.5% HCl溶液酸煮20 min,将可溶性和不溶性膳食纤维混合.[结论]优化工艺下制备海芦笋膳食纤维,得率为21.28%,其中可溶性膳食纤维∶不可溶性膳食纤维为1∶3.

  4. A New Asparagus Bean Cultivar ‘Fengchan 6'%长豇豆新品种‘丰产6号’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 张艳

    2012-01-01

    ‘Fengchan 6' is a new earlymedium systematic breeding cultivar which comes from Zengcheng White Asparagus variant. It is characterized by vigorous growth, elite quality, high yield, insensitivity to light period and resistance to diseases. The pod is light green with about 60 cm long, 1.0 cm wide and 28 g in weight. It is suitable in main asparagus bean growing region in spring, summer, autumn in Guangdong Province.%长豇豆早中熟新品种‘丰产6号’是由‘增城花仁白豆’的变异株系统选育而成。荚色绿白,荚条直,肉厚,荚长60cm,荚宽1.0cm,单荚质量28g。荚形整齐,荚面平整,纤维少,品质优,产量高,对光周期反应不敏感,田间枯萎病、锈病发病率低,适宜广东省春夏秋季种植。

  5. The 2b protein of Asparagus virus 2 functions as an RNA silencing suppressor against systemic silencing to prove functional synteny with related cucumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara; Yoshida, Naoto; Sueda, Kae; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus in the family Bromoviridae. We cloned the coat protein (CP) and the 2b protein (2b) genes of AV-2 isolates from asparagus plants from various regions and found that the sequence for CP and for 2b was highly conserved among the isolates, suggesting that AV-2 from around the world is almost identical. We then made an AV-2 infectious clone by simultaneous inoculation with in vitro transcripts of RNAs 1-3 of AV-2 and in vitro-synthesized CP, which is necessary for initial infection. Because 2b of cucumoviruses in Bromoviridae can suppress systemic silencing as well as local silencing, we analyzed whether there is functional synteny of 2b between AV-2 and cucumovirus. Using the AV-2 infectious clone, we here provided first evidence that Ilarvirus 2b functions as an RNA silencing suppressor; AV-2 2b has suppressor activity against systemic silencing but not local silencing.

  6. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  7. 无糖天冬蜜饯加工工艺研究%Processing Technology of Sugar-free Preserved Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹永; 杨勇; 祝卢艺

    2011-01-01

    Processing technology of sugar-free preserved Asparagus was studied.Single factor experiments showed that 0.1% CaCl2 hardening 15 h,50 ℃~55 ℃ vacuum drying 12 h.Sugar manufacturing combined with cooked and dipped,orthogonal experiments showed that optimal sugar manufacturing conditions were 20% of the initial concentration of xylitol,sugar cooking time of 10 min,soaked sugar time 24 h,citric acid 0.20%.The sugar-free preserved Asparagus is full of winter white,sweet and sour appropriate,cool and refreshing,unique flavor.%对无糖天冬蜜饯的加工工艺进行了研究。单因素试验表明0.1%CaCl2硬化15 h,50℃~55℃真空干燥12 h。糖制采用煮浸结合,正交试验表明糖制最佳条件为木糖醇起始浓度20%、煮糖时间10 min、浸糖时间24 h、柠檬酸用量0.20%。制成的无糖天冬蜜饯饱满洁白、酸甜适宜、清凉爽口、风味独特,特别适宜于糖尿病人食用。

  8. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Mineral Element Absorption and Nutrient Quality of Asparagus in Plastic Tunnel%AM真菌对大棚芦笋矿质元素吸收和营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于二敏; 李聪; 贺超兴

    2014-01-01

    Effects of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrihizal fungi Glomus mosseae(GM)on biomass, mineral element absorption and nutrient quality of asparagus(Asparagus officialis L.)in plastic tunnel.The results showed that the fresh weight of GM inoculated plant increased by 45.57%than non-inoculated control,and the dry matter weight of GM inoculated plant increased by 29.65%.GM inoculation obviously increases the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids in asparagus cladophyll and strengthens the root activity.The absorption abilities for N,P,K,Mg,Mn,Cu in inoculated asparagus are also increased.The contents of rutin and saponins in GM inoculated asparagus are significantly increased than the control.%将接种丛枝菌根真菌摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae,GM)的芦笋菌根苗定植在大棚内,研究菌根对芦笋植株生物量、矿质元素吸收和产量品质的影响。结果表明:接种GM的芦笋单株地上部鲜质量增加了45.57%,地上部干质量增加了29.65%;拟叶叶绿素、类胡萝卜素含量和植株根系力均显著增加;植株吸收N、P、K、Mg、Mn、Cu的能力均有不同程度地提高;嫩中芦丁含量和皂苷含量也显著提高。

  9. Impact of Mooring Asparagus Angle on Towing of Ocean Platform with Bucket Foundation%系缆龙须角对筒型基础拖航影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宪庆; 杨子慧; 丁红岩; 辜文杰

    2014-01-01

    系缆龙须角是影响气浮筒型基础拖航的主要因素之一。通过模型试验对顺浪拖航时结构在横向、纵向以及垂向振荡的加速度、筒内气压力和水压力以及拖缆力进行测量。试验结果表明:拖航加速度随着系缆龙须角从0°增大到90°呈先减小后增大的趋势;龙须角为0°时,拖航的加速度、筒内气压力和水压力以及拖缆力变化均明显大于有角度拖航;拖缆力呈脉冲变化,且在45°时取得较小值。因此对于该结构的拖航,为了保证在拖航中既具有较小的拖缆力,又具有较小的横向和垂向振荡,建议选取系缆龙须角为45°。%The mooring asparagus angle is one of the main factors which affect the towing of air-floating bucket foundations. The accelerations of longitudinal, lateral, vertical acceleration, the internal air pressure and water pressure of the bucket and the tension of towing are determined by towing in following wave through model test. The test results show that the accelerations increase firstly, and then decrease with the increase of mooring asparagus angle from zero degree to 90 degree;when the asparagus angle is zero degree, the change of acceleration, internal air pressure, water pressure and the change of the asparagus force are significantly larger than the asparagus angle is not zero;The mooring force changes with pulse and is relatively smaller at 45 degree angle;in order to obtain the smaller tension and vibration in towing, the selected mooring asparagus angles of this platform is 45 degree.

  10. Effects of root and stem extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis on biochemical indicators related to aging in the brain and liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dasheng; Yu, Long-Xi; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Chunqiu; Xiong, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating lung and spleen-related diseases. In this study, we compared the medicinal effects of A. cochinchinensis root and stem extracts on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein content in the brain, liver and plasma of mice. Polysaccharides and aqueous extracts of the roots significantly increased the spleen index and the SOD activity but reduced the MDA content and slowed down the aging process. In contrast, feeding with the stem extracts significantly reduced the SOD activity and increased the MDA accumulation in the brain and liver of mice, suggesting that the stem extracts may not be appropriate for treating aging-related diseases.

  11. This kind of 'Asparagus' is quite well liked - Wind energy opinion poll; Die 'Spargel' ist gut angesehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutknecht, B

    2002-07-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey made on the public acceptance of wind energy projects in Switzerland and examines the situation in Switzerland with respect to the use of wind power and its promotion. The results of an internet-based survey made within the framework of a dissertation presented at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology are presented. This work included 3-D visualisations of proposed wind energy installations at various locations. The results of the survey, which showed a high level of acceptance for the installations, are commented on. The author discusses the ecological considerations relevant to the planning of wind turbines and is of the opinion that there is no danger of wind power installations 'shooting up like asparagus' in the Swiss landscape.

  12. 天门冬组培苗生根的影响因素研究%Influencing Factors on Rooting of Tissue Culture Seedling of Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危革; 欧立军

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish an effective rooting system of tissue culture seedling of Asparagus cochinchinensis,the effects of auxin concentration,sucrose and different basic medium on rooting of tissue culture seedling were studied.The results showed that too high or too low content of nutrition element,auxin and sucrose was not benefit for the rooting of tissue culture seedling.When using 1/2MS with FeSO4·7H2O 6.95 mg/L and Na2·EDTA 9.33 mg/L as the basic medium,supplementing with 0.5 mg/L IBA,0.5 mg/L IAA and 20 g/L sucrose,the rooting effect was the best,with rooting rate as high as 96%.%为了建立有效的天门冬(Asparagus cochinchinensis)组培苗生根系统,分别考察了生长素浓度配比、基本培养基和蔗糖浓度对天门冬组培苗不定根形成的影响.结果表明,培养基中营养元素、激素及蔗糖浓度过高或过低均不利于天门冬组培苗生根.以FeSO4· 7H2O浓度降低到6.95 mg/L、含Na2· EDTA 9.33mg/L的1/2MS为基本培养基,添加0.5 mg/L IBA、0.5 mg/L IAA以及20 g/L蔗糖时生根效果最好,生根率为96%.

  13. 芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导技术研究%Preliminary Study on Anther Culture Callus Inducement of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元国; 李芳; 包艳存

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导培养技术进行详细研究.[方法]以MS为基本培养基,附加外源激素对二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导技术进行研究.[结果]二倍体芦笋花蕾长度为1.5~2.0 mm时,其诱导效果最好;采用5%高糖浓度可显著抑制花药体细胞分裂和提高花粉愈伤组织诱导率;同一品种不同植株花药愈伤组织诱导率差异显著;适合于二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导的激素配比是1.0 mg/LNAA+ 1.0 mg/L BA.[结论]为芦笋的品种改良与选育奠定了基础.%To study anther culture callus inducement of asparagus in detail. [Method] The diploid anther callus inducement was studied by MS as basic medium with exogenous hormone. [ Result] The length of the diploid bud was 1. 5 - 2. 0 mm which induced result best; The high sugar density of 5% can repress the anther somatic cell division remarkably and improved the inducement rate of pollens callus; The callus inducement rate of the same plant with different species differed greatly; The suitable hormone proportion of diploid anther callus was 1.0 mg/L NAA + 1.0 mg/L BA. [ Conclusion] The study will lay a foundation for improvement and breeding of asparagus.

  14. Effects of Different Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Yield and Harvest Stage of Green Asparagus%不同氮肥用量对绿芦笋产量及采摘期的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国徽; 高冰可; 熊文; 周庆幈

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment,perennial Asparagus officinalis“JingGang Red”as text material to study the effects of different amount of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and picking period of green asparagus.The results showed that ,the yield of green asparagus increased first and then decreased with the increase of amount of the nitrogen fertilizer dur⁃ing the harvesting time when the amount of nitrogen fertilizer is within N 0~15.4kg/667m2.Applied pure N 11.93kg/667m2 to the perennial asparagus“JingGang Red“the effect is remarkable,the highest yield is 1 321.14kg/667m2.In the process of asparagus harvest,the maximum amount of picking is from late March to early April.%该文以多年生芦笋“井冈红”为试材,研究了不同氮肥用量对绿芦笋产量及采摘期的影响。结果表明,施纯氮在0~15.4kg/667m2范围内,随着氮肥用量的增加绿芦笋产量呈先升高后降低的趋势,其中产量在纯氮用量为11.93kg/667m2时最高,最高产量为1321.14kg/667m2。在芦笋采摘过程中,3月下旬至4月中上旬采摘量最大。

  15. 植酸对芦笋采后贮藏过程中生理变化及酶类的影响%Effect of the Phytic Acid on the Physiological Change and Enzyme of Post-harvest Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云潇; 何良兴; 谢灵燕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of the phytic acid on the physiological change and enzyme of post-harvest asparagus was analyzed. [ Method] The content of chlorophyll, lignin, crude fiber, total soluble sugar and sucrose, and the activity of POD, CAT and PPO of the asparagus, treated with the phytic acid(0. 1% , 0.2% and 0.5% ) , were tested. [ Result] The application of the phytic acid could inhibit the decline in the content of chlorophyll, delay the increment in the content of total soluble sugar, lignin and crude fiber, and promote the formation of sugar. And also, it could intensify the activity of POD, PPO and CAT, which would improve the quality of asparagus through its senescence delaying. [Conclusion] The application of the phytic acid could better improve quality and prolong shift time of asparagus.%[目的]探讨植酸对芦笋采后贮藏过程中生理变化及酶类的影响.[方法]采用植酸3个浓度梯度(0.1%、0.2%、0.5%)处理芦笋,测定叶绿素、纤维素、木质素、可溶性总糖和蔗糖含量,以及POD、CAT、PPO活性的变化.[结果]植酸抑制芦笋叶绿素含量的下降,延缓木质素、粗纤维和可溶性总糖含量的上升,刺激蔗糖含量的升高,有效提高了芦笋CAT、POD和PPO活性,延缓了衰老,保持了绿芦笋的鲜嫩品质.[结论]植酸处理后能较好地保持芦笋的品质,延长保鲜期.

  16. Establishment and Optimization of AFLP Analysis System in Asparagus%天门冬AFLP反应体系的建立及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧立军; 黄园; 王俞人; 谭智文

    2011-01-01

    To establish and optimize AFLP reaction system for Asparagus and lay foundation to analyze its genetic diversity, the single-factor was applied for optimizing four factors in the reaction system including restriction enzyme amount, time of digestion, preamplification system and final amplification. The DNA was completely digested by 5 U enzyme EcoR Ⅰ and Mse Ⅰ in 37℃ water-baths for 3 h. The digested fragments were legated with 2.0 pmol EcoR Ⅰ, 2.0 pmol Mse Ⅰ adaptors and 1 U T4-DNA ligase at 16℃ to stand overnight. The Final amplification system included 1.0 U Taq polymerase, 0.4 μL EcoR Ⅰ and Mse Ⅰ primers.On this basis, 8 primers were screened with stable amplification and rich polymorphism. It was proved that this system was stable and credible. This optimized AFLP system would provide the basis for the genetic analysis of Asparagus.%为探讨天门冬种质问遗传多样性奠定基础,采用单因子试验,建立并优化了天门冬AFLP反应体系,研究酶的用量、酶切时间、预扩增体系和选择性扩增等对PCR扩增的影响.酶切反应体系加入5.0 U EcoRⅠ和Mse Ⅰ于37℃保温3 h;连接反应体系加入1.0 U T4-DNA连接酶、2.0 pmol MseⅠ接头和2.0 pmol EcoR Ⅰ接头,16℃保温过夜;选择性扩增反应体系加入1.0 U Taq DNA聚合酶,0.4 μL EcoR Ⅰ和MseⅠ选择性引物;并筛选得到了8对清晰、多态性高的AFLP引物.17份天门冬种质对建立的AFLP反应体系检验,证明该体系稳定可靠,可用于天门冬种质多样性的分析.

  17. Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Murine Skin Fibroblast L929 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Ken; Takanari, Jun; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) exerts a wide variety of beneficial biological actions including facilitating anti-cortisol stress and neurological anti-aging responses. However, the anti-skin aging effects of ETAS remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in skin aging. Increased ROS levels in fibroblasts in response to ultraviolet irradiation activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the resultant gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) isoforms accelerates collagen breakdown in the dermis. Therefore, we explored whether ETAS has anti-skin aging effects by attenuating the oxidative stress responses in fibroblasts. Simultaneous treatment of murine skin L929 fibroblasts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and either ETAS or dextrin showed that ETAS significantly suppressed H2O2-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. ETAS also clearly suppressed H2O2-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun (AP-1 subunit) and JNK as determined by Western blot. However, ETAS did not affect the increased amounts of carbonyl proteins in response to H2O2, also as determined by Western blotting. These results suggest that ETAS diminishes cellular responsiveness to ROS but does not scavenge ROS. Thus, ETAS has the potential to prevent skin aging through attenuating the oxidative stress responses in dermal fibroblasts.

  18. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Monitoracao da agua no solo em cultura irrigada de aspargo no Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall` Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Audry, Pierre [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d`Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), 75 - Paris (France). Departement Eaux Continentales

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic 5 figs.

  19. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  20. Preservation Effect of Composite Chitosan Coating Treatment on Sea Asparagus%复合壳聚糖涂膜处理对海芦笋保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡烨; 徐青; 辛建美; 滕宏飞; 罗红宇

    2012-01-01

    Composite chitosan preservative was prepared using chitosan, phytic acid, sodium chloride and orange peel extract according to a certain proportion and storage tests were made at room temperature after sea asparagus immersion and coating. And preservative formula with better preservation effect was selected through orthogonal design. The results showed that each test group of composite chitosan coating could significantly reduce the rot rate and water loss rate of sea asparagus during storage and could effectively delay the oxidation of VC and chlorophyll compared with the control group. The optimized formulation of composite chitosan preservative was chitosan 1.5%, phytic acid 1.5%, sodium chloride 0.2% and orange peel extract 10%. The preservation period of sea asparagus using this formulation could be prolonged for more than 10 days compared with that of the untreated sea asparagus and it can fully meet the requirements of current logistics rate and logistics technology for vegetable preservation period.%壳聚糖、植酸、氯化钠、桔皮提取液按一定比例配制成复合壳、聚糖保鲜剂,在常温下对海芦笋浸泡涂膜后做贮藏试验.采用正交设计筛选保鲜效果较佳的保鲜剂配方.试验结果表明:与空白对照组相比,经复合壳聚糖涂膜处理的各试验组,明显降低海芦笋贮藏期间的腐烂率和失水率,有效延缓VC和叶绿素的氧化.复合壳聚糖涂膜液的优化配方为壳聚糖1.5%,植酸1.5%,氧化钠0.2%,桔度提取液10%(质量分数).经该配方涂膜密封贮藏的海芦笋比未处理的海芦笋保鲜期延长10d以上,可以满足目前物流速率和物流技术对蔬菜保鲜期的要求.

  1. Detection of 20 carbamate pesticides in asparagus by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联四极杆质谱法检测芦笋中20种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓琳; 霍乃蕊; 花锦; 宋欢

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立芦笋及其罐头制品中20种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的定性定量分析方法。方法采用改进的 QuEchERS 法提取和净化,利用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联四极杆质谱仪,在多反应监测正离子扫描模式下对样品进行添加回收率试验。结果分别对绿芦笋、白芦笋、绿芦笋罐头、白芦笋罐头4种空白基质添加0.005~0.050 mg/kg农药样品进行回收率试验,回收率为62.44%~85.99%,定量限均为0.005 mg/kg, RSD均小于9%。结论该方法简单快速,灵敏度高,能够同时满足芦笋及其罐头制品中20种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留的检测要求。%Objective To establish an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry method for detecting of 20 kinds of carbamate pesticides in asparagus and asparagus products. Methods Samples were extracted by modified QuEchERS method, and the mode of multi-reaction monitoring positive ion scanning was applied for analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results The blank matrixes (green asparagus, white asparagus, canned white asparagus, canned white asparagus) were added 0.005~0.050 mg/kg carbamate pesticides separately and recovery tests were performed. Results demonstrated that the recovery rates were in the range of 62.44%~85.99% and the limits of quantification were 0.005 mg/kg for all the 20 carbamate pesticides tested with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 9%. Conclusion The method, not only simple and fast but also high sensitive, can satisfy the international detection requirement for 20 carbamate pesticides residue in asparagus product simultaneously.

  2. Cladistic Evolution Analysis of Asparagus Genus in the Mongolian Plateau%蒙古高原天门冬属植物分支系统演化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 赵一之; 田桂泉

    2003-01-01

    利用最大同步法对蒙古高原天门冬属植物进行了分支分类研究,将本属植物分为2个亚属,天门冬亚属分为2个组.其结果与的分类系统一致.亚属、组的进化顺序为:Subgen. Asparagopsis → Subgen. Asparagus;Sect. densiflorus → Sect. Archiasparagus → Sect. Asparagus.蒙古高原天门冬属植物除Subgen. Asparagopsis中的栽培种A.setaceus和Subgen. Asparagus中Sect. Archiasparagus的A. schoberioides两种外,其余11种均属于Sect. Asparagus的Ser Foliati Iljin.根据分支演化树系图,又可分为Subser. Brachyphyllus和Subser. Persicus.本属的进化趋势为:花两性→花单性;叶状枝具中脉→不具中脉;花梗由短→长;由肉质纺锤状根→绳状根;短粗根状茎→细长根状茎.本文编制了蒙古高原天门冬属植物的分亚属、分组、分种检索表.

  3. 天门冬对D-半乳糖致衰小鼠SOD基因表达影响%The Effect of Asparagus on Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Gene of D - galatose - induced aging Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖媛媛; 王梓辛; 孙海军; 易大启; 欧立军

    2012-01-01

    采用D-半乳糖致衰小鼠为实验模型,研究天门冬不同提取液对小鼠超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)基因表达的影响.结果发现,天门冬提取液明显提高了衰老小鼠SOD基因的表达,榨汁法、醇提法和水提法的效果依次增加.结果表明,天门冬可以提高SOD基因表达,且水提法最为有效.%The effect of asparagus extracted by different methods on expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied used Dgalactose induced aging mice as experiment model. The results showed the extracts significantly enhanced the expression of SOD, the expression by water extracts was higher than those by juicer or alcohol extracts. The results indicated that asparagus improved expression of SOD, and the water method was a good extracted methods.

  4. 利用荧光定量PCR验证与比较豇豆耐旱表达谱%Validation and comparison of drought-responsive microarray with real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR in asparagus bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎; 徐沛; 汪宝根; 吴晓花; 黄芸萍; 鲁忠富; 刘永华; 李国景

    2013-01-01

    Originating from Africa and domesticated in Asia, asparagus bean [ Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipediailis ( L. ) Verdc ] is an important vegetable crop in China. Drought is an important environmental factor restricting the safety of asparagus bean production; therefore it is fundamental to identify drought tolerance genes from the asparagus bean germplasms. Fluorescence quantitative PCR is a useful tool for quantitative assay of gene expression. In this study, we validated and compared expression pattern of a subset of 11 genes from an in-house cowpea cDNA microarray with fluorescence quantitative PCR. It turned out that in roots and leaves of two different asparagus bean cultivars subject to drought stress, qPCR and microarray generally got similar results. The gene/tissue combinations showed congruent expression regulations between the two methods included 27 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated genes, relative to 10 inconsistently observed combinations, giving a rate of consistence of 0. 773. This experiment verified the confidence of high-throughput cDNA microarray in monitoring drought-related gene expressions, which lays a foundation for mining and utilizing drought-tolerant genes in asparagus bean. The causes of differential gene expression patterns between the two methods were discussed.%豇豆[Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp]起源于非洲,是我国重要的蔬菜作物.干旱是制约长豇豆生产的重要因素,研究和挖掘长豇豆种质中蕴含的耐旱基因是改良长豇豆耐旱性的必要基础.荧光定量PCR是定量检测基因表达的重要手段之一.本实验室前期开发了首张豇豆cDNA表达谱芯片,并利用该芯片研究了长豇豆耐旱表达谱.在此基础上,利用荧光定量PCR对其中11个基因的表达模式进行了验证和比较.试验结果表明,在干旱处理的长豇豆2个品种的根和叶中,供试基因的表达谱芯片分析和qPCR结果一致的共计34组,其中上调27组,下调7

  5. Weeds in Asparagus Plantations in Hainan and Their Control Techniques%海南芦笋园杂草种类调查及杂草防除技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 黄乔乔; 易克贤; 范志伟; 沈奕德; 程汉亭

    2014-01-01

    A syste matica l investigation of weeds was conducted in asparagus plantation of Hainan Province, and the dominant weed populations were determined. Then, weed control experiments were conducted. The results showed that there were 106 weed species belonging to 23 families in the asparagus garden. Of them, nine species were considered as dominant weeds, including Melinis repens, Panicum maximum, Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria setigera, Chromolaena odorata, Praxelis clematidea, Tridax procumbens and Mimosa pudica. Of the weed control strategies, coverage control and chemical control could control weeds to a certain degree:after 60d covering of nine plants, the control effect reached more than 60%. Covering the weed by cocered Pueraria lobata, Calopogonium mucunoides, Eupatorium odoratum, Mikania micrantha and Tithonia diversifolia increased the shoot number and the diameter of new shoots of asparagus. After application of four kinds of herbicides 60 d, Haloxyfop and acetochlor could control the weeds to a higher extent and were also safe to asparagus plants. In actual production practices, combining the covering and chemical weed control could control weeds to the maximum extent in the asparagus plantation.%系统调查海南芦笋种植区的主要杂草种类,明确芦笋园的杂草优势种群,并以此为基础进行盆栽芦笋化学除草药效试验及覆盖控草试验。结果表明,海南芦笋园常见杂草有21科106种,其中优势种群由马齿苋、红尾翎、短颖马唐、龙爪茅、牛筋草、砖子苗、假臭草、伞房花耳草及鳢肠9种构成。采用覆盖控草和化学除草可在一定程度上控制杂草的发生:覆盖9种植物60 d后,防效可达60%以上,且覆盖葛藤、毛蔓豆、飞机草、薇甘菊、肿柄菊后,芦笋抽笋数和新笋径围都显著高于其余各处理;施用4种除草剂60 d后,盖草能和乙草胺对盆栽芦笋的防效较高且安全。因此,在实际生产中,通过

  6. Estrategias de presentación de espárragos (Asparagus officinalis L.: preferencias de los consumidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espárragos constituyen un producto hortícola no tradicional altamente perecedero que requiere ser comercializado con una adecuada presentación que permita prolongar su vida útil y al mismo tiempo brindar información sobre el producto como un servicio al consumidor que estimule el consumo. Dentro de las posibilidades de presentación se encuentran los tradicionales atados y actualmente, a nivel global, se está difundiendo el empleo de bandejas que permite una presentación IV Gama del producto final. La IV Gama representa un modelo de producción idóneo para elevar el nivel de servicio de los productos hortícolas frescos en general, lograr una mayor exhibición y la expansión del consumo. Con la finalidad de conocer las preferencias de los consumidores de espárrago respecto de los distintos atributos del producto final, se efectuó un estudio de diez variables: 1 tipos de envases (bandeja: B, atados con y sin film: ACR y ASR; 2 presencia de etiquetas (E; 3 color: en etiquetas (CE; 4 de fondo (CF; 5 de letras (CL; 6 presencia: de recetario (R; 7 de indicaciones de valor nutricional (VN; 8 de ilustraciones (I; 9 de logos (Lg y 10 calibres: G: grande; M: mediano y P: pequeño; asignando a cada una un puntaje de 1 – 10. A tal fin se efectuó un panel test a treinta y cuatro potenciales consumidores el 13/11/2008. Los CF utilizados fueron: 1: verde, 2: amarillo, 3: anaranjado, 4: celeste. Se encontraron diferencias. ACR obtuvo 47 % (puntaje 10, E fue muy valorado (70 % el mayor valor, 85 % consideró importante la presencia de color en las etiquetas, siendo el anaranjado con 53 % el color preferido de fondo, seguido del amarillo (32 % y para las letras el color negro (88 %. R y Lg fue muy valorado por el 90 %, mientras que VN e I por el 80 %. El 61 % de los consumidores prefirió el calibre M.

  7. Estrategias de presentación de espárragos (Asparagus officinalis L.: preferencias de los consumidores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los espárragos constituyen un producto hortícola no tradicional altamente perecedero que requiere ser comercializado con una adecuada presentación que permita prolongar su vida útil y al mismo tiempo brindar información sobre el producto como un servicio al consumidor que estimule el consumo. Dentro de las posibilidades de presentación se encuentran los tradicionales atados y actualmente, a nivel global, se está difundiendo el empleo de bandejas que permite una presentación IV Gama del producto final. La IV Gama representa un modelo de producción idóneo para elevar el nivel de servicio de los productos hortícolas frescos en general, lograr una mayor exhibición y la expansión del consumo. Con la finalidad de conocer las preferencias de los consumidores de espárrago respecto de los distintos atributos del producto final, se efectuó un estudio de diez variables: 1 tipos de envases (bandeja: B, atados con y sin film: ACR y ASR; 2 presencia de etiquetas (E; 3 color: en etiquetas (CE; 4 de fondo (CF; 5 de letras (CL; 6 presencia: de recetario (R; 7 de indicaciones de valor nutricional (VN; 8 de ilustraciones (I; 9 de logos (Lg y 10 calibres: G: grande; M: mediano y P: pequeño; asignando a cada una un puntaje de 1 – 10. A tal fin se efectuó un panel test a treinta y cuatro potenciales consumidores el 13/11/2008. Los CF utilizados fueron: 1: verde, 2: amarillo, 3: anaranjado, 4: celeste. Se encontraron diferencias. ACR obtuvo 47 % (puntaje 10, E fue muy valorado (70 % el mayor valor, 85 % consideró importante la presencia de color en las etiquetas, siendo el anaranjado con 53 % el color preferido de fondo, seguido del amarillo (32 % y para las letras el color negro (88 %. R y Lg fue muy valorado por el 90 %, mientras que VN e I por el 80 %. El 61 % de los consumidores prefirió el calibre M.

  8. 28个绿芦笋品种的适应性评价%Evaluation of the Adaptability of 28 Green Asparagus Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝清俊; 陈蕾蕾; 孙欣; 张奇志; Mikolaj Knaflewski; Wodzimierz Krzesi(n)ski

    2013-01-01

    [目的]本文旨在对波兰气候条件下的28个绿芦笋品种进行适应性评价,并选择出最适合在波兰种植的品种.[方法]2008年在马赛林试验站对第六年收获的28个品种的绿芦笋进行评价.收获期间,将收获的芦笋嫩茎,剪至22 cm,分级,称重,同时对嫩茎外观、花青素变化、芦笋头紧实性、颜色及光滑度等性状进行评估.[结果]‘Gynlim’是产量最高的品种,其次为‘Hannibal’,‘Ravel’,‘Grolim’和‘Ramada’.‘Gloria’是最差的品种,其它最差的品种以次为‘Tsuki-kho 3’、‘Purple Passion’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’、‘Sartaguda’、和‘Jacq.Ma2004’.‘Gynlim’、‘Hannibal’、‘Ravel’、‘Ramada’、‘Ariane’是前期产量最高的前5个品种.前期产量最差的品种为‘PLA-2132’,随后是‘Ramos’、‘Tsuki-kho 3’和‘Purple Passion’.‘Ariane’、‘Cipress’、‘Grolim’、‘Gynlim’和‘Hannibal’的嫩茎质量最好.嫩茎质量最差的品种依次是‘Jacq.Ma 2004’、‘Gloria’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’和‘Tsuki-kho 3’.[结论]综合考虑产量与质量,在波兰气候条件下,最适宜的绿芦笋品种为‘Gynlim’、‘Hannibal’、‘Ravel’和‘Grolim’,而‘Gloria’、‘Tsuki-kho 3’、‘Purple Passion’、‘Jacq.Ma 2014’和‘Sartaguda’不适合波兰种植.%[Objective] This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability of 28 green asparagus cultivars under the climatic conditions in Poland and to select cultivars most suitable for growing in Poland.[Method] Based on an overview of asparagus,spears of 28 cultivars from the six year's harvest in 2008 were evaluated at the Marcelin Experimental Station.During the harvest period,spears were cut daily and trimmed to 22 cm,followed by grading and weigh.In addition,general appearance,anthocyan discolouration,head tightness,colour and smoothness of the spears were also evaluated.[Result] In terms of total yield,‘Gynlim’ was the best

  9. CRECIMIENTO, ABSORCIÓN DE FÓSFORO Y MORFOLOGÍA DE LA RAÍZ EN ESPÁRRAGOS INOCULADOS CON HONGOS MICORRIZALES Y PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENTES GROWTH, PHOSPHORUS ABSORPTION AND ROOT MORPHOLOGY OF ASPARAGUS INOCCULATED WITH MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En un experimento bajo invernadero se evaluaron los efectos de la aplicación de fósforo (P y la inoculación con Glomus fistulosum y Pseudomonas aeruginosa sobre el crecimiento, la longitud de la raíz y la absorción de P por plantas de espárrago sembradas en un Alic Melanudand. La inoculación con G. fistulosum incrementó significativamente la masa seca de la parte aérea y de raíces, la longitud de raíces primarias y secundarias y la absorción de P por las plantas. La aplicación de P aumentó significativamente el P disponible en el suelo (Bray II; sin embargo, a pesar de tal incremento no hubo aumento significativo del crecimiento de las plantas. La inoculación con P. aeruginosa no tuvo efecto significativo sobre las variables estudiadas, ni se encontraron interacciones significativas entre los factores.A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effects of phosphorus (P application and inoculation with Glomus fistulosum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on growth, root length, and P uptake of Asparagus officinalis grown on Alic Melanudand. Inoculation with G. fistulosum significantly increased shoot and root dry weight, primary and secondary root lengths, and plant P uptake. Phosphorus application significantly increased extractable P in the soil (Bray II, but despite this increase, there was no significant increase in plant growth. Inoculation with P. aeruginosa had no significant effect on the variables studied, nor were there significant interactions among the factors.

  10. The extraction of asparagus polysaccharide and its effect on the growth of human hepatic cancer SMMC-7721 cells in vitro%天冬多糖的提取及其对人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞生长影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张闽光; 陈刚; 刘力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the technical reliability of extracting polysaccharide from asparagus cochinchinensis and to discuss the effect of asparagus polysaccharide on the growth of a human hepatic carcinoma cell line. SMMC-7721 cells. in vitro. Methods The asparagus cochinchinensis was soaked in cold water and the crude asparagus polysaccharide was extracted with ethanol precipitation. Then,the crude asparagus polysaccharide was deproteinized with the method of pronase E and Sevag. Finally , the deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide was purified with the cellulose and sepharose chromatographic column, which was further identified and its molecular weight was determined. The effect of asparagus polysaccharide in different dose on the growth of the hepatic carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells was estimated with MTT assay in vitro, and the dose response curve as well as the growth curve was drawn. Results The extracted substance obtained by authors' method was further purified and deproteinized, and asparagus polysaccharide was thus gained. Its molecular weight ranged from 5 000 to 400 000 u. It had a twofold regulative effect on the growth of the hepatic carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. When its concentration was lower,below 800 μg/ml, the asparagus polysaccharide had the effect of promoting the vegetation of the hepatic carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. However. when its concentration was higher, over 900 μg/ml, the asparagus polysaccharide showed certain inhihitory effect on the vegetation of SMMC-7721 cells. besides,with the time passing by and the concentration increasing, the inhibitory effect became more effective ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The results of this experiment indicate that authors' method to extract, separate and purify the asparagus polysaccharide is technically reliable. In vitro, low concentration of asparagus polysaccharide can promote, while high concentration of asparagus polysaccharide can suppress, the vegetation of the SMMC-7721 cells, and the effectiveness is

  11. Effect of ultrasound waves on quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus during storage%超声波对芦笋贮藏品质和抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云潇; 何良兴; 徐庭巧

    2013-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound waves(20,60 and 100kHz)on quality and antioxidant activity were investigated, while respiration rate, color, hardness, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activities, bacterial count and mold counting were evaluated.The results indicated that ultrasound waves kept hardness and the contents of ascorbic acid,promoted accumulation of total phenolics in the middle stage of storage,reduced the numbers of bacteria and mould of asparagus,inhibited the respiratory rates,but had no significant effect on color.The longer the time of after storage,the worse the effect of ultrasound waves on asparagus.Ultrasound wave was an effective integrated freshness-keeping technique for extending storage life.%研究不同超声波频率(20、60、100kHz)处理对芦笋贮藏品质和抗氧化能力的影响,分析贮藏过程中呼吸速率、色泽、硬度、总酚、抗坏血酸、抗氧化力、霉菌和细菌总数的变化.结果表明:超声波能有效地降低细菌与霉菌数量,保持芦笋的硬度,抑制呼吸速率的升高,提高贮藏中期总酚含量、抗坏血酸水平,但对色泽无显著影响 随着贮藏时间的延长,超声波对芦笋的效果逐渐消失.超声波具有潜在的应用背景.

  12. 盐胁迫对芦笋种子萌发的影响%Effect of Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹岩坡; 戴鹏; 田建华; 戴素英

    2012-01-01

    Using asparagus variety Apollo as the material, under the conditions of the simulated salt stress ( NaC1 solution and saline-alkali soil extraction solution), the effect of salinity stress on seed germination rate was studied, and after 13 days , the non-germinated seeds from all the salinity treatments were transferred to distilled water, and the recovered germination was observed. The results showed that the low concentration of salt stress increased the seed germination, with the increasing of salinity, the seed germination decreased. Under the same concentration of salt stress, the inhibition of NaC1 solution was greater than that of soil extraction solution. The salt sensitive threshold to the seed germination was 4 g/L in NaC1 solution and soil extract. After transferring the non- germinated se6ds to distilled water, the total germination rate reached more than 60% of the control, which indicated that seeds had higher germination ability under salt stress.%以芦笋品种阿波罗的种子为试材,在人工模拟盐胁迫(NaCl溶液、盐碱地土壤提取液)条件下,设盐分浓度0(清水,CK)、1、2、4、6、8和10 g/L计7个处理,研究了不同盐度胁迫对种子萌发率的影响;并于处理后第13 d,将所有处理中未发芽的种子分别转移到装有清水的培养皿中进行复水萌发,观察各处理种子的萌发恢复情况。结果表明:低浓度盐胁迫对芦笋种子萌发有一定的刺激作用,随着盐胁迫浓度的增大,种子萌发率呈降低趋势;相同盐度胁迫下,NaCl溶液对种子萌发的抑制作用大于土壤提取液;芦笋种子在NaCl溶液和土壤浸提液中萌发的盐敏感阈值为4 g/L。未发芽的芦笋种子转移至清水中复水萌发后,各处理种子的总萌发率均达到了对照种子总萌发率的60%以上,表明盐胁迫下,芦笋种子保持了较高的萌发潜力。

  13. 芦笋老茎堆肥中嗜热放线菌的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Actinomycetes in Asparagus Old Stem Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 王丽芳; 王琪; 韩建荣

    2013-01-01

    采用稀释涂布法对芦笋老茎堆肥不同发酵阶段6个样品中的嗜热可培养放线菌进行分离,经纯化得到菌落形态有明显区别的23个菌株;根据16S rDNA序列分析结果,其中,4株的序列与白浅灰链霉菌Streptomyces albogriseolus的同源性最高,5株的序列与热普通链霉菌Streptomyces thermovulgaris的同源性最高,2株的序列与假浅灰链霉菌Streptomyces pseudogriseolus的同源性最高,1株的序列与刺棘链霉菌Streptomyces espinosus的同源性最高,有11株在GenBank数据库中未找到与其相似的已知链霉菌种的序列,分类地位待定.结果说明,芦笋老茎堆肥中优势的嗜热可培养放线菌主要是白浅灰链霉菌和热普通链霉菌.%The culturable thermophilic actinomycetes in the asparagus old stem compost samples at different fermentation stages were investigated. By dilution-plate method, twenty-three strains of actinomycetes were isolated from the samples. According to 16S rDNA sequence analysis, preliminary identification of these actinomycetes strains was done. Among these 23 stains of actinomycetes, four strains showed the highest similarity to Streptomyces albogriseolus, five strains to Streptomyces thermovulgaris, two strains to Streptomyces pseudogriseolus, and one strain to Streptomyces espinosus. Eleven strains could not be identified because there were no matched gene sequences of Streptomyces spp. To be found in the GenBank. The results indicated that Streptomyces albogriseolus and Streptomyces thermovulgaris were the most frequently isolated thermophilic actinomycetes from the asparagus old stem compost.

  14. 芦笋提取物抗疲劳及耐缺氧活性研究%Study on anti-fatigue function and hypoxia function of asparagus extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田颖刚; 牛俊卿; 谢明勇; 张盼; 黄云祥; 郑旭静

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Study the anti-fatigue function and hypoxia function of asparagus extracts.Methods:asparagus scrap was ultrasonic extracted with 75% ethanol.The contents of total saponin,polysaccharide and amino acids in the extract were determined.The effect of the ethanol extract from stem bottom of Asparagus on Anti -fatigue function and Hypoxia function of normal mice were studied by oral administration at three dose levels(25,100,400mg/kg m b).Results:After 14d of taking drugs,weight loading swimming time of mice significantly extend (low,high dose group p <0.01,the middle dosage group p < 0.05).After swimming 30min without weight loading in taken drugs for 30d,the accumulation of blood lactic acid in mice significantly decreased (low,middle dosage group p < 0.01,high dose group p < 0.05),while the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content showed no significant change (p > 0.05),Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) content significantly increased (low,middle dose group p <0.05,high dosage group p < 0.01),Superoxide dismutase (SOD)content significantly increased (low,dose group p<0.01,middle,high dosage group p < 0.05),the Malondialdehyde (MDA)content of high dose group significantly decreased(p <0.05).After taking the medicine for 30d continuously,the hypoxia-resistance time of high doses of mice significantly extended (p < 0.05),after injection hydrochloric acid isoproterenol,each dose group of mice oxygen consumption and survival time had no significant change.Conclusion; the ethanol extract from stem bottom of asparagus had obviously anti-fatigue function and certain hypoxia function.%目的:研究芦笋提取物抗疲劳及耐缺氧活性.方法:以75%乙醇为溶媒,超声提取芦笋,获得芦笋乙醇提取物,对提取物中总皂苷、总多糖、氨基酸进行含量分析;整体口服给药实验观察芦笋乙醇提取物对小鼠抗疲劳及耐缺氧功能的影响,给药剂量分别为25、100、400mg/kg mb.结果:给药14d后,小鼠负

  15. 北方大棚绿芦笋套种香菜栽培技术%Greenhouse Intercropping of Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis Linn) and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 李玉环; 李哲; 徐海玉; 凤桐

    2016-01-01

    在北方大棚种植模式单一,套种模式不常见,北方大棚绿芦笋种植同时套种香菜,既可以增加蔬菜种类,又可以提高复种指数,还能增加芦笋种植户的收入.该文通过大棚绿芦笋套种香菜栽培技术的介绍,为北方绿芦笋大棚栽培大面积推广提供有力技术支撑,打破大棚种植单一的模式,对种植模式起到引领作用.

  16. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  17. 基于液质联用的代谢组学方法研究天冬滋补保健作用的活性成分%Study on the Active Components in Asparagus Cochinchinensis with Nourishing Health Care Function by Metabonomics Based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 恩和苏仁; 长春; 美丽; 王秀兰; 王曦烨

    2016-01-01

    目的:基于液质联用的代谢组学方法探索天冬的滋补保健作用的活性成分.方法:健康Wistar大鼠(雌雄各半)24只随机分对照组和给药组.给药组以3.0 g?kg-1?d-1灌胃天冬,正常组用蒸馏水进行灌胃,连续42 d后麻醉,腹主动脉取血,分离血清,以超高效液相色谱-质谱联用技术(UPLC-MS)与主成分分析(PCA)、正交偏最小二乘判别分析(OPLS-DA)相结合检测血清,筛选出与滋补保健有关的内源性生物标记物.结果:在PCA与OPLS-DA模型中,正常组与给药组大鼠血清样本均有显著差异,跟正常组比较给药组共发现5个与滋补保健有关的内源性生物标记物,其中正离子发现5,6-trans-Vitamin D3、去氧皮质酮等两种内源性生物标记物,负离子发现亚油酸、二十二碳六烯酸、硬脂酸等三种内源性生物标记物,且所有标记物的含量均升高.结论:所发现的内源性生物标记物均为机体的有益活性成分,为天冬当的保健作用提供了理论依据.%Objective: To explore the active components in Asparagus Cochinchinensis with nourishing health care function by metabonomics based on UPLC-MS. Methods:Totally 24 Wistar rats ( with the equal number of male and female) were randomly divid-ed into two groups with 12 ones in each. The rats in the administration group were administered Asparagus Cochinchinensis (3. 0 g?kg-1?d-1) and those in the control group were administered distilled water for 42 consecutive days. On the 43rd day, all the rats were implemented anesthesia. The blood was collected from the abdominal aorta followed by centrifuged. The ultra performance liquid chro-matography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the changes of endogenous substances in the rats after the intragastric adminis-tration of Asparagus Cochinchinensis. Results:Significant differences between

  18. Manejo de irrigação para o feijão-de-metro, nas fases vegetativa e produtiva, em ambiente protegido Irrigation scheduling for asparagus bean in vegetative and productive stages in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington G. da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo adequado da irrigação é uma prática agrícola que requer informações para cada cultura explorada, em particular nas fases fenológicas do ciclo produtivo pois muitas espécies possuem períodos críticos durante os quais o estresse hídrico causa sérias reduções na produção. Este trabalho teve, como objetivo, avaliar o efeito de cinco níveis de potencial matricial de água no solo sobre o crescimento e produção do feijão-de-metro. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, na área experimental pertencente ao Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco potenciais matriciais de água no solo como indicativos do momento de irrigar (-15, -35, -55, -75 e -95 kPa, em duas fases fenológicas (vegetativa e produtiva, monitorados por sensores instalados a 0,15 m de profundidade. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a fase mais sensível ao déficit hídrico foi a produtiva e que a irrigação realizada no potencial matricial em torno de -15 kPa induziu a melhor resposta da cultura quanto ao desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade das vagens.Proper irrigation water management requires knowledge on each exploited crop; particularly regarding vegetative and productive phases since many species have critical periods during which water stress causes serious yield reductions. This study was undertaken so as to assess the effect of five matric potential levels on asparagus bean growth and yield. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the experimental area of Department of Engineering, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, MG. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial 5 x 2. The treatments consisted of five matric potentials as indicative of the irrigation scheduling -15 -35 -55 -75 -95 kPa and at two

  19. 15N Isotope Techniques for Estimating Effects of Urea-N Fertilizer Application Rate on Yieids and Nutrient Contents of Pakchoi Cabbage and Asparagus Lettuce and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-Iin; ZHENG Sheng-xian; RONG Xiang-min; LIU Qiang; FAN Mei-rong

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment combined with15 N isotope techniques was conducted to evaluate effects of the varying rates of urea.N fertilizer application on yields,quailty,and nitrogen use efficiency(NUE)of pakchoi cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)and asparagus lettuce(Lactuca saiva L.).15 N-labbled urea(5.35 15 N atom%)was added to pots with 6.5kg soil of 0.14,0.18,0.21,0.25,and 0.29 g N/kg soil.and applied in two splits:60 percenl as basel dressing in the mixture and 40 percent as toodressing.The fresh yields of two vegetable species increased with the increasing input of urea-N,but there was a significant quadratic relationship between the dose of urea-N fertilizer application and the fresh yields.Whan the dosage of urea-N fertilizer reached a certain value,nitrate readily accumulated in the two kinds of plants due to the decrease in NR activity;furthermore,there was a linear nagative correlation between nitrate content and NR activity.With the increasing input of urea-N.ascorbic acid and soluble sugar initially increased,declined after a while,and crude fiber rapidly decreased too.Total absorbed N(TAN).N derived from fertilizer(Ndff),and N derived from soil(Ndfs)increased,and the ratio of Ndff and TAN also increased.but the ratio of Ndfs and TAN as well as NUE of urea-N fertilizer decreased with the increasing input of urea-N.These results suggested that the increasing application of labeled N fertilizer led lo the increase in unlabeled N(namely,Ndfs)presumably due to"added nitrogen interaction"(ANI),the decease in NUE of urea-N fertilizer may be due to excess fertilization beyond the levels of plant requirements and the ANI.and the decrease jn the two vege table yields with the increasing addition of urea-N possibly because the excess accumulation of nitrate reached a toxic level.

  20. 芦笋老茎堆肥中嗜热细菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Bacteria in Asparagus Old Stem Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 陈婷婷; 王琪; 韩建荣

    2013-01-01

    利用稀释涂布法对芦笋老茎堆肥不同发酵阶段6个样品中的嗜热细菌进行分离,并采用16S rDNA序列分析方法对分离得到的菌落形态有明显区别的22株细菌进行鉴定.根据16S rDNA序列分析结果,22株细菌菌株中13株属于芽胞杆菌属(Bacillus),1株属于类芽胞杆菌属(Paenibacillus),4株属于假黄色单胞菌属(Pseudoxanthomonas),1株属于肠杆菌属(Enterobacter),1株属于副球菌属(Paracoccus),1株属于短芽胞杆菌属(Brevibacillus),菌株D-b2在GenBank数据库中未找到与其相似的已知细菌属的序列,分类地位待定.从以上鉴定结果可以看出,芦笋老茎堆肥中的优势嗜热细菌主要是芽胞杆菌(Bacillus spp.)和假黄色单胞菌(Pseudoxanthomonas spp.).%Thermophilic bacterial strains in six asparagus old stem compost (AOSC) samples at different fermentation stages were isolated using dilution-spreading-plate method, and twenty-two bacterial strains were identified according to their apparent morphological distinction using 16S rDNA sequence analyses. According to 16S rDNA sequence analysis results thirteen of 22 strains were identified as Bacillus spp. , one as Paenibacillus sp. four as Pseudoxanlhomonas spp. , one as Enterobacter sp. , one strain was identified as Paracoccus sp. , and one as Brevibacillus sp. Strain D-b2 could not be identified due to no similar known bacterial sequence to its sequence was searched in the GenBank, therefore, its classification position was still remained to be confirmed. From the characterization results above, one could know for that the dominant thermophilic bacteria in the AOSC were mainly Bacillus spp. and Pseudoxanlhomonas spp.

  1. 杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的分解利用%Decomposition in Lignocellulose Old Stem of Asparagus by Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申挺挺; 郭珺; 李欣欣; 韩建荣; 宋志刚

    2011-01-01

    采用袋栽研究了杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的分解利用情况,结果表明,在菌丝生长阶段,杏鲍菇、白灵菇对木质纤维素的降解量分别为18.08,17.39 g,分别占培养料失质量的74.43%,76.01%;在子实体发育阶段,杏鲍菇对木质纤维素的降解量占培养料失质量的80.15%~94.03%,白灵菇对木质纤维素的降解量占培养料失质量的70.49%~94.56%;在整个栽培过程中,杏鲍菇、白灵菇对培养料木质纤维素的降解量分别为105.79,104.50 g,分别占培养料失质量的83.22%,80.51%.这说明杏鲍菇、白灵菇生长发育所需要的83.22%,80.51%的碳源来自于木质纤维素.杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎培养料中木质素的分解率分别为81.31%,80.38%,对纤维素的分解率分别为72.20%,69.03%,对半纤维素的分解率分别为56.14%,59.72%,说明杏鲍菇分解利用芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的能力强于白灵菇.在试验条件下,杏鲍菇的发菌时间、出菇时间均比白灵菇短,出菇产量和绝对生物学效率也较白灵菇高,这从另一个角度证明了杏鲍菇具有比白灵菇更强的分解利用芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的能力.%Using bag cultivation, a study on the decomposition lignocellulose in old stem of asparagus by Ptewotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis was carried out. The result showed: at their mycelial growth stage, the degradation amounts of lignocellulose by Ptewotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis were 18.08 g and 17.39 g respectively, which accounted for 74.43% and 76.01% of substrate weightlessness; at the developmental stage of fruiting bodies, the degradation of lignocellulose by Pleurotus eryngii accounted for 80.15%~94.03% of substrate weightlessness, the degradation of lignocellulose by Pleurotus nebrodensis accounted for 70.49% ~ 94.56 % of substrate weightlessness; in the whole process of cultivation, the degradation amounts of

  2. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 2. Tendencias de la demanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago constituye una hortaliza muy valorada a nivel global, cuya difusión en Argentina es limitada, por lo cual se requiere de estrategias para fomentar su consumo. A tal fin se realizó una encuesta (10/11/2009 en Azul, Argentina, estudiando: preferencias acerca del consumo, beneficios de su consumo (B, calibre (C y longitud (L de turiones, tipo de envase (E, conocimiento sobre vida útil de las presentaciones (TVU, presencia de etiquetas (PE y características como color de fondo (CF y de letras (CL, lugar de compra (LC, tiempo (Ti desde la compra hasta el consumo y prioridad (P para la compra (calidad o precio, entre otros ítems. Los encuestados manifestaron preferencias de consumo de espárragos verdes y en platos calientes, mostrando desinterés por el consumo de espárragos enlatados. En B, > 95 % demostró conocer las propiedades nutricionales y saludables de los espárragos. 71 % mostró interés por calibre mediano y un 75 % cortos (15-20 cm. Respecto de E, prefirieron las presentaciones en bandejas y atados con film, y con presencia de etiquetas, color de fondo llamativo (naranja y amarillo y letra negra. El 81,1 % adquieren espárragos mediante venta directa y 50 % manifestó que transcurre entre 2 días y 1 semana entre la adquisición y el consumo, prefiriéndolos frescos y no congelados. En P, el 90 % priorizó calidad en lugar del precio. Estos resultados indican que los consumidores no son indiferentes a los atributos de presentación del producto, por lo cual los empresarios deberían esforzarse por mejorar las dimensiones de la calidad del producto, por lo que se verían recompensados.

  3. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 2. Tendencias de la demanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago constituye una hortaliza muy valorada a nivel global, cuya difusión en Argentina es limitada, por lo cual se requiere de estrategias para fomentar su consumo. A tal fin se realizó una encuesta (10/11/2009 en Azul, Argentina, estudiando: preferencias acerca del consumo, beneficios de su consumo (B, calibre (C y longitud (L de turiones, tipo de envase (E, conocimiento sobre vida útil de las presentaciones (TVU, presencia de etiquetas (PE y características como color de fondo (CF y de letras (CL, lugar de compra (LC, tiempo (Ti desde la compra hasta el consumo y prioridad (P para la compra (calidad o precio, entre otros ítems. Los encuestados manifestaron preferencias de consumo de espárragos verdes y en platos calientes, mostrando desinterés por el consumo de espárragos enlatados. En B, > 95 % demostró conocer las propiedades nutricionales y saludables de los espárragos. 71 % mostró interés por calibre mediano y un 75 % cortos (15-20 cm. Respecto de E, prefirieron las presentaciones en bandejas y atados con film, y con presencia de etiquetas, color de fondo llamativo (naranja y amarillo y letra negra. El 81,1 % adquieren espárragos mediante venta directa y 50 % manifestó que transcurre entre 2 días y 1 semana entre la adquisición y el consumo, prefiriéndolos frescos y no congelados. En P, el 90 % priorizó calidad en lugar del precio. Estos resultados indican que los consumidores no son indiferentes a los atributos de presentación del producto, por lo cual los empresarios deberían esforzarse por mejorar las dimensiones de la calidad del producto, por lo que se verían recompensados.

  4. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 1. Empleo de híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fin de determinar la productividad de híbridos de espárrago verde: 7 de origen italiano y un testigo americano (UC-157, en su segunda cosecha, se realizó un ensayo el 22/11/2006, con dos tamaños de plantines (PG y PP. Se determinó: producción fresca total (PFT y por cosecha (PFTC, producción comercial (PFN y por cosecha (PFNC, número de turiones totales (NTT, comerciales (NT, comerciales por cosecha (NTC y por planta (NTP, peso promedio por turión (PPT y distribución de calibres. Para todas las variables se destacó PG. En promedio, PFT fue de 13.287 kg/ha, PFN: 5.791 kg/ha, mientras que NT: 452.479 turiones/ha, lográndose una productividad por planta de 558 g totales y 243 g netos, y NTP de 19 turiones/planta. El PPT fue 12,95 g. Respecto de los híbridos, en PFT se destacó UC-157, seguido de Zeno, Eros, Ercole y H668 kg/ha (p < 0,05; mientras que en PFNC: UC-157 286,1; seguido por Giove 231,4; Zeno 230,7; Ercole 227,9 y Eros 224,3 kg/cosecha (p < 0,05. En NT, UC-157 produjo 186.646 turiones/ha comerciales más, respecto al promedio obtenido del conjunto de genotipos italianos, siendo el que menos turiones produjo Giove: 361.179 turiones/ha. En NTC, se destacó UC-157, seguido por Zeno y Ercole (p < 0,05. Logró mayor PPT Giove (16,7, seguido de Eros (13,1 y H668 (12,8 g/turión. En calibres el 43 % correspondió a L. Los genotipos italianos presentaron turiones de mayores calibres y menor defecto de espigado.

  5. Alternativas para enfrentar las actuales exigencias del mercado de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. verde en Argentina. 1. Empleo de híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Castagnino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de determinar la productividad de híbridos de espárrago verde: 7 de origen italiano y un testigo americano (UC-157, en su segunda cosecha, se realizó un ensayo el 22/11/2006, con dos tamaños de plantines (PG y PP. Se determinó: producción fresca total (PFT y por cosecha (PFTC, producción comercial (PFN y por cosecha (PFNC, número de turiones totales (NTT, comerciales (NT, comerciales por cosecha (NTC y por planta (NTP, peso promedio por turión (PPT y distribución de calibres. Para todas las variables se destacó PG. En promedio, PFT fue de 13.287 kg/ha, PFN: 5.791 kg/ha, mientras que NT: 452.479 turiones/ha, lográndose una productividad por planta de 558 g totales y 243 g netos, y NTP de 19 turiones/planta. El PPT fue 12,95 g. Respecto de los híbridos, en PFT se destacó UC-157, seguido de Zeno, Eros, Ercole y H668 kg/ha (p < 0,05; mientras que en PFNC: UC-157 286,1; seguido por Giove 231,4; Zeno 230,7; Ercole 227,9 y Eros 224,3 kg/cosecha (p < 0,05. En NT, UC-157 produjo 186.646 turiones/ha comerciales más, respecto al promedio obtenido del conjunto de genotipos italianos, siendo el que menos turiones produjo Giove: 361.179 turiones/ha. En NTC, se destacó UC-157, seguido por Zeno y Ercole (p < 0,05. Logró mayor PPT Giove (16,7, seguido de Eros (13,1 y H668 (12,8 g/turión. En calibres el 43 % correspondió a L. Los genotipos italianos presentaron turiones de mayores calibres y menor defecto de espigado.

  6. 不同温度、光照及PEG-6000胁迫对南玉带种子萌发的影响%Effects of Temperature, Light Intensity and PEG Stress on Seed Germination of Asparagus oligoclonos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳桦; 王海洋; 李玉珠

    2012-01-01

    以大庆草原干旱生境下采集的南玉带种子为试材,利用控制试验研究了不同光照、温度及聚乙二醇-6000(PEG-6000)胁迫对种子萌发的影响,为构建南玉带种子育苗高质量的技术流程提供依据.结果表明:15~30℃条件下南玉带种子都能够萌发,种子萌发温度范围具有宽适性,其中25℃为种子萌发最适温度;黑暗条件下种子萌发率达92.78%,较光照条件下萌发率高59.45%,其差异显著,说明黑暗条件较光照更适于种子萌发;南玉带种子萌发过程中随PEG-6000质量分数的升高,其萌发率、萌发指数、活力指数均呈下降趋势,但在PEG -6000质量分数为5%、10%处理下种子仍分别有22.78% 、51.11%的萌发率,说明南玉带种子萌发阶段具有一定的抗旱能力.%Asparagus oligoclonos seeds collected from arid grassland habitats in Daqing were used as test materials. The effects of temperature, light intensity, and water stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on seed germination of A. oligoclonos were studied in order to provide a scientific basis for the technical process of high quality seedling cultivation from .4. oligoclonos seeds. Results show that the seeds of A, oligoclonos could germinate at 15-30 degrees C, indicating that the seed germination of A. oligoclonos has a wide range of adaptations to temperature. The most suitable temperature for seed germination is 25 degrees C. There is a significant difference in seed germination between dark conditions (92.78%) and light conditions (59.45%), which indicates that dark conditions are more suitable for seed germination. The germination rate, germination index, rigor index of .4. oligoclonos seeds exhibited downward trends with increasing PEG-6000 concentration during germination. However, the germination rates ranged from 22.78% to 51. 11% even under 5% -10% PEG-6000. The germination of A. oligoclonos seeds has a certain resistance to drought during

  7. Difference of fungicide resistance of asparagus stem blight fungus from different geographic origins%不同地理来源芦笋茎枯病菌对杀菌剂抗药性的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡; 杨迎青; 兰波; 李湘民

    2013-01-01

    To define the difference of the resistance level of asparagus stem blight fungus Phomopsis asparagi (Sacc.) Bubak from different provinces on systemic and protective fungicides,the resistance levels of 24 isolates from 6 provinces on carbendazim and mancozeb were determined by using the mycelial growth rate method.The isolates from Shandong Province expressed the most resistance on carbendazim with an average EC50 value of 1.10 mg/L,followed by the isolates from Jiangxi Province and Fujian Province,with an average EC50 values of 0.58 mg/L and 0.33 mg/L respectively.The isolates from Fujian Province expressed the most resistance on mancozeb with an average EC50 value of 34.53 mg/L,followed by the isolates from Hebei Province and Shandong Province,with average EC50 values of 15.88mg/L and 14.19 mg/L respectively.Compared to mancozeb,it's easier for carbendazim to produce resistance,with 7 resistant isolates,3.66 as the resistant level and 29.17% as the resistant frequency,while 4 resistant isolates,with 1.90 as the resistant level and 16.67% as the resistant frequency,were included in mancozeb.Of 24 isolates,SD4 revealed resistance on both of carbendazim and mancozeb,with the resistance levels of 10.44 and 3.01 respectively,which expressed multiresistance.%为明确不同省份芦笋茎枯病菌对内吸性和保护性杀菌剂抗药性的差异,采用菌丝生长速率法测定了6个省24个菌株对多菌灵和代森锰锌2种杀菌剂的抗药水平,并比较了其差异.结果表明:各省份菌株对2种杀菌剂的抗药性均存在明显差异,其中山东省菌株对多菌灵的抗药性最强,平均EC50值为1.10 mg/L,江西省和福建省菌株次之,平均EC50值分别为0.58 mg/L和0.33 mg/L;福建省菌株对代森锰锌的抗药性最强,平均EC50值为34.53 mg/L,河北省和山东省菌株次之,平均EC50值分别为15.88 mg/L和14.19 mg/L.多菌灵相对代森锰锌更易产生抗药性,其抗药菌株为7个,平均抗性水平为3.66,

  8. Distribuição radicular de cultivares de aspargo em áreas irrigadas de Petrolina - PE Root distribution of asparagus cultivars in irrigated areas of Petrolina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Bassoi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição radicular de duas cultivares de aspargo (New Jersey 220 e UC 157 F1, irrigadas por aspersão convencional, foi avaliada durante o ano de 1997 em solos de textura arenosa, em plantio experimental e comercial, respectivamente, nos Projetos de Irrigação de Bebedouro e Senador Nilo Coelho, em Petrolina (PE. O objetivo foi obter informações do sistema radicular do aspargo, empregando-se os métodos do monolito e do perfil de solo auxiliado pela análise de imagens digitais, para o manejo de solo e água nesse cultivo. Na área experimental, a maior parte da matéria seca, área e comprimento de raízes no perfil de solo e densidade de comprimento radicular foram encontradas até a profundidade de 0,4 m nas duas cultivares, enquanto que na comercial a maior parte da área e comprimento de raízes no perfil do solo estendeu-se até a profundidade de 0,6 m (cv. New Jersey 220. Nesses dois plantios, as raízes das cultivares atingiram a profundidade de 1 m. Na área experimental, a massa seca, a área e o comprimento no perfil de solo, e a densidade de comprimento radicular nas cultivares concentraram-se até a distância de 0,6 m à linha de plantas. No intervalo de diâmetro (d de raízes 2In 1997 the root distribution of two asparagus cultivars (New Jersey 220 and UC 157 F1 irrigated by sprinkler was evaluated in coarse textured soils in experimental and commercial areas at Petrolina county, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, to obtain useful information for soil and water management. Both the monolith and the soil profile aided by digital image analysis methods were used to evaluate it. In the experimental area, a greater concentration of root dry weight, root area and length in the soil profile and root length density were found up to 04 m depth for both cultivars, while in commercial area the root area and length of cv. New Jersey 220 were concentrated until 0,6 m depth. Roots reached 1 m depth in both areas. In

  9. 壳聚糖-La(Ⅲ)配合物的合成及对芦笋茎枯病菌抑菌活性研究%Synthesis of Chitosan-La (Ⅲ)complex and antifungal activity on hyphal growth of Phomopsis asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才秀华; 张炜; 武侠

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble complex of chitosan-La(Ⅲ)was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra. The antifugal activities of chitosan and chitosan-La(Ⅲ) complex against Phomopsis asparagus were investigated. Results showed that chitosan-La (Ⅲ)had the higher antifungal activity than water-soluble chitosan,and at the low level of concentation of 1. 00 mg · Ml-1 和 1. 25 mg · Ml-1,its activity was increased 87. 68% and 88. 23% respectively.%合成了水溶性壳聚糖和稀土离子La(Ⅲ)的配合物,利用FT-IR和UV-Vis对配合物进行了表征,研究了壳聚糖及其配合物对芦笋茎枯病菌Phomopsis asparagus的抑制活性.结果表明壳聚糖La(Ⅲ)配合物对Phomopsis asparagus的抑菌活性较单一的水溶性壳聚糖显著提高.在低浓度1.00 mg·mL-1和1.25 mg·mL-1条件下,其抑菌活性分别提高87.68%和88.23%.

  10. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es una hortaliza muy valorada por sus propiedades, que ha experimentado un notable incremento durante los últimos años a nivel global, contando con una creciente demanda por parte de mercados muy exigentes respecto a su presentación y cada vez mas enfocados a adquirir productos listos para consumir. Con el objetivo de estudiar la productividad total (PBT y neta (PFN (kg/ha de espárrago verde bajo cubierta, el periodo de poscosecha (PPC y la pérdida de peso fresco diaria (PPFD promedio de turiones acondicionados en bandejas con film (B y atados sin film (A, se realizó un ensayo para comparar la producción de primicia en invernadero, de cuatro híbridos masculinos de espárrago verde, en la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la UCA, en Buenos Aires, Argentina. La mayor producción neta (PFN se obtuvo con el híbrido Italo: 8.925,00 kg/ha, seguido por Zeno: 5.558,68; UC-157: 5.267,02; Eros: 4.937,75 y Ercole: 3.099,02 kg/ha (p < 0,05. En general se observó una mayor precocidad en los híbridos de origen italiano respecto del UC-157, único de origen americano. El peso fresco de los turiones de espárrago verde, acondicionados en bandejas, se conservarían por más tiempo sin alterar su peso inicial significativamente respecto del uso de atados. Con el empleo de bandejas, el PPC resultó 22 días mayor (A: 13 y B: 35. La PPFD promedio para ambas presentaciones, fue inferior en Italo y Zeno (1,35 y 1,50 % diaria, respecto de Ercole y Eros (1,99 y 2,04 %, respectivamente. La conservación del peso fresco (CPP para los distintos híbridos, mediante A, a lo largo de los 13 días de poscosecha fue: Italo: 76,91 %; Zeno: 69,34 %; Ercole: 64,71 %; Eros: 61,51 %. En el caso de B, a lo largo de los 35 días fue de: Zeno: 77,63 %; Italo: 67,95 %; Eros: 61,15 %; Ercole: 55,38 %. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor productividad de primicia mediante el empleo de Italo, Zeno, UC-157, Eros y Ercole, y; en poscosecha, la conveniencia del empleo de la técnica IV Gama para la optimización de la calidad del producto final y la extensión del periodo de oferta, destacándose los híbridos Zeno e Italo.

  11. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis) y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Barreto; Ana M. Castagnino; Karina E. Díaz; Agostino Falavigna; J. Marina; M. B. Rosini

    2012-01-01

    El espárrago es una hortaliza muy valorada por sus propiedades, que ha experimentado un notable incremento durante los últimos años a nivel global, contando con una creciente demanda por parte de mercados muy exigentes respecto a su presentación y cada vez mas enfocados a adquirir productos listos para consumir. Con el objetivo de estudiar la productividad total (PBT) y neta (PFN) (kg/ha) de espárrago verde bajo cubierta, el periodo de poscosecha (PPC) y la pérdida de peso fresco diaria (PPFD...

  12. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es una hortaliza muy valorada por sus propiedades, que ha experimentado un notable incremento durante los últimos años a nivel global, contando con una creciente demanda por parte de mercados muy exigentes respecto a su presentación y cada vez mas enfocados a adquirir productos listos para consumir. Con el objetivo de estudiar la productividad total (PBT y neta (PFN (kg/ha de espárrago verde bajo cubierta, el periodo de poscosecha (PPC y la pérdida de peso fresco diaria (PPFD promedio de turiones acondicionados en bandejas con film (B y atados sin film (A, se realizó un ensayo para comparar la producción de primicia en invernadero, de cuatro híbridos masculinos de espárrago verde, en la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la UCA, en Buenos Aires, Argentina. La mayor producción neta (PFN se obtuvo con el híbrido Italo: 8.925,00 kg/ha, seguido por Zeno: 5.558,68; UC-157: 5.267,02; Eros: 4.937,75 y Ercole: 3.099,02 kg/ha (p < 0,05. En general se observó una mayor precocidad en los híbridos de origen italiano respecto del UC-157, único de origen americano. El peso fresco de los turiones de espárrago verde, acondicionados en bandejas, se conservarían por más tiempo sin alterar su peso inicial significativamente respecto del uso de atados. Con el empleo de bandejas, el PPC resultó 22 días mayor (A: 13 y B: 35. La PPFD promedio para ambas presentaciones, fue inferior en Italo y Zeno (1,35 y 1,50 % diaria, respecto de Ercole y Eros (1,99 y 2,04 %, respectivamente. La conservación del peso fresco (CPP para los distintos híbridos, mediante A, a lo largo de los 13 días de poscosecha fue: Italo: 76,91 %; Zeno: 69,34 %; Ercole: 64,71 %; Eros: 61,51 %. En el caso de B, a lo largo de los 35 días fue de: Zeno: 77,63 %; Italo: 67,95 %; Eros: 61,15 %; Ercole: 55,38 %. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor productividad de primicia mediante el empleo de Italo, Zeno, UC-157, Eros y Ercole, y; en poscosecha, la conveniencia del empleo de la técnica IV Gama para la optimización de la calidad del producto final y la extensión del periodo de oferta, destacándose los híbridos Zeno e Italo.

  13. 正交试验优选超声提取芦笋总皂苷的工艺%Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction Process of the Total Saponins from Asparagus officinalis L.by Orthogonal Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭晶; 王皓; 蔡由生

    2014-01-01

    目的:优选超声提取芦笋总皂苷的最佳工艺.方法:以高氯酸作为显色剂,用紫外分光光度法测定芦笋中总皂苷的含量,并以提取率为评价指标,采用单因素实验和正交试验优选最佳提取工艺.结果:芦笋总皂苷超声提取的最佳工艺为乙醇浓度70%,料液比1:15 (W/V),超声时间50 min,超声温度40℃.结论:该提取工艺可行,为芦笋总皂苷的进一步研究提供了依据.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction Technology for Total Saponins from Asparagus officinalis by Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology%Box-Behnken响应面法优化芦笋总皂苷超声提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭晶; 赵越; 王皓

    2014-01-01

    目的:优选芦笋总皂苷的超声提取工艺.方法:以总皂苷含量为指标,在单因素试验基础上,通过Box-Behnken响应面法考察乙醇体积分数、料液比、超声时间和温度对提取工艺的影响.结果:最佳超声提取工艺为加15倍量74%乙醇于50℃超声提取54 min;总皂苷平均质量分数13.059%(RSD 1.63%),与预测值(13.185%)的偏差较小.结论:优选的提取工艺稳定可行,为芦笋总皂苷的开发应用提供实验依据.

  15. 响应面优化超声辅助提取芦笋中总皂苷的工艺研究%Response Surface Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction Technology for the Total Saponins from Asparagus officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓; 揭晶

    2014-01-01

    利用响应面法优化芦笋总皂苷的超声提取工艺研究.通过单因素试验分析了提取过程中乙醇体积分数、料液比、超声时间、超声温度4个因素对芦笋总皂苷提取率的影响.在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面分析获得了最佳超声提取条件,即乙醇体积分数74%,超声时间54 min,超声温度50℃.在此条件下,芦笋总皂苷提取率为13.059%,接近于模型预测值13.185%.

  16. 75 FR 41397 - Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... is for the 2007 crop. However, to insure a fair distribution of funds where the need is greatest in... a fresh product without any processing other than cleaning, grading, sorting, trimming, drying... fair and reasonable. (d) A reserve will be created to handle appeals and errors. Claims will not...

  17. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a b

  18. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B;

    1997-01-01

    )-bisphenol. The structure of the sapogenin was elucidated by MS and by 1D and 2D NMR methods and established by a single crystal X-ray analysis. (+)-Nyasol potently inhibits the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes, the IC50 being 12 microM, and moderately inhibits Plasmodium falciparum schizonts with the IC50 49 micro...

  19. 76 FR 6313 - Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The ALAP Program will compensate... harvesting 1 acre or less. Those farms harvesting 100 acres or more account for 5 percent of farms harvesting... promote the use of the Internet and other information technologies to provide increased opportunities...

  20. 文竹(Asparagus plumosus Baker.)快速繁殖的初步研究%Primary study on fast propagation of Asparagus plumosus Baker.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴均章; 万志刚

    2000-01-01

    文竹传统的繁殖方法主要为播种,结合分株.本文采用组织培养的方法,对文竹的快速繁殖进行初步的研究.结果发现不同的外植体材料,不同的培养基配方对文竹的生长都产生很大的影响.并初步建立了文竹的快繁体系.

  1. 名贵蔬菜-芦笋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡平; 鲁旭东

    2006-01-01

    @@ 芦笋学名石刁柏(Asparagus Officinalis L.),英文名为Asparagus,俗称芦笋、龙须菜,为百合科天门冬属多年生宿根草本植物,以抽生的嫩茎为蔬菜食用.因其风味独特,营养价值高而深受消费者的欢迎.

  2. Nutrient Intake of the Repatriated United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps Prisoners-of-War of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Potato leaves Rau mui Coriandrum sativum Linn. Coriander Artichaut Cynar, cardulculus Linn. Artichoke Mang Tay Asparagus officinalis Linn. Asparagus...Ait. Sago Dua Bloa lan Pisum sativum Linn. Green peas Lentilles Lens esculenta Moench Lentils Hot sen Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Lotus Ngo sen Nelumbium...species Banana flowers Hoa hien Cucurbita papo Linn. Pumpkin Cu toi Allium sativum Linn. Garlic Cu don do Daucus carota Linn. Carrot Cu he Allium

  3. Productividad de una plantación de espárrago verde (Asparagus officinalis var. altilis L. con diferentes tamaños de “arañas” y densidades, en su séptimo año

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Castagnino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es un cultivo rústico que tradicionalmente se ha iniciado mediante el sistema tradicional de “arañas”. El presente ensayo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la productividad total y comercial de una plantación de espárrago verde al séptimo año desde la plantación. El ensayo de 1.728 m2 está ubicado en la Chacra Experimental de la Facultad de Agronomía de la UNCPBA (36º 48’ latitud Sur y 59º 51’ longitud Occidental, en Azul, Argentina. La plantación, iniciada el 12/09/2003, se evaluó en el período 17/09/2010-01/11/2010. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tamaños de “arañas” grandes (AG > 200 g, medianas (AM 100-200 g y pequeñas (AP 0,05. El rendimiento general del ensayo fue PFT: 19.758 y PFN: 10.018 kg/ha; mientras que NTT: 483.425 y NTC: 477.200. En PFT se observaron diferencias significativas (p 0,05, siendo la media en PFN: 9.910 kg/ha. En densidad y en tamaño de “arañas” los resultados difirieron de los encontrados 2 años anteriores en los que se destacaron mayor densidad y tamaño grande; efectos atribuibles a la competencia intraespecífica.

  4. Productividad de una plantación de espárrago verde (Asparagus officinalis var. altilis L. con diferentes tamaños de “arañas” y densidades, en su séptimo año

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es un cultivo rústico que tradicionalmente se ha iniciado mediante el sistema tradicional de “arañas”. El presente ensayo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la productividad total y comercial de una plantación de espárrago verde al séptimo año desde la plantación. El ensayo de 1.728 m2 está ubicado en la Chacra Experimental de la Facultad de Agronomía de la UNCPBA (36º 48’ latitud Sur y 59º 51’ longitud Occidental, en Azul, Argentina. La plantación, iniciada el 12/09/2003, se evaluó en el período 17/09/2010-01/11/2010. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tamaños de “arañas” grandes (AG > 200 g, medianas (AM 100-200 g y pequeñas (AP 0,05. El rendimiento general del ensayo fue PFT: 19.758 y PFN: 10.018 kg/ha; mientras que NTT: 483.425 y NTC: 477.200. En PFT se observaron diferencias significativas (p 0,05, siendo la media en PFN: 9.910 kg/ha. En densidad y en tamaño de “arañas” los resultados difirieron de los encontrados 2 años anteriores en los que se destacaron mayor densidad y tamaño grande; efectos atribuibles a la competencia intraespecífica.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus wild On heamatobiochemical parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty, day old straight run commercial broilers chicks were randomly distributed into four groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4 of two replications having ten chicks in each, reared on deep litter system upto 8 weeks of age. The chicks in all the treatment groups were fed basal diet T1 control and T2, T3 and T4 groups were fed basal diet + 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent Shatavari root powder (SRP respectively. Significant (P<0.01 improvement in live body weight of broilers was observed between the treatments. Better FCE was observed with the increase in SRP. The digestibility of protein found significantly (P< 0.01 better with higher inclusion level of SRP. Hb, total serum protein, albumin and globulin revealed significant (P< 0.01 variation between the treatments. It was concluded that supplementation of Shatavari root powder at 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent level improves growth performance and general health status of broilers however, 1.0 per cent level could be more economical. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 280-281

  6. PELADO QUIMICO Y TERMOFISICO DE ESPARRAGOS CHEMICAL AND STEAM PEELING OF ASPARAGUS

    OpenAIRE

    GARROTE Raúl L.; Enrique R. SILVA; BERTONE,Ricardo A.; AVALLE,Adriana

    1998-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el pelado químico y termofísico en una etapa de espárragos de la variedad Argentuil. Para el pelado químico se utilizó la Metodología de la Superficie de Respuesta, evaluando el efecto que las variables concentración del baño de NaOH (20, 40, 60 g/kg), temperatura del baño (55, 70, 85ºC) y tiempo de pelado (30, 75, 120 segundos) tienen sobre el rendimiento de la operación y la calidad del pelado. Para el pelado termofísico se estudió el efecto que el tiempo de pelado (10, 20, ...

  7. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, Sida cordifolia and Levamisole on immunological parameters in experimentally induced mmunosuppressed broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekade S. H.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In birds treated with Cyclophosphamide @ 150 mg/kg body weight I/V on 21st day of age produced marked immunosuppression. Administration of A. racemosus, Sida cordifolia in combination with Levamisole was the more effective in producing immunomodulatory effect in immunosuppressed birds. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 49-50

  8. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  9. Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu POP

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we have initiated a Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture, on different growth media. As biological material we used apexes, taken from an only plant. The development medium have consisted in Murashige and Skoog standard mixture, where growth regulators were added, resulting 4 experimental variants: V0 – control variant – basic medium (BM, V1 – BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l IBA, V2 - BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l IAA, V3 –BM + 2mg/l BA + 1mg/l NAA. The experiment lasted for 90 days. We have found that the initiation of Rosmarinus officinalis vitroculture is possible, the best growth medium for this purpose being the basic one (V0 - Murashige and Skoog without growth regulators.

  10. 芦笋营养成分分析研究%Research analysis of the nutritional labeling of the asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春勇; 林媚

    2005-01-01

    前言:芦笋,学名石刁柏(Aspargns,ofIicimlis L.)别名龙须菜,是天门冬属百合科宿根性多年生草本植物。取食内茎,是一种具有较高药用价值的营养蔬菜和保健食品。我国的《神农本草经》将芦笋列为“上品之上”。原野生于地中海东部沿岸和小亚细亚一带。因其脆嫩多汁,清香爽口,欧洲人喜食,由野生变为人工栽培。随欧洲移民传入亚洲、美洲,澳洲等地,

  11. Efficacy of Asparagus recemosus (Satavar in stimulating follicular growth and ovulation in anovulatory infertility: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima Majeedi

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The effect of test drug was comparable with that of control drug in stimulating follicular growth and ovulation, though the drug was not as effective as control drug to achieve conception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 310-316

  12. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  13. Saponaria officinalis Seeds Germination Morphology and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Yu. Ishmuratova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Saponaria officinalis seed quality, stored in different containers (paper, plastic, fabric and glass, in the different temperature conditions, under light or darkness. The morphology, biology of Saponaria officinalis seeds was described. Basing in the obtained results, we recommend to store Saponaria officinalis seeds within 3 months in paper container at the temperature of - 18˚С.

  14. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Проведено изучение аминокислотного состава побегов пряно-ароматического растения – розмарина лекарственного (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), интродуцированного в ботаническом саду Пятигорского медико-фармацевтического института. Экспериментальные исследования проводили на аминокислотном анализаторе – ААА 400, автоматизированном жидкостном хроматографе с компьютерным управлением. Установлено наличие 16 аминокислот, в том числе 9 незаменимых. В наибольшем количестве содержатся аспарагиновая кислота...

  15. DNA endoreplication level in endosperm during seed development in three monocotyledonous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Marciniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The DNA content after the Feulgen reaction in the endosperm of three monocotyledonous plant species (Asparagus officinalis, Muscari comosom, Haemanthus kurharinae differing in their 2C DNA content, was cytophotometrically measured. During endosperm development 1-6 endoreplication cycles take place, depending on the species. Differences in nuclear DNA endoreplication dynamics in the tested species are similar to those occurring in root parenchyma, but the endoreplication level in the endosperm is higher.

  16. Drug: D06766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Asparagine [CPD:C16438] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06766 Asparagus tuber (JP16) ...hing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06766 Asparagus tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Asparagaceae (asparagus family) D06766 Asparagus tuber PubChem: 47208417 ...

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FUMARIA OFFICINALIS L. (FUMARIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Paltinean, Ramona; Toiu, Anca; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Frederich, Michel; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Mircea TAMAS; Crisan, Gianina

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the investigation of active compounds from several samples of Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae). The identification of the isoquinoline alkaloids (allocryptopine, chelidonine, protopine, bicuculline, sanguinarine, cheleritrine, stylopine and hydrastine) was performed by comparison with reference standards using an HPLC-DAD method, and their quantification by LC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods. The presence of polyphenolic compounds was simultaneously assessed...

  18. Development of mouthwash with Rosmarinus officinalis extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Moreira Baumgratz de Paula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinus officinalis, which belongs to the Lamiaceaefamily, is a species of medicinal flora with therapeutic properties. In order to exploit the benefits of these properties, a mouthwash formulation was developed, with careful selection of raw materials to meet pharmacotechnical requirements. Extracts of the plant were incorporated into a mouthwash, which was shown to have inhibitory action in vitro against the micro-organisms commonly found in periodontics. Controls for assessing the quality of the drugs were carried out, quantifying phenols and flavonoids as chemical markers. Mouthwash solutions were formulated containing 0.1, 5 and 10% ethanol extract of R. officinalis; and 0.05, 5 and 10% of the hexane fraction of R. officinalis. In order to evaluate synergism, ethanol extract and hexane fraction were also added to formulations containing 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. These formulations were assessed for inhibitory effect against the specific microorganisms involved in the process of bacterial plaque formation, S. mutans(ATCC25175 and C. albicans(ATCC 10231, frequently found in cases of oral infections. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of extracts and formulations. All mouthwash solutions displayed inhibitory activity having higher sensitivity to S. mutansfor the 5% ethanol extract+0.05% sodium fluoride, and greater sensitivity to C. albicansfor the 10% hexane fraction. Results were characterized by the appearance of a growth inhibition halo, justifying the utilization and association of extracts of R. officinalis.

  19. Obtenção de um compósito a partir da biomassa residual e industrial utilizando um reator de contracorrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Martin Carbajal Gamarra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major preoccupation and challenge for researchers is finding sustainable alternatives for the reuse of biomass. In view of this, the goal of this research was to produce a new compact material with minimum defects in its anatomic structure and excellent particle-resin interaction. The material obtained is a type of MDF panel composite made from industrial solid vegetable biomass. The MDF panel was produced using a vegetable biomass blend of Eucalyptus wood (Eucalyptus sp., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum, and synthetic resin from urea-formaldehyde (UF. Physical-mechanical properties of the MDF, including modulus of rupture, strength, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity and perpendicular traction, were evaluated following EN and ASTM norms. The results obtained were consistent with and, in some cases, superior to those found in the literature. Thus, this research demonstrated the potential sustainable reuse of vegetal biomass to produce useful panels.

  20. 长豇豆留种田采种适期研究%Studies on Fit Stage of Pick Seed of Asparagus Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀华; 胡志辉

    2000-01-01

    以之豇28-2为试材,研究了长豇豆(Vigna unguiculata ssp.Sesquipedalis(L.)Verd.)不同采种时期种子的活力及其田间生产性能.结果表明,不同采种时期种子的活力及田间生产性能有明显差异,长豇豆开花后18天采收的种子活力高、田间生产性能优良.因此,长豇豆留种田采种适期为开花后18d.

  1. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  2. Asparagus Sorter (agric.; can. & preserv.; whole tr.) 529.687 (8-04.10)--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. 山西芦笋市场流通模式的初探%A Basic Research of the Model of Commodities Interflow in the Shanxi Asparagus Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璟照; 裴宗阳; 李富忠

    2010-01-01

    运用农产品价值链与流通效率的理论,针对山西芦笋市场两种流通模式--"公司+农户"和"公司+合作组织+农户",结合实际,进行了系统的比较,认为"公司+合作组织+农户"流通模式可极大提高山西芦笋产业的流通效率,促使山西芦笋产业的规模化发展.

  4. Effect of Asparagus Polysaccharide on Immunity Function of Normal Mice%芦笋多糖对正常小鼠免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗明三; 方晓艳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 芦笋多糖(Phragmites communis.polysaccharide)为禾本科植物芦苇嫩苗的提取物.芦笋甘、苦、辛、凉,具有止咳散结、杀虫止痒之功,临床常用于肿瘤等疾病的治疗.本文报道芦笋多糖对小鼠免疫功能的影响.

  5. MEDICINAL USES AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF PAEONIA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia officinalis (European peony, Common peony has been cultivated in Europe for years. The root has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years mainly in the treatment for epilepsy and to promote menstruation. Root is also antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative and tonic and has been successfully employed in the treatment of convulsions and spasmodic nervous affections such as epilepsy. It has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough whilst suppositories are sometimes made of the root to relieve anal and intestinal spasms, hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Experimentally it has been proved to have antihypertensive, abortifacient action and anti-ulcer activity. The roots of this plant are of great medicinal significance in unani system and homeopathy. The roots contain asparagin, benzoic acid, flavonoids, paeoniflorin, paeonin, paeonol, protoanemonin, tannic acid, triterpenoids, and volatile oil. This review covers botany, traditional uses and the phytoconstituents of the roots of Paeonia officinalis.

  6. Morphological and Biological Study of Sanguisorba Officinalis Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Sanguisorba officinalis seed material quality, put into various containers (paper, plastic, fabric, glass, in the different temperature conditions, light and dark grown. The morphology, biology of Sanguisorba officinalis seeds was described and experiments on cryopreservation were made. Basing on the study, we recommend to store Sanguisorba officinalis seed material within 3 months at a temperature of +4˚С in glass container, use plastic container for cryopreservation and to defreeze seeds by double boiling.

  7. Ethnobotanical and phytopharmacological review of Scindapsus officinalis (“Gajapippali”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scindapsus officinalis (S. officinalis holds a reputed position in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It has been ethanobotanically used to treat diarrhea (“atisara”, worm infestation (“krmiroga”, and as antipyretic. Literature survey on S. officinalis was carried out via electronic search in PubMed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, Agricola and Web of Science and a library search. Results revealed that a very specific botanical description of the plant is still not available. The plant is mistaken within the hybrids and other plants of genus Scindapsus and family Araceae. Since ethnobotanically the plant is of much importance, chemistry of the plant yet needs to be fully explored. Thus the need of the hour is to comprehend the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. officinalis which could help in the correct identification of the sample and avoid adulteration due to mistaken identity.

  8. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders.

  9. The Effects of Medicinal Plants of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems in women, especially in young women. Although dysmenorrhea is not life threatening , it can have ad-verse effect on quality of life and cause disability or ineffectiveness. With regard to the young society suffering from it, various treatments are offered for dysmenorrhea one of which is medicinal plants. This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea Materials & Methods: This study was a clinical trial study performed on 50 girls with dys-menorrheal taking Salvia officinalis as infusion for five days before menstruation and five days during the menstruation. The consumption of the plants was repeated in the next two periods in the same way. Severity of pain, blooding duration and dysmenorrhea duration were evaluated with VAS (Visual Analog Scale Questionnaire in their next two cycles. Data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test and WILCOXON statistical test. Results: The results of this study showed that after using the plants, pain severity and pain duration significantly reduced P<0.01so that pain severity decreased from 6.30 to 3.94 and 3.24, (on a scale of 1 to 10 after taking the plants in the first and second periods ,respectively. The maximum pain duration before the treatment was 1 to 6 h (28.6% and this number reduced to less than 1 h after using these medicinal plants (38.0%. Mean of blooding duration was 6.36 days before the treatment. After the first and second duration, this value reached 6.48 and 6.34 days, respectively. It was determined that taking oral seda-tives reduced from 56% to 26% and 22% after the first and second periods, respectively. Fi-nally, after the second period, 42% of the girls reported high rates of satisfaction because of using the medicinal plants. Conclusion: Generally, it was showed that Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis signifi-cantly reduced pain severity and pain

  10. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  11. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ijaz Hussain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%, camphor (17.1%, α-pinene (12.3%, limonene (6.23%, camphene (6.00% and linalool (5.70%. The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3 using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  12. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  13. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  14. “IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantu Smaranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a regeneration procedures for Calendula officinalis L., as analternative for biomass production. Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is an important medicinal plant species withmultitherapeutic, cosmetic, values. Meristematic explants taken from seedlings of Calendula officinalis L. germinated inaseptic conditions were tested for their regenerative potential. The regeneration of whole plants was obtained in twosteps: the shoots were excised and transferred to fresh medium and then rooting of these shoots was achieved on the samemedium with 0,02 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 1 mg/l 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The excised shoots weresubcultured for roots induction. Regenerated plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions for an acclimatisation period

  15. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato, Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass and Salvia hispanica L. (chia plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass. After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1. The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.

  16. Environ: E00739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00739 Dracaena resin Crude drug Dracaena ombet, Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco... [TAX:100532], Dracaena [TAX:39502] Asparagaceae (asparagus family) Dracaena ombet, Dracaena cinnabari, Drac

  17. Constituintes das sementes de Copaifera officinalis L. Constituents from Copaifera officinalis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir F. Veiga Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Copaifera L. é um dos mais importantes economicamente na Região Amazônica devido, principalmente, à produção dos óleos de copaíba, oléo-resinas com diversas propriedades farmacológicas confirmadas. Apesar disso, os estudos fitoquímicos com as sementes das árvores do gênero Copaifera L.são raros. Copaifera officinalis foi a primeira espécie do gênero Copaifera a ser descrita. Este trabalho descreve a composição dos extratos obtidos em hexano e em acetato de etila das sementes de C. officinalis. No extrato obtido em hexano, a análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa utilizando padrões e através de espectrometria de massas permitiu a identificação de: esqualeno, tetradecano, hexadecano, campesterol, estigmasterol e beta-sitosterol; os ácidos graxos hexadecanóico, 9-octadecenóico e octadecanóico (majoritários; e decanóico, eicosanóico, docosanóico e tetracosanóico (minoritários. Cumarina foi isolada do extrato em acetato de etila e identificada por técnicas de RMN.Copaifera L. is one of the most economically important plant genera in the Amazon Region, since it exudes a resin-oil named copaiba oil possessing several confirmed pharmacological properties. In spite of that, phytochemical studies of the seeds from this genus are rare. Copaifera officinalis L. was the first species in the genus Copaifera to be described. This paper describes the chemical composition of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds from this species. In the hexane extract, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses enabled us to identify squalene, tetradecane, hexadecane, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol; hexadecanoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids (major substances; as well as decanoic, eicosanoic, docosanoic and tetracosanoic (minor substances acids. Coumarin was detected in the ethyl acetate extract, isolated and identified by NMR.

  18. Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen in newcomers to the area with the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Juricić, M; Vrdoljak, E; Petrovecki, M; Rozga, A; Stavljenić-Rukavina, A

    1993-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis (wall pellitory) pollen and other environmental allergens was studied in pollinosis patients allergic to P. officinalis pollen who were born in areas without P. officinalis and later moved to the city of Split, where P. officinalis is responsible for some 65% of pollinosis cases. Highly significant positive correlations were found for both the intensity of skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area. In contrast, the respective data on subjects hypersensitive to P. officinalis pollen allergen, but born and living in the area of Split, revealed a tendency to negative correlation between age and intensity of hypersensitivity to P. officinalis. A number of patients from both groups were tested for presence of serum IgE antibodies specific for 14 common environmental allergens. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen was associated with hypersensitivity to olive, mugwort, and birch pollen in newcomers; hypersensitivity to birch and, to some extent, olive pollen was significantly more frequent in newcomers than in autochthonous patients who were allergic to P. officinalis pollen. Regardless of whether the patients were autochthons or newcomers to the area with P. officinalis, hypersensitivity to P. officinalis mostly excluded hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and vice versa.

  19. Isolation and Purification Chemical Compound from Melissa officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study was done on the leaves of Melissa officinalis. The separations of the chemical components were carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic method including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three compounds were isolated and identified as friedoolean-7-one , stigmasterol and betulinic acid.

  20. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing.

  1. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  2. Emblica officinalis (Amla: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  3. A new heterocyclic compound from Cyathula officinalis Kuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new heterocyclic compound,named 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran(1),and four known compounds(2-5) were isolated from the roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.Among these compounds,5,5'- dibutoxy-2,2'-bifuran(2) was isolated for the first time from this plant.

  4. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  5. Two New Triterpenoids from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan ZHANG; Tie-Jun FU; Shu-Lin PENG; Zhong-Rong LIU; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, octanordammar- 1,11,13(17)-trien- 17-ol-3,16-dione (1) and lup- 12-en- 15α,19β-diol-3,11-dioxo-28-oic acid (4), as well as 13 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods.

  6. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  7. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  8. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of R. officinalis extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with R. officinalis. Moreover, R. officinalis was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death induced by H2O2. R. officinalis extract effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax, Bak, Caspase-3 and -9, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with R. officinalis significantly attenuated the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that R. officinalis is able to protect the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced injury and suggest that R. officinalis might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  10. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Takayama

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  11. Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract.

  12. Antiviral compounds and one new iridoid glycoside from Cornus officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    From Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of four active tannin compounds with high effectiveness of inhibiting Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease in vitro. The compounds are: 1, 2, 3, 6-tetragalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose ( 1 ), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6- pentagalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), Tellimagrandin Ⅰ (3) and Tellimagrandin Ⅱ (4). The four compounds could inhibit HCV NS3 protease in vitro with IC50 values of 6.98, 5.11, 7.0 and 4.8 μmol/L respectively. In addition, a new iridoid glycoside (5) was also isolated from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., which was assigned to be 7-O-butyl morroniside by spectroscopic analysis.

  13. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arıduru, Rana; Arabacı, Gülnur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanolextract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (43.55 mg GAE/g extract), followed by methanol-extract of freshliver plant (23...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND TOXICITY STUDY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemistry and toxicities (acute and chronic of Emblica officinalis fruit (Amla have been determined. The hydroalcoholic extract (HAE of amla was prepared and its extractability was found to be 46.9%. Different chemical tests showed the presence of various active principles or phytoconstituents, viz., alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, resins, saponins, sterols and fixed oils. For acute toxicity, including median lethal dose (LD50 of amla, its HAE was administered @ 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight to female albino rats of groups 2 to 4, respectively. Rats of group 1 were given normal saline to serve as control. There was no mortality up to 48 hr, hence this drug showed the LD50 above 1000 mg/kg. For chronic toxicity of E. officinalis HAE, similar drug dosage schedule was applied in groups 1 to 4 of rats as used for acute toxicity study; however, the drug was given for 3 weeks. During this period, E. officinalis did not cause any untoward effect.

  15. Subcellular effects of drought stress in Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, E; Sánchez-Blanco, M J; Ferrández, T; Alarcón, J J

    2007-01-01

    The use of Rosmarinus officinalis, and other wild plant species, in the Mediterranean area is an interesting solution in order to avoid the desertification and rapid soil erosion, because of their good resistance to environmental conditions. Previous articles have described experiments designed to determine the impact of water stress at the plant level in this species, but more knowledge is required at the subcellular and ultrastructural levels. An anatomic and ultrastructural study of the leaves was conducted on Rosmarinus officinalis plants growing under different water treatments. In the leaves of water-stressed plants, the leaf water potential and turgor decreased, and leaf osmotic potential became more negative with respect to control plants. The anatomic investigations showed that both the mesophyll intercellular spaces and the epidermal cell size were reduced significantly under the more intense drought stress conditions. At the subcellular level, chloroplasts accumulated plastoglobuli and lipid bodies, and cuticle thickness was increased under water stress. In our experiment, the anatomic and ultrastructural modifications of Rosmarinus officinalis could be considered an additional adaptation to drought stress together with physiological and biochemical modifications as antioxidant accumulation.

  16. EFFECTS OF HORMONES ADDITION FOR IN VITRO PLANT DEVELOPMENT OF CALENDULLA OFFICINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presented in vitro plant development of Calendula officinalis on MS (Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different formula of hormones. The morphogenetic response was evaluated by recording the number of plantlets, the plant height and weight. The results showed that small amounts of hormones can improve the plantlets growth in the case of Calendula officinalis.

  17. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tularat Sookto

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  18. Recent Trends in Potential Traditional Indian Herbs Emblica Officinalis and Its Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Deb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emblica Officinalis is a natural, efficacious, an antioxidant with the richest natural source of Vitamin C. Emblica Officinalis berries have the highest amount of naturally occurring vitamin C of any ripe fruit in the world used as a traditional food. Numerous studies conducted on Emblica Officinalis fruit suggest that it has anti-viral properties and also functions as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agent. The gelatinous plum-sized Amla fruit contains naturally occurring vitamin, heat stable vitamin C. A clinical study on patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed that the vitamin C contained in Emblica Officinalis was better assimilated than synthetic vitamin C. Further research of contemporary and traditional medical literature indicates that Emblica Officinalis either in combination with other herbs or alone has been useful in the amelioration of colds, warts, skin afflictions, influenza, anemia, diabetes, lung conditions, elevated cholesterol and as an immune restorative in cancer conditions. It is one of the best natural antiageing remedies Emblica Officinalis is used in treatment of Acne and other skin problems. Emblica Officinalis is amazingly effective natural anti-ageing product. Emblica Officinalis is very effective in treatment of Acidity and Peptic ulcers. Emblica Officinalis is rich in Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, essential amino acids and many other vitamins and minerals and anti-oxidants. Regular Use of Emblica Officinalis improves immunity, fights cancers, rejuvenates the body. It fights chronic diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, AIDS, influenza, Chronic cough and cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue and Chronic inflammatory conditions. Ayurveda describes it as one of the best herbs for Diabetes, bleeding disorders, strength and stamina promoter.

  19. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  20. Studies on Characteristic of NPK Absorption by Asparagus Bean [Vigna unguiculata W. ssp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verd.]%蔓生和矮生长豇豆氮磷钾吸收特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关佩聪; 刘厚诚; 陈玉娣

    2000-01-01

    研究了蔓生和矮生长豇豆的氮磷钾吸收特性.结果表明,两类长豇豆对氮磷钾的吸收,均以氮最多,钾次之,磷最少.蔓生类型的吸收比例为2.75~2.92:1:2.15~2.75,矮生类型为4.49:1:4.21.蔓生类型比矮生类型的吸收量大,蔓生类型中白豆角比青豆角稍大.蔓生长豇豆营养生长期的吸收量微少,生殖生长期约占总吸收量的98 %.豆荚利用的氮磷钾逐渐增加,至结荚后期利用了氮磷的65 %~70 %,钾的近40 %.矮生长豇豆在营养生长期的吸收量约占20 %,生殖生长期约占80 %,豆荚只利用氮磷的35 %~40 %和钾的30 %左右.

  1. Antidepressant effect of Melissa officinalis in the forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: In Iranian and other traditional medicines, an antidepressant effect has been indicated for Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae. However, studies showing its antidepressant effect is lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine whether the aqueous extract and essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis have an antidepressant-like activity in mice.  Materials and Methods: The effect of subchronic administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or water; n=9-10 and the essential oil (10, 25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or almond oil; n=9-10 on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test. Fluoxetine (20mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract, used in this study, produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. Essential oil caused a dose-dependent reduction in immobility and an increase in climbing at all studied doses, compared to control group. Only the highest dose (300mg/kg of essential oil showed a significant increase in swimming behavior. The aqueous extract, but not the essential oil, decreased spontaneous activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the Melissa officinalis possess an antidepressant-like activity similar to imipramine which may have a potential clinical value for treatment of depression.

  2. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis.

  3. Calendula officinalis: Central depressive effect and subacute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Flores da Calendula officinalis L. (calêndula) vêm sendo utilizadas popularmente como cicatrizante, antiinflamatório e sedativo, entre outras atividades. Os principais componentes químicos encontrados nas flores são óleos essenciais, ácido salicílico, carotenóides, flavonóides, taninos e saponinas triterpênicas. Atividades ansiolítica e analgésica foram relatadas em plantas que apresentam flavonóides em sua composição. Nesse trabalho a atividade do extrato etanólico das flores da ...

  4. ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is traditionally used for several diseases, and it is believed to increase the defense against diseases. It is particularly used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, heart disease, ulcer, snake venom, haemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia and ophthalmic disorders. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitussive and gastroprotective are the important properties of amla. Vitamin C, tannins and flavaniods present in amla have very powerful antioxidant activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy.

  5. Anti-Platelet Fraction Isolated from Galega Officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasov A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis has been purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100. The final purification factor of the fraction is 120. The peak in elution profile after Sephadex G-150 shows a molecular weight of 100-140 kDa. The isolated fraction appears to have 74% polysaccharides and 23% of proteins. No loss of activity of the final fraction is observed after storage for several months at 4°C and in lyophilized condition. The fraction compounds inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and thrombin.

  6. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Arıduru; Gülnur Arabacı

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanol-extract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents mg GAE/g extract; 43,55, methanol-extract of 23.62, ethyl acetate extract 18.29, and acetone extract 11.58. All the extracti...

  7. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  8. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  9. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

    2011-04-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.

  10. Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Jabeen, Qaiser; Gilani, Anwar H

    2006-10-01

    The aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers (Co.Cr) was studied for its possible spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects in isolated gut preparations. In rabbit jejunum, Co.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous and K+-induced contractions, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). In a few preparations, a mild non-reproducible spasmogenic effect was observed at lower doses, followed by relaxation. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Co.Cr produced a dose-dependent rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that of verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity of the plant was concentrated in its organic fractions. The aqueous fraction exhibited a marked atropine sensitive spasmogenic effect but was found to be devoid of any spasmolytic effect. These data indicate that the crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities and this study provides a scientific base for its traditional use in abdominal cramps and constipation.

  11. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  12. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  13. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  14. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.

  15. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  16. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch; Fabíola Silveira-Gomes; Renata Antunes Esteves; Simone Soares Pedrosa; Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel; Alberto Cardoso Arruda; Silvia Helena Marques-da-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demo...

  17. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit, also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI and spared nerve injury (SNI pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV. The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  18. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  19. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots ofP. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  1. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed.

  2. Toxicological studies on hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erick J R; Gonçalves, Eduardo S; Aguiar, Fábio; Evêncio, Liriane B; Lyra, Mariana M A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Wanderley, Almir G

    2007-04-01

    The hydroalcohol extract (HAE) of Calendula officinalis L. was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in rats and mice and for the subacute effect on hematological, biochemical and morphologic parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, HAE failed to cause death in the animals after administration of oral doses up to 5.0 g/kg. Oral treatment with HAE at 0.025, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg did not induce hematological alterations when compared with the control group. In the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and in alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Morphological examination of the brain, kidney and heart did not show any alteration. However, inflammatory sites were found in the lung and liver, which were associated, respectively, with oral gavage and a possible hepatotoxic effect. HAE was non-toxic in rats, although there was evidence of renal and liver overload.

  3. Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Sedative Activities of Verbena officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Khan, Arif-ullah; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-01-01

    We describe different neuropharmacological effects of Verbena officinalis crude extract (Vo.Cr). Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, elevated plus maze, light–dark box (LDB), open field and thiopental-induced sleeping test models were employed to evaluate Vo.Cr actions in mice. Vo.Cr dose-dependently (100–500 mg/Kg) delayed onset time of myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, while decreased duration of tonic-clonic seizures (P diazepam. In open field test, Vo.Cr decreased number of ambulations and rearings frequencies, while increased the number of central squares crossings. In thiopental-induced sleeping test, Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) decreased onset time of sleep, while increased the duration of sleep (P anxiety, and insomnia. PMID:28066246

  4. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  5. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  6. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  7. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane Takayama; Felipe Meira de-Faria; Ana Cristina Alves de Almeida; Ricardo José Dunder; Luis Paulo Manzo; Eduardo Augusto Rabelo Socca; Leonia Maria Batista; Marcos José Salvador; Alba Regina Monteiro Souza-Brito; Anderson Luiz-Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis(R. officinalis) in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in vivo.Methods: The antioxidant properties of the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis were evaluated against gastric injury induced by absolute ethanol. Gastric tissues were prepared to enzymatic assays. The levels of glutathione, lipid peroxides, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured.Results: Ethanol produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in the stomach with ulcerative lesion of(140.2 ± 37.2) mm2. In animals pretreated with essential oil of R. officinalis(50 mg/kg, p.o.), a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of(21.2 ± 7.1) mm2(84%inhibition) was observed. The essential oil of R. officinalis protected the gastric mucosa probably by modulating the activities of the enzymes(superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and increasing or maintaining the levels of glutathione. In addition,lipid peroxides levels were reduced. The essential oil of R. officinalis was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer and the main constituents were cineole(28.5%),camphor(27.7%) and alpha-pinene(21.3%).Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  8. Chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil and antioxidant action against gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane Takayama; Anderson Luiz-Ferreira; Felipe Meira de-Faria; Ana Cristina Alves de Almeida; Ricardo Jose Dunder; Luis Paulo Manzo; Eduardo Augusto Rabelo Socca; Leonia Maria Batista; Marcos Jos e Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from Ros-marinus officinalis (R. officinalis) in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in vivo. Methods: The antioxidant properties of the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis were evaluated against gastric injury induced by absolute ethanol. Gastric tissues were pre-pared to enzymatic assays. The levels of glutathione, lipid peroxides, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured. Results: Ethanol produced severe hemorrhagic lesions in the stomach with ulcerative lesion of (140.2 ± 37.2) mm2. In animals pretreated with essential oil of R. officinalis (50 mg/kg, p.o.), a significant inhibition of mucosal injury of (21.2 ± 7.1) mm2 (84%inhibition) was observed. The essential oil of R. officinalis protected the gastric mucosa probably by modulating the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase and gluta-thione peroxidase) and increasing or maintaining the levels of glutathione. In addition, lipid peroxides levels were reduced. The essential oil of R. officinalis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and the main constituents were cineole (28.5%), camphor (27.7%) and alpha-pinene (21.3%). Conclusions: We suggest that the monoterpenes present in the essential oil obtained from R. officinalis may be among the active principles responsible for the antioxidant activity shown by essential oil of R. officinalis.

  9. Variation of essential oil composition of Melissa officinalis L. leaves during different stages of plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keivan Saeb; Sara Gholamrezaee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best time of harvest for Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) L. to gain highest amounts essential oil.Methods: M. officinalis leaves were harvested in three different stages (before flowering stage, flowering stage and after of flowering stage) and were dried. The essential oils were isolated by hydro- distillation and analyzed by GC/MS.Results: It showed that most essential oils of plants were in before flowering stage. In before flowering stage 37 compounds were identified in leaves oil of M.officinalis. The major components before flowering stage were decadienal (29.38%), geraniol (25.3%), caryophyllene oxide (8.75%), geranyl acetate (5.41%). In the flowering stage 36 compounds were identified as the major components of plant essential oils: decadienal (28.04%), geraniol (24.97%), caryophyllene oxide (7.55%), caryophyllene E (4.65%) and 16 components in the after flowering stage of plant were identified as the major components carvacrol (37.62%), methyl citronellate (32.34%), geranyl acetate (5.82%), caryophyllene (5.50%).Conclusions: The essential oils yields vary considerably from month-to-month and is also influenced by the micro-environment (sun or shade) in which the plant is growing. We found that the essential oil content of M. officinalis L. of leaves is significantly affected by harvesting stages.

  10. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  11. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  12. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  13. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant.

  14. Emblica officinalis improves glycemic status and oxidative stress in STZ induced type 2 diabetic model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aneesa Ansari; Md Shahed Zaman Shahriar; Md Mehedi Hassan; Shukla Rani Das; Begum Rokeya; Md Anwarul Haque; Md Enamul Haque; Nirupam Biswas; Tama Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) fruit on normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced into the male Long-Evans rats. The rats were divided into nine groups including control groups receiving water, type 2 diabetic controls, type 2 diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (T2GT) and type 2 diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of fruit pulp of E. officinalis. They were fed orally for 8 weeks with a single feeding. Blood was collected by cutting the tail tip on 0 and 28 days and by decapitation on 56 day. Packed red blood cells and serum were used for evaluating different biochemical parameters. Results: Four weeks administration of aqueous extract of E. officinalis improved oral glucose tolerance in type 2 rats and after 8 weeks it caused significant (P<0.007) reduction in fasting serum glucose level compared to 0 day. Triglycerides decreased by 14% but there was no significant change in serum ALT, creatinine, cholesterol and insulin level in any group. Furthermore, reduced erythrocyte malondialdehyde level showed no significant change (P<0.07) but reduced glutathione content was found to be increased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions:The aqueous extract of E. officinalis has a promising antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and may be considered for further clinical studies in drug development.

  15. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  16. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rabiei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Borago officinalis on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Morphine-dependent group received morphine for nine days and then received naloxone via intraperitoneal injection. Control group received saline for nine days. Post-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg on the day 10 before naloxone injection. Co-treated group received B. officinalis extract intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg and morphine for nine days and then received naloxone. Extract-treated group received extract for nine days and then received naloxone. Naloxone injection significantly increased the frequency of jumping, blinking, ptosis, defecation, paw trembling, and two-legged standing in comparison to the control group. Co-treatment and post-treatment with B. officinalis extract significantly decreased the withdrawal symptoms. In conclusion, hydroalcoholic extract of B. officinalis significantly attenuated the symptoms of morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  17. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  18. Physico-chemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were extracted by steam distillation in a pilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The volatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest to 0.49% (1998 harvest. Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%, 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%, camphene (4.73 to 6.06% and verbenone (2.32 to 3.86%. The physico-chemical parameters averaged 0.8887 g/cm³ for specific gravity, 1.4689 for refractive index, and +11.82° for optical rotation, and there were no significant variations in either the chemical or physico-chemical data in the different years.Dezenove amostras de Rosmarinus officinalis foram extraídas por destilação por arraste a vapor em uma planta piloto e os óleos essenciais foram avaliados quanto a composição química e características físico-químicas. Os rendimentos de óleo essencial variaram de 0,37% (média de 1999 a 0,49% (média de 1998. Vinte componentes foram identificados nos óleos essenciais. Os componentes majoritários foram a-pineno (40,55 a 45,10%, 1,8-cineol (17,40 a 19,35%, canfeno (4,73 a 6,06% e verbenona (2,32 a 3,86%. A média por safra dos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados resultaram em 0,8887g/cm³ para densidade específica, 1,4689 para índice de refração e +11,82º para rotação óptica, sendo que as variações encontradas para os parâmetros químicos e físico-químicos dos óleos essenciais não variaram significativamente em função do ano de produção.

  19. Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changbao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya, which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C

  20. Comparative Embryological Studies on Infertility of Interspecific Hybridizations Between Oryza sativa with Different Ploidy Levels and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue-lin; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong; LI Jin-quan; ZHAO Xing-juan

    2009-01-01

    As maternal parents, diploid (L202-2x) and autotetraploid (L202-4x) of Oryza sativa cv. L202 were crossed with O. officinalis. Embryo development and fertilization in these two crosses were comparatively studied. There were no mature hybrid seeds obtained because all the hybridized spikelets died 30 days after pollination. The main reasons for no seed set were abnormal fertilization and development of the embryos and endosperms in the interspecific hybrids. There were double- fertilization, egg cell single-fertilization and non-fertilization in these crosses. Although 59.45% and 54.87% of hybrid embryos produced in the crosses of L202-2x/O. officinalis and L202-4x/O. officinalis, respectively, hybrid embryos ceased to develop or degenerated and plenty of free endosperm nuclei were in disaggregating state without developing cellular endosperms three days after pollination. Besides, some embryological differences in these two crosses were found, that is, the rate of double-fertilization and total rate of double- and single-fertilization in L202-2x/O. officinalis were higher than those in L202-4x/O. officinalis. The embryo and endosperm of hybrids developed more slowly, and embryos and free endosperm nuclei were more severely degenerated in L202-4x/O. officinalis than in L202-2x/O. officinalis. Five days after pollination, a few of embryos in L202-2x/O. officinalis developed into pear-shaped ones, however, embryos in L202-4x/O. officinalis were all degenerated. Therefore, it is more difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids by wide crosses between autotetraploid of O. sativa and O. officinalis.

  1. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  2. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  3. A new extraction method of bioflavanoids from poisonous plant (Gratiola Officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Polukonova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The way of vegetable raw materials extraction which allows to receive nontoxical composition of biological active agents from poisonous plants such as Gratiola officinalis L. was described. The alkaloids exit changes with the increase of ethyl alcohol percentage (from 15% to 96%. The extract was obtained using 96% ethanol and did not give positive high quality reaction to the content of alkaloids. The chemical composition with new nontoxical biological active composition of Gratiola officinalis L. extract was investigated. The extract contains a previously unknown plant – bioflavonoid quercetin. The average value of quercetin in this extract using the calibration curve of the standard sample quercetin (98% Sigma is 0.66%. In the dry rest of extractive substances (Gratiola officinalis L. the quantity of quercetin was 350 mkg (obtained from 10 g of a dry grass as was established by the method of a liquid chromatography.

  4. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  5. The histopathological effects of salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Adekomi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some of the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats (7-11 weeks old were randomly assigned into two groups; A and B. Aqueous extract of S. officinalis leaves (300 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to the rats in group B while the rats in group A received equal volume of normal saline for 14d. At termination of treatment, the histopathology of the kidney and liver were assessed. The kidney and the liver in the extract treated rat displayed organized and preserved histological profile. Our findings suggest that S. officinalis has no deleterious effects on the kidney and liver of the rats.  

  6. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  7. Screening of Less known Two Food Plants for Comparison of Nutrient Contents: Iranian and Indian Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancers. The most important nutrients present in plants are carbohydrates, such as the starch and free sugars, oils, proteins, minerals, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant phenols. Plants are an essential component of the universe. Human beings have used those as medicine from the very beginning of time.Methods: The proximate composition and mineral constituents of Asparagus officinalis stem and Momordica dioica fruit were evaluated in order to scientific standard methods of Association for Official and Analytical Chemists (AOAC.Results: The stem contained ashes: 10.70% crude protein: 32.69%, crude lipid: 3.44%, crude fiber: 18.50%, and carbohydrates: 34.67%. Stem also have high energy value (384.27kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (10.94, Na (1.84, Ca (0.67, Fe (0.19, and Zn (2.60. The fruits contained ashes: 9.1%, crude protein: 5.44%, crude lipid: 3.25%, crude fiber: 22.9%, and carbohydrates: 59.31%. The fruits also have high energy value (288.25kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (4.63, Na (1.62, Ca (7.37, Fe (5.04, and Zn (3.83.Conclusion: Comparing proximate and minerals contents of the stem and the fruit, the results indicated that Asparagus officinalis stem could be a good supplement for some nutrients such as protein, lipid, potassium and zinc, fibre and carbohydrates while Momordica dioica fruit was good source of lipid, crude fiber, carbohydrates, iron and zinc.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:416-424

  8. Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-06-01

    Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status.

  9. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  10. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  11. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  13. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  14. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface.

  15. Salvia Officinalis and Cisplatin Effects on Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hadi Khayate-Nouri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that cisplatin have neuropathic effects and Salvia officinalis (SO could have therapeutic effects on nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SO hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizure in mice. Materials and methods: This is an experimental interventional study. For this purpose first group received normal saline, second group received SO extract, third group received cisplatin, in the fourth group received SO extract plus cisplatin and the subsequent seizure threshold was determined for each group. Results: The results showed that SO extract significantly (p<0.05 increased and in cisplatin group significantly (p<0.05 decreased seizure threshold. Simultaneous uses of cisplatin and SO extract caused to significantly increased seizure threshold (p<0.05 compared with cisplatin group. Conclusion: Considering different types of ingredients in SO extract which have beneficial effects on nervous system, it might be used to reduce cisplatin induced neuropathic effects. It seems that SO extract could be useful in cisplatin-induced seizure but further investigations are needed.

  16. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina.

  17. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  18. Influence of light intensity on growth and physiological characteristics of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zervoudakis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of four different light intensities on the growth characteristics, physiological parameters and leaf photosynthetic pigments of Salvia officinalis L. The plant's dry mass, number of the leaves and physiological parameters indicated a strong positive correlation with the light intensity. On the other hand, the plant's height and leaf photosynthetic pigments were increased at low light treated plants. These results suggest that the aromatic herb Salvia officinalis L. is adaptable to different light environments.

  19. Impact of different culture media on hairy roots growth of Valeriana officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdin Parizi, Ali; Farsi, Mohammad; Nematzadeh, Ghorban-Ali; Amin MIRSHAMSI

    2015-01-01

    Transformed hairy root cultures of Valeriana officinalis were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. To determine the effect of different media on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots, MS, B5 media (1.0X and 0.5X strength), N6 medium and a modified MS medium without phytohormones were used. In addition, different NH4+ to NO3- ratios in MS medium were studied. The effects of these treatments were evaluated after 21 days of culture in relation to hairy roo...

  20. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Jørgensen, Monica; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa

    2010-01-01

    . RESULTS: Eight diterpenes were isolated and identified including a new abietane diterpene being the epirosmanol ester of 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and 20-hydroxyferruginol, which was isolated from Salvia officinalis for the first time, as well as viridiflorol, oleanolic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid. 12......-O-methyl carnosic acid and alpha-linolenic acid were able to significantly activate PPARgamma whereas the remaining metabolites were either unable to activate PPARgamma or yielded insignificant activation. CONCLUSIONS: Selected metabolites from Salvia officinalis were able to activate PPARgamma...

  1. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2007-01-01

    Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

  2. Physical location of rice Gm-6,Pi-5(t) genes in O. officinalis with BAC-FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was adoptedto physically map two rice BAC clones 24E21 and 4F22 linked to Gm-6 and Pi-5(t) in O. officinalis. FISH results showed that the two BAC clones were located at 4L. The percentage distance from the centromere to the hybridization sites was 72±2.62 for 24E21 and 54±5.43 for 4F22, the detection rates were 52.70% and 61.2%. The results obtained from the BAC and plasmid clones, RG214 and RZ565 of cultivated rice and O. officinalis were the same. This suggested that the markers, RG214 and RZ565 of cultivated rice and O. officinalis were in the same BAC clones. The homologous sequences of Gm-6 and Pi-5(t) in O. officinalis were positions that signals existed on the 4L. Many signals were observed when no Cot-1 DNA blocked. This also showed that repetitive sequences were some homolgous between cultivated rice and O. officinalis. The identification of chromosome 4 of O. officinalis is based on Jena et al. (1994). In our study, we discussed the possibility of physical map in O. officinalis with rice BAC clones.

  3. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel.

  5. Mechanized harvesting and primary processing of Calendula officinalis L. inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Veselinov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual harvesting of marigold (Calendula officinalis L. inflorescences results in superior quality, but requires enormous manpower. The objectives of the research were to examine the possibility of mechanized harvesting of marigold inflorescences by virtual rotating comb-type chamomile harvester, widely used in South Eastern Europe, and to develop the mechanical separator for the inflorescences from the harvested mass. The impact of coefficient R, ratio of the harvester’s penetration into the inflorescences horizon and the width of inflorescences band (i.e. the average value of the highest and lowest inflorescences span on the harvest yield, was tested first. Separation was performed by a bespoke separator that uses five cascades of oscillating sieves made of longitudinally situated rods. Influence of oscillation frequencies and rod distances on separation efficiency was investigated. It was found that, for coefficient R value of 1.3, an average of 97% of the total inflorescences yield can be harvested. The proportion of inflorescences with stem length up to 2 cm was 65% and 35% for stems over 2 cm. The result of mechanized harvest was the reduction in both the number of succeeding harvests and the yield, due to bud damages and elimination. The highest separation efficiency was obtained by using 2.7 Hz oscillation frequency and combination of 6/8 mm rods’ distances in sieves. After three passes of the harvested mass through the device, approximately 92% of inflorescences were separated. Future investigations should be directed towards solving the issue of mechanical shortening of the inflorescences stems and evaluating the economic viability of mechanized harvesting within the proposed procedure.

  6. Flowering biology and nectary structure of Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. covered flowering biology, monitoring of pollinating insects and floral nectary structure. The micromorphology of epidermal cells of the nectary was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The nectariferous tissues were observed using light microscopy based on semi-thin sections. Lemon balm flowered from the second decade of June until September. Buds opened from early morning hours until noon. Flowers lived for 24 hours, on the average. Their primary pollinator was the honey bee. The beginning of nectar secretion was found to be at the bud swell stage. The automorphic nectary forms a disc with four protrusions at the base of the nectary. Three smaller ones and one larger than the other ones were distinguished among them. No stomata were found on the lower protuberances, whereas on the highest part anomocytic stomata were present, the number of which was 15. The stomata exhibited different development stages and they were situated above other epidermal cells. In their outline, they were ellipsoidally shaped (18 × 23 µm and they had average-sized cuticular ledges. They produced a smooth cuticle and wax granules. In cross section, the nectary tissues were composed of a singlelayered epidermis and 9 - 11 layers of the nectary parenchyma. Their thickness was 198 µm. In longitudinal section, the height of the nectary was within a range of 354 - 404 µm. The epidermal cells produced thin outer cell walls. Some of them were completely filled with strongly stained cytoplasm, whereas others showed a high degree of vacuolisation. But the nectary parenchyma cells were marked by poorly stained cytoplasm, a large nucleus and vacuolisation of varying degree.

  7. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties for Ginkgo biloba and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of medicinal plants for health purposes has increased dramatically due to their great importance to the public health. In this study levels of phenolic, flavonoid contents of Ginkgo biloba and Rosmarinus officinalis from Egypt were determined. HPLC was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected plants. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using various antioxidant methodologies, (i scavenging of free radicals using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, (ii metal ion chelating capacity, and (iii scavenging of superoxide anion radical. The antimicrobial activity of both plant’s extracts were evaluated against a panel of microorganisms by using agar disc diffusion method. The total phenolic content (75.30 and 98.31 mg/g dry weight in G. biloba and R. officinalis, respectively was significantly (p<0.05 different. Among the identified phenolic compounds, quercetin, kaempferol and caffeic acid were the predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba, whereas carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, narinigen and hispidulin were the predominant phenolic compound in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. The antioxidant activity increased with the concentration increase. The R. officinalis was more active than G. biloba extract against Gram-negative bacteria. This study reveals that the consumption of these plants would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  8. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Severino Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods : The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA and maceration dynamic (MD showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  9. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity.

  10. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05 in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens.

  11. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  12. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar;

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes...

  13. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  14. Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L.: A Review of Biochemical Contents, Medical Properties and Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grdiša

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L. represents one of the most significant medicinal autochthonous species in flora of eastern Adriatic coast and islands. It is evergreen outcrossing perennial subshrub with short woody stems that branch extensively and violet flowers. Apart from being native to Mediterranean karst of west Balkan and Apenine peninsula it is cultivated in numerous countries worldwide with Mediterranean and temperate continental climate. From the earliest times it has been used in traditional medicine in healing gingiva, mouth cavity and the sore throat, against bacterial and fungal infections, for wound treatment, memory enhancement, for treating common cold, against sweating, stomach inflammation, ulcer formation, etc. Its essential oil has also been used in preservation of food and as spice as it gives both specific aroma and promotes digestion of food. The essential oil is extremely complex mixture of different active ingredients; however, the thujones and camphor are the dominant compounds and are the parameter by which S. officinalis is distinguished from other Salvia species. The great variability of essential oil composition and yield has been detected depending on various factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, phonological stage, plant parts used for the extraction of essential oil and drying procedure. Molecular genetic analysis of S. officinalis is still limited and comprises the use of RAPD markers, AFLP and SSR markers in assessing mostly the genetic variability and structure of wild S. officinalis populations.

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  16. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

  17. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Selenium Addition and Water Stress on Melilotus officinalis L. Mineral Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota KOSTOPOULOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of selenium (Se enrichment and water stress on the accumulation of available macro- and micronutrients in Melilotus officinalis L. aerial parts. Plants of M. officinalis were subjected to three levels of Se addition (0, 1 and 3 mg Se L-1 water and to two water treatments: a full irrigation and b limited irrigation (water stress. The above ground biomass (stems and leaves was analyzed for Se, potassium (K, sodium (Na, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn. Se addition differentially affected the K, Mg and Ca content of M. officinalis aerial parts, while it led to the reduction of the micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn. Water stress resulted in the increase of K, Na, Mg, Ca and Cu, and to the decrease of the Fe, Zn and Mn content. An interaction between selenium addition and water treatment was more notable for Ca and Mg, which decreased under water stress at low Se level and for Zn and Cu, which increased under water stress at high Se level. According to our findings, Se-induced increased accumulation of some inorganic ions in the aerial parts of this species under water stress conditions could serve as a means to alleviate the adverse impact of water deficit on important metabolic processes, enhancing M. officinalis tolerance to water stress.

  19. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  20. 7 CFR 5.2 - Marketing season average price data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., type 21; Kentucky-Tennessee fire-cured, types 22-23; burley, type 31; dark air-cured, types 35-36; sun... market Artichokes, asparagus, snap beans, broccoli, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cauliflower,...

  1. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and seeds Millet Montina™ Potato starch Potato flour Quinoa Rice rice bran Sago Sorghum Soy (soya) Tapioca ... poultry, nuts, seeds, legumes, dried fruit, eggs, amaranth, quinoa Folate Broccoli, asparagus, orange juice, liver, legumes, bean ...

  2. Making contract farming work? : society and technology in Philippine transnational agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: contract farming, agribusiness, Philippines, Southeast Asia, asparagus, hybrid maizeContract farming is a widespread and important tool for organising agricultural production in line with corporate strategies and market demands. This book analyses how Philippine farmers and transnational a

  3. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant–pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future.

  5. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Tanideh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20% were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  6. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefunmilayo E Taiwo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length.

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  8. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the b

  9. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini; Rodrigo Lucarini; Maria Gorete Mendes de Souza; Regina Helena Pires; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive ...

  10. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhi...

  11. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats Atividade angiogênica das flores da Calendula officinalis L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Leal Parente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi

  12. Esterco bovino e biofertilizante no cultivo de erva-cidreira-verdadeira (Melissa officinalis L. Cattle manure and biofertilizer on the cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A importância fitoterápica e, consequentemente, econômica da Melissa officinalis tem contribuído para expansão do cultivo. O óleo essencial das folhas é formado por constituintes químicos que podem ser largamente empregados na indústria farmacêutica por possuírem atividades antioxidativa, antivirótica e sedativa. Assim sendo, objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de combinações de doses de adubação orgânica com biofertilizante comercial e esterco bovino no cultivo de Melissa officinalis. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de biofertilizante orgânico (Vitassolo® e esterco bovino, sendo estes de 0, 30.000, 60.000 e 90.000 L ha-1. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados no fatorial 4x4, com 3 repetições. As características avaliadas foram altura de planta, rendimento de folha, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial. As maiores doses de esterco bovino resultaram em um maior desenvolvimento das plantas, em relação às mesmas doses do biofertilizante.The phytotherapic and economic importance of Melissa officinalis has contributed to its cultivation expansion. The essential oil of leaves is composed of chemical constituents, which can be largely employed in the pharmaceutical industry due to their antioxidant, antivirotic and sedative activities. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of level combination of organic fertilization with commercial biofertilizer and cattle manure on Melissa officinalis cultivation. Treatments constituted of four levels of organic biofertilizer (Vitassolo® and cattle manure at 0; 30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 L ha-1. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in split plot 4X4 factorial arrangement, with three replicates. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, leaf yield, essential oil content and yield. The highest cattle manure levels resulted in higher plant development, compared with the same

  13. Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.L. Parente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade propriedades medicinais são atribuídas às flores da Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Estudos sobre a atividade geral de plantas medicinais na cicatrização vêm sendo realizados, sem especificar sobre qual das fases da cicatrização a planta atua. Neste trabalho a atividade cicatrizante e antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico das flores da C. officinalis cultivada no Brasil foi avaliada em feridas cutâneas de ratos Wistar, por meio de avaliação macroscópica e histológica. A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações hexânica e diclorometano também foi avaliada. A atividade antiinflamatória do extrato etanólico da calêndula foi atribuída à diminuição da exsudação serosa, da hiperemia, da deposição de fibrina e da hiperplasia epidermal, além de resultar em crostas mais delgadas e umedecidas. Observaram-se também aumento de colágeno no tecido de granulação e efeito antibacteriano. Assim, o extrato etanólico da calêndula atuou de forma positiva sobre a atividade cicatricial em feridas cutâneas de ratos, bem como apresentou atividade antibacteriana in vitro.Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae, mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and healing activity of the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis flowers cultured in Brazil was evaluated in cutaneous wounds of Wistar rats through macroscopic and histological evaluation. The antibacterial activity of the extract and dichloromethane and hexane fractions was also evaluated. The anti-inflammatory activity of calendula ethanolic extract led to a reduction in plasmatic exudation, hyperemia, fibrin deposition and epidermal hyperplasia, besides

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  15. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

    2013-10-15

    Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost.

  17. Study on Oligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis%巴戟天寡糖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯峰; 王羚郦; 赖小平; 李远彬; 曹志梅; 周应军

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the oligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis How. Methods: Compounds were isolated by chroma-tography, and their structures were identified by spectral analysis and chemical evidences. Results: six compounds were isolated and i-dentified as sucrose( I ) , inulin-type trisaecharide( II ) , inulin-type hexasaccharide( III) , inulotriose( IV) , inulotetraose( V ) , inu-lopentaose( VI).Conclusion: Compound IV ,V and VI are isolated from Morinda officinalis for the first time. Morinda officinalis How; Oligosaccharides; Inulin-type oligosaccharide; Inulo-type oligosaccharide%目的:对巴戟天(Morinda officinalis)的糖类成分进行化学研究.方法:用活性炭、纤维素和硅胶等色谱法分离,用波谱法对化合物结构进行鉴定.结果:从巴戟天活性部位中分离出6个寡糖类化合物,分别为蔗糖(Ⅰ)、耐斯糖(Ⅱ)、菊粉六糖(Ⅲ)、β-D-果吡喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖(Ⅳ)、β-D-果吡喃糖-(2→1) -β-D-果呋喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖(Ⅴ)、β-D-果吡喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖-( 2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖-(2→1)-β-D-果呋喃糖(Ⅵ).结论:化合物Ⅳ-Ⅵ为首次从巴戟天属中分离出的化合物.

  18. Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component.

  19. THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEMON BALM (Melissa officinalis L.), ITS COMPONENTS AND USING FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    BAHTİYARCA BAĞDAT, Reyhan; Coşge, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), member of Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) family, is one of the important medicinal plant species. Today, it is used in different branches of industry (such as medicine, perfume, cosmetic, and food etc.) in many countries of the world. The main components of lemon balm essential oil, ranged from 0.01 to 0.25%, are 39% citronellal, 33% citral (citronellol, linalool) and geraniol. It is traditionally used as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent...

  20. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  1. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  2. Antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentin Bhimba B; J Meenupriya; Elsa Lycias Joel; D Edaya Naveena; Suman kumar; M Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis (A. officinalis). Methods:In the present study the leaf extracts of A. officinalis were examined for its antibacterial potential using five different solvents against some reference strains of human pathogenic bacteria for the crude extract. Maximum activity was observed for ethyl acetate and hence different concentrations like 15μL, 25μL, and 50μL of ethyl extracts was checked for its antibacterial activity. Partial purification of crude extract was carried by column chromatography and fractions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify compounds. Results:The crude ethyl acetate extracts of A. officinalis showed remarkable antibacterial activity with zones of inhibition of 13 mm against Eschericia coli (E. coli) and 11 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Fraction 13 (ethyl acetate÷methanol=8÷2) as the most potent one against with the minimal inhibitory concentration of 30 mm against E. coli and 25 mm against S. aureus. The GC-MS resultsof active column fraction (F13) revealed that the active principals were a mixture of hydroxy-4 methoxybenzoic acid, diethyl phthalate, oleic acid. Conclusions:The leaf extracts with proven antibacterial effects can clearly be directed towards cancer treatment as to inhibiting cancer cell growth. The limited number of test organisms owes to a constraint of resource. So, the effect of strong bursts of leaf extracts on human pathogenic bacteria should further be tested on a wide range of test organisms.

  3. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  4. Identification of benzoin obtained from calli of Styrax officinalis by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRAY, Hatice; DEREBOYLU, Aylin EŞİZ; YAZICI, Zekiye Işın; Karabey, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The stem tissue of Styrax officinalis L. distributed in West Anatolia was induced with agents such as boric acid and cocarboxylase (thiamine diphosphate), extensive stimulators of resin channels, in order to increase the amount of benzoin volatile oil. While the benzoin content was 120% in the induction medium to which excess boron and niacin were added, it increased to 231% when cocarboxylase (thiamine diphosphate) was added to the medium. Benzoin content of Styrax from petiole calli was 166...

  5. Terpene Glycosides from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Hemostatic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Zi-Long Zhang; Xin Liu; Shuang Zhang; Lu He; Zhe Wang; Guang-Shu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a hemostasis bioassay, seven terpene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the grounds of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as citronellol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (

  6. Mechanical properties and total hydroxycinnamic derivative release of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis extract films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Mello Rechia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four films were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa officinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the film reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades mecânicas e o mecanismo de liberação de um sistema tópico de liberação prolongada para o tratamento do Herpes labial a partir de filmes de amido/glicerol/extrato de Melissa officinalis, planta com comprovada atividade antiviral. Foram obtidos quatro filmes poliméricos com diferentes concentrações de amido, glicerol e extrato de Melissa officinalis os quais foram caracterizados mecanicamente e determinado o perfil de liberação de derivados hidroxicinâmicos. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da concentração de glicerol no filme produz uma redução no módulo de elasticidade e na tensão de deformação como conseqüência do efeito plastificante. O aumento no volume livre do polímero resultou em aumento da liberação dos derivados hidroxicinâmicos expressos como ácido rosmarínico.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz; Ahmad; Nahida; Tabassum

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a preliminary phytochemical,acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis(P.officinalis)L.Methods:Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures.Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines.The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P.officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)induced hepatic damage in rats.Aqueous extract of P.officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals.Liver injury was induced chemically,by CCl4 administration(1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),serum alkaline phosphatase(SALP),total bilirubin and total protein(TP)along with histopathological studies.Result:Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P.officinalis contain alkaloids,tannins,saponins,glycosides,carbohydrates,flavonoids,terpenes,steroids and proteins.The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg.In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg,the substantially elevated AST,ALT,SALP,total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered,respectively,in a dose dependent manner,along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups.Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal.Conclusions:The aqueous extract of P.officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  8. Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 μg/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 μg/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells.

  9. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  10. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  11. CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY OF Althaea officinalis TRANSGENIC ROOTS CULTURE WITH HUMAN INTERFERON α2B GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to obtain Althaea officinalis L. «hairy» root culture with human interferon α2b gene (ifn-α2b, to measure fructans content and antiviral activity of extracts from the transgenic roots. Transformation of leaf and root explants was carried out by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Antiviral activity was measured by the reduction in cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain in bovine kidney cells line MDBK. Transformation frequency was 100% for leaf and root explants. RT-PCR confirmed ifn- α2b gene transcription. The clones of transgenic roots differed in mass increasing from 0, 036 ± 0,008 up to 0,371 ± 0,019 g in 30 days cultivation and in fructan synthesis from 67,2± 4,47 up to 154,6 ± 6,62 mg/g roots dry weight. Extracts from «hairy»roots culture were characterized by high antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus — up to 26 000 IU/ g of roots fresh weight. In some cases the genetic transformation shown to lead increasing the growth rate and increasing the level of fructan synthesis in transgenic A. officinalis roots. Extracts from cultivated in vitro marshmallow transgenic roots were characterized by high level of antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, there were obtained transgenic A. officinalis roots, characterized by high growth rate, significant accumulation of fructans and high antiviral activity.

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  13. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  14. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability.

  15. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  16. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

  17. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  18. Impact of different culture media on hairy roots growth of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali PAKDIN PARIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformed hairy root cultures of Valeriana officinalis were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. To determine the effect of different media on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots, MS, B5 media (1.0X and 0.5X strength, N6 medium and a modified MS medium without phytohormones were used. In addition, different NH4+ to NO3- ratios in MS medium were studied. The effects of these treatments were evaluated after 21 days of culture in relation to hairy root growth. B5 and ½ B5 media were the best basal media for hairy root growth. MS medium supplemented with a 20:20 ratio (mM of NH4+ to NO3- displayed highest growth rates and biomass yield in hairy root cultures. The present study demonstrated that the composition of culture medium and the ratio of different nitrogen sources have significant impact on the growth of V. officinalis hairy roots.

  19. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  20. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress.MethodsWe examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured.ResultsCytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 mug/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05. Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05 and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01. Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and HIF-1alpha mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1alpha gene expression (P<0.05.DiscussionResults showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  1. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas L. Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising area for innovative products, including insecticides. Dengue is a tropical disease which is considered a critical health problem in developing countries, due to negative impacts to the environment caused by synthetic chemicals used for vector control (Aedes aegypti. Thus, developing of natural products based insecticidal are considered very promising. On this context, the aim of the present study was to obtain an O/W nanoemulsion containing Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, essential oil and evaluate its larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Low energy method was employed, allowing achievement of small droplets. The nanoemulsion also presented low polydispersity and mean droplet below 200 nm, even after 30 days of storage. Potential mortality levels were observed after 24 h (80 ± 10% and 48 h (90 ± 10% in A. aegypti larvae at final concentration of 250 ppm, related to R. officinalis essential oil. This study contributes to nanobiotechnology of natural products, presenting a potential larvicidal nanoemulsion prepared with R. officinalis essential oil. Moreover, nanoemulsion production involved a non-heating procedure, describing easy technique which may be useful for integrative control programs.

  2. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  3. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs under oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 . Cells were incubated with H 2 O 2 (0.5 mM, 2 h after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 µg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 µg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity , this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  4. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  5. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  6. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay.

  7. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation.

  8. Tissue culture techniques in the proliferation of shoots and roots of Calendula officinalis Utilização de técnicas de cultura de tecidos na proliferação de brotos e enraizamento de Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Pimentel Victório; Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage; Alice Sato

    2012-01-01

    The high demand for plant material from Calendula officinalis in the production of herbal medicines and cosmetics, turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. A protocol for tissue culture was developed from segments of seedlings of C. officinalis, in order to improve the proliferation of shoots and roots. We used a Murashige and Skoog (MS½N) medium, reduced to half the concentrations of NH4NO3 and KNO3 to ...

  9. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system Avaliação preliminar da toxicidade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema reprodutor e em órgãos de ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae é uma planta utilizada no tratamento de afecções hepática, intestinal, renal e respiratória. Sua toxicidade foi investigada em ratas e seu efeito antiimplantação foi relatado em estudos prévios. Este trabalho analisa o efeito da administração aguda do extrato de R. officinalis em órgãos vitais, em órgãos do sistema reprodutor e na produção de espermatozóides de ratos Wistar adultos. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com 1 mL do extrato aquoso de R. officinalis na dose de 291,2 mg e 582,4 mg/kg de peso corporal por cinco dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozóides e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a administração da dose menor do extrato de R. officinalis não alterou significativamente o peso corporal e de órgãos e nem interferiu com a produção de gametas. Entretanto, os animais

  10. Controversial effects of Calendula officinalis L. on Biochemical and Pathological Factors of Nephropathy in Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Medicinal plants are good sources for finding new therapeutic chemicals to improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis (marigold on blood biochemical profiles and histopathological changes in kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were divided to four groups: Normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, normal C. officinalis (N+CO 300 mg/kg, and diabetic C. officinalis (D+CO 300 mg/kg. The rats were treated for a period of 13 weeks. Diabetes was induced by Streptozocin injection, intraperitoneally. Level of glucose, urea, creatinine and also total anti-oxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, total oxidant status in serum and histological alterations in the kidney were analyzed. Results Level of serum glucose, urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde and total oxidant status were increased in diabetic rats, whereas, total anti-oxidant capacity was decreased compared to the control animals. Also, histological findings confirmed the absence of integrity in glomerulus and mass infiltration in kidney tissue in diabetic rats compared to the normal controls. Calendula officinalis extract had no effect on blood glucose, but it decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, total oxidant status and malondialdehyde while it increased total anti-oxidant capacity in the diabetic extract-treated group when compared to diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis could not prevent nephropathy changes in the diabetic rats. Conclusions Therefore, our results suggest that although administration of 300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis extract showed salutary effects on anti-oxidant profile, yet its protective effects on anti-diabetic and regenerative properties on nephropathy were

  11. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMI ALI METWALLY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  12. Actividad cicatrizante y ensayos de irritación de la crema de Calendula officinalis al 1%

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El proceso de cicatrización de una herida en la piel involucra la compleja interacción de mu- chos tipos de células y ocurre como una cascada secuencial de procesos solapados e íntimamente relaciona- dos. A Calendula officinalis L. se le atribuyen efectos curativos sobre las lesiones de la piel como cicatrizante, por lo que se estudió el efecto cicatrizante e irritante ocular dérmico y oftálmico de una crema al 1% de Calendula officinalis L. sobre la cicatrización de heridas abiertas en piel ...

  13. Emblica Officinalis (Indian Gooseberry Leaves Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in 1N HCl Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saratha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion inhibition efficiency of acid extract of dry Emblica officinalis leaves for mild steel in 1N HCl medium is investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance studies. The results indicate Emblica officinalis leaves to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency of 87.9% at 2% v/v inhibitor concentration. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the plant constituents on the mild steel surface. Experimental data fitted the Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherms.

  14. Allelopathic activity of micropropagated Hyssopus officinalis L., Lamiaceae, water infusions Atividade alelopática de micropropagado Hyssopus officinalis L. infusãos aquosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya P. Dragoeva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The natural habitats of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in Bulgaria are not sufficient to satisfy the needs of this herb. Micropropagation might be used for obtaining plants with desirable traits. Hyssopus is a medicinal aromatic plant that has not been studied very much. Recently aromatic plants were investigated as potent allelopathic plants. Determining the modes of action of allelochemicals is one of the challenging aspects in allelopathic studies. The objective of this study was to determine the allelopathic activity of micropropagated Hyssopus officinalis L. water infusions. We evaluated the influence of hot and cold infusions made from the aerial parts of hyssopus under laboratory conditions. For this purpose we tested the effects of infusions on germination and root elongation of Cucumis sativus L. and Triticum aestivum L. We determined also the effect on mitotic activity using Allium cepa L. chromosome aberration test. The results demonstrated the presence of water soluble allelopathic compounds in hyssopus tissue. Infusions exhibited growth depressive effect which was stronger at early stage of growth. The inhibitory effects on germination and root elongation were stronger in T. aestivum than in C. sativus. Hyssopus also exerted mitodepressive and genotoxic effect in Allium cepa root tip cells.Os hábitats naturais de Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae na Bulgária não são suficientes para satisfazer as necessidades desta erva. A micropropagação poderia ser usada para obter plantas com características desejáveis. Hyssopus é uma planta aromática medicinal que não foi estudada muito. Recentemente plantas aromáticas foram investigadas como potentes plantas alelopáticas. A determinação dos modos da ação de aleloquímicos é um dos aspectos desafiantes em estudos alelopáticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a atividade alelopática de micropropagado Hyssopus officinalis L. infusãos aquosos. Foi avaliada a influ

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae, one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L. were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate , Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis. The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10_3, 103×10_3, 25×10_3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10_3mg mL_1. N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100_1g had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL_1. Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.

  16. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  17. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-03

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field.

  18. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  19. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  20. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (Pamla extract (Pamla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  1. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM STEMS OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Tohsirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activities using the method of wells of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, introduced in the Botanical garden of PMPI. It is established that the essential oil has the most pronounced antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, less – Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial effect on the test-cultures of microorganisms Pseudamonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris are not expressed.

  2. Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. and Their Biological Activities Related to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebek, Jakub; Novák, Zdeněk; Kassemová, Dominika; Šafratová, Marcela; Kostelník, Jan; Malý, Lukáš; Ločárek, Miroslav; Opletal, Lubomír; Hošt'álková, Anna; Hrabinová, Martina; Kuneš, Jiří; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Nováková, Lucie; Macáková, Kateřina; Hulcová, Daniela; Solich, Petr; Pérez Martín, Concepción; Jun, Daniel; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Two new isoquinoline alkaloids, named fumaranine (2) and fumarostrejdine (10), along with 18 known alkaloids were isolated from aerial parts of Fumaria officinalis. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of the new compound 2 was determined by comparing its circular dichroism spectra with those of known analogs. Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitory activities. Parfumidine (8) and sinactine (15) exhibited potent POP inhibition activities (IC50 99±5 and 53±2 μM, resp.).

  3. Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L.: A Review of Biochemical Contents, Medical Properties and Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grdiša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L. represents one of the most significant medicinal autochthonous species in flora of eastern Adriatic coast and islands. It is evergreen outcrossing perennial subshrub with short woody stems that branch extensively and violet flowers. Apart from being native to Mediterranean karst of west Balkan and Apenine peninsula it is cultivated in numerous countries worldwide with Mediterranean and temperate continental climate. From the earliest times it has been used in traditional medicine in healing gingiva, mouth cavity and the sore throat, against bacterial and fungal infections, for wound treatment, memory enhancement, for treating common cold, against sweating, stomach inflammation, ulcer formation, etc. Its essential oil has also been used in preservation of food and as spice as it gives both specific aroma and promotes digestion of food. The essential oil is extremely complex mixture of different active ingredients; however, the thujones and camphor are the dominant compounds and are the parameter by which S. officinalis is distinguished from other Salvia species. The great variability of essential oil composition and yield has been detected depending on various factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, phonological stage, plant parts used for the extraction of essential oil and drying procedure. Molecular genetic analysis of S. officinalis is still limited and comprises the use of RAPD markers, AFLP and SSR markers in assessing mostly the genetic variability and structure of wild S. officinalis populations. Flora. 10.1016/j.flora.2012.06.018 Ivan Sostaric 14.00   Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso

  4. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  5. Effect of magnetic field on germination of two Calendula officinalis L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaranrad, A. Arouiee, H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of magnetic treatment, in addition to the geomagnetic field, on germination of two Calendula officinalis L. cultivars, “Antares flashback” and “Gold star”. Groups of 50 seeds were exposed to 1505.2 and 2260.8 mT magnetic field generated by 1 mA electrical flow in 60 and 90 round coils for 6 and 24 hours. The selected germination parameters were germination rate and percentage, radicle and plumule length, seed vigor.

  6. The combination of Passiflora alata and Valeriana officinalis on memory tasks in mice: comparison with diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvo Slomp Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a compound combining Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata extracts was tested on two mouse memory models: habituation and step-through inhibitory avoidance. Diazepam (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Acute diazepam (2.5 mg/kg before training impaired the habituation and performance in the inhibitory avoidance. On the other hand, acute phytotherapeutic compound (40-160 mg/kg, also before the training session, did not alter mouse behavior in these models. Repeated (15 days treatment with the compound also did not impair the habituation. At the doses used, no locomotor effect was found. Taken together, the results suggest that, contrary to diazepam, the anxiolytic Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata compound did not induce amnesia.Avaliou-se o efeito de um composto fitoterápico de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata em dois modelos de memória em camundongos: habituação e esquiva inibitória tipo step-trough. Diazepam (1,0 e 2,5 mg/kg foi empregado como controle positivo. Agudamente, a administração de diazepam (2,5 mg/kg antes do treino prejudicou o desempenho na habituação e na esquiva inibitória. Por outro lado, a administração aguda do composto fitoterápico (40-160 mg/kg antes do treino não alterou o comportamento dos camundongos nestes modelos. Tratamento com o composto fitoterápico por 15 dias também não alterou o comportamento dos animais. Nas doses empregadas não se observou alteração da atividade motora. Os dados sugerem que, diverso do diazepam, este fitoterápico ansiolítico composto de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata não causa amnésia.

  7. Antiproliferative effects of extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Saliva miltiorrhiza Bunge on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. The results indicated that ethanol and acetone extracts of leaves and roots of S. officinalis (SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E and SO-R-A, respectively) and ethanol and acetone extracts of roots of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-R-E and SM-R-A, respectively) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the concentration was less than 150μg/mL. The cytotoxity of SO-L-E, SO-R-E and SO-R-A were significantly less in WRL-68 when compared to HepG2 cells in vitro. The increase of LDH leakage, decrease of ATP and the changes in morphology of HepG2 cells further confirmed the cytotoxic effect of these extracts to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E ethanol extract of leaves of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-L-E) and SM-R-E were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This study shows the potential of the extracts to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer or as ingredients in functional foods and provides scientific support for development and utilization of S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza, especially the roots of S. officinalis.

  8. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Genomes in Oryza sativa, O.officinalis, and O. meyeriana with C0t-1 DNA and Genomic DNA of Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were applied to somatic chromosomes preparations of Oryza sativa, O. officinalis, and O. meyeriana with labeled probes of C0t-1 DNA and genomic DNA from the cultivated rice. The coverage percentage (%) and size (Mb) of C0t-1 DNA in O. sativa, O. officinalis, and O. meyeriana were 47.1 ±0.16, 38.61 ±0.13, 44.38±0.13, and 212.33± 1.21,269.42 ± 0.89, 532.56± 1.68 Mb, respectively. The coverage percentage and size of genomic DNA from O. sativa in O. officinalis and O. meyeriana were 91.0, 93.6% and 634, 1 123 Mb, respectively, in which 365 and 591 Mb in O. officinalis and O. meyeriana were from O. sativa genomic DNA, but not from repetitive sequences of O. sativa, and the uncoverage genome size in O. officinalis and O. meyeriana were 64 and 78 Mb, respectively. In addition, karyotype analysis was conducted based on the signal bands of C0t-1 DNA in O. sativa, O. officinalis, and O. meyeriana. The results showed that highly and moderately repetitive sequences in Oryza genus were conserved as the functional genes during evolution. The repetitive sequences reduplication may be one of the important causes of the genome enlargement of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana, and O. officinalis genome enlarged more slowly when compared with O. meyeriana. Based on the above results, it is concluded that O. officinalis and O. meyeriana were formed by reduplication, rearrangement, and gene selective loss during the evolution process.

  10. Anti-adherent activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on Candida albicans: an SEM analysis = Atividade antiaderente do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis em Candida albicans: uma análise por MEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: O óleo essencial de R. officinalis apresentou atividade antiaderente sobre C. albicans. Maior inibição da aderência foi observada para o estado de agregação celular (t=24 h e maior concentração do produto natural

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole.

  12. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properti...

  13. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum against cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermanshah H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The microbial cause of dental caries has been proved among its multifactorial etiologies. The prevention and control of dental caries is very critical because of high prevalence and cost especially in high risk patient such as xerostomia. Based on the world attraction to traditional treatment and importance of drug extraction of natural materials and plants, in this in vitro study effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum which were very useful in traditional treatment of mouth and teeth disease has been determined against cariogenic bacteria. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, hydroalcoholic extracts have been prepared from Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum with maceration method. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Actinomyces viscosus have been evaluated with broth macrodilution method. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test. "nResults: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum for streptococcus mutans were respectively 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml, for Lactobacillus rhamnosus were 1.56 and 12.5 µg/ml and for Actinomyces viscosus were 12.5 and 50 µg/ml. "nConclusion:Both extracts had growth inhibitory effect on all three bacteria. Salvia officinalis had significantly greater effect on inhibition of growth of all three bacteria. Both extracts had bactericidal effect in the range of concentration.

  14. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an exper

  15. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  16. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  17. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml. Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  18. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  19. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  20. Characterization of two geraniol synthases from Valeriana officinalis and Lippia dulcis: similar activity but difference in subcellular localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Miettinen, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Voster, A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Memelink, J.; Krol, van der S.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Two geraniol synthases (GES), from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) and Lippia dulcis (LdGES), were isolated and were shown to have geraniol biosynthetic activity with Km values of 32 µM and 51 µM for GPP, respectively, upon expression in Escherichia coli. The in planta enzymatic activity and sub-cellu