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  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people.

  2. ANALISIS KONTRIBUSI PAJAK HOTEL TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH KABUPATEN NUNUKAN

    OpenAIRE

    -, MULIATI

    2014-01-01

    2014 Analisis Kontribusi Pajak Hotel terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kabupaten Nunukan Analysis of The Contributions Tax on Hotel Againts Regional Renenue Nunukan District Muliati Haerial M. Christian Mangiwa Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kontribusi pajak hotel terhadap pendapatan asli daerah, mengetahui sistem pengawasan, dan potensi yang ada untuk meningkatkan pajak hotel, mengetahui sistem dan prosedur...

  3. Advancing the Orang Asli through Malaysia's Clusters of Excellence Policy

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    Mohd Asri Mohd Noor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia has introduced various programmes to improve the quality of life of the Orang Asli (aboriginal people. The Ministry of Education, for example, is committed in providing education for all including the children of Orang Asli. However, whilst the number of Orang Asli children enrolled in primary and secondary schools has increased significantly over the last decade, the dropout rate among them is still high. This has been attributed to factors such as culture, school location, poverty, pedagogy and many more. The discussion in this article is drawn upon findings from fieldwork study at an Orang Asli village in Johor, Malaysia. This article discusses efforts in raising educational attainment of the Orang Asli through the implementation of the Clusters of Excellence Policy. In so doing it highlights the achievement of the policy and issues surrounding its implementation at the site.

  4. Malaria endemicity in an Orang Asli community in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpreet, K

    2009-04-01

    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the endemicity of malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang. Malaria endemicity was measured in terms of the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly. A total of 520 Orang Asli were examined. The point prevalence of malaria was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-25.1), with Plasmodium falciparum (67.5%) being the predominant species. Children Orang Asli should focus on protecting vulnerable subgroups like young children. Measuring the level of malaria endemicity at regular intervals is fundamental in evaluating the effectiveness of malaria control programs.

  5. Literacy and Development for the Orang Asli in Malaysia: What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the literacy practices of the indigenous Semai Orang Asli community in Malaysia. Literacy for the Orang Asli often centres on formal education and schooling and is hardly explored from a social and cultural perspective. In fact, researchers have paid barely any attention to Orang Asli oral and literate traditions nor their…

  6. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  7. The Orang Asli of West Malaysia: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Shuichi; Dallos, Csilla

    2017-01-01

    In 1989, Geoffrey Benjamin published an overview of studies on the indigenous peoples of West Malaysia. Over a decade later, the feeling that a wide-ranging update might be useful has provided the stimulus for this note. Although many worthy reports on the Orang Asli have appeared since 1989, some of which we refer to here, we focus our attention mainly on the following new books: Semelai Communities at Tasek Bera: a Study of the Structure of an Orang Asli Society, by Hoe Ban Seng, edited by ...

  8. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  9. Orang Asli Women of Malaysia: Perceptions, Situations and Aspirations, Adela Baer et al.

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Hew Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This book makes an important contribution to the growing corpus of work on Malaysian women. Although the Orang Asli are well studied, little has been written of the women in particular. This book complements an earlier one on Semai women, as this volume attends to the various groups of Orang Asli women. The contributors have conducted scholarly work amongst the Orang Asli, spanning several decades collectively. The groups covered in this volume are the Jahai, Batek, Chewong, Semelai, and Btsi...

  10. Orang Asli Women of Malaysia: Perceptions, Situations and Aspirations, Adela Baer et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hew Cheng Sim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This book makes an important contribution to the growing corpus of work on Malaysian women. Although the Orang Asli are well studied, little has been written of the women in particular. This book complements an earlier one on Semai women, as this volume attends to the various groups of Orang Asli women. The contributors have conducted scholarly work amongst the Orang Asli, spanning several decades collectively. The groups covered in this volume are the Jahai, Batek, Chewong, Semelai, and Btsi...

  11. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  12. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Khai C; Ngu, Mee S; Reid, Katherine P; Teh, Mei S; Aida, Zamzuraida S; Koh, Danny Xr; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M; Md-Zain, Badrul M; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-04-12

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory.

  14. Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in the Orang Asli (Western Malaysian aborigine) and other Malaysians.

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    Gilman, R H; Davis, C; Gan, E; Bolton, M

    1976-09-01

    The indirect hemagglutination test was used to study antibody titers to Entamoeba histolytica in different Malaysian populations. Eighty-seven percent of Orang Asli (western Malaysian aborigines) adults and 79% of Orang Asli children with acute amebic dysentery were seropositive. However, significantly fewer children (39%) with amebic dysentery had high titer responses (titer greater than or equal to 1:1,280) than did adults with amebic dysentery (76%). No correlation between proctoscopic severity and amebic titer was found. Forty-four percent of asymptomatic family members were seroresponders. Satak, an Orang Asli village located near towns, had significantly more seroresponders (32%) than did the isolated, deep jungle village, Belatim (4%).

  15. Hookworm infection and reinfection following treatment among Orang Asli children.

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    Norhayati, M; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Muzain Minudin, Y; Zainuddin, B

    1995-12-01

    In hookworm endemic areas where sanitation is often wanting, reinfection of treated children is a problem. This study was conducted to enumerate the prevalence and the reinfection rate of hookworm in 193 Orang Asli children following treatment with stat dose of 400mg of albendazole at 2 and 4 months post-treatment. All samples were examined using the Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. The overall initial prevalence was 31.0%, with 27.0% in males and 34.0% in females although there was no statistical difference. Only 7.0% of the children had moderate intensity of infection. The overall infection rate at 2 and 4 months post-treatment was 11.0% and 8.0%. New cases were detected at 1.0% and 5.0% at 2 and 4 months post-treatment period. Reinfection rate 2 months post-treatment was 24.0%, and it was 30.0%, 4 months after treatment. All infection at 2 and 4 months post-treatment were light. Long-term strategies incorporating health education on personal hygiene, provision of toilets and safe water supply need to be adopted in these Orang Asli villages to control rapid reinfection.

  16. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  17. Perancangan Buku Foto Esai Tari Topeng Wayang Orang Sebagai Budaya Asli Pulau Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Aditya; Tanudjaja, Bing Bedjo; Kurniawan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Perancangan ini dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat terhadap budaya asli Indonesia yang sudahmulai ditinggalkan karena banyaknya budaya asing yang masuk ke Indonesia. Dengan banyaknya budaya asingyang masuk ke Indonesia, Budaya asli Indonesia salah satunya Tari Topeng juga harus dapat bersaing sehingga bisatetap eksis sampai sekarang ini. Perancangan ini berupa buku foto esai karena foto esai memiliki kekuatan sendiriuntuk mengajak masyarakat untuk sadar bahwa masih banyak buday...

  18. Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Abdul Aziz, Tuan Azlin; Teh, Lay Kek; Md Idris, Muhd Hanis; Bannur, Zakaria; Ashari, Lydiatul Shima; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Isa, Kamarudzaman Md; Nor, Fadzilah Mohd; Rahman, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul; Shaari, Syahrul Azlin Binti; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohamad, Nornazliya; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-03-24

    Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700). These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli. A total of 191 Orang Asli from different villages in Peninsular Malaysia and 115 healthy urban Malays were recruited. Medical examinations and biochemical analyses were conducted. Framingham risk scores were determined. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 20.0. A higher percentage of the Orang Asli showed high insulin levels and hsCRP compared to the healthy Malays denoting possible risk of insulin resistance. High incidences of low HDL-c levels were observed in all the Orang Asli from the six subtribes but none was detected among the urban Malays. A higher percentage of inlanders (21.1% of the males and 4.2% of the females) were categorized to have high Framingham Risk Score. Orang Asli staying both in the inlands and peripheries are predisposed to cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance diabetes mellitus. The perception of Orang Asli being healthier than the urban people no longer holds. We believed that this information is important to the relevant parties in strategizing a healthier community of the Orang Asli to avoid the vanishing of the vulnerable group(s).

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  20. Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Tuan Azlin Tuan Abdul Aziz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700. These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli. Methods A total of 191 Orang Asli from different villages in Peninsular Malaysia and 115 healthy urban Malays were recruited. Medical examinations and biochemical analyses were conducted. Framingham risk scores were determined. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 20.0. Results A higher percentage of the Orang Asli showed high insulin levels and hsCRP compared to the healthy Malays denoting possible risk of insulin resistance. High incidences of low HDL-c levels were observed in all the Orang Asli from the six subtribes but none was detected among the urban Malays. A higher percentage of inlanders (21.1 % of the males and 4.2 % of the females were categorized to have high Framingham Risk Score. Conclusions Orang Asli staying both in the inlands and peripheries are predisposed to cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance diabetes mellitus. The perception of Orang Asli being healthier than the urban people no longer holds. We believed that this information is important to the relevant parties in strategizing a healthier community of the Orang Asli to avoid the vanishing of the vulnerable group(s.

  1. A review of Orang Asli newborns admitted to a neonatal unit in a Malaysian general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Y; Somasundram, P

    2007-10-01

    The Orang Asli are the indigenous population in peninsular Malaysia and are in fact a diverse sub-ethnic group with different languages. Our aim was to collect data on Orang Asli newborns, from western and central Pahang, that were admitted to a general hospital with paediatric specialist services. This is a retrospective study of all Orang Asli neonates admitted to the Neonatal Unit in Temerloh Hospital over a one-year period (2003). There were 65 Orang Asli admissions out of a total of 1,543 admissions to our Neonatal Unit. The average birth weight was 2,569 g. The commonest indication for admission was neonatal jaundice secondary to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ten babies were ventilated, seven for prematurity and three for mild-moderate perinatal asphyxia. There were three deaths: a baby with a lethal congenital abnormality, one with congenital rubella syndrome with cardiac failure, and a preterm baby delivered at 28 weeks gestation, with late neonatal sepsis. This is the first attempt to assess the health status of Orang Asli neonates in peninsular Malaysia. There are no published reports on the health status of this group of neonates. A larger multicentre study is needed to determine the exact health status of Malaysian Orang Asli newborns.

  2. Dietary diversity is associated with nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey Chua, E Y; Zalilah, M S; Ys Chin, Y S; Norhasmah, S

    2012-04-01

    It is known that dietary diversity improves diet quality and nutritional status of young children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and nutritional status of Orang Asli children in Krau Wildlife Reserve. A total of 216 children from three Orang Asli sub-tribes (Jah Hut, Temuan and Che Wong) aged 1 to 6 years from 162 households in 16 villages participated in this cross-sectional study. Children and mothers were measured for body weight and height. Mothers were interviewed for household socio-demographic information and diet diversity of children in the last 7 days. Diet diversity score (DDS) was calculated based on 15 food groups. There was a high prevalence of underweight (50.9%) and stunting (61.6%) in Orang Asli children. For mothers, 11.1%, 27.8% and 7.4% were underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Mean DDS of children was 6.38 [95% CI-6.10, 6.65] of the possible 15. Higher DDS of children was significantly related to older age (p nutrition problem among Orang Asli children living within the forest reserve. Efforts to promote dietary diversity should emphasise traditional and nutritious foods that could improve health and nutritional status of the Orang Asli children.

  3. The Empowerment of Orang Asli Women in the Tourism Industry in Lenggong, Perak

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    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women, particularly those of the Orang Asli community, without a doubt play an important role in the family. These duties and roles include organising household affairs, giving birth and raising children, tending to the house, preparing meals for the family and sorting out their children’s school affairs. However, their roles are not limited to duties or daily routines that are done only at home. In fact, women (especially Orang Asli women, are capable of far more activities that can empower them, especially in the Lenggong’s tourism industry. This paper explores Orang Asli women empowerment through tourism industry with anthropological perspective. The empowerment of Orang Asli women can be seen from the aspect of skills that they already have which can be turned into tourism products, as well as to increase their source of income in supplementing their family expenses. Among the skills that can be highlighted are making handicrafts, being tourist guides, promoting traditional cuisine and dances as well as finding and brewing wild plant roots for medicinal purposes. The women of the Orang Asli who originally only served as housewives, can now change their family’s way of life by doing all sorts of activities which can generate new sources of income, by venturing into activities that can be used as attractions and new tourism product markets, especially in Lenggong, Perak.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection among Aborigines (the Orang Asli) in the northeastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Amry Abdul; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Majid, Noorizan Abd; Choo, Keng Ee; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Graham, David Y

    2010-11-01

    Whether the exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection reported among Malays is also present among aborigines (the Orang Asli) living in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia is unknown. We studied asymptomatic Orang Asli from settlements situated 210 km from the city of Kota Bharu. The HP infection status was confirmed by a validated serology test. Nineteen percent of 480 Orang Asli tested positive for HP infection. The prevalence was 40.6% in the birth cohort of the 1940s and declined steadily in later cohorts to under 10% among 12-30 year olds. This may be related to the phases of relocation from the jungles into resettlement camps and ultimately into designated villages near rivers. The low prevalence pattern after the 1970s was probably partly a result of improvement in sanitation and hygiene practice in these villages but other unidentified factors may also be operating.

  5. ASSOCIATING LAND WITH PEOPLE: LAND AND COLLECTIVE IDENTITY AMONG THE SUKU ASLI OF SUMATRA

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    Takamasa Osawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways in which the connection between people and space has changed among the Suku Asli (‘Indigenous People’ living in Sumatra. The eastern coasts of Sumatra, Indonesia, are low and marshy lands, which are divided by numerous brackish rivers, and covered by vast mangrove forests. This region was a largely unpopulated area where some orang asli (‘indigenous’ groups and a few Malay people lived before the colonial era. ‘Suku Asli’ are one of the orang asli groups who were known as ‘Orang Hutan’ (Forest People in the past - they lived along the banks as well as estuaries of rivers. Although their space was always somewhat of a ‘niche’ and did not exhibit any clear boundaries in terms of individual or collective ownership, the Suku Asli were confronted with the necessity to establish the boundaries after the state independence. However, their way of ensuring their land was not a simple one to claim their antecedent right of the land. At first in the 1960s, they joined the government deforestation programmes of hinterland ‘for giving lands to our children and grandchildren’. More recently, through the involvements with the ‘indigenous movement’ and environmentalism, they have tried to claim the rights of economically-worthless coastal marshy lands as their ‘ancestral lands’. In this paper, I try to describe the historical changes in the relation between the Suku Asli and the space surrounding them by focusing on the cultural 'logic' that is used to explain and support their connection to it - a 'logic' that enables the Suku Asli to conceptualize their relationship to land as both an embodiment and a manifestation of their collective identity.

  6. WUJUD ARSITEKTURAL RUMAH TRADISIONAL DURI ASLI DI KABUPATEN ENREKANG

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    Zulkarnain AS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak_ Pesatnya kemajuan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi, serta interaksi budaya jaringan berdampak pada arsitektur tradisional Duri di Sulawesi Selatan. Perwujudan arsitektur tradisional Duri yang asli mengalami perubahan yang dikhawatirkan akan mengurangi dan menghilangkan keaslian, keunikan dan keindahan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menjelaskan wujud arsitektural rumah tradisional Duri. Data berasal dari hasil interview dengan 13 orang, menggunakan teknik pengamatan dan indepth. Pengambilan sampel secara purposive dan analisis data dengan teknik matriks arsitektural dan tabulasi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa wujud arsitektural rumah tradisional Duri adalah sama kuat kecenderungan ke arsitektur tradisional Bugis dan arsitektur tradisional Toraja. Kata-kunci : wujud arsitektur, aristektur tradisional, Bugis, Duri, Toraja Abstract¬_ The rapid advancement of information and communication technologies, as well as cultural interaction networks have an impact on traditional architecture Duri in South Sulawesi. Duri embodiment of the traditional architecture of the original changes were feared to reduce and eliminate the authenticity, uniqueness and beauty. The research objective was to explain the architectural form of the traditional house Duri. Data derived from the results of interviews with 13 people, using the techniques of observation and indepth. Purposive sampling and data analysis techniques and architectural matrix of frequency tabulation. Results showed that the architectural form of the traditional house Duri is equally strong tendency to traditional architecture Bugis and Toraja traditional architecture. Keywords : a form of architecture, traditional architecture, Bugis, Duri, Toraja

  7. Prevalence of bronchial asthma among orang asli in peninsular malaysia.

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    Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Chow, S C; de Bruyne, J A; Liam, C K

    2011-03-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of bronchial asthma and their contributing risk factors among Orang Asli subgroups living in Malaysia using IUATLD questionnaire and spirometry without being discriminatory towards age or gender. Of the 1171 distributed questionnaires, 716 (61.1%) comprising of 62.7% Semai Pahang, 51.3% Temiar, 74.2% Mah Meri, 65.6% Semai Perak, 53.6% Temuan, 53.8% Semelai, 61.1% Jakun and 67.4% Orang Kuala subgroups completed their questionnaire and were included in the data analysis. Participants comprised 549 (76.7%) children and 167 (23.3%) adults, age between 1 to 83 years old, 304 (42.5%) males and 412 (57.5%) females. The overall prevalence of bronchial asthma was 1.4% of which 1.5% was children, 1.3% adults, 1.0% male and 1.7% female, respectively. Of the 8 subgroups surveyed, 5 out of 10 confirmed asthma cases were Semai Pahang, followed by 3 cases among Mah Meri, and one case each among Temuan and Semai Perak subgroups, respectively. This study also demonstrated that the prevalence of self-reported and confirmed bronchial asthma tend to be higher among those who had close contact with pets, smoking individuals and among those who had a family history of asthma.

  8. Systematic characterization and comparison of the CYP2C9 variability of the Orang Asli in Malaysia with 12 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lay Kek; Subramaniam, Vinothini; Tuan Abdu Aziz, Tuan Azlin; Lee, Lian Shien; Ismail, Mohamed Izwan; Yu, Choo Yee; Ang, Geik Yong; James Johari, Richard; Ismet, Rose Iszati; Sahak, Noor Saadah; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Rahman, Thuhairah Abdul; Nor Ghazali, Fadzilah Mohd; Shaari, SyahrulAzlin; Omar, Mustaffa; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Md Isa, Kamarudzaman; Salleh, Hood; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a systematic characterization of CYP2C9 variants in 61 Orang Asli and 96 Singaporean Malays using the whole genome sequences data and compared the variants with the other 11 HapMap populations. The frequency of rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3) is the highest in the Orang Asli compared to other populations. Three alleles with clinical implication were detected in the Orang Asli while 2 were found in the Singaporean Malays. Large numbers of the Orang Asli are predicted to have reduced metabolic capacity and therefore they would require a lower dose of drugs which are metabolized by CYP2C9. They are also at increased risks of adverse effects and therapeutic failures. A large number of CYP2C9 variants in the Orang Asli were not in the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium which could be due to small sample size or mutations that disrupt the equilibrium of allele frequencies. In conclusion, different polymorphism patterns, allele frequencies, genotype frequencies and LD blocks are observed between the Orang Asli, the Singaporean Malays and the other populations. The study provided new information on the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 which is important for the implementation of precision medicine for the Orang Asli. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia screening among Senoi Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Danny Koh Xuan; Ismail, Endom; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-09-01

    Orang Asli are the minority indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia and can be divided into 3 main groups (Negrito, Senoi and Proto Malay) with different six sub-ethnics under each group. Within the Senoi group, the six sub-ethnics are sub-ethnic Mah Meri, Semoq Beri, Che Wong, Jah Hut, Semai and Temiar. This study was aimed to investigate the current prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies and their mutation types among all six sub-ethnics of Senoi Orang Asli. Blood samples from 685 Senoi participants were collected and sent immediately for routine full blood count analysis and hemoglobin sub-typing. Of 378 subjects screened, 7 subjects were found to be Hemoglobin E (HbE) beta thalassemia carriers, 13 beta thalassaemic, 35 Hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS) carriers, 6 compound HbE and HbCS carriers, 32 with HbE disease and 163 HbE heterozygote carriers. The findings of high HbE among Temiars and Jah Huts and high HbCS exclusively in Jah Huts in this study suggest distinct differences across sub-ethnics under Senoi group. Understanding of prevalence and wide spectrum of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies among Senoi and Orang Asli is essential for national thalassaemia awareness and prevention program, especially in Orang Asli communities.

  10. Serological evidence of schistosomiasis among Orang Asli from three areas of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, G J; Anuar, H

    1984-09-01

    Using ELISA and COPT diagnostic tests, serological evidence of Malaysian schistosomiasis was discovered among Orang Asli populations from three areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples collected in 1975 indicated an ELISA-positive prevalence of 25% and a COPT prevalence of 11% from Pos Iskandar, Pahang and an ELISA prevalence of 13% and a COPT of 4% from Bukit Lanjan, Selangor. Resurveys at these site in 1982-1984 showed a continued presence of serological positive individuals but prevalence rates were markedly lower: 7% and 1% for ELISA and 4% and 2% for COPT at Pos Iskandar and Bukit Lanjan respectively. Snail hosts were not found at either site. The source of infection for persons living in these lowland areas remains unknown. In a third area, Kuala Tahan, Pahang, located in the foothills of the central mountain range, foci of transmission have been found near to Orang Asli settlements. The serological prevalence rate among Negrito Orang Asli in that study area was 9% for ELISA and 4% for COPT. Thirty-three of 36 COPT-positive sera produced vacuolated bleb precipates and in 31 these were the only reactions seen. The high percentage of positives producing only these precipates suggests that among Orang Asli schistosomiasis patients such reactions are not an indication of recently acquired infection as has been reported for schistosomiasis patients in the Philippines.

  11. Rarity of cancer of the cervix in the Malaysian Orang Asli despite the presence of known risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E

    1977-04-01

    Cancer of the cervix is exceedingly uncommon in the Malaysian Orang Asli (aborigine), despite the presence of factors associated with an increased risk of developing this malignancy. In only three patients was the diagnosis of carcinoma of the cervix established, out of a total of nearly 18,000 female inpatients, admitted to the Gombak Orang Asli Hospital over a 13-year period. Over this same period, 81 female patients were diagnosed as having cancer. Interviews with female Orang Asli patients show the presence of alleged risk factors for cervical cancer, including early age of first intercourse, multiparity and non-circumcision of husbands. The low incidence of cancer of the cervix in this aborigine community may be due to the strict moral code of the Orang Asli, limiting extramarital sexual activity and associated venereal infection.

  12. Distribution of cytokine gene polymorphisms in six Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhalifah, Hanim K; Syafawati, Wan U Wan; Che Mat, Nor F; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Edinur, Hisham A

    2016-04-01

    Cytokines are involved in immune responses and the pathogenesis of various diseases. Allelic variations within the genes coding for various ∼30 kDa cytokine protein/glycoproteins have been reported for many populations and have been the subjects of many ancestry and health analyses. In this study, we typed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 cytokine genes of 165 Orang Asli individuals by using sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) assay. The volunteers came from all across the Peninsular of Malaysia and belong to six Orang Asli subgroups; Batek, Kensiu, Lanoh, Che Wong, Semai and Orang Kanaq. Here we report our general findings and original genotype data and their associated analyses (Hardy-Weinberg proportions, estimation of allele and haplotype frequencies) can be found in the supplementary files and will be held at Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular detection and species identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolated from immunocompetent Orang Asli in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikin, Azah; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of opportunistic infections focus on immunocompromised patients. However, there is a lack of information on microsporidiosis in healthy people (immunocompetent) worldwide. This study aimed to detect and identify microsporidia species in immunocompetent Orang Asli living in Pahang, Malaysia. Orang Asli is a collective term for a group of indigenous people that usually reside in the interior regions of Peninsular Malaysia. They comprise about 0.7% of the total population in Malaysia and 76% of them lived below the poverty line i.e., poor housing conditions with the lack of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, contaminated environment, high illiteracy rate and unhygienic practices by these people. Stool samples were collected from 209 Orang Asli and analyzed for detecting the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis by polymerase chain reaction assay targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. E. bieneusi was detected in 8 individuals (3.83%). This infection was commonly found in males than females (5.2% vs. 2.7%). All infected Orang Asli were adults, with a mean age of 44years. Diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in one case (12.5%) among individuals infected with this species. These findings clearly show that exposure to E. bieneusi may actually be common than reported. The accurate detection and identification of microsporidian species by molecular technique will improve therapy, clinical manifestations and prognosis of this infection, as no antiparasitic therapy has been approved for E. bieneusi. It is hoped that these findings will allow the formulation of better health management and disease prevention advisories, and improvement in the standards of health in similar communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ANALISIS POTENSI PEMUNGUTAN PAJAK HOTEL DALAM RANGKA PENINGKATAN PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH KOTA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    -, MUHAMMAD TRY DHARSANA AMBO ALA DEPARTEMEN AKUNTANSI FAKULTAS EKONOMI DAN BISNIS UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN MAKASSAR 2017

    2017-01-01

    Analisis Potensi Pemungutan Pajak Hotel dalam Rangka Peningkatan Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kota Makassar Analysis of Hotels Tax Collection Potency in Makkasar???s Own-Source Revenue Increase Muhammad Try Dharsana Ambo Ala Andi Kusumawati Yulianus Sampe Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besar potensi pajak hotel dan seberapa jauh bentuk usaha yang di lakukan oleh pemerintah daerah dalam menggali potensi pajak hotel di kota Makassar. Untuk menghitung potensi, efektivi...

  15. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  16. Prevalence of clinical malaria among an Orang Asli community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet

    2009-07-01

    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang, Malaysia. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 520 Orang Asli. Malariometric and clinical measurements were taken. The overall parasitemic rate was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-28.1). Twenty-three point four percent (95% CI 19.5-26.9) of respondents age two years and above were clinically febrile. The prevalence of fever, chills, perspiration and body aches during a one month period prior to the survey among the same group ranged between 4.2% (95% CI 2.7-6.4) and 13.5% (95% CI 10.6-16.7). Children 2-12 years old were more likely to present with fever, and symptoms of malaria than older children. Gender was not significantly associated with fever or any of the other malaria symptoms. Presence of clinical fever and history of malaria symptoms were all strongly associated with current infection. The association was significant even after controlling for age (adjusted OR 2.8-5.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.3). Orang Asli children significantly experienced greater morbidity due to malaria compared to adults. Control and treatment of malaria should focus on children, while further research should explore the effects of malaria morbidity on the quality of life of these children.

  17. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Gopinath, Rejitha; Radhamani, Suraj; Husain, Hj Azman; Muruganandham, Vignesh; Promwichit, Proom

    2010-02-07

    A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

  18. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  19. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Hj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Methods Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. Results The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Conclusions Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

  20. Paternal lineage affinity of the Malay subethnic and Orang Asli populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SharifahNany RahayuKarmilla, SyedHassan; Aedrianee, Alwi R; Nur Haslindawaty, Abd Rashid; Nur Azeelah, Abdullah; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Zafarina, Zainuddin

    2017-10-19

    Peninsular Malaysia is populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Orang Asli. We have analyzed 17 Y-STRs loci for 243 randomly unrelated individuals, which include 153 Malays (7 Acheh, 13 Champa, 11 Rawa, 9 Kedah, 23 Minang, 15 Bugis, 43 Kelantan, 14 Jawa, and 18 Bugis) and 90 Orang Asli [54 Semang (16 Kensiu, 13 Lanoh, 25 Bateq); 30 Senoi (21 Semai, 9 Che Wong); and 6 Proto-Malay (6 Orang Kanaq)] from selected settlements in Peninsular Malaysia using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit (Applied Biosystems™). The overall haplotype diversity is 0.9966, i.e., 0.9984 for the Malays and 0.9793 for the Orang Asli. A total of 158 haplotypes (65.02%) were individually unique. The p value and pairwise Rst analysis was calculated to show the genetic structure of the samples with other world populations (from YHRD website). Based on the Y-STR data, Champa, Acheh, Kedah, Minang, and Kelantan are clustered together. Lanoh and Kensiu (Semang) are very closely related, suggesting similar paternal ancestry. Jawa Malays and Indonesian Java, plus the Bugis Malays and Australian Aborigines shared high degree of paternal lineage affinity. This study presents data for very precious relict groups, who are the earliest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. Results A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51–100 (of a possible score of 0–100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0–18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44–0.92 vs. score 19–36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1–5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21–3.53, vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24–0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1–5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33–0.89 vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Conclusion Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli

  2. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Rebecca Chandren

    Full Text Available Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013.A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4% had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 0-100. Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0-18 were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44-0.92 vs. score 19-36, P = 0.015 to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1-5 were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.53, vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.008 to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24-0.99, P = 0.045 or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22-0.75, P = 0.004 had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1-5 were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33-0.89 vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.018 to practice dengue prevention measures.Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli. More outreach on mosquito control campaigns should be

  3. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 0-100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0-18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44-0.92 vs. score 19-36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1-5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.53, vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24-0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22-0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1-5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33-0.89 vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli. More outreach on mosquito control campaigns should be carried

  4. Double-burden of malnutrition among the indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C Y; Zalilah, M S; Chua, E Y; Norhasmah, S; Chin, Y S; Siti Nur'Asyura, A

    2015-07-21

    Double-burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging public health concern among the Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the presence of DBM at the community and household levels in Orang Asli population and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 Orang Asli villages surrounding the Krau Wildlife Reserve, Peninsular of Malaysia from October 2011 to January 2012. Of 438 households, a total of 981 adults and 304 children who met the study criteria agreed to participate. About 160 households were further selected with pairs of children aged 3-59 months and non-pregnant mothers aged 15-55 years. Demographic and socio-economic data were obtained using interviewer-administered questionnaire while weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Double-burden of malnutrition was defined as overweight/obese mother-underweight child (OWOBM/UWC), overweight/obese mother-stunted child (OWOBM/STC) or overweight/obese mother-underweight or/and stunted child (OWOBM/UWSTC). Binary logistic regression identified the demographic and socio-economic factors associated with double-burden households. About 26 % of overweight and obese adults coexisting with high proportions of underweight (49%) and stunted (64%) children in these Orang Asli villages. There was a higher prevalence of households with OWOBM/UWSTC (20%) and OWOBM/STC (19.4%) than households with OWOBM/UWC (12.5%). Boys (P older age mothers (P < 0.05), mothers with higher education (P < 0.05) and households with income per capita less than USD 29.01 (RM 97.00) (P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds of OWOBM/STC. Jah Hut (P < 0.05) and higher number of children (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with lower odds of OWOBM/UWC. The occurrence of double-burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli population deserves attention. Poverty reduction, access to quality diet and improved

  5. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotype associations among seven apolipoprotein B polymorphisms in a population of Orang Asli of western Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajra, B; Candlish, J K; Heng, C K; Mak, J W; Saha, N

    1997-10-01

    Associations among seven apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene polymorphisms [C-T promoter site; Leu-Ala-Leu signal peptide (SP) insertion/deletion; AG C,G site at codon 71; AG A1,D site at codon 591; XbaI site at codon 2488; AG H,I site at codon 3611; and AG T,Z site at codon 4154] were investigated in 195 members of an Orang Asli (aborigine) population from western Malaysia. Frequencies of the rare alleles for all these polymorphisms turned out to be low when compared with European but not Asian populations. The AG H,I site was not polymorphic. The highly polymorphic sites are in linkage disequilibrium among themselves, as shown by their delta values: SP 24,27 and AG C,G, 0.68; SP 24,27 and AG A1,D, 0.71; XbaI and AG C,G, 0.64; XbaI and AG A1,D, 0.57; SP 24,27 and XbaI, 0.48; and AG C,G and AG A1,D, 0.68. Ten unequivocal haplotypes on the basis of six sites (excluding the promoter polymorphism) were observed, and they represent 80% of the sample. The frequency of haplotype SP27,G,A1,X-,I,T, defined by the common homozygotes at all the sites for the APOB gene was 0.7, compared with 0.22 in Europeans. The ancestral haplotype SP27,G,D,X-,I,T was present at low frequency (0.01) in both the Orang Asli and Europeans. A cladogram constructed on the basis of haplotypes in the Orang Asli shows two different lines of evolution and that other haplotypes evolved by subsequent mutations on the ancestral haplotype.

  7. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population.

  8. Giardiasis as a predictor of childhood malnutrition in Orang Asli children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Azlin, M; Nor Aini, U; Shaik, A; Sa'iah, A; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, M G; Ahmad Firdaus, M S; Aisah, M Y; Rozlida, A R; Norhayati, M

    2005-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to examine the association of giardiasis with protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia was conducted among Orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 281 children aged 2-15 years were studied. The data were collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis of blood and faecal samples. The results showed that 24.9% of the children were infected with Giardia duodenalis, while 56.5, 61.3 and 15.1% had significant underweight, stunting and wasting, respectively. Giardiasis was statistically identified as a strong predictor of significant wasting in this study population.

  9. Ocular manifestation of vitamin A deficiency among Orang asli (Aborigine) children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngah, Nor F; Moktar, Norhayati; Isa, Noor H M; Selvara, S; Yusof, Md Shahrom; Sani, Halimah A; Hasan, Zainal A A; Kadir, Rohani A

    2002-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of ocular manifestation of vitamin A deficiency in Orang Asli (Aborigine) children. Night blindness was found in 16.0% of the children, conjunctiva xerosis in 57.3%, Bitot's spot in 2.8%, corneal xerosis in 0.5% and corneal scars in 5.6%. These findings show that history of night blindness had sensitivity, specificity and predictive value (positive) of 47.2, 98.1 and 96.2%, respectively, compared with the standard diagnosis procedure using luxometer readings.

  10. Levels of thyroxine, TSH, thyroid volume and mental performance among Orang Asli in selected settlements in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A; Zaleha, M I; Iskandar, Z A; Tan, T T; Ali, M M; Roslan, I; Khalid, B A

    1996-04-01

    A significant difference in the levels of thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid volume among settlements at various selected Orang Asli locations is reported. The levels improved according to the level of socio-economic development. No significant difference was found in mental performance by location.

  11. Lactose intolerance among Malay and Orang Asli female children in selected rural Selangor and its effect on bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Daud, Norlida Mat; Aziz, Nurul Azrianti Abdul; Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana

    2016-11-01

    Sufficient intake of calcium during childhood is very important to ensure an optimal growth and strong bones development. However, lactose intolerance (LI) may limit the intake of milk and dairy products due to the inability of the body to digest lactose to its constituents, glucose and galactose. Children in rural area were a major concern as they are commonly associated with an inadequate intake of nutrients. Hence, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI among Malay and Orang Asli female children in rural Selangor and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 65 (39 Malay, 26 Orang Asli) female primary school students with a mean age of 10.4 ± 0.6 years old underwent hydrogen breath test and lactose tolerance test (LTT) during fasting and after ingestion of 25g lactose solution. A Wong Baker Face Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) was used to assess the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the study. LI symptoms are defined when breath H2 levels exceed 20 ppm above baseline values, an increase of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels of less than 1.1 mmol/L and GI symptom score is more or equal than score 2. BMD was measured in the calcaneus using QUS-2 Ultrasonometer. The result showed that 35 subjects (15 Malay, 20 Orang Asli) had a positive breath test (>20ppm). A total of 74.4% Malay and 88.5% Orang Asli children had an increase of PBG of less than 1.1 mmol/L. Both groups have low percentage (35.9 % Malay, 34.6 % Orang Asli) of GI symptoms. A total of 20.0% children (n=13, Malay=4, Orang Asli=9) was found to experience LI. Orang Asli children showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) BMD (95.7 ± 11.0 dB/MHz) compared to Malay children (71.7 ± 8.6 dB/MHz). The result shown there is an association between LI with BMD (p=0.031). Hence, LI does affect in decreasing an individual BMD. In conclusion, the prevalence of LI among female children in rural Selangor is low. However, the relationship between LI and BMD

  12. A tale of two communities: intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli and Malay communities in rural Terengganu, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyana, Fatin Nur; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Dawaki, Salwa; Nasr, Nabil A; Atroosh, Wahib M; Abd-Basher, Mohamad Hafiz; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Sady, Hany; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Lau, Yee Ling; Moktar, Norhayati; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-16

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still major health problems in many developing countries including Malaysia, particularly in the poor and socioeconomically deprived rural and remote communities in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs and to identify the key factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism as well as to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on IPIs among rural Orang Asli and Malay communities in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 participants (165 Orang Asli and 175 Malay) aged ≤ 15 years from the Hulu Terengganu and Kemaman districts of Terengganu. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information of the participants and their KAP for IPIs were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 149 (90.3 %) Orang Asli and 43 (24.6 %) Malay children were infected by at least one parasite species. The overall prevalences of intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli and Malay were 68.5 % (113/165) and 14.3 % (25/175), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, the presence of domestic animals, not wearing shoes when outside, not washing vegetables before consumption, not washing hands after playing with soil, indiscriminate defecation and the low level of mother's education were the key risk factors for intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli, while working mothers and the presence of domestic animals were the risk factors among the Malay children. Almost all the Malays were well aware about the IPIs while Orang Asli respondents had a poor level of related awareness. This study

  13. ANALISIS PEREKONOMIAN DAERAH DAN PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH KABUPATEN/KOTA DI PROVINSI SUMATERA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jolianis koto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze: 1 the effect of household consumption, private investment, and development spending revenue to the regional economy, 2 the effect of private investment, construction spending, employment and regional economy on local income. This study is an exploration studies conducted throughout the Kabupaten/Kota is as much as 19 districts / cities in West Sumatra province. Years of the study period was 2005 to 2009 (5 years. The study found that: 1 household consumption, private investment, and development spending revenue simultaneously or partially significant effect on the regional economy regencies / cities in West Sumatra province. The higher the level of household consumption of a region, the allocation of development spending is high, the amount of private investment that invested in the area and the higher revenues will be able to improve the condition of the local economy. 2 Private investment, construction spending, employment and regional economy simultaneously and partially significant effect on revenue Kabupaten/Kota in West Sumatra province. A growing number of private parties to invest in the area, the size of the allocation of development funds for various public sector facilities, the more labor is absorbed by the sector of the economy will be able to increase local income. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: 1 Pengaruh konsumsi rumah tangga, investasi swasta, belanja pembangunan dan pendapatan asli daerah terhadap perekonomian daerah, 2 Pengaruh investasi swasta, belanja pembangunan, tenaga kerja dan perekonomian daerah terhadap pendapatan asli daerah.

  14. Nutritional status of orang asli (che wong tribe) adults in krau wildlife reserve, pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemamalar, K; Zalilah, M S; Neng Azhanie, A

    2010-04-01

    This is a descriptive study on nutritional status of Orang Asli (Che Wong tribe) adults in Krau Wildlife Reserve. Twenty-six households, comprising 29 men and 28 women,participated in the study. Dietary diversity was assessed using food frequency questionnaire with 37 food groups. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured using standard instruments. The mean age for men and women was 39.9 ± 17.1 years and 33.7 ± 16.1 years, respectively. Most (89.5%) of the adults had no formal education and about 89.5% of households were categorised as poor. There were 13.8% underweight, 72.4% normal, 10.3% overweight and 3.3% obese men. For women, 25.0%, 46.4%, and 28.6% were underweight, normal and overweight, respectively. While none of the men had at-risk waist circumference (men >90 cm), about 21.4% of women had waist circumference of >80 cm. The mean dietary diversity score was 9.47 ± 4.15 with men (9.48 ± 3.70) and women (9.46 ± 4.63) having similar scores. There was a significant correlation between waist circumference and household income (r=0.36, pOrang Asli community undergoing nutrition transition especially among the females.

  15. Protein-energy malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthiases among Orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M S; Azlin, M; Aini, U Nor; Shaik, A; Sa'iah, A; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, M G; Ahmad, Firdaus; Aisah, M Y; Rozlida, A R; Norhayatiy, M

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and its association with soil-transmitted helminthiases in Orang Asli (Aborigine) children in Selangor, Malaysia. The results obtained from 368 children aged 2-15 years showed that the overall prevalence of mild and significant underweight was 32.1% and 56.5% respectively. The prevalence of mild stunting was 25.6% while another 61.3% had significant stunting. The overall prevalence of mild and significant wasting was 39.0% and 19.5% respectively. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection were 61.9%, 98.2% and 37.0% respectively and of these 18.9%, 23.5% and 2.5% of the children had severe infection of the respective helminthes. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 24.9%. The present study vividly shows that stunting and underweight are highly prevalent among Orang Asli children and therefore of concern in this community. In this population intestinal parasitic infections, especially severe trichuriasis and giardiasis, were identified as the main predictors of stunting and wasting respectively, in addition to age between 2 to 6 years.

  16. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-06-15

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  17. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  18. Prevalence and molecular study of G6PD deficiency in Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, F; Ismail, E; Zilfalil, B-A

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to define the prevalence and the molecular basis of G6PD deficiency in the Negrito tribe of the Malaysian Orang Asli. Four hundred and eighty seven consenting Negrito volunteers were screened for G6PD deficiency through the use of a fluorescent spot test. DNA from deficient individuals underwent PCR-RFLP analysis using thirteen recognized G6PD mutations. In the instances when the mutation could not be identified by PCR-RFLP, the entire coding region of the G6PD gene was subjected to DNA sequencing. In total, 9% (44/486) of the sample were found to be G6PD-deficient. However, only 25 samples were subjected to PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. Of these, three were found to carry Viangchan, one Coimbra and 16, a combination of C1311T in exon 11 and IVS11 T93C. Mutation(s) for the five remaining samples are unknown. The mean G6PD enzyme activity ranged 5.7 IU/gHb in deficient individuals. Our results demonstrate that the frequency of G6PD deficiency is higher among the Negrito Orang Asli than other Malaysian races. The dual presence of C1311T and IVS11 T93C in 64% of the deficient individuals (16/44) could well be a result of genetic drift within this isolated group. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Iodized salt supplementation and its effects on thyroid status amongst Orang Asli in Hulu Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Wong, Ming; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

    2013-01-01

    This research was performed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and the effects of iodized salt supplementation on thyroid status amongst Orang Asli in Hulu Selangor, Malaysia. Study respondents were from three target groups, i.e. pre-school children (PSC), primary school-going children (SGC) and adult women. Each household was supplied with iodized salt fortified with iodate fortificant for a period of 12 months and the iodine levels in the salt ranged from 20 to 30 μg/L. Samples collected before and after 6 and 12 months of introduction to iodized salt were urine from all groups, as well as serum samples from adult women. A total of 200 respondents were recruited; 58 (29.0%) PSC, 65 (32.5%) SGC and 77 (38.5%) adult women. The median urine-iodine concentration (mUIC) in all groups were of moderately low before the iodized salt intervention, but increased significantly in all study groups after 6 and 12 months of intervention. However, at the end of the study, there was an increase in severe iodine deficiency (mUIC Orang Asli. However, an increase in severe iodine deficiency and iodine excess indicated that the iodized salt programme needs to be carefully monitored.

  20. A study on the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 among the Orang Asli in Malaysia using a next generation sequencing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Johari James, Richard; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Mohd Nor, Fadzilah; Shaari, Syahrul Azlin; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2018-02-25

    CYP3A5 is the predominant sub-family of biotransformation enzymes in the liver and the genetic variations in CYP3A5 are an important determinant of inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in CYP3A-mediated drug disposition and response. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia using a next generation sequencing platform. Genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples of the three main Orang Asli tribes and whole-genome sequencing was performed. A total of 61 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified and all the SNPs were located in introns except rs15524, which is in the 3'UTR, and 11 of these polymorphisms were novel. Two allelic variants and three genotypes were identified in the Orang Asli. The major allelic variant was the non-functional CYP3A5*3 (66.4%). The percentages of Orang Asli with CYP3A5*3/*3 (47.2%) and CYP3A5*1/*3 (38.1%) genotypes are more than twice the percentage of Orang Asli with CYP3A5*1/*1 (14.8%) genotype. Almost half of the Orang Asli harboured CYP3A5 non-expressor genotype (CYP3A5*3/*3). The predominance of the CYP3A5 non-expressor genotype among the Orang Asli was unravelled and the findings in this study may serve as a guide for the optimisation of pharmacotherapy for the Orang Asli community.

  1. The satisfaction level of indigenous people towards planned housing development. Case study: Orang Asli Kg. Sejagong, Sri Medan, Yong Peng Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, S. M.; Zaini, N. S.; Misni, A.; Ahmad, P.

    2018-02-01

    Orang Asli possesses a unique relationship with their traditional land. Indigenous people have their thoughts on development, life values, visions, needs, and priorities. The government through Department of Orang Asli Development or Jabatan Kebajikan Orang Asli (JAKOA) implemented various development programs such as structured settlement program, physical improvements such as Regrouping Plan (RPS), Village Restructuring project (PSK), New Village Plan (RKB) and Orang Asli settlement customary Land Survey (village) / Land Acquisition. Orang Asli Community. However, their sense of satisfaction towards the development implemented is rarely evaluated. This paper aims to highlight Orang Asli’s thoughts and level of satisfaction towards the planned housing development of their settlement. A mixed methodology was employed using survey and interview to record their thoughts. The findings suggest that the Orang Asli Community’s sense of satisfaction towards housing development has improved. However, their needs to adhere to their social traditions and norms such as living adjacent to relatives, surrounded by nature within a low-density environment must be respected.

  2. Seroprevalence screening for the West Nile virus in Malaysia's Orang Asli population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, Suria; Radzi, Siti Fatimah Muhd; Lani, Rafidah; Sieng, Khor Chee; Rahim, Nurul Farhana Abdul; Hassan, Habibi; Li-Yen, Chang; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2014-12-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. WNV is preserved in the environment through cyclic transmission, with mosquitoes, particularly Culex species, serving as a vector, birds as an amplifying host and humans and other mammals as dead-end hosts. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the prevalence of the WNV antibody in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to screen for the seroprevalence of the WNV in Malaysia's Orang Asli population. Serum samples of 742 Orang Asli were collected in seven states in peninsular Malaysia. The samples were assessed to determine the seroprevalence of WNV immunoglobulin (Ig)G with the WNV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. For each individual, we documented the demographic factors. Anti-dengue and anti-tick-borne encephalitis virus IgG ELISA were also performed to rule out a cross reaction. All statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad Prism 6 (GraphPad Software, Inc.); p values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The serosurvey included 298 men (40.16%) and 444 women (59.84%) of Malaysia's Orang Asli. Anti-WNV IgG was found in 9 of the 742 samples (1.21%). The seroprevalence was 0.67% (2 of 298) in men and 1.58% (7 of 444) in women. The presence of anti-WNV IgG was found not to be associated with gender but, however, did correlate with age. The peak seroprevalence was found to be 2.06% (2 of 97) in individuals between 30 to 42 years of age. No previous studies have examined the seroprevalence of the WNV antibody in the human population in Malaysia, and no clinical reports of infections have been made. Screening for the WNV seroprevalence is very significant because of many risk factors contribute to the presence of WNV in Malaysia, such as the abundance of Culex mosquitoes as the main vector and a high degree of biodiversity, including migratory birds that serve as a reservoir to the virus.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among Orang Asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-02-12

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify assemblage's related risk factors of G. duodenalis among Orang Asli in Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 611 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years old of whom 266 were males and 345 were females. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. All stool samples were processed with formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining techniques for the primary identification of G. duodenalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a triosephosphate isomerase gene using nested-PCR assay. Sixty-two samples (10.2%) were identified as assemblage A and 36 (5.9%) were assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected assemblages using univariate and logistic regression analyses identified subjects who have close contact with household pets i.e. dogs and cats (OR = 2.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 4.78; P = 0.002) was found to be significant predictor for assemblage A. On the other hand, there were three significant risk factors caused by assemblage B: (i) children ≤15 years old (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.11, 4.87; P = 0.025), (ii) consuming raw vegetables (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.27, 6.26; P = 0.011) and (iii) the presence of other family members infected with giardiasis (OR = 6.31; 95% CI = 2.99, 13.31; P Orang Asli was caused by both assemblages with significant high prevalence of assemblage A. Therefore, taking precaution after having contact with household pets and their stool, screening and treating infected individuals, awareness on the importance of good health practices

  4. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolated from Semai Pahang Orang Asli (Peninsular Malaysia aborigines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Surin, Johari; Mohd-Adnan, A; Wan, K-L; Lim, Y A L

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolated from human faecal samples at Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal specimens were collected and examined for G. duodenalis cysts using Trichrome staining techniques. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a region of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from 15 isolates from G. duodenalis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis (including appropriate outgroups) using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, with a predominance of assemblage B. The predominance of anthroponotic genotypes indicates the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of these protozoa in this Semai Pahang Orang Asli community.

  5. Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in a population of Orang Asli ('aborigines') from West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, J K; Saha, N; Mak, J W

    1997-02-28

    Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoproteins Al (apo Al) and B (apo B) were measured in a sample of subjects from the Semai tribe of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia. They appeared to exhibit the lowest TC ever recorded (1.6 for males and 1.9 mmol/l for females) and relatively high TG (1.4 mmol/l for males and 1.5 mmol/l for females)(means for the whole sample). There was little apparent aging gradient in any of the plasma analytes. but the group of men aged 21-40 had lower HDLC than the corresponding female group. Both low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (calculated) and HDLC as well as their corresponding apolipoproteins were correspondingly very low. There was a significant correlation between apo AI and HDLC in both sexes.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazi, Talal; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Othman, Hidayatulfathi

    2013-12-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among the Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. The overall intestinal protozoan infection rate was 85% (261 out of 307). The highest prevalence rates were due to Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Giardia lamblia (21.8%), Blastocystis hominis (21.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica (15.0%). The prevalence of Iodamoeba butschlii was only 2.9%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with B. hominis and E. histolytica was 3.3%, B. hominis and G. lamblia was 2.9%, G. lamblia and E. histolytica was 2.0% and triple infections (B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. histolytica) was 1.0 %. The prevalence of the infection was high in all age groups (6-14 years old). Thus, we can conclude that intestinal protozoan infections are still representing a serious public health problem in aboriginal communities, especially among children.

  7. Predictors of Detected Organophosphorus Pesticides Among Orang Asli Children Living in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sutris, Juliana; Md Isa, Zaleha; Sumeri, Siti Arfah; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    Increasing use of pesticides in agriculture to control pest may result in permanent damage to the environment and consequently cause harmful health problems especially among infant and children. Due to pesticide's natural toxicity and its widespread use, it causes a serious threat to public health especially to this vulnerable group. The purpose of this study was to determine the organophosphorus pesticide urinary metabolite levels and its predictors among Orang Asli children of the Mah Meri tribe living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Data collection was carried out at an island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, where a total of 180 Orang Asli children of the Mah Meri tribe voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected via a validated, modified questionnaire. Urinary organophosphate metabolites, namely dimethylphosphate, diethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate were measured to assess organophosphate pesticide exposure in children. Eighty-four (46.7%) of the respondents were positive for urine dialkyl phosphate metabolites. In multivariable analysis, children who frequently consumed apples had 4 times higher risk of pesticide detection than those who consumed apple less frequently. In addition, those who frequently ate cucumbers had 4 times higher risk for pesticide detection than those who ate cucumbers less frequently. Children with a father whose occupation involved high exposure to pesticides (agriculture) had 3 times higher risk of pesticide detection than those with a father in a low-risk occupation (nonagriculture). Almost half of the children (46.7%) in the study area tested positive for urinary dialkyl phosphate metabolite levels. Most of the metabolite levels were equal to or higher than that reported in other previous studies. Major factors associated with pesticide detection in children in this study were frequent intake of apple and cucumber and

  8. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis among Orang Asli (Indigenous people) in Malaysia using two immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N; Nor Azah, M O; Rahmah, N; Lim Y, A L; Rohela, M

    2010-12-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminthic infection of humans caused by the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis) or cat roundworm (Toxocara cati). There are two main human syndromes: visceral larva migrans (VLM), which are characterized by symptoms associated with major organs and ocular larva migrans (OLM), in which pathological effects on the host are restricted to the eye and the optic nerve. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among the Orang Asli with an IgG4-ELISA using recombinant antigens (rTES-26, rTES-30 and rTES-120) and an IgG-ELISA commercial kit (Cypress Diagnostic, Belgium). A total of 188 serum samples were analyzed using IgG4-ELISA recombinant antigens while 83 were tested using IgG-ELISA. Overall, 9 out of 188 (4.8%) samples were positive with the former assay: rTES-26 (2.7%) and rTES-30 (2.1%); and 63 out of 83 (75.9%) were positive with the IgG-ELISA. In general, the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among males (9.5%) was higher compared to females (1%). Children below 12 years (6.3%) have higher seroprevalence rate compared to adults (1.2%). Out of 59 IgG positive samples, 56 (94.9%) were also positive with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections which may indicate high false positivity. None of the IgG4- ELISA positive samples were positive with STH infections. Of 9 positive samples with IgG4-ELISA, 7 were also positive with IgG-ELISA giving the probability of true cases. The present finding indicated that exposure to Toxocara infection is not unusual among Malaysian aborigines, and it affects both sexes and all age groups. As a prevention strategy, more effective public health programmes to promote better understanding on the consequences of toxocariasis among the Orang Asli communities are deemed necessary.

  9. Nutritional status and reproductive health of Orang Asli women in two villages in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H; Chee, H

    1998-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the nutritional status and reproductive health of 34 Orang Asli women, aged 16-45 years, from two Orang Asli villages in Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur.The results of the study indicate that on the whole, the women's nutritional status is generally not satisfactory.Their mean iron intakes for example, are very low, about one-quarter to one-third of the required level.All their other mean nutrient intake levels are below the required level. Only their mean intake of vitamin C exceeds the required level due to their frequent intake of raw vegetables. Their main source of carbohydrate is rice, while their main source of protein is fish, and their main source of minerals and vitamins are Chinese mustard and cabbage.From BMI measurements, it is found that less than half of the women (42.9%) have normal weight, 35.7% suffer from chronic energy deficiency (CED), 7.1% (one) are overweight, and 14.3% (two) are obese.The accessibility and availability of food are a problem for the women, limiting their choice of varieties of food sources.For their reproductive health needs, the pregnant women rely on the government hospital and clinics for their antenatal check-ups and birth deliveries.Of all the women, nine suffer from menstrual pain and five from vaginal discharge.Food taboos and cultural practices are practised by the pregnant women during their confinement.It is concluded that the nutritional status of the women needs to be improved since most of them have insufficient nutrient intake.

  10. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  11. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention

  13. Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases among Orang Asli children living in peripheral Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Azlin, M'; Nor Aini, U; Shaikh, A; Sa'iah, A; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, M G; Firdaus, M S Ahmad; Aisah, M Y; Rozlida, A R; Norhayati, M

    2006-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiases are a public health problem in rural communities. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm was conducted in 281 Orang Asli children (aborigines) aged between 2 and 15 years, from 8 Orang Asli villages in Selangor, Malaysia. All the children were infected with soil-transmitted helminthes, with 26.3% of the children infected either with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura or hookworm and 72.6% having mixed infection. The overall prevalences of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm were 61.9, 98.2 and 37.0%, respectively. Approximately 19.0, 26.0 and 3.0% of the children had severe infection of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively. The prevalences and mean egg per gram (epg) counts for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were not significantly dependent on age, therefore age-dependent convexity was not seen in this study. However, the results of this study reveal an age-dependent prevalence and mean epg count in children with hookworm infection. We conclude that ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection are still prevalent and therefore a public health concern in Orang Asli communities. Severe ascariasis and trichuriasis may lead to other health and medical problems.

  14. PENGGUNAAN BENDA ASLI PADA CERAMAH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN KONDISI LINGKUNGAN DI SDN KLODANGAN DAN SDN BERBAH I, SLEMAN

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    Dewi Arfiyanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menjaga kebersihan jamban dan membuang sampah pada tempatnya adalah contoh dari peri-laku hidup bersih dan sehat (PHBS. Perilaku memiliki tiga domain, yaitu pengetahuan, sikap dan tindakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan benda asli pada ceramah terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap siswa serta kondisi lingkungan di sekolah yang terkait dengan membuang sampah pada tempatnya dan menjaga kebersihan jamban. Quasi eksperimen dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain non-equivalent pre-post control-group. Untuk kelompok perlakuan, penyuluhan disertai dengan penggunaan benda asli, sementara untuk kelompok kontrol hanya dilakukan ceramah saja. Subyek penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas lima dari SDN Klodangan dan SDN Berbah I, Sleman, dimana SDN Berbah I yang terdiri dari 30 siswa adalah sebagai kelompok kontrol dan SDN Klodangan yang terdiri dari 34 orang siswa sebagai kelompok perlakuan. Hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji non parametrik Mann-Whitney pada taraf signifikasi 5 % karena data tidak mengikuti distribusi nor-mal. Dengan semua nilai p yang diperoleh lebih kecil dari 0,05, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyuluhan dengan metoda ceramah menggunakan benda asli, berpengaruh terhadap perubahan pengetahuan dan sikap siswa serta kondisi lingkungan di SDN Klodangan dan SDN Berbah I.

  15. Distribution of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles in the Kensiu and Semai Orang Asli sub-groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Abd Razak; Allia, Shahril; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Norazmi, Mohd Nor

    2016-08-01

    The earliest settlers in Peninsular Malaysia are the Orang Asli population, namely Semang, Senoi and Proto Malays. In the present study, we typed the HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci of the Kensiu and Semai Orang Asli sub-groups. Sequence-based HLA typing was performed on 59 individuals from two Orang Asli sub-groups. A total of 11, 18 and 14 HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles were identified, respectively. These data are available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name "Malaysia Kedah Kensiu" and "Malaysia Pahang Semai". Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum iron status in Orang Asli children living in endemic areas of soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, U Nor; Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Azlin, M; Shaik, A; Sa'iah, A; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, M G; Firdaus, M S Ahmad; Aisah, M Y; Rozlida, A R; Norhayati, M

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study to examine the association of intestinal parasitic infections and protein energy malnutrition (PEM) with iron-status indicators and anaemia among Orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 281 children aged 2 - 15 years were studied. The data were collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis for blood and faecal samples. All children were infected either by A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura or hookworm and almost 19%, 26% and 3% of the children had severe infection of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection respectively. The prevalence of giardiasis among them was 24.9%. Overall, 41.5% of the children were anaemic (haemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL). Of these 61.0% of the children had iron deficiency and 36.5% had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which accounted for 88.0% of anaemia in this population. Severe trichuriasis had the most significant correlation with anaemia and iron deficiency in this population. It contributed to low concentrations of haemoglobin, serum iron and serum ferritin and high total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Significant underweight and stunting were associated with low concentrations of haemoglobin and serum iron while significant wasting was significantly associated with low concentration of serum ferritin. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that severe trichuriasis was a strong predictor of IDA. It also confirmed that children who were significantly underweight and whose mother was working were independent predictors of IDA in this population.

  17. Health status of Orang Asli (aborigine) community in Pos Piah, Sungai Siput, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati binti Moktar, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Nor Fariza, N; Rohani, A K; Halimah, A S; Sharom, M Y; Zainal Abidin, A H

    1998-03-01

    A study of health status of Orang Asli population (based on physical examination findings) was conducted in 4 villages in Pos Piah, Sungai Siput Perak, Malaysia. In all 356 individuals between 4 months-72 years old (178 males and 178 females) participated in this study. Poor general health status, physical and mental handicaps were seen in 7.8%, 0.3% and 0.3% of the population, respectively. About one-fifth of the population had dental caries. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly were among the commonest abnormalities with the occurrence rates of 19.8%, 13.7% and 6.7%, respectively, being detected in the population. About one-fifth of the population showed signs suggestive of protein-energy deficiency; whilst less than 5% showed signs indicative of riboflavin, iodine and iron deficiencies. Vitamin A deficiency was the commonest nutritional deficiency identified in this community with almost 38.4% of them showing signs of the deficiency. The commonest skin infection was scabies.

  18. Seroprevalence of Q Fever Among the Indigenous People (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chee-Sieng; Mohd-Rahim, Nurul-Farhana; Hassan, Habibi; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Nore, Siti-Sarah; Johari, Jefree; Loong, Shih-Keng; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; Khoo, Jing-Jing; Lee, Hai-Yen; Pike, Brian L; Wong, Li Ping; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Zandi, Keivan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2018-03-01

    Q fever is a disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. It is a disease of public health concern in many parts of the world. In this study, we described the seroprevalence of Q fever among selected populations of Orang Asli (OA), indigenous people, many of whom live within the forest fringe areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples were obtained from 887 OA participants from selected villages. Samples were analyzed for the presence of IgG antibodies reactive against C. burnetii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical methods were used to identify possible associations between seropositivity for C. burnetii and a number of demographic variables obtained from the questionnaires. In total, 9.6% (n = 85/887) of the serum samples were reactive to C. burnetii. Statistical results suggest that elderly male OA residing in OA village, Bukit Payung, were most likely to be tested seropositive for C. burnetii. This study suggests that OA are at a significant risk of contracting C. burnetii infection, and both demographic and geographic factors are important contributors to this risk. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the true burden of C. burnetii infection within the indigenous population as well as within Peninsular Malaysia as a whole.

  19. Parasitic infections among Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, S Lokman; Gan, C C; Malkit, K; Azian, My Noor; Chong, C K; Shaari, N; Zainuddin, W; Chin, C N; Sara, Y; Lye, M S

    2007-05-01

    In April 2004, an outbreak of acute diarrheal illness occurred among the Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang State, Peninsular Malaysia, where rotavirus was later implicated as the cause. In the course of the epidemic investigation, stool samples were collected and examined for infectious agents including parasites. Soil transmitted helminthes (STH), namely Ascaris lumbricoides (25.7%), Trichuris trichiura (31.1%) and hookworm (8.1%), and intestinal protozoa, which included Giardia lamblia (17.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.4%), Blastocystis hominis (8.1%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (2.7%), were detected. Forty-four (59.5%) were infected with at least one parasite, 24 (32.4%), 12 (16.2%) and 8 (10.8%) had single, double and triple parasitic infections, respectively. STH were prevalent with infections occurring as early as in infancy. Giardia lamblia, though the most commonly found parasite in samples from symptomatic subjects, was within the normally reported rate of giardiasis among the various communities in Malaysia, and was an unlikely cause of the outbreak. However, heavy pre-existing parasitic infections could have contributed to the severity of the rotavirus diarrheal outbreak.

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Hadip, Faizah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-08-01

    Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection particularly in asymptomatic individuals is often hampered due to the lack of standard diagnostic tools. In this study, the use of serological and molecular approaches were investigated for the detection of S. stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli (indigenous) community following a preliminary detection by microscopic examination of faecal samples. Out of 54 individuals studied, 17/54 (31.5%) were detected to be positive for S. stercoralis infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), compared to 0/54 (0%) by faecal examination. Further confirmation performed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from faecal samples of these 17 individuals yielded 3/17 (17.6%) positives for S. stercoralis DNA amplification. No amplification was seen with the other 37 faecal samples, which were negative by microscopy and ELISA. As the high ELISA positive results were suspected to be false-positives, ELISA is not recommended for use as a detection tool but may be beneficial for evaluating the effectiveness of anti-Strongyloides drugs. The present finding indicated that PCR should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of S. stercoralis infection.

  1. The prevalence of Trichuris, Ascaris and hookworm infection in Orang Asli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Zainudin, B; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S

    1997-03-01

    A community study on the age and sex related prevalence, intensity infection and frequency distribution of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was carried out in 205 Orang Asli (Aborigines) children (95 boys, 110 girls) aged 1-13 years. The overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was 62.9%, 91.7% and 28.8%, respectively. Almost two-thirds of the children were infected with moderate and severe intensity infection of Trichuris, 46.3% had moderate to severe intensity infection of Ascaris. However only 1.5% had moderate intensity of hookworm infection. The prevalence and mean intensity infection (measured by eggs per g) of Ascaris was age-dependent; lower in age group 1-4 years reached peak and stable at age group 5 years and above. The prevalence of Trichuris was high in all age groups and it fluctuated with age; the mean intensity of infection of Trichuris (measured by eggs per g) was age-dependent. Hookworm infection also rose with age and reached peak at 5-6 years, following that the prevalence declined. The frequency distributions of Ascaris, and hookworm were overdispersed. A strong positive correlation (p < 0.001) were observed between Ascaris and Trichuris and between hookworm and Trichuris. A positive correlation (p < 0.01) were also observed between Ascaris and hookworm.

  2. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1-63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4-58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3-30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9-11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Detection of CYP2C19 Genetic Variants in Malaysian Orang Asli from Massively Parallel Sequencing Data.

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    Geik Yong Ang

    Full Text Available The human cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes that have been a focus in research for decades due to their prominent role in drug metabolism. CYP2C is one of the major subfamilies which metabolize more than 10% of all clinically used drugs. In the context of CYP2C19, several key genetic variations that alter the enzyme's activity have been identified and catalogued in the CYP allele nomenclature database. In this study, we investigated the presence of well-established variants as well as novel polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene of 62 Orang Asli from the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 449 genetic variants were detected including 70 novel polymorphisms; 417 SNPs were located in introns, 23 in upstream, 7 in exons, and 2 in downstream regions. Five alleles and seven genotypes were inferred based on the polymorphisms that were found. Null alleles that were observed include CYP2C19*3 (6.5%, *2 (5.7% and *35 (2.4% whereas allele with increased function *17 was detected at a frequency of 4.8%. The normal metabolizer genotype was the most predominant (66.1%, followed by intermediate metabolizer (19.4%, rapid metabolizer (9.7% and poor metabolizer (4.8% genotypes. Findings from this study provide further insights into the CYP2C19 genetic profile of the Orang Asli as previously unreported variant alleles were detected through the use of massively parallel sequencing technology platform. The systematic and comprehensive analysis of CYP2C19 will allow uncharacterized variants that are present in the Orang Asli to be included in the genotyping panel in the future.

  4. Detection of CYP2C19 Genetic Variants in Malaysian Orang Asli from Massively Parallel Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Subramaniam, Vinothini; Abdul Khalid, Mohd Ikhmal Hanif; Tuan Abdu Aziz, Tuan Azlin; Johari James, Richard; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Mohd Nor, Fadzilah; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Md Isa, Kamarudzaman; Salleh, Hood; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes that have been a focus in research for decades due to their prominent role in drug metabolism. CYP2C is one of the major subfamilies which metabolize more than 10% of all clinically used drugs. In the context of CYP2C19, several key genetic variations that alter the enzyme's activity have been identified and catalogued in the CYP allele nomenclature database. In this study, we investigated the presence of well-established variants as well as novel polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene of 62 Orang Asli from the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 449 genetic variants were detected including 70 novel polymorphisms; 417 SNPs were located in introns, 23 in upstream, 7 in exons, and 2 in downstream regions. Five alleles and seven genotypes were inferred based on the polymorphisms that were found. Null alleles that were observed include CYP2C19*3 (6.5%), *2 (5.7%) and *35 (2.4%) whereas allele with increased function *17 was detected at a frequency of 4.8%. The normal metabolizer genotype was the most predominant (66.1%), followed by intermediate metabolizer (19.4%), rapid metabolizer (9.7%) and poor metabolizer (4.8%) genotypes. Findings from this study provide further insights into the CYP2C19 genetic profile of the Orang Asli as previously unreported variant alleles were detected through the use of massively parallel sequencing technology platform. The systematic and comprehensive analysis of CYP2C19 will allow uncharacterized variants that are present in the Orang Asli to be included in the genotyping panel in the future.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

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    Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific

  6. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii Infection among Three Orang Asli Ethnic Groups in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and

  8. A Russian in Malaya: Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay’s Expedition to the Malay Peninsula and the Early Anthropology of Orang Asli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Manickam (Sandra); E. Govor (Elena)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThis article presents a critical overview of the newly translated diary of Russian anthropologist Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay's expedition to the Malay Peninsula(November 1874 – October 1875) to study its indigenous peoples, today known as Orang Asli. At the forefront of modern

  9. KAJIAN PEMETAAN DAN OPTIMALISASI POTENSI PAJAK DALAM RANGKA MENINGKATKAN PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH (PAD DI KABUPATEN JEMBER

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    Adhitya Wardhono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konsep otonomi daerah, pemerintah daerah memiliki peran penting dalam mengatur dan mengurus rumah tangga daerah termasuk pengelolaan keuangan daerah, seperti yang tertuang dalam UU No 32 dan 33 tahun 2004. Dengan lahirnya peraturan otonomi daerah tersebut pemerintah daerah diharapkan untuk lebih mampu menggali potensi sumber-sumber penerimaan daerah dalam membiayai segala aktivitas pembangunan daerah melalui peningkatan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD. Peningkatan sumber penerimaan PAD tersebut dapat dilakukan diantaranya melalui intensifikasi dan ekstensifikasi pajak dan retribusi daerah. Di Kabupaten Jember, potensi penerimaan pajak masih belum tergali secara optimal atau masih lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan penerimaan dari retribusi daerah. Realisasi penerimaan pajak daerah rata-rata tahun 2003-2006 sebesar 28,30% lebih rendah dibandingkan penerimaan retribusi yaitu 44,33% (APBD, 2003-2006. Dengan demikian perlu dilakukan identifikasi optimalisasi potensi pajak daerah dengan evaluasi permasalahan yang selama ini terjadi, sehingga pada gilirannya dapat dirumuskan kebijakan pemerintah yang lebih sesuai dan tepat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis pajak yang sangat tidak berpotensi di Kabupaten Jember dengan tolak ukur hasil (yield adalah pajak hotel dan restoran, pajak hiburan, pajak reklame dan pajak penerangan jalan. Sedangkan pajak yang sangat berpotensi adalah pajak galian golongan C. Penilaian persepsi masyarakat mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi optimalisasi penerimaan pajak daerah adalah faktor kelembagaan sebesar 55% dengan kriteria faktor adalah masih rendahnya law of enforcement terhadap tindakan penyalahgunaan penerimaan pajak dan masih lemahnya sistem administrasi dalam pengelolaan penerimaan pajak daerah. Rekomendasi kebijakan adalah pentingnya pengelolaan pajak daerah yaitu 62% melalui peningkatan inovasi dalam sistem pemungutan pajak dan peningkatan kualitas sumber daya manusia melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan

  10. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

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    Ahmed K Al-Delaimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia.Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls, and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI, not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children.Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population.

  11. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  12. Epidemiology of intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli school children in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Nasr, Nabil A; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M; Nashiry, Mohammed; Anuar, Tengku S; Moktar, Norhayati; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI), not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children. Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population.

  13. Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

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    Hanis Z A NurWaliyuddin

    Full Text Available The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA, comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159 observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73 and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

  14. Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NurWaliyuddin, Hanis Z A; Norazmi, Mohd N; Edinur, Hisham A; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA), comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu) using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek) while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA) plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159) observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73) and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

  15. Epidemiology of Intestinal Polyparasitism among Orang Asli School Children in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Nashiry, Mohammed; Anuar, Tengku S.; Moktar, Norhayati; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods/Principal findings Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI), not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children. Conclusions/Significance Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population. PMID:25144662

  16. Pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Dana Alokasi Umum dan Jumlah Penduduk terhadap Belanja Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi

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    Andri Devita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD, Dana Alokasi Umum (DAU dan jumlah penduduk terhadap belanja daerah kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi. Ketika diamati dari pengaruhnya dengan menggunakan model fixed effect, dapat dilihat bahwa PAD dan DAU secara simultan dan parsial dapat meningkatkan belanja langsung dan belanja tidak langsung sementara jumlah penduduk mengurangi peningkatan belanja langsung. Hal ini berbeda dengan belanja tidak langsung yang memiliki efek positif karena pertumbuhan penduduk di kabupaten/kota di Jambi dapat meningkatkan alokasi belanja pegawai sedangkan untuk belanja langsung terutama untuk belanja modal tidak efisien. Kata kunci : Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Dana Alokasi Umum, Anggaran.     Abstract This study aimed to analyze the influence of Locally-Generated Revenue (PAD, General Allocation Fund (DAU, and the population of the regional budget district/city in Jambi Province. Data in this research is regional budget, PAD, DAU and population. When it is observed from its effect by using fixed effect model, it can be seen that PAD dan DAU in total or partial can improve direct spending and indirect spending meanwhile population can reduce the improvement of direct spending. It is different with indirect spending which has positive effect because the growing of population in regency/city in Jambi can improve the allocation of employee spending meanwhile for direct spending especially for capital spending is not efficient. Keywords: Locally-Generated Revenue, General Allocation Fund, Budget

  17. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

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    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age, using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members, not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help

  18. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: prevalence and associated key factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Nabil A; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Bulgiba, Awang

    2013-01-28

    Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males) belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age), using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members), not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and intensity of STH in

  19. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  20. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

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    Kavitha Thevakumar

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7% were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%. Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%, males (56.2%, Negrito (48.6% and live in bamboo house (92.3%. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%, males (35.6% and Negrito (48.6%. The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  1. K.A.P. study of family planning among married Orang Asli women of Kuala Langat district, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Y

    1990-12-01

    A knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) study of 69 married Orang Asli women from Kuala Langat district, Malaysia is reported. The Orang Asli comprise 2744 people in 412 households served by rural health services and a few private practitioners. The median age of the sample was 16.3 years, of whom 18.8% were married before age 15. 47.8% knew of family planning methods. 53.6% of the women said that they and their husbands approved of family planning, 2.9% disapproved, and the rest were undecided. Only 30.4% had discussed family planning with their husbands. 21.7% stated that they would use contraception, either the pill or sterilization, after their family was completed.

  2. Ethnic Tourism: A Case Study of Language and Culture Preservation of the Bateq Indigenous Group of Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Che Lah Salasiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia provides ethnic tourism which is related to the more popularly known as nature or eco-tourism where an indigenous or traditional group of people who live in this environment will interact with and provide services to the tourists who would like to experience ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism refers to travel motivated by the search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and/or cultural background is different from the tourists. Tourists are also driven by the desire to see some of the threatened cultures that may soon disappear through assimilation into the nation’s majority. This paper aims to explore ethnic tourism as a preservation strategy for language and culture in a selected community of Bateq Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia in relation the language and cultural preservation of this community. An in-depth interview, a qualitative research technique, was selected as a method of data collection. The multimedia data was also collected including the recordings of the indigenous languages, still pictures and videotapes of the indigenous and cultural activities. The findings of this study show that the Bateq Orang Asli groups have preferences of their languages even though there is a pattern that a high number of lexical items have been borrowed from Malay. Language shift among younger speakers is also becoming a trend. In terms of the preservation of cultural heritage, the Bateq Orang Asli are still very positive about keeping their practices and lifestyles. The involvement of Bateq Orang Asli in promoting ethnic tourism in the surrounding areas near their settlements has contributed to their language and cultural preservation.

  3. Inference of the Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2D6 in Six Subtribes of the Malaysian Orang Asli from Whole-Genome Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Choo Yee; Ang, Geik Yong; Subramaniam, Vinothini; Johari James, Richard; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Mohd Nor, Fadzilah; Shaari, Syahrul Azlin; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2017-07-01

    CYP2D6 is one of the major enzymes in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. It metabolizes ∼25% of prescribed drugs and hence, the genetic diversity of a CYP2D6 gene has continued to be of great interest to the medical and pharmaceutical industries. This study was designed to perform a systematic analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in six subtribes of the Malaysian Orang Asli. Genomic DNAs were extracted from the blood samples followed by whole-genome sequencing. The reads were aligned to the reference human genome hg19 and variants in the CYP2D6 gene were analyzed. CYP2D6*5 and duplication of CYP2D6 were analyzed using previously established methods. A total of 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10,*41, and duplication of the gene were found in the Orang Asli, whereby CYP2D6*2 and *41 alleles are reported for the first time in the Malaysian population. The findings in this study provide insights into the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 in the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia.

  4. Effect of apolipoprotein E variants on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in the Orang Asli ('aborigines') of Malaysia.

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    Gajra, B; Candlish, J K; Saha, N; Mak, J W; Tay, J S

    1994-01-01

    Members of the Semai group of Orang Asli ('aborigines') in peninsular Malaysia were examined for apolipoprotein E (apo E) variants in relation to plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The e2 and e4 alleles were found to be higher than in most other groups as reported. The sample as a whole was normotriglyceridaemic (mean plasma TG, 1.5 mmol/l) and very markedly hypocholesterolaemic (mean plasma TC 1.7 mmol/l). The distribution of apo E variants was not related to any of the plasma lipids or apolipoprotein fractions using results from all subjects, but if a distinctly hypertriglyceridaemic sub-section was omitted (TG > 1.7 mmol/l) then apo E variants were determinants of plasma TC, LDLC, and apo B concentrations, the lower values of these being associated with the 2-2 and 2-3 genotypes, and the higher with 3-4, and 4-4.

  5. Anthropometric indices and life style practices of the indigenous Orang Asli adults in Lembah Belum, Grik of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Hayati Mohd; Ching, Ting Siew; Ibrahim, Roshita; Lola, Safiih

    2007-01-01

    A nutritional status survey of Orang Asli (Aboriginal) adults in Lembah Belum, Grik, has been conducted involving a total of 138 subjects. Jahai (58.7%) was the main ethnic group as compared to that of Temiar (41.3%). Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) characteristics, the majority (63.2%) of the respondents were normal, 26.7% underweight and 10.1% were either overweight or obese. However, by using two different indices of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, 1.6% and 10.8% of the total respondents revealed abdominal obesity, respectively. Measurement of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) indicated that about 40% showed nutritional insufficiency whereas 0.8% showed over-nutrition. Body fat classification revealed that 53.4% of the respondents were thin, 45.8% at normal level and only 0.8% were obese. Student's t-test revealed a significant difference in anthropometric indices of body weight, height, MUAMC, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and body fat according to gender. Meanwhile, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in body weight, waist circumference, WHR and body fat according to different age categories. It was also found that those who smoked had lower BMI compared with non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher BMI and WHR among the respondents. Pearson's correlation test between anthropometric measurements and socio-economic and demographic factors showed that ethnic group was the strongest variable.

  6. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-02-14

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (

  7. First report on the seroprevalence of the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, a tick-borne virus, in Malaysia's Orang Asli population.

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    Lani, R; Mohd Rahim, N F; Hassan, H; Yaghoobi, R; Chang, L-Y; AbuBakar, S; Zandi, K

    2015-01-01

    The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is transmitted by the ticks of Hyalomma spp. in general and H. marginatumin particular, can cause severe disease in humans, with mortality rates of 3-30%. Other than from the bites of infected ticks, CCHFV can also be transmitted through contact with patients with the acute phase of infection or contact with blood or tissues from viraemic livestock.  Outbreaks of human cases of haemorrhagic manifestations have been documented since 1945 and described in parts of Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East and most recently India in 2011. In addition, serological evidence of the disease has been reported in some countries where no human cases were reported. As regional neighbours China and India have been affected by this virus, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of CCHFV among Orang Asli population of Malaysia as the most at risk people who residing in the deep forests. A total of 682 serum samples were collected from the Orang Asli population residing in eight states in peninsular Malaysia and analysed for the presence of anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The study subjects comprised 277 (40.6%) men and 405 (59.4%) women. However, anti-CCHFV IgG was detected in only one female serum sample (0.1%). The presence of anti-CCHFV IgG could not be correlated to age or sex from these findings. The results of this screening survey showed that the seroprevalence of the anti-CCHFV IgG among Malaysia's Orang Asli population is too low for detection or totally negative compared with that in neighbouring countries, such as India and China.

  8. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

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    JM Sutris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Results: Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7% showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm. There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. Conclusion: The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide and length of residence in (exposure the study area.

  9. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutris, J M; How, V; Sumeri, S A; Muhammad, M; Sardi, D; Mohd Mokhtar, M T; Muhammad, H; Ghazi, H F; Isa, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7%) showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm) than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm). There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide) and length of residence in (exposure) the study area.

  10. Molecular Characterisation of α- and β-Thalassaemia among Indigenous Senoi Orang Asli Communities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Danny Xuan Rong; Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma; Mohd Yusoff, Malisa; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Ahmad, Rahimah; Othman, Ainoon; Ismail, Endom

    2017-09-01

    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in Malaysia, with each ethnic group having their own common mutations. However, there is a lack on data on the prevalence and common mutations among the indigenous people. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the common mutations of α- and β-thalassaemia among the subethnic groups of Senoi, the largest Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia. Blood samples collected from six Senoi subethnic groups were analysed for full blood count and haemoglobin analysis (HbAn). Samples with abnormal findings were then screened for α- and β-globin gene mutations. Out of the 752 samples collected, 255 showed abnormal HbAn results, and 122 cases showing abnormal red cell indices with normal HbAn findings were subjected to molecular screening. DNA analysis revealed a mixture of α- and β-globin gene mutations with 25 concomitant cases. The types of gene abnormalities detected for α-thalassaemia were termination codon (T>C) Hb CS (α CS α), Cd59 (G>A) haemoglobin Adana (Hb Adana) (α Cd59 α), initiation codon (ATG>A-G) (α IniCd α), two-gene deletion (- SEA ), and single-gene 3.7-kb deletion (-α 3.7 ). For β-thalassaemia, there were Cd26 (G>A) Hb E (β E ), Cd19 (A>G) Haemoglobin Malay (Hb Malay) (β Cd19 ), and IVS 1-5 (G>C) (β IVS 1-5 ). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  11. Recognizing indigenous identity in postcolonial Malaysian law: Rights and realities for the Orang Asli (aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia

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    Alice M. Nah

    2008-12-01

    indigenous customary practices was already incorporated, albeit for certain indigenous groups and not for others. In order to recognize and protect the ‘special rights’ of indigenous persons, it became vital to define the legal identity of individuals. It was necessary for British administrators to determine which groups were ‘indigenous’, what specific criteria were required for demonstrating membership of these groups, and when disputes occurred, to determine which individuals possessed a legitimate claim of belonging. They also had to decide if the rights and privileges were accorded on a group or individual basis. These decisions are neither ahistorical nor apolitical. In this paper, I examine the contemporary case of the Orang Asli, the minority indigenous peoples of the Malay Peninsula. I begin by providing an outline of political developments that have resulted in the legal recognition of three groups of people as having indigenous status. I also review the evolution of the Malaysian legal system in order to provide a context for subsequent discussion. I then look at how Orang Asli are recognized in the Federal Constitution and in statutes, with reference to case law, as the meaning and weight of these written laws were elaborated in court judgements. I then look at three court cases, reviewing the right to engage in commercial activities in aboriginal places as decided in the Koperasi Kijang Mas Bhd & Ors v. Kerajaan Negeri Perak & Ors (1991, hereafter referred to as the Koperasi Kijang Mas case; the recognition of native title and usufructuary rights as recognized in Adong Kuwau & Ors v. Kerajaan Negeri Johor & Anor (1997, hereafter referred to as the Adong Kuwau case, a judgement upheld in the Court of Appeal (Kerajaan Negeri Johor & Anor v. Adong Kuwau & Ors (1998 and the Federal Court;2 as well as proprietary rights in and to the land which were recognized in the Sagong Tasi & Ors v. Kerajaan Negeri Selangor & Ors (2002 ruling, hereafter referred to as

  12. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices.

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    Nasr, Nabil A; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Bulgiba, Awang

    2013-01-28

    In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%), signs and symptoms (29.3%) as well as the prevention (16.3%). Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1), wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1), and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7) as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education programme and community mobilisation to enhance prevention

  13. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices

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    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%, signs and symptoms (29.3% as well as the prevention (16.3%. Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1, wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1, and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7 as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. Conclusion This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education

  14. Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia.

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    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nasr, Nabil A; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-09-02

    This study was carried out to develop a health education learning package (HELP) about soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and to evaluate what impact such a package could have in terms of reducing the incidence and intensity of STH infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia. To identify the key risk factors of STH in Orang Asli communities, we applied an extensive mixed methods approach which involved an intensive literature review, as well as community-based discussions with children, their parents, teachers and health personnel, whilst also placing the children under direct observation. To evaluate the package, 317 children from two schools in Lipis, Pahang were screened for STH infections, treated by a 3-day course of albendazole and then followed up over the next 6 months. The knowledge of teachers, parents and children towards STH infections were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The developed package consists of a half day workshop for teachers, a teacher's guide book to STH infections, posters, a comic book, a music video, a puppet show, drawing activities and an aid kit. The package was well-received with effective contributions being made by teachers, children and their parents. The incidence rates of hookworm infection at different assessment points were significantly lower among children in the intervention school compared to those in the control school. Similarly, the intensity of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were found to be significantly lower among children in the HELP group compared to those in the control group (P STH infections. A school-based health education learning package (HELP) was developed which displayed a significant impact in terms of reducing the intensity of all three main STH infections, as well as in reducing the prevalence of hookworm infections. Moreover, the knowledge levels of both teachers and the Orang Asli population regarding STH was significantly improved, a fact

  15. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli.

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    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2013-02-22

    Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi) in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102) were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150) of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139) of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211) of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  16. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

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    Anuar Tengku Shahrul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. Methods To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Results Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102 were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150 of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139 of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211 of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Conclusion Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  17. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH, INVESTASI DAN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI KOTA SEMARANG MELALUI MICE (MEETING, INCENTIVE, CONVENTION DAN EXHIBITION

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    Tika Putri Pratiwi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Semarang sebagai ibukota Provinsi Jawa Tengah memiliki potensi yang besar dalam mengembangkan sektor industri dan pariwisata. Langkah awal pemerintah yang serius dalam mengolah kedua industri ini yaitu dengan menjadikan Kota Semarang sebagai salah satu destinasi MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Convention, Exhibition. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memilih strategi apa yang dapat dilakukan dalam pembangunan Kota Semarang Melalui MICE. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer bersumber dari hasil pengisian kuesioner oleh pihak dinas dan Swasta. Data sekunder dalam penelitian ini berupa data-data yang diperoleh dari dinas terkait serta Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS Provinsi Jawa Tengah dan Kota Semarang dan jurnal serta literatur yang berkaitan dengan penelitian. Metode analisis yang digunakan yaituAnalitical Hierarki Process (AHP dan diolah menggunakan expert choice versi 9.0. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi pembangunan Kota Semarang melalui MICE dapat mengutamakan pada kriteria (1 peningkatan sektor investasi dengan bobot tertinggi yaitu sebesar 0,614 dan dilanjutkan dengan (2 memperbaiki pertumbuhan ekonomi kota dengan bobot 0,260, sehingga akan membantu dalam (3 peningkatan Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kota Semarang melalui MICE dengan bobot 0,126. Berdasarkan temuan tersebut, saran yang dapat disampaikan yaitu Memperkenalkan Kota Semarang melalui jalur promosi dengan menggunakan media-media sosal dan media elektronik. Hal tersebut merupakan salah satu alternatif membuka investasi yang lebih luas di Kota Semarang, sehingga tidak hanya masyarakat dalam negeri namun masyarakat internasional juga dapat lebih mengenal Kota Semarang. Memperbanyak even berskala nasional maupun internasional yang diselenggarakan di Kota Semarang dan lebih memperkenalkan Kota Semarang baik di dalam maupun di luar negeri. Memberikan pelatihan

  18. Giardiasis among different tribes of Orang Asli in Malaysia: highlighting the presence of other family members infected with Giardia intestinalis as a main risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Osman, Emelia; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Nordin, Anisah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-08-01

    The flagellate protozoan parasite, Giardia intestinalis, is widely distributed throughout the world with a high prevalence in developing countries in the tropics and subtropics, including Malaysia. Approximately 200 million people are infected with the parasite globally, with 500,000 new cases reported annually. This cross-sectional study was conducted among three tribes of Orang Asli communities in Selangor, Perak and Pahang states of Malaysia. The main objective was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for giardiasis. Stool samples were collected from 500 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years (males=219, females=281). The samples were examined with formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of giardiasis was 20.0% with the highest prevalence in the Proto-Malays (33.3%) followed by Negritos (20.1%) and Senois (10.4%). The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 24 years old. Males had significantly higher prevalence than females (χ(2)=5.283, P=0.022). Logistic regression analysis of the overall population studied and the Senoi tribe confirmed that being a child aged less than 15 years, being male, the consumption of raw vegetables and the presence of other family members infected with G. intestinalis were the main risk factors for giardiasis. The presence of other family members infected with G. intestinalis was the only risk factor highlighted in the Proto-Malay and Negrito tribes. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with giardiasis. However, the cause and effect relationship has yet to be determined. Thus, screening family members and treating the infected individuals are the main strategies that should be adopted by the public health authority in combating this infection in Orang Asli communities as well as health education regarding good personal and

  19. A dental-anthropological study of health and illness behaviour among Orang Asli of the Semai Tribe: the perspective of traditional healers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saub, R; Jaafar, N

    2001-12-01

    This observational study investigates and describes the oral health beliefs and illness behaviour in the Semai tribe of Orang Asli community. Data was obtained from a "Key informant interview" method i.e. the village Tok Halaq (Traditional healer). Information about common oral diseases and conditions were illustrated with enlarged pictures of dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer and cleft. The most common oral problem was toothache. This is treated by self-medication. However if the pain still persist, the Tok Halaq was consulted to start traditional methods. He will identify the cause. If "germs" were thought to be the cause, he will ask the person to see a doctor. Otherwise, he attempts traditional treatment. If the effort failed after a few days, the person will be advised to see a doctor. It appears that the Tok Halaq plays an influential role in prevention, promotion and the healing process in this community. Hence any effort to promote oral health and prevent oral disease must seek their cooperation. Their beliefs on causes of common oral diseases are described in the text.

  20. Efficacy of single dose albendazole on the prevalence and intensity of infection of soil-transmitted helminths in Orang Asli children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S

    1997-09-01

    The efficacy of a single-dose 400 mg albendazole to treat Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was studied in Orang Asli community. Kato-Katz examination was performed on fecal samples which were collected before treatment, 1 and 4 months after treatment. A total of 123 children were involved in all three surveys. The cure rate of Ascaris infection was 97.4% and the egg reduction after treatment was 99.9%. The cure rate for hookworm infection was 93.1% with 96.6% egg reduction. Although the cure rate was low in Trichuris infection (5.5%), egg reduction was more evident (49.1%). The reinfection rate at 4 months after treatment was 54.5%, 3.6% and 10.3% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection, respectively. Within 4 months after treatment almost one-fifth children with Ascaris and hookworm infection reached pre-treatment intensity infection. In Trichuris infection, however more than half of the children reached their pre-treatment intensity infection at 4 months after treatment. Findings suggest that 4-monthly targeted periodic treatment with 400 mg single-dose albendazole in highly endemic areas can have a significant impact on intensity infection of Ascaris and hookworm, but not on Trichuris infection.

  1. The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school children in Orang Asli resettlement villages in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A; Khairul, A A; Atiya, A S; Abdullah, B; Yano, A

    1999-12-01

    A study of the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school children aged 0 to 7 years from an Orang Asli village resettlement scheme in Gua Musang, Kelantan was undertaken. The overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminthic (STH) infections was 56.0%. The predominant helminth found was Ascaris lumbricoides while the commonest type of infection was a mixed infection with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections were 47.5%, 33.9% and 6.2% respectively. The intensity of Ascaris infections were 64.5% light, 27.3% moderate and 8.3% heavy whilst the intensity of Trichuris infections were 80.5% light, 18.3% moderate and 1.2% heavy. However, the intensity of hookworm infections were 86.7% light, 13.3% moderate and no heavy infection. The prevalence of helminthiasis (STH) shows an-age dependent relationship, with the lowest prevalence in 0-< 1 year age group and highest in the 6-< 7 year age group.

  2. Real-time PCR assay in differentiating Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infections in Orang Asli settlements in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee Ling; Anthony, Claudia; Fakhrurrazi, Siti Aminah; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-08-28

    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading cause of death worldwide. This pathogenic amoeba is morphologically indistinguishable from E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, the non-pathogenic species. Polymerase chain reaction is the current method of choice approved by World Health Organization. Real-time PCR is another attractive molecular method for diagnosis of infectious diseases as post-PCR analyses are eliminated and turnaround times are shorter. The present work aimed to compare the results of Entamoeba species identification using the real-time assay against the established nested PCR method. In this study, a total of 334 human faecal samples were collected from different Orang Asli settlements. Faecal samples were processed by direct wet smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration methods followed by iodine staining and was microscopically examined for Entamoeba species and other intestinal parasites. Microscopically positive samples were then subject to nested PCR and real-time PCR. The overall prevalence of Entamoeba infection was 19.5% (65/334). SK Posh Piah recorded highest Entamoeba prevalence (63.3%) while Kampung Kemensah had the lowest prevalence (3.7%) of Entamoeba. Microscopically positive samples were then tested by real-time PCR and nested PCR for the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii infection. Real-time PCR showed higher Entamoeba detection (86.2%) compared to nested PCR (80%), although the McNemar test value showed no significant difference between the two methods (p = 0.221). This study is the first in Malaysia to report the use of real-time PCR in identifying and differentiating the three Entamoeba infections. It is also proven to be more effective compared to the conventional nested PCR molecular method.

  3. Food variety score is associated with dual burden of malnutrition in Orang Asli (Malaysian indigenous peoples) households: implications for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibul, Nurfaizah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ghani, Nawalyah Abdul; Rahman, Hejar Abdul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.

  4. Nine different glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in a Malaysian population with Malay, Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli (aboriginal Malaysian) backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichun; Luo, Enjie; Hirai, Makoto; Arai, Meiji; Abdul-Manan, Eas; Mohamed-Isa, Zaleha; Hidayah, Ni; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    The Malaysian people consist of several ethnic groups including the Malay, the Chinese, the Indian and the Orang Asli (aboriginal Malaysians). We collected blood samples from outpatients of 2 hospitals in the State of Selangor and identified 27 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects among these ethnic groups. In the Malay, G6PD Viangchan (871GA, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and G6PD Mahidol (487GA) types, which are common in Cambodia and Myanmar, respectively, were detected. The Malay also had both subtypes of G6PD Mediterranean:the Mediterranean subtype (563CT, 1311CT, IVS11 nt93TC) and the Indo-Pakistan subtype (563CT, 1311C, IVS11 nt93T). In Malaysians of Chinese background, G6PD Kaiping (1388GA), G6PD Canton (1376GT) and G6PD Gaohe (95AG), which are common in China, were detected. Indian Malaysians possessed G6PD Mediterranean (Indo-Pakistan subtype) and G6PD Namoru (208TC), a few cases of which had been reported in Vanuatu and many in India. Our findings indicate that G6PD Namoru occurs in India and flows to Malaysia up to Vanuatu. We also discovered 5 G6PD-deficient cases with 2 nucleotide substitutions of 1311CT and IVS11 nt93TC, but without amino-acid substitution in the G6PD molecule. These results indicate that the Malaysian people have incorporated many ancestors in terms of G6PD variants.

  5. Distribution of two DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) corresponding to Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) of the apo B gene in the Orang Asli (aborigines) of West Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candlish, J.K.; Gajra, B; Saha, N. [National Univ. of Singapore, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    One hundred and ninety five subjects of the Semai group of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia were examined for the distribution of Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) RFLPs of the apoB gene. Regions of apoB gene corresponding to nt 421 and 1981 representing these two Ags were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers of published sequences. Thr{sub 71} to Ile (Ag c/g) was detected as an ApaL I RFLP and Val{sub 591} to Ala (Ag al/d) by Alu I RFLP. DNA fragments were separated by 4% agarose gel electrophoresis and photographed over a UV transilluminator. The frequencies of Ag(d) (absence of ApaL I site) and Ag(d) (presence of Alu I site) were found to be 0.13 and 0.14, respectively, in the Orang Asli compared to frequencies of 0.30 and 0.45 in the Caucasian population. Distribution of the genotypes of these two polymorphisms was at Hardy-Weinberg equiilibrium.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections among Orang Asli communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Abu Bakar, Edariah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-12-01

    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; PEntamoeba spp. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

  7. PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays, L. VARIETAS BISI-2 PADA PASIR REJECT DAN PASIR ASLI DI PANTAI TRISIK KULONPROGO (The Growth of Maize Crop (Zea mays L. BISI-2 Variety on Rejected and non Rejected Sand at Pantai Trisik Kulon Progo

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    Diah Ekowati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Lahan pasir di pesisir Kabupaten Kulon Progo yang sekarang ditanami berbagai komoditi pertanian seperti cabe, semangka, jagung akan ditambang untuk diekstrak mineral besinya. Rencananya setelah diekstrak mineral besinya, pasir sisa (pasir reject akan dikembalikan sebagai material reklamasi untuk dapat ditanami kembali. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan media tanam berupa pasir reject dan pasir asli serta dosis pupuk kandang dan pupuk NPK pada pertumbuhan tanaman jagung (Zea mays L. varietas BISI-2 di Pantai Trisik Kulon Progo. Dosis pupuk yang diberikan ialah 0 Kg pupuk kandang dan 0 g NPK (kontrol; 0 Kg pupuk kandang dan 75 g NPK; 2,5 Kg pupuk kandang dan 0 g NPK; 1,25 Kg pupuk kandang dan 112,5 g NPK; 2,5 Kg pupuk kandang dan 75 g pupuk NPK; dan 3,75 Kg pupuk kandang dan 37,5 g NPK. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, berat kering tajuk, waktu berbunga, jumlah tongkol, berat tongkol, panjang tongkol, dan diameter tongkol. Data yang diperoleh diuji dengan analisis variansi (Anava dan uji lanjut dengan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata tinggi, jumlah daun, berat kering tajuk, jumlah tongkol, berat tongkol, panjang tongkol dan diameter tongkol tanaman jagung pada pasir reject lebih tinggi daripada pasir asli sedangkan rerata waktu berbunga tanaman jagung pada pasir reject lebih lama daripada pasir asli. Selain itu, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman jagung paling optimal diperoleh pada dosis 1,25 Kg pupuk kandang dan 112,5 g pupuk NPK sedangkan pertumbuhan generatif tanaman jagung paling optimal diperoleh pada dosis 3,75 Kg pupuk kandang dan 37,5 g pupuk NPK.   ABSTRACT Sand in the coastal District of Kulon Progo land which is now planted with various agricultural commodities such as pepper, watermelon, corn, will be mined to extract its iron minerals. In the mining plan, after the iron

  8. istem Informasi Pendapatan Asli Daerah Pada Dinas Pendapatan Kabupaten Sangihe

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    Alfrianus Papuas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional revenue  management requires information systems to  manage the revenue income, report  preparation and evaluation of  the effectiveness and efficiency of information technology-based revenue. This information system Debgan financial statements can be well presented, accurate, timely, and can be used directly by the user. The purpose of this research is to design and build information systems revenue (SIPAD with the evaluation system, the applicability to the District Revenue Office Sangihe. Revenue consists of loc al taxes, fees, the company's results and the results of the other receipts or PAD. For the evaluation process , we evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency  in  order  to  measure  the  performance  of  the  management  of  PAD.  System  modeling  is  used  Unified  Modeling  Language (UML as a standard modeling language. Information systems revenues also used to improve the per formance of local governments to manage the process of receiving PAD, and to present a report to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the management of PAD. Calculation of effectiveness evaluation PAD Sangihe regency in 2011 obtained an effective criterion of 83.16 percent and an efficiency of 2.92 percent.Keywords: Information systems revenue; Revenue; Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency

  9. PENGARUH PENDAPATAN PARIWISATA TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH DI KABUPATEN GARUT

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    Dasep Bambang Sugara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Local revenue sources of revenue coming from the local economy that aims to build the city or county and revenue receipts from local tourism sector is one of the contributors in the reception area in Garut district revenue impact of tourism on local revenues that occurred in Garut di strict that does not have a role significant but very important for the economic progress of Garut itself, therefore the tourism sector can be useful for the study discussed in a research in because of the many benefits on offer from the tourism sector, such as employment income even for relatively small revenue but sector tourism is one of the economic drivers of Garut district tax revenue is a key priority for the State to carry out the construction as compared to revenues received from other sectors of the tourism sector merupaka sector employment enough so that it can minimize unemployment in the district Garut purpose of this study to test the effect of tourism revenues to local revenues which is managed by the local government. This research uses the data in the form of tourism revenue figures from 2008 to 2012 and revenue from 2008 to 2012 were sourced from the finance office financial and asset management income, and the Department of tourism and culture Garut regency.The method used is descriptive analysis of the tourism revenue source revenue Garut regency, tool used remedy is a simple linear regression research, results of this study showed that the influence that caused to revenue from tourism revenue is there but not significant when viewed over a reliance on tourism for revenue source revenue. Keywords: tourism revenue, local revenue

  10. Kontribusi Pajak Hotel terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Zulhuda, Farikh; Turtiantoro; Sulistyowati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of Hotel Tax to Local Revenue and obstacles in the tax collection of hotels in Semarang City Government and the efforts made by the Office of Management of Finance and Regional Assets Semarang City to increase the acceptance of Hotel Tax.This research method used descriptive qualitative research method with library data collection and field study which consist of observation, documentation and interview. The research object used is Ho...

  11. Majelis Rakyat Papua dan Pemberdayaan Orang Asli Papua

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    Usman Pakasi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find out theoretical understanding about role of Papua Council in empowering local people. The studyconducted thoroughly by using qualitative mechod and phenomenologic strategy. The location of this research is based on the object its material where the institution located, namely in Jayapura city. The empiric obrained through interview technique, observation, and other secondary data.The result of research shows that Papua People Council is the cultural representation of the indigenous peple of Papua that consist of traditionalpeople, women and religion. This institution plays role in keeping the interest and protecting Papua people's righrs by doing supervision upongovernment policy. The empowerment of local people specially related ro tradisional people, women and religion. The empowerment related to the economy, social, culture, politic, and law. The empowerment intended to give the advantage for the prosperity and the sense of justice for the indigenous people of Papua in development.

  12. Kontestasi antar orang asli Papua terhadap hak pertuanan di Kaimana

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    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is addressed to describe the social relations within the Papuan ethnic groups and between Papua native and migrants concerning some customary rights in Kaimana district. This research describes the struggle of inland and beach tribes in fighting for customary rights of land in Kaimana. Moreover, it captures the respond of migrants in dealing with the customary right. This study shows the recognition of the the eldest ethnic in Kaimana is a strategy and discourse constructed by Papua ethnic groups that have felt marginalized while migrants have taken their resources. This right could be understood as the need for recognition of Papua ethnic groups. The most important issue is not who the native of Kaimana is, but what the proper ways to give recognition to Papua ethnic groups which had been left behind in development are. The relation between the Papua natives and migrants in Kaimana is not complicated as the migrants have no privileges in the political contestation. However, these relationship are affected by the differences in religious affiliations. The Muslim Papua ethnic groups generally have a closer relationship with the Muslim migrants. The analytical framework of this study using the theoretical framework of identity and ethnicity to look at the issue. Does the definition of identity and ethnicity according to sociological theories are still relevant to understanding the issue of claims of ethnic identity in the city of Kaimana.

  13. HUBUNGAN PENGUASAAN MUFRADAT DAN TINGKAT PEMAHAMAN MEMBACA TEKS ASLI BAHASA ARAB MAHASISWA

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    Yusring Sanusi Baso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the relationship between vocabulary mastery and the level of comprehension in reading Arabic authentic text. This research investigated students’ lexical threshold to measure the level of comprehension on Arabic authentic text. The data were collected from 47 participants at Arabic literature department of Hasanuddin University. Three test instruments were given, they are Reading Comprehension Test (RCT that students were asked to sign unknown word meaning in Arabic texts, answer the questions from texts given, and work on Lexical Coverage Test (LCT to get accurate word list of unknown vocabularies. The result was obtained through applying regression and it showed that the level of reading comprehension was affected 68% by vocabulary mastery. Also, there were 32% of the students depend on the topic or variables out of the variable of vocabulary that was not measured in this research. DOI: 10.24865/ajas.v1i2.12

  14. ANALISIS KONTRASTIF KOTOWARI HYOUGEN ANTARA PEMBELAJAR BAHASA JEPANG DAN PENUTUR ASLI

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    Novia Hayati

    2016-08-01

      Contrastive Analysis of Kotowari Hyougen between Learners of Japanese Language and Japanese Native Speakers. Among several speaking activities, action of refusal is often considered a difficult act as it gives an unpleasant feeling againts interlocutors. Refusal speech act cannot be separated from the background of the speech act by the user of the language. Learners whose mother tongue is Sundanese language has similarities with Japanese native speakers in making the speech act of refusal due to the proximity of the undak usuk in Sundanese with tainguu hyougen in Japanese. This study aims to determine the expressions of refusal used by Japanese learners then, through comparison with native speakers, to determine the similarities, differences and problems in the expression of rejection by the learners. The instrument used in this study is Discourse Completion Test (DCT. Form the analysis of the data it was found that there were similarities between learners and native speakers that {riyuu/iiwake}, {wabi}, {fuka} were used as the main semantic formula. There are similarities between learners whose mother tongue is Sundanese and native speakers in using language {wabi} to professors considered familiar (lower usage. The problem of expressions of refusal used by learners {fuka} in the form Futsuu fuka no hiteikei and {koshou} was in a fairly high frequency. In contrast, native speakers use fukanoukei, because using Futsuu no hiteikei will be considered as a strong/hard sense of refusal. Keywords: Kotowari hyougen, DCT, Tainguu hyougen

  15. Population genetic study among the Orange Asli (Semai Senoi) of Malaysia: Malayan aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N; Mak, J W; Tay, J S; Liu, Y; Tan, J A; Low, P S; Singh, M

    1995-02-01

    A population genetic study was undertaken to provide gene frequency data on the additional blood genetic markers in the Semai and to estimate the genetic relations between the Semai and their neighboring and linguistically related populations by genetic distance and principal components analyses. Altogether 10 polymorphic and 7 monomorphic blood genetic markers (plasma proteins and red cell enzymes) were studied in a group of 349 Senoi Semai from 11 aboriginal settlements (villages) in the Pahang State of western Malaysia. Both the red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) loci reveal the presence of polymorphic frequencies of a nondeficient slow allele at the G6PD locus and a fast allele at the PGD locus. The Semai are characterized by high prevalences of ahaptoglobinemia and G6PD deficiency, high frequencies of HP*1, HB*E, RH*R1, ACP*C, GLO1*1, PGM1*2+, and GC*1F and corresponding low frequencies of ABO*A, HbCoSp, HB*B0, TF*D, CHI, and GC*2. Genetic distance analyses by both cluster and principal components models were performed between the Semai and 14 other populations (Malay; Javanese; Khmer; Veddah; Tamils of Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and India; Sinhalese; Oraon; Toda and Irula of India; Chinese; Japanese; Koreans) on the basis of 30 alleles at 7 polymorphic loci. A more detailed analysis using 53 alleles at 13 polymorphic loci with 10 populations was carried out. Both analyses give genetic evidence of a close relationship between the Semai and the Khmer of Cambodia. Furthermore, the Semai are more closely related to the Javanese than to their close neighbors--the Malay, Chinese, and Tamil Indians. There is no evidence for close genetic relationship between the Semai and the Veddah or other Indian tribes. The evidence fits well with the linguistic relationship of the Semai with the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austro-Asiatic language family.

  16. Pengaruh Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi

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    Ayu Desmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of economic growth on revenue districts / cities in Jambi Province. The data used is data panel districts / cities in Jambi province during the Year 2007-2013. Data were analyzed using panel data regression. The study found that a significant effect of economic growth to local revenue. This means that the economic growth of the district/city has been effective in increasing revenue growth. In other words, economic growth has spread in the economic sector is a source of local revenue.

  17. Pelaksanaan Tugas dan Wewenang Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan Kabupaten Kuningan dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Herawati, Ahmad Noor Kholis Majid , Indarja

    2013-01-01

    Regional autonomy is defined as the effort to empower regions and the people to improve the people's welfare in all life aspects including in tourism field. Therefore, tourism sector become one of regional potencies developed by all regional governments, particularly Kuningan District, to support the development of people's welfare through increasing Regional Original Revenue (PAD). Regional Original Revenue (PAD) is the source of regional income obtained from its own region collect...

  18. ANALISIS KINERJA KEUANGAN DAERAH PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN MAMASA TERHADAP EFISIENSI PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH

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    Mesak Borolayuk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the financial performance of the Regency Mamasa significant effect on the efficient use of revenue. The population in this study, namely Regency Budget Realization Report Mamasa in which samples are taken is eight years (2011-2014. The variables studied include selfsufficiency ratio, the ratio of effectiveness, and growth ratios as independent variables as well as the efficiency of the revenue as the dependent variable.

  19. PELAKSANAAN PEMUNGUTAN PAJAK HOTEL DAN KONTRIBUSINYA TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH DI KOTA BANDAR LAMPUNG

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    NURMAYANI NURMAYANI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perda Kota Bandar Lampung Nomor 07 Tahun 2002 tentang Pajak Hotel dalam pelaksanaannya masih ada hambatan. Oleh karena itu diteliti mengenai aturan dan pelaksanaannya.Penelitian ini adalah penelitian hukum normatif (Dogmati Research. Pendekatan masalahnya menggunakan pendekatanperaturan perundang-undangan (Statue Approach. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan terdapat ketidaksinkronan pengaturan mengenai pajak hotel dalam Peraturan Daerah Kota Bandar Lampung Nomor 07 Tahun 2002  dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 28 Tahun 2009 tentang Pajak dan Retribusi Daerah.

  20. Analisis Pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) Terhadap Produk Domestik Regioal Bruto (PDRB) Kabupaten Dairi

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Roni Delima

    2011-01-01

    Every country or region will be try to get a higher economic growth. Economic growth can show how the level prosperity of it’s resident. The main objectives of this research is to analyze how the influence of real region income (PAD) to gross domestic regional product (PDRB) Dairi. The source of real region income is region taxes, region retribution, profit of regional busniss and others real income region. To know how the relation, we use simple regression function with ord...

  1. Kajian Yuridis Sosiologis mengenai Indikasi Geografis sebagai Sumber Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD

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    Yeti Sumiyati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting  potential geographic indication (GI product within country territory is as an effort to optimalize potential economic  development. On the other hand, it is best viewed as a method to halt misusing of mark or  indication  by other party  from  other  region/country.   Lack  of knowledge concerning the importance and role of GI protection resulted the malfunction of GI economic right. This paper employed a sociolegal research to analyze legal aspects of geographic indication in the level of community. Considering the importance of GI, a local regulation to ensure fairness toward community for functioning GI rights is needed. The local regulation is best formulated by Proportional Finance Distribution approach for Regions and Villages.

  2. Pemetaan Kinerja Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan Kemampuan Keuangan Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertjuan untuk menganalisis: (1 Struktur PAD dan APBD berdasarkan komposisinya, (2 Pertumbuhan PAD serta kontribusinya terhadap APBD dan (3 Kemampuan keuangan daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi dalam melaksanakan otonomi daerah. Hasil penelitian antara lain menyimpulkan bahwa komposisi PAD terbesar berasal dari penerimaan lain-lain yang sah yaitu 42,32%;, komposisi tebesar dari APBD bersumber dari dana perimbangan sebesar 83,49%. Rata-rata pertumbuhan PAD kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi sebesar 18,48%; rata-rata kontribusi PAD terhadap APBD kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi sebesar 6,33%. Kemampuan keuangan daerah, Kabupaten Batang Hari, Kota Jambi dan Kabupaten Sarolangun yang memiliki status kemampuan keuangan tinggi dibanding kabupaten/kota lain di Provinsi Jambi.

  3. Instilling Literacy through Developmental Module Approach (DMA) Towards Orang Asli Pupils in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dali, Mohd Hasani; Shaari, Abdull Shukur; Ghazali, Mohd Izam; Yusoff, Nuraini

    2012-01-01

    Development of module has great impact on literacy today. This paper highlights the challenges and experiences of the researchers in an academic institution where the research project which initially began as part of an academic research initiative expanded to helping a marginalized community in need. Literacy pedagogy has to be relevant to the…

  4. Some risk factors of Ascaris and Trichuris infection in Malaysian aborigine (Orang Asli) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S

    1998-12-01

    A study on risk factors of soil-transmitted helminths was conducted in a highly endemic area. In all 205 children (95 boys and 110 girls) participated in this study. The overall prevalences of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection were 62.5%, 91.7% and 28.8% respectively. Only 22.4% of the children had a single infection either by Ascaris or Trichuris; 69.3% had mixed infection and the most prevalent of mixed infection was a combination of Ascaris and Trichuris. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that low level mother's education was a risk factor for moderate and severe infection of Ascaris and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. In Trichuris infection logistic regression analysis confirmed that usage of well-water and age < or = 6-year-old were the risk factors. Logistic regression analysis on worm scores confirmed that usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets were the risk factors from getting severe worm scores and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. Our finding suggest that socio-behavioural (related to mother's education), demographic (children age) and environmental-factors (usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets) are the elements to be considered in the design of long term soil-transmitted helminths (STH) control in an endemic areas.

  5. Prevalence of microsporidia in an indigenous Orang Asli community in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lono, Angela; Kumar, Govind Suresh; Chye, Tan Tian

    2010-03-01

    Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites thought to be closely related to fungi. Their presence in the environment means that humans are frequently exposed to infection. Stool samples were collected from 151 indigenous villagers from the eastern state of Pahang in 2005. The samples were concentrated with water-ether sedimentation, stained with modified trichrome stain and examined under oil-immersion microscopy. Thirty-two specimens (21.2%) were positive for microsporidia. Microsporidia were observed as ovoid or rounded ovoid shapes measuring approximately 1mum, with a bright pink outline containing a central or posterior vacuole. PCR amplification with specific primers on microscopy-positive specimens amplified Encephalitozoon intestinalis DNA from five of the ten specimens used.

  6. Pengetahuan Ekologi Tradisional Masyarakat Orang Asli Jakun dalam Menilai Ekosistem Servis di Tasik Chini, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Seftyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human and ecosystem is inseparable from one another. Ecosystem management is also a reflection of human knowledge on the ecosystem itself. It is the knowledge structure that determines the pattern of relationship developed between man and environment in the surrounding ecosystem. Taking the example of the pattern of relations of community-environment as practiced by indigenous people in Tasik Chini, Malaysia, this paper shows how one of the good practice of traditional ecological knowledge is produced and reproduced by local people to be able to create a pattern of harmonious relations among citizens and between communities with its environment.

  7. Distribution of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among Orang Asli (aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, S L; Radzan, T; Nazma, M

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of anti-toxoplasma antibodies among the aborigines in Malaysia and its association with other soil transmitted infections and eosinophilia were studied. A total of 415 serum samples were collected and tested by IFA test. Overall prevalence was 10.6%, lower than previously reported. The antibody titers showed a unimodal distribution peaking at 1:8 dilution. There was a higher proportion of high antibody titer (> 1:128) in the adult compared to the children with no significant difference in prevalence rate by sex. The pattern of infection does not differ from other soil transmitted infections and there was no association between raised Toxoplasma antibodies with eosinophilia.

  8. Seroprevalence and sources of toxoplasmosis among Orang Asli (indigenous) communities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Amir, Noor Farah Hani; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Mahmud, Rohela

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-4.04, P < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.40, P = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.76, P = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities.

  9. Clinical features of malaria in Orang Asli population in Pos Piah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Rohani, A K; Hayati, M I; Halimah, A S; Sharom, M Y; Abidin, A H; Fatmah, M S

    2001-09-01

    A malaria survey was conducted to examine the presence of common clinical features of malaria in individuals living in an endemic area of malaria. The overall infection rate was 11.0% with 7.5% and 3.5% infected with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum respectively. The mean parasitaemia level of both species was 2905.9 parasites/microliter blood, with the mean parasitaemia level of P. vivax and P. falciparum at 682.7 parasites/microliter blood and 6981.7 parasites/microliter blood respectively. The infection rates were higher in the younger age group. Hepatomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and clinical anaemia were significantly associated with malaria. None of the patients were febrile. In conclusion, in low endemic areas, the presence of clinical anaemia, hepatomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly in afebrile individuals could be considered as useful criteria for the presence of asymptomatic parasitaemia. It is important to carry out laboratory diagnostic investigations, to ensure all the asymptomatic parasitaemia which act as reservoirs are detected and treated.

  10. An improved stool concentration procedure for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Orang Asli stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2014-11-01

    To improve the stool concentration procedure, we modified different steps of the standard formalin-ether concentration technique and evaluated these modifications by examining stool samples collected in the field. Seven samples were found positive by the modified formalin-ether concentration technique (M-FECT). Therefore, the M-FECT procedure provides enhanced detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analisis Kinerja DPKAD Dalam Pengelolaan Pajak Hotel Guna Meningkatkan Kontribusi Terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ardiansyah, Fandi; Kushandayani; Purwoko

    2015-01-01

    The hotel tax is one source of income region has considerable potential .The management of the potential of the hotel tax will certainly impact on a good contribution to local revenue itself .Business growth rapidly in the city hotel of semarang supposed to be opportunities for enhancing local income tax sector in the city of semarang .It is certainly demanding more from Dinas Pengelolaan Keuangan dan Aset Daerah can dig in and keep potential of semarang city hotel tax .This study using metho...

  12. PERAN PEMERINTAH DESA DALAM MENINGKATKAN PENDAPATAN ASLI DESA (PADESA DI DESA PANNYANGKALANG KECAMATAN BAJENG KABUPATEN GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaharuddin Kaharuddin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pannyangkalang Village is one of villages in the district of Bajeng in Gowa regency who have one source of income gravel mining village. Researcher aims to look at the role of government in improving revenue villages and factors supporting and inhibiting increased revenue villages, the village Pannyangkalang Bajeng district. research used in this research is descriptive. Sampling village officials concerned. The study used a technique that is purely qualitative analysis to determine the general description of the role of village government in improving village revenue (PADesa. This study used data collection techniques the researchers used the interview (interview. The results showed that the original source of rural income in the form of rural enterprises where there is no village finances are still dependent on government. While the factors supporting increased revenue villages namely the resources or the potential available and sufficient village while limiting factor in increasing revenue villages namely the rural less solid due to disagreements, lack of firmness of the village government to make policy, financial administration that has not been well , village infrastructure incomplete, resource capacity of the village officials are not qualified Pannyangkalang Village is one of villages in the district of Bajeng in Gowa regency who have one source of income gravel mining village. Researcher aims to look at the role of government in improving revenue villages and factors supporting and inhibiting increased revenue villages, the village Pannyangkalang Bajeng district. research used in this research is descriptive. Sampling village officials concerned. The study used a technique that is purely qualitative analysis to determine the general description of the role of village government in improving village revenue (PADesa. This study used data collection techniques the researchers used the interview (interview. The results showed that the original source of rural income in the form of rural enterprises where there is no village finances are still dependent on government. While the factors supporting increased revenue villages namely the resources or the potential available and sufficient village while limiting factor in increasing revenue villages namely the rural less solid due to disagreements, lack of firmness of the village government to make policy, financial administration that has not been well , village infrastructure incomplete, resource capacity of the village officials are not qualified

  13. POPULASI DAN PERFORMA REPRODUKSI BABI BALI BETINA DI KABUPATEN KARANGASEM SEBAGAI PLASMA NUTFAH ASLI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. G. Sumardani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Babi bali merupakan salah satu komoditas ternak penghasil daging yang memiliki potensi besar untukdikembangkan karena memiliki sifat-sifat dan kemampuan yang menguntungkan, namun keberadaannya di PulauBali sangat sedikit dan hanya terdapat pada derah-daerah tertentu, seperti daerah Karangasem, Nusa Penida danBuleleng. Pemeliharaan babi bali tidak bisa terlepas dari adat sosial budaya yang ada di Pulau Bali. Dalam usahapengembangan dan peningkatan produktivitas babi bali, performa reproduksi (lama bunting, service periodedan calving interval memegang peranan penting, dan juga produktivitas seekor induk babi ditentukan oleh littersize dan farrowing rate dalam setahunnya. Pada penelitian ini pengambilan sampel secara purposive randomsampling dan pendekatan eksploratif serta pemilihan lokasi penelitian berdasarkan waktu dan biaya penelitian.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi babi bali di Kabupaten Karangasem yang terdiri dari 8 kecamatan,setiap tahunnya mengalami penurunan rata-rata 0,063%. Lama bunting babi bali betina rata-rata 110±2.59 haridan calving intervalnya 151.06±6,30 hari. Litter size babi bali 6.98±2.37 ekor. Kesimpulan dari penelitian iniadalah performa reproduksi babi bali di Kabupaten Karangasem adalah baik, dan diperlukan usaha-usaha untukmeningkatkan populasi babi bali karena sebagai plasma nutfah babi lokal Indonesia, babi bali perlu dilestarikan,disamping upaya peningkatan manajemen pemeliharaan dan mutu genetiknya.

  14. Strategi Pengembangan Sektor Pariwisata Dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kabupaten samosir ( Studi Pada Dinas Pariwisata Seni Dan Budaya Kabupaten Samosir)

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Widodo

    2016-01-01

    Samosir district as the district of Toba Samosir expanded starting in 2003, is a tourist destination that is rich in potential natural attractions, arts, culture very interesting and can be a leading sector in increasing local revenues. Therefore, the district government set a vision into a tourism district in 2010, but samosir tourism development to date has still not been significant progress as a tourist destination, it can be seen from the tourist infrastructure conditions, the number of ...

  15. Pengaruh Produk Domestik Regional Bruto, Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan Dana Alokasi Umum terhadap Belanja Modal di Kota Balikpapan

    OpenAIRE

    Hartati, Hariani Dwi

    2013-01-01

    This project was designed to: 1) explore the effects of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Own-source Revenue (PAD), and government transfer payments to local capital expenditures, both partially and simultaneously; 2) find out the dominant variable which affected the local capital expenditure in Balikpapan. The data, which was obtained through literature review study, were in the type of secondary and time series records derived during the period of 2002-2011. Further, these files were analyzed b...

  16. PENGARUH PRODUK DOMESTIK REGIONAL BRUTO, PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH DAN DANA ALOKASI UMUM TERHADAP BELANJA MODAL DI KOTA BALIKPAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hariani Dwi Hartati

    2013-01-01

    This project was designed to: 1) explore the effects of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Own-source Revenue (PAD), and government transfer payments to local capital expenditures, both partially and simultaneously; 2) find out the dominant variable which affected the local capital expenditure in Balikpapan. The data, which was obtained through literature review study, were in the type of secondary and time series records derived during the period of 2002-2011. Further, these files ...

  17. Pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Dana Alokasi Umum dan Jumlah Penduduk terhadap Belanja Daerah Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Devita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of Locally-Generated Revenue (PAD, General Allocation Fund (DAU, and the population of the regional budget district/city in Jambi Province. Data in this research is regional budget, PAD, DAU and population. When it is observed from its effect by using fixed effect model, it can be seen that PAD dan DAU in total or partial can improve direct spending and indirect spending meanwhile population can reduce the improvement of direct spending. It is different with indirect spending which has positive effect because the growing of population in regency/city in Jambi can improve the allocation of employee spending meanwhile for direct spending especially for capital spending is not efficient.

  18. Analisis Strategi Peningkatan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) di Sektor Kesehatan dalam Melaksanakan Pembangunan Kesehatan di Kabupaten Rokan Hulu

    OpenAIRE

    Hasonangan, Pirman

    2016-01-01

    This Research aim to to know strategy what better be done/conducte by Public Health Service Sub-Province of Rokan Pate;Upstream so that/ to be Earnings Of Tired Budget Area. Information in relating to done/conducted by strategy is Public Health Service of Rokan Pate;Upstream so that/ to be tired PAD as according to result of research, with data collecting technique pass/through interview and observation. Technique analyse Quantitative Descriptive data and test keapsahan of data with method of...

  19. Southeast Asia Report, No. 1283.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-05

    underestimate the enemy. The terrorists are now moving south and they are trying to use Islam to gain popular support. Infiltrating Orang Asli ...several Orang Asli (aborigines) settlements with the aim of coercing the Orang Asli to help them; that one of the women terrorists killed in Perak was a

  20. Does Wealth Enhance Life Satisfaction for People Who are Materially Deprived? Exploring the Association among the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Colleen J.; Howell, Ryan T.; Schwabe, Kurt A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies investigating need theory and the extent to which money can buy happiness have called for more research within culturally homogeneous samples from developing countries to explore this relationship. We examine wealth as a measure of possessions and savings and relate this to subjective well-being (SWB) among poor indigenous farmers…

  1. Pengembangan Objek Wisata Religius dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Masyarakat dan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) (suatu Studi pada Objek Wisata Bukit Kasih Toar Lumimu'ut Kanonang Kabupaten Minahasa).

    OpenAIRE

    Rawis, Prisylia; Posumah, Johhny; Pombengi, Jericho Denga

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is one of the things that are important to a country. With the then existing community tourism attractions in the region would memdapatkan positive impact, the public get a chance to open a small business attractions in the region so that a family needs can be met. The local government of tourism objects get revenue from the tourist attraction. The potential of the attraction Hill Love Lumimu'ut district Kanonang minahasa not managed optimally so that the existence of a tourism asset ...

  2. Pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD), Dana Perimbangan, Belanja Daerah Dan Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri (PMDN) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Provinsi Di Indonesia Dengan Konsumsi Sebagai Variabel Moderating

    OpenAIRE

    Zahara, Yenni

    2014-01-01

    The purpose the study was to empirically test and prove the influence of local revenue, balanced budget, local government expenditure, domestic investment and consumption on provincial economic growth in Indonesia, and 19 provinces that met the sampling criteria set. Therefore, 95 observations were analyzed from 2007 to 2011. The data used in this study were those of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on current prizes to see the provincial economic growth, the realization of local revenue, b...

  3. Effect of iodized oil supplementation on thyroid hormone levels and mental performance among Orang Asli schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in an endemic goitre area in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Z M; Alias, I Z; Kadir, K A; Ali, O

    2000-12-01

    Although endemic goitre is no longer a major public health problem in Malaysia, iodine deficiency still remains a significant problem in a few remote settlements. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of iodized oil intervention in the prevention of endemic goitre among the indigenous people in Malaysia. A pretest and post-test controlled trial was conducted among primary schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in Lasah, Sungai Siput and Perak. Legap Post and Yum Post were selected as the intervention areas, while Perwor Post and Poi Post were taken as controls. The variables studied included thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid volume, urinary iodine excretions and mental performance. A baseline and two follow-up visits were conducted in both intervention and control areas. Intervention subjects were given iodized oil in the form of capsules which were taken orally (Laboratoire Guerbet, Paris, France). There was a significant increase in serum thyroxine hormone (T4) concentrations (pmental performance in schoolchildren was not affected. In conclusion, iodized oil (oral) is effective in reducing thyroid size, as well as improving the supply of iodine among schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in endemic goitre areas; however, its long-term effects need to be monitored closely. This method can be considered as an alternative while awaiting national coverage for the salt iodization program.

  4. Pengaruh Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Dana Perimbangan, Dana Bantuan Keuangan Provinsi terhadap Indeks Pembangunan Manusia dengan Jumlah Penduduk sebagai Variabel Moderating pada Pemerintahan Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Wenny Novianty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether Regional Revenue, Balanced Budget and Provincial Financing Fund effect on the Human Development Index either partially or simultaneously. In addition, this study also analyzes whether the Population as moderating variable can strengthen or weaken the influence of Regional Revenue, Balanced Budget and Provincial Financing Fund on the Human Development Index. The population of this research is the districts or cities administration of North S...

  5. The Usage of Animals in the Lives of the Lanoh and Temiar Tribes of Lenggong, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the Orang Asli communities are natives that comprise the Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay peoples. Traditionally, the Orang Asli live in isolated forests or in forest peripheries. Although Globalisation occurs in Malaysia, its occurrence does not affect the traditional values of the said Orang Asli, who still depend on the natural environment to live. Nature provides the Orang Asli with a community resource for acquiring animals that are not just consumed as food, but also used in medicine, hunting and myth creation. This study intends to identify the animal species and the methods the Senoi and Negrito use these animals, within the aspects of their diet, medicine, hunting methods and their myth creation. Empirical data collection is focused only on the Lanoh and Temiar tribes who live in Lenggong. The method of data collection involves in-depth interviews with key informants that comprise Tok Batins (tribal chiefs and focus groups from the chosen Orang Asli village communities in Kampung Air Bah and Kampung Lubuk Chupak, Lenggong. The findings of this study reveal a wide variety of animals are still being hunted by the Orang Asli community for food and medicine. Apart from that, there are specific beliefs regarding the animals hunted narrated through myths and legends. Therefore, this study is significant in order to determine that the animal usage in the lives of the Orang Asli community continue for the sake of the demands of their heritage and families in order to preserve its pristine continuity. This is because while findings show that wildlife is still used by the Orang Asli, their usage among the younger generation is increasingly eroded due to such factors as wildlife extinction, dwindling availability, new religious taboos and modern progress which continues to find its place within the Orang Asli community.

  6. The development and validation of diabetes knowledge questionnaire for the Indigenous population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, B; Ramadas, A; Quek, K F

    2010-12-01

    The study's aim was to construct and validate a diabetes mellitus knowledge questionnaire in Bahasa Malaysia for Orang Asli (OA-DKQ). The questionnaire was administered to; case (Orang Asli) and control (administrative staff) groups at baseline and retested two weeks later. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. The OA-DKQ has an internal consistency of 0.806. These findings suggest the OA-DKQ is an acceptable instrument to assess knowledge and preventive behaviour in Orang Asli (86 words).

  7. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  8. The c. IVS1+1G> A mutation inthe GJB2 gene is prevalent and large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; connexin30; deafness; gap junctions; GJB2; GJB6; hearing impairment. Author Affiliations. Asli Sirmaci1 Duygu Akcayoz-Duman1 Mustafa Tekin1. Division of Pediatric Molecular Genetics, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100, ...

  9. Differential positive selection of malaria resistance genes in three indigenous populations of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuanyao; Yunus, Yushimah; Lu, Dongsheng; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Deng, Lian; Ali, Mohammad; Wang, Xu; Nor, Fadzilah Mohd; Ghazali, Fadzilah; Rahman, Thuhairah Abdul; Shaari, Shahrul Azlin; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Phipps, Maude E; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hoh, Boon-Peng

    2015-04-01

    The indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia, locally known as Orang Asli, continue to adopt an agro-subsistence nomadic lifestyle, residing primarily within natural jungle habitats. Leading a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in a tropical jungle environment, the Orang Asli are routinely exposed to malaria. Here we surveyed the genetic architecture of individuals from four Orang Asli tribes with high-density genotyping across more than 2.5 million polymorphisms. These tribes reside in different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia and belong to three main ethno-linguistic groups, where there is minimal interaction between the tribes. We first dissect the genetic diversity and admixture between the tribes and with neighboring urban populations. Later, by implementing five metrics, we investigated the genome-wide signatures for positive natural selection of these Orang Asli, respectively. Finally, we searched for evidence of genomic adaptation to the pressure of malaria infection. We observed that different evolutionary responses might have emerged in the different Orang Asli communities to mitigate malaria infection.

  10. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENCATATAN PAJAK REKLAME PADA DINAS PENDAPATAN KOTA PEKANBARU DENGAN METODE VISUAL BASIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Wongso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sistem Pencatatan  pajak reklame terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan mengetahui perkembangan realisasi pajak reklame, Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan pengaruh Penerimaan Pajak Reklame terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah.Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah untuk: (1 Mengetahui Sistem Pencatatan pajak reklame dalam meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah pada Dinas Pendapatan (2 Mengetahui kontribusi pencatatan pajak reklame dalam meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah pada Dinas Pendapatan.Metode yang digunakan adalah metode Penelitian Kepustakaan merupakan metode yang dilakukan dengan cara mempelajari, meneliti, dan menelaah berbagai literatur. Data yang digunakan adalah Realisasi Pajak Reklame dan Realisasi Dinas Pendapatan Kota pekanbaru tahun 2016. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan adalah penelitian lapangan dengan cara observasi.Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pencatatan pajak reklame sebaiknya menggunakan Program Ms. Visual Basic Sehingga pencatatan pajak reklame tidak ada lagi kesalahan dan dapat meningkatkan Pendapatan Asli Daerah. Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the advertisement tax Registration System to Local Revenue and know the progress of realization advertisement tax, regional revenue and the effect of Advertisement Tax Revenue to Local Revenue.The purpose of this study was to: (1 Determine the advertisement tax Recording System in increasing revenue at the Department of Revenue (2 Knowing the contribution of advertisement tax record in increasing revenue at the Department of Revenue.The method used is the literature research method is a method that is done by studying, researching, and studying literature. The data used is the realization of advertisement tax and Actual Revenue Service pekanbaru 2016. The data collection technique is a field research conducted by observation.The results of this study indicate that the recording should use the advertising tax Program

  11. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  12. Local understanding of forest conservation in land use change dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaleh, Muhammad Adha; Guth, Miriam Karen; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2016-01-01

    Forest (SEPPSF), Malaysia. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted with Orang Asli Jakun living in SEPPSF using open-ended questions. Local communities have positive perspectives toward the forest conservation program, despite massive environmental changes in their living landscape. This study suggests...

  13. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Vol 18, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional management of chronic renal failure by dietitians - the South African experience · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Using biodiversity for food, dietary diversity, better nutrition and health ... Nutritional status of 1-3-year-old children and maternal care behaviours in the Orang Asli of Malaysia.

  14. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring System. Volume II. Documentation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-16

    to four lueling Pumps. DATA RECORDING Magneic stripe Coded cards wre Each fuelin Iruaion is aslied to drivers and vehicles. reodaenuueul n Cards as...voltaqe from the O.C.U. (white wire) and the orange and/or brown to negative D.C. voltage from the O.C.U. (black wire). The shields on all cables are to

  15. Controller Evaluation of Initial Data Link En Route Air Traffic Control Services: Mini Study 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Roger, A for Approved, and U for Unable. Questions: A- 19 HoW wouldyou rate the Acknowledgementinput format? 1. Acceptable aslis 2. Acceptable,minor...MD W1o -MANASSAS, VA W13 -WAYNESBORO, VA W16 WINCHESTER, VA W52 CHAPEL HILL, NC W54 WESTMINSTER, MD W7S -SOUTH BOSTON, VA W93 ORANGE CO., VA C-6

  16. Compensation for Orang AsH native land in Malaysia: The perceptions and challenges in its quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an investigation on the challenges confronting valuers in dealing with the assessment of compensation for Orang Asli native land (OANL. In Malaysia, valuers are often ambivalent about assessing the worth of Orang Asli property rights; this is because the conventional valuation toolkits are 'ill-equipped' to cope with the multi-faceted issues involved in valuing such lands. Orang Asli view the worth of their lands from a multitude of dimensions (spiritual, cultural, communal and economic, and this often takes the value consideration far beyond that contemplated by private registered land owners. The study also looks into the compensation for native titles in o the r countries and draw s local parallel to the problem. The key issues that have been identified include the valuation approaches; land rights; monetary and nonmonetary compensation; leg al framework and; negotiation for compensation. These lead to the recommendation that the compensation issue for Orang Asli native land is need of a legislative reform .

  17. The Development of Visual Aids for Training Student Employees in Certain Dishroom Procedures in a College Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-09-01

    stripped of paper napkins, straws, paper dishes, cerLain food waste, suct, as orange and melonr ririds, milk bottles, glasses, and silver. ±he bottles...8217oishos truck 2. :laces a stack of approximateli ý_ ýrais oi left drai;, board of :’a,,, washing sink. a. ’. aslies eac. -ra bi 1.a.,d s.ISinc a iff

  18. Advanced Handling and Sorting Techniques for Ultrasmall Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    during weighing. III-6 Block Entfneeiinj, Inc. TABLE 3-2 PERCENT RESIDUE AFTER LONG TERM ASHING ’ Gas Saniplo Asliing ’j’ime hours Initial Wt. gm...colors of the following pure gases are: Oxygen Pink Nitrogen Orange Carbon Dioxide Blue Hydrogen Redish Pink Carbon Tctrafluoridc Bluish White

  19. A Case Study of Potential Causes of Frost Heave

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    LOCATION 46+00-42’Lt.w - SAND, gravelly w/cobbles to 6",. asli . moist, med. grayish tan SILT, slightly organic, moist, med. 13 grayish brown 2 2 6 SILT...wet, medium greenish oc gray 4 GRAVEL, clayey w/some cobbles, wet, medium orange to greenish tan 3 6 Groundwater - @ 6.0 feet GRAVEL, sandy w

  20. The English Language Of Multitasking Librarian Candidates: Tips For Cultivating Interest In English Through Friendly Atmosphere Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Rusmono

    2016-11-01

    Didalam menyampaikan gagasan mereka, para pembelajar ini mengalami kesulitan karena terkendala oleh kultur bahasa sasaran. Kultur ini mempengaruhi dan membentuk perasaan, sikap, dan respon ELLs didalam berinteraksi dengan penutur asli bahasa sasaran. Ditemukan bahwa upaya yang ramah dan menyenangkan dari pengajar selaku fasilitator untuk memperbaiki Bahasa Inggris para calon Pustakawan ini merupakan suatu keniscayaan. Kata kunci: ramah suasana, penulisan paragraf, kendala linguistik, kultur, SNED,.

  1. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmn NikNadia

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71, which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001, and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001 and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001 were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  2. ANALISA PERBAIKAN KUALITAS KONTRAS CITRA X-RAY MENGGUNAKAN METODE EXPOSURE BASED SUB-IMAGE HISTOGRAMEQUALIZATION (ESIHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Akbar Riadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perbaikan kualitas citra adalah proses dimana kualitas visual dari suatu citra ditingkatan sehingga didapatkan hasil yang lebih baik dari citra yang asli atau citra awal. Proses perbaikan kualitas citra dibagi menjadi dua domain yaitu domain frekuensi dan domain spasial. Dalam domain frekuensi, teknik beroperasi pada pemilihan frekuensi yang akan difilter. Sedangkan di domain spasial, teknik beroperasi secara langsung pada piksel citra. Pencahayaan berdasarkan gambar asli dan pemerataan histogram sub gambar terbukti sebagai teknik yang sangat efektif untuk meningkatkan pencahayaan yang kurang. Teknik perpotongan histogram juga dikombinasikan dengan pemerataan histogram. Hasil dari kombinasi kedua teknik ini mampumemberikan kontrol yang lebih dan menghasilkan peningkatan yang mengarah ke peningkatan alami.Langkah-langkah entropy dari metode ESIHE jelas menunjukkan bahwa hasil yang diperoleh mampu melebihi metode HE.Selain itu Kualitas visual gambar ESIHE menunjukkan hasil yang lebih baik dari pada metode HE untuk berbagai macam gambar x-ray. Kata kunci: perbaikan kulitas citra, histogram equalization, esihe, entropy.

  3. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2009-11-01

    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps.

  4. Aplikasi Berbasis Web Pendeteksi Plagiarisme Menggunakan Algoritma Himpunan Kata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarisme adalah penggunaan tulisan orang lain dalam tulisan sendiri tanpa memberikan kredit terhadap penulis asli. Tindakan ini membuat pembaca menganggap tulisan tersebut asli dan bukan kutipan. Plagiarisme melanggar kode etik dalam karya ilmiah. Untuk itu, adanya aplikasi yang membantu mendeteksi potensi plagiarisme sebuah tulisan sangatlah penting. Paper ini menguraikan hasil implementasi aplikasi berbasis web pendeteksi plagiarisme menggunakan algoritma berbasis himpunan kata dari Küppers. Oleh karena tidak adanya corpus Bahasa Indonesia untuk evaluasi algoritma pendeteksi plagiarisme, pengujian tidak dievaluasi menggunakan penilaian standar, seperti recall, precision, dan granularity. Hasil pengujian ditunjukkan dengan nilai yang menjadi ukuran kemiripan dokumen yang diuji dengan dokumen lain yang ada di basisdata. Secara rata-rata, didapatkan nilai potensi sebesar 0,8 untuk paragraf-paragraf yang sama persis, 0,6 untuk paragraf yang merupakan hasil pengubahan kata atau tanda baca, dan 0,4 untuk paragraf-paragraf yang merupakan hasil penulisan ulang

  5. Do eating disorders accompany metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients? Results of a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Altunay, Ilknur; Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Ates, Bilge; Kucukunal, Aslı; Aydın, Cigdem; Karamustafalıoglu, Oguz; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2011-01-01

    Ilknur Altunay1, Gulsen Tukenmez Demirci1, Bilge Ates1, Asli Kucukunal1, Cigdem Aydin2, Oguz Karamustafalioglu3, Yuksel Altuntas41Dermatology Department, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Psychology Department, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Psychiatry Department, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Internal Medicine Endocrinology Department, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: Metabolic syndr...

  6. Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Maude E; Chan, Kevin KL; Naidu, Rakesh; Mohamad, Nazaimoon W; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Quek, Kia-Fatt; Ahmad, Badariah; Harnida, Siti MI; Zain, Anuar ZM; Kadir, Khalid A

    2015-01-01

    Background South East Asia (SEA) is home to over 30 tribes of indigenous population groups who are currently facing rapid socio-economic change. Epidemiological transition and increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) has occured. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli (OA) indigenous people comprise 0???6% (150,000) of the population and live in various settlements. OA comprise three distinct large tribes with smaller sub-tribes. The three large tribes include Proto-Malay (sub-...

  7. Interaction of Malaysia Sera with Plasmodium Vivax Sporozoite Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Distribution and prevalence of malaria by species among 94 Orang Asli as determined by microscopic evaluation of thick smears of peripheral blood Age...fCCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Interaction Of Malaysia Sera With Plasmodium Vivax Sporozoite Antigen 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) elinda...E. LEWIS Malaria Research Group, United States Army Medical Research Unit, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

  8. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iszuan Shah Syed Ismail; Azmi Omar; Hamdan Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  9. Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem? Reflections on teaching participatory asset mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Jonathan; Ashencaen Crabtree, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Community asset mapping is widely employed in a diverse range of community development programmes, including work with indigenous groups. Here we discuss the outcome of a participatory asset mapping training programme we were asked to deliver for social and community work students and academics at a university in Peninsular Malaysia. The attendees were planning imminent intervention work with the indigenous Orang Asli communities of Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia with whom we were undertaking ...

  10. Etlingera loerzingii (Zingiberaceae — A GORGEOUS TORCH GINGER FROM SUMATRA GROWN IN BOTANIC GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Dalberg Poulsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiga belas jenis Etlingera telah dideskripsi berdasarkan material yang diperoleh dari Sumatera, selanjutnya lima jenis lainnya telah didokumentasi sebagai catatan baru (new records. Salah satu jenis Etlingera dari Sumatera yang cukup spektakuler adalah Etlingera loerzingii. Deskripsi asli jenis ini dahulu dibuat berdasarkan material yang tidak lengkap, dan sekarang deskripsi lengkapnya disajikan di dalam tulisan ini. Dengan daun yang indah serta bentuk dan warna perbungaan yang menarik, E. loerzingii memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai tanaman hias.

  11. ANALISIS MAKNA “KANYOKU” YANG BERKAITAN DENGAN WARNA: KAJIAN LINGUISTIK KOGNITIF

    OpenAIRE

    Widi Sekarsari; Nuria Haristiani

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak   Makna kanyouku atau idiom penting untuk dipahami pembelajar bahasa Jepang, namun penelitian mengenai kanyouku yang khusus berkaitan dengan warna masih terbatas. Penelitian ini menganalisis kankyouku bahasa Jepang yang berkaitan dengan warna  menggunakan teori linguistik kognitif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa; (1) makna leksikal warna dalam kanyouku diartikan sesuai makna asli warna berdasarkan referensi kamus. Makna idiomatikal warna merupakan makna khusus dan berbeda ...

  12. Growth & Governance in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    means of pursuing domestic social goals, as the Malaysian government has done, for instance, in promoting bumiputera companies). The challenge for...In 1998, the population of Malaysia was 22.2 million. Of that, 57.8 percent is comprised of those regarded as bumiputera (“sons and daughters of the...soil”), or indigenous to the country. Most of these are Malays, at 49 percent of the total population. Non-Malay bumiputera , such as the Orang Asli

  13. Opportunistic Constructive Induction: Using Fragments of Domain Knowledge to Guide Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    and [ asli (e)ry] both support (C5=R,C4=E); and [das(h)ery] supports (C4=H,C7=Y), (C4=H,C3=S), (C7=Y,C3=S), and the generalization (C4=H,C3E{S,P...EQP ’size ’large))))) -((EQP ’size ’huge))) DOMAIN: (color (red white blue black green orange purple aqua gray)), (shape (oval circle triangle

  14. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-25

    Ethanol amines 44 Acrylic fibres 45 Ethanol 46 Synthetic rubber SBR 47 Tiles (PVC, terrazo, ceramics) 48 Soda Asli 49 Disposable lighters 50 Synthetic...commemora- tive plaque; he then planted its first orange tree. The farm’s area is 500 hectares, or 113,500 (libnah). In the first stage 23,000 orange ...capacity to produce 10,000 tons of oranges ^ annually. Its total cost is estimated at 55 million riyals. The project will accommodate a number of

  15. Wynoochee Hydropower/Fish Hatchery: Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    EO AMIAl CITY HALL MYNOOCHEE VALL Y ORANGE S 0 REGIONAL SUPERVISOR NONTsUU CITY COUNCIL POTA OF CIAES HARSEPT OF CANE NOTESANO CITY HALL GRAYS HARSO...34on NEWS §9C10 PeTiCI I UIlO SEATLE PUBLIC LiIMRl iM ASlI lutes Nil-mCIONeLD. CONTRACTOIS IOCIw[,I Ll"A.liN lUaw DICTORi NANILTON CONSTRUCTION

  16. ADa Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number 911107W1. 11227 Hewlett-Packard HP 9000 Series 700/800 Ada Compiler, Version 5.35 HP 9000 Series 700 Model 720 = HP 9000 Series 700 Model 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-09

    Facility ASLi /SCEL Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 92-04471 9 2 2 20 022 Certificate Information The following Ada implementation was tested and...following example illustrates the use of an enumeration representation clause. 4-2 F 4. Type Representation Example type COLOR is (RED, ORANGE , YELLOW...GREEN, AQUA, BLUE, VIOLET); for COLOR use (RED => 10, ORANGE => 20, YELLOW => 40, GREEN => 80, AQUA => 160, 4 BLUE => 320, VIOLET => 640); In the

  17. ANALISIS PERILAKU PENYUSUN ANGGARAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF KEAGENAN PADA KABUPATEN DAN KOTA DI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    ILMI, A. NURUL

    2016-01-01

    2016 Analisis Perilaku Penyusun Anggaran dalam Perspektif Keagenan pada Kabupaten dan Kota di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan Analysis of Budget Compiler???s Behavior within the Agency Perspective in Regency and City of South Sulawesi Province A. Nurul Ilmi Mediaty Aini Indrijawati Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh perubahan Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan perubahan Dana Perimbangan terhadap perilaku oportunistik penyusun anggaran yang menjelaskan mengenai hubungan k...

  18. Metabolomics and partial least square discriminant analysis to predict history of myocardial infarction of self-claimed healthy subjects: validity and feasibility for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nornazliya; Ismet, Rose Iszati; Rofiee, MohdSalleh; Bannur, Zakaria; Hennessy, Thomas; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Nor, FadzilahMohd; Abdul Rahman, ThuhairahHasrah; Md Isa, Kamarudzaman; Ismail, AdzroolIdzwan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of metabolomics in establishing a prediction model using partial least square discriminant analysis have enabled better disease diagnosis; with emphasis on early detection of diseases. We attempted to translate the metabolomics model to predict the health status of the Orang Asli community whom we have little information. The metabolite expressions of the healthy vs. diseased patients (cardiovascular) were compared. A metabotype model was developed and validated using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). Cardiovascular risks of the Orang Asli were predicted and confirmed by biochemistry profiles conducted concurrently. Fourteen (14) metabolites were determined as potential biomarkers for cardiovascular risks with receiver operating characteristic of more than 0.7. They include 15S-HETE (AUC = 0.997) and phosphorylcholine (AUC = 0.995). Seven Orang Asli were clustered with the patients' group and may have ongoing cardiovascular risks and problems. This is supported by biochemistry tests results that showed abnormalities in cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. The disease prediction model based on metabolites is a useful diagnostic alternative as compared to the current single biomarker assays. The former is believed to be more cost effective since a single sample run is able to provide a more comprehensive disease profile, whilst the latter require different types of sampling tubes and blood volumes.

  19. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration

  20. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  1. Tata Kelola Publik Dan Kinerja Keuangan Pemerintah Daerah Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko A Hasthoro

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penerapan tata kelola publik terhadap kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Pelaksanaan pemerintahan umum diukur dengan menggunakan transparansi pemerintah daerah, akuntabilitas pemerintah daerah, budaya hukum, dan partisipasi masyarakat. Sejumlah lima puluh pemerintah daerah yang disurvei oleh Tansparency International Indonesia pada tahun 2010 digunakan sebagai sampel. Hasil dari analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahwa budaya hukum yang ditunjukkan oleh indeks persepsi korupsi, dan partisipasi masyarakat yang diwakili oleh jumlah pemilih pemilu memiliki pengaruh signifikan positif pada kinerja keuangan pemerintah daerah di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penegakan hukum dan pemilu yang adil mendorong kepercayaan masyarakat untuk membayar pajak yang meningkatkan pendapatan asli.

  2. BATAS ATAS BILANGAN RAMSEY UNTUK GRAF BINTANG DAN GRAF BIPARTIT LENGKAP

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyida, Isnaini

    2008-01-01

    Misal G dan H dua buah graf sebarang, bilangan Ramsey R(G,H) adalah bilangan asli terkecil n sehingga untuk setiap graf F dengan n titik akan memuat G atau komplemen dari F memuat H. Makalah ini akan membahas batas atas dari bilangan Ramsey untuk graf bintang Sn dan graf bipartit lengkap Kp,q. Khususnya, kita akan menunjukkan batas atas dari R(Sn, K2,q) serta batas atas dari R(Sn, Kp,q) untuk n ≥ 5, 3 ≤ p ≤ n-1 dan q ≤ 2.Kata Kunci : Bilangan Ramsey, Graf Bintang dan Bipartit

  3. A small skull from Flores dated to the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Persson, Liselott; Alexandersen, Verner

    2012-01-01

    A human skull with mandible from the Ngada District on the island of Flores, Indonesia, is described in order to contribute to the knowledge of variation in cranial architecture, which is important in interpretations of evolutionary cerebralisation. The skull was excavated in 1924 and sent...... from the middle or upper Palaeolithics. The metric cranial data analysed in FORDISC, characterize the skull as a male Vietnamese rather than a Chinese or White individual. Tooth morphology shows the sundadont pattern and tooth size corresponds to that of teeth from Bali, Java and Malayan Orang Asli...

  4. Pemodelan Dan Analisis Pengaruh Variasi Oli dan Diameter Orifice terhadap Gaya Redam Shock Absorber Dan Respon Dinamis Sepeda Motor Yamaha Jupiter Z 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newanda Asa Wahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepeda motor merupakan moda transportasi yang paling banyak diminati oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam hal kenyamanan, maka komponen sepeda motor yang berperan penting adalah sistem suspensi. Sistem suspensi berfungsi menyerap getaran berlebih akibat profil permukaan jalan, sehingga meningkatkan kenyamanan dan keamanan. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan sistem suspensi yang terbaik. Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan pemodelan dan analisis pengaruh perubahan parameter sistem suspensi sepeda motor Yamaha Jupiter Z 2008 khususnya pada komponen monotube hydraulic shock absorber yang didasarkan pada pemodelan setengah kendaraan. Parameter yang divariasikan adalah tipe oli dan diameter orifice, dimana terdapat 5 macam tipe oli dengan rentang nilai massa jenis (ρ sebesar 845 – 874 kg/m3, dan viskositas (ν sebesar 11,3 – 46 mm2/s, sementara untuk diameter orifice yaitu saat kompresi (Docomp sebesar 1,2 – 1,5 mm, saat ekspansi (Doexp sebesar 0,8 – 1 mm. Input yang digunakan pada simulasi adalah input sinusoidal dan input bump modified. Dari penelitian ini didapatkan hasil bahwa sistem suspensi modifikasi monotube hydraulic shock absorber yang menghasilkan gaya redam optimal memiliki nilai parameter viskositas kinematis oli 46 mm2/s, massa jenis oli 845 kg/m3, diameter orifice kompresi 0,00135 m, dan diameter orifice ekspansi 0,0009 m. Nilai gaya redam optimal yang dihasilkan sistem suspensi modifikasi adalah sebesar 1171,3 N, lebih tinggi hingga 546,44 N dibandingkan dengan gaya redam sistem supensi asli yang bernilai 624,86 N pada frekuensi 2 Hz. Pada sistem setengah kendaraan motor dengan penggunaan sistem suspensi asli maupun modifikasi, untuk input bump, respon kendaraan dan penumpang mencapai steady state kurang dari 2 detik dan 5 detik, sedangkan untuk input sinusoidal responnya mencapai steady state kurang dari 2 detik dan 3 detik. Penggunaan suspensi asli maupun modifikasi menghasilkan nilai perpindahan RMS yang

  5. Asian-Australian Writers: Bridging the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelberga Vita Astuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang wawancara (dengan, tulisan, dan karya sastra oleh para penulis wanita migran di Australia yang berasal dari negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Tulisan ini meneliti kehidupan para penulis ketika tinggal di Australia, yang memiliki perbedaan budaya, sosial dan politik dengan negara asli mereka. Menggunakan gagasan cultural identity and diaspora dari Stuart Hall dan conditional hospitality dari Jaques Derrida, artikel ini mengungkap peran penting penulis migran dalam menjembatani perbedaan antara budaya timur dan barat. Analisis artikel menunjukkan bahwa identitas budaya mereka berubah untuk memperkecil jarak perbedaan dan proses perubahan ini terwujud dalam tulisan mereka.

  6. Isolation and X-Ray Crystal Structures of Li?mu 2-As(SiMe3)2MU 3-As(SiMe3)2(THF)2 and (Me3Si)2AsLiTHF)22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-07

    THF)] 2 and [(Me 3 Si) 2 AsLi (THF) 212 by L J. Jones III, A. T. McPhail, and R. L. Wells* Accepted for Publication in the Journal of Coordination...had been stirred for 24 hours at room temperature. The volatiles were removed from the orange filtrate in vacuo, leaving an orange viscous oil. A black...powder that remained in the original flask was washed with pentane which was then added to the filtrate. The orange oil was dissolved in pentane and

  7. PERUBAHAN MAKNA NOMINA BAHASA ARAB DALAM AL-QUR’AN: Analisis Sosiosemantik

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    Muhandis Azzuhri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini membahas perubahan berarti dari Arab Kata dalam Quran: bentuknya, proses dan implikasi sosial. Teori Sociosemantic, yang merupakan perpaduan antara sosiologi dan semantik, yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Membandingkan asli membentuk dengan bentuk penyerapan digunakan ketika menganalisis bentuk penyerapan. Studi ini menemukan bahwa perubahan makna karena beberapa faktor: (a. Bahasa seperti fonetiknya, aspek morfologi dan sintaksis, (b. Sejarah (c. Sosiokultural (d. Psikologis (e. Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (f. Asing bahasa. Berarti ini perubahan berdampak positif pada pola pikir dan pemahaman bahwa masyarakat memiliki sementara mempelajari Qur'an. Ini memberikan masyarakat sebuah studi komprehensif dan integratif sehingga bahwa satu kata akan multi tafsir.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis infection among underprivileged communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Nabilah Amelia; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Moktar, Norhayati; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of Blastocystis among underprivileged communities living in rural Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 253 participants aged between 1 and 85 years. Stool samples were examined using Wheatley's trichrome stain after in-vitro cultivation in Jones' medium to detect the presence of Blastocystis. Information pertaining to the demography, socioeconomic and environment were collected using pre-validated questionnaires. The total prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 40.7%. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥15 years (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.47-5.04) and presence of infected family members (OR = 8.56; 95% CI = 4.47-16.38) were the significant risk factors associated with blastocystosis in these communities. Blastocystosis is revealed through this study to be still prevalent among Orang Asli communities in rural Malaysia. The two main approaches that should be implemented by the public health authority in battling this infection would be the screening of other family members and giving treatment to the infected individuals. Moreover, it is imperative for health education on good personal and food hygiene practices are provided in order to reduce the morbidity and transmission of Blastocystis infection among the Orang Asli in their communities meaningfully. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A genome-wide characterization of copy number variations in native populations of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruiqing; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Phipps, Maude Elvira; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-02-23

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are genomic structural variations that result from the deletion or duplication of large genomic segments. The characterization of CNVs is largely underrepresented, particularly those of indigenous populations, such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. In the present study, we first characterized the genome-wide CNVs of four major native populations from Peninsular Malaysia, including the Malays and three Orang Asli populations; namely, Proto-Malay, Senoi, and Negrito (collectively called PM). We subsequently assessed the distribution of CNVs across the four populations. The resulting global CNV map revealed 3102 CNVs, with an average of more than 100 CNVs per individual. We identified genes harboring CNVs that are highly differentiated between PM and global populations, indicating that these genes are predominantly enriched in immune responses and defense functions, including APOBEC3A_B, beta-defensin genes, and CCL3L1, followed by other biological functions, such as drug and toxin metabolism and responses to radiation, suggesting some attributions between CNV variations and adaptations of the PM groups to the local environmental conditions of tropical rainforests.

  10. TATA CARA PELAKSANAAN SHALAT JUM'AT (Studi Naskah “Sulûk Al-Jâddah Fî Bayân Al-Jum’ah” Karya Syeikh Nawawi al-Bantani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrukhin Muhsin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini merupakan hasil penelitian naskah “Sulûk al-Jâddah Fî Bayân al-Jum’ah” Karya Syeikh Nawawi al-Bantani. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan filologi. Dalam penelitian filologi dikenal dua perlakuan terhadap naskah. Pertama, memperlakukan satu naskah sebagai bagian dari naskah-naskah lainnya yang sejudul. Dalam hal ini semua naskah yang sejudul dikumpulkan di manapun adanya, dengan tujuan mendapatkan naskah asli atau dianggap paling mendekati asli. Kedua, memperlakukan naskah sebagai naskah tunggal. Dalam hal ini peneliti mengesampingkan naskah lain yang kemungkinan ada di tempat lain. Dari dua model tersebut, penelitian ini menggunakan model kedua. Alasannya, naskah Sulûk al-Jâddah fî Bayân al- Jum’ah untuk sementara dinyatakan sebagai naskah tunggal dengan indikasi tidak ditemukan naskah lain. Untuk menganalisa data naskah, dilakukan pembacaan dua tahap, heuristik dan hermeneutik. Adapun pokok-pokok bahasan yang ada dalam naskah Sulûk al-Jâddah fî Bayân al-Jum’ah adalah berisi tentang masalah shalat Jumát dan permasalahan-perasalahan yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat seputar shalat Jum’at dan shalat Jum’at yang diulang.

  11. Cəmam or Sexual Prohibition among the Kensiw of Kedah, Malaysia Le cəmam ou les interdits sexuels chez les Kensiw de Kedah, en Malaisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Shuichi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship-related prohibitions such as the “in-law” avoidance are a defining feature of the nomadic foraging way of life of the Semang, northern Aslian speakers of peninsular Malaysia. With the stress of the recent Islamic assimilation policy and the changing base of subsistence, however, some Kensiw, a Semang group in Kedah, are feeling that the rules against cəmam or “improper sexual behaviour between relatives” may be contrary to the maintenance of their identity and moving toward a more inclusive identity of the peninsular-wide “Orang Asli”.Les interdictions liées à la parenté comme celle concernant les parents par alliance sont un trait caractéristique du mode de vie des Semang, des locuteurs septentrionaux d’une langue asli de la péninsule malaise. Toutefois, avec le stress récent dû à la politique d’islamisation et le changement de leur base alimentaire, quelques Kensiw, un groupe de Semang de Kedah, ont le sentiment que les règles s’opposant au cəmam ou « comportement sexuel impropre entre parents » pourrait être contraire au maintien de leur identité et sont en train de se rapprocher d’une identité plus inclusive de l’ensemble des « Orang Asli » de la péninsule.

  12. The Contestation of Muslim and Special Autonomy in Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Identitas politik orang Papua dianggap sebagai ras Melanesia dengan ciri-ciri yaitu orang yang berkulit hitam, rambut keriting dan beragama Kristen. Identitas politik semacam itu dipergunakan oleh orang-orang elit Papua sebagai alat perpolitikan, namun politik identitas tersebut menjadi agak berbahaya berkaitan dengan identitas Papua yang inklusif dan toleran. Pada kenyataannya, orang Papua asli dapat dibedakan menurut identitas agama mereka yang terdiri dari orang Kristen, Katolik dan Muslim. Hal tersebut menandakan bahwa ruang perdebatan untuk menentukan politik identitas Papua ditandai dengan proses negosiasi Kristen Papua (orang Papua yang beragama Kristen dan Muslim Papua (orang Papua yang beragama Islam. Perbedaan penafsiran dari identitas Papua dibangun oleh para intelektual dan elit Papua yang ingin bersinggungan langsung dengan pengembalian identitas asli (re-papuanization. Artikel ini akan mengarah pada metode orang Islam dan Kristen Papua dalam mempertahankan identitas mereka dan mendapatkan pengakuan sebagai bagian dari orang Papua. Artikel ini mencoba menjawab tiga pertanyaan terkait dengan (1 bagaimana Muslim Papua membangun identitas budaya mereka pada masa otonomi khusus; (2 bagaimana Muslim Papua memperjuangkan identitas budaya mereka bersamaan dengan Muslim imigran; dan (3 bagaimana Muslim Papua memperjuangkan identitas budaya mereka bersama dengan orang Kristen Papua. 

  13. Different clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica in Malaysia: does genetic diversity exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Orang Asli (aborigine) communities in Malaysia. Examination was performed on 500 stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in 3 different states using formalin-ether concentration, trichrome staining, and single-round PCR techniques. Out of 500 stool samples, single infection of E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii was identified in 3.2%, 13.4%, and 1%, respectively. In addition, 10 samples had mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar. Six samples containing E. dispar were also positive for E. moshkovskii, and only 2 samples had E. histolytica in association with E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Seventeen E. histolytica-positive samples were from symptomatic subjects, whereas the remaining 11 samples came from asymptomatic subjects. These findings suggest a predominant distribution of pathogenic potential of E. histolytica strains in this community. Therefore, further studies on genotyping of E. histolytica is required, to find out association between E. histolytica genotype and the outcome of the infection.

  14. First molecular identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-10-01

    Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba dispar are microscopically indistinguishable from the pathogenic species Entamoeba histolytica. Although sporadic cases of human infection with E. moshkovskii have been reported, the amoeba is still considered primarily as a free-living amoeba. A cross-sectional study was carried out among Orang Asli communities in 3 different states of Peninsular Malaysia. Fecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques and then single-round PCR assay was used to detect E. moshkovskii. Out of 500 fecal samples examined microscopically, 93 (18·6%) samples were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii complex cysts and/or trophozoites. PCR products were detected in 106 fecal samples. E. moshkovskii isolates were detected in 13 (12·3%) fecal samples. Of the 13 E. moshkovskii-positive samples, 5 were of single isolation of E. moshkovskii, 6 were also positive for E. dispar, and only 2 samples were positive for E. dispar and E. histolytica. Moreover, 3 E. moshkovskii-positive samples were collected from symptomatic individuals while the remaining 10 samples were from asymptomatic subjects. This is the first report on the identification of E. moshkovskii in Malaysia. Further studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of E. moshkovskii infection and determine the epidemiology among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

  15. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar. Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171 compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98. Trichuris trichiura (46.2% was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7% and hookworm (4.1%. In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8% was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7% and finally hookworm (8.3%. There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0, followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5. In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8, Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8 and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8. In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  16. Neglected tropical diseases among two indigenous subtribes in peninsular Malaysia: highlighting differences and co-infection of helminthiasis and sarcocystosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Muhammad Aidil, Roslan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous) as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar). Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171) compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98). Trichuris trichiura (46.2%) was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7%) and hookworm (4.1%). In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8%) was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7%) and finally hookworm (8.3%). There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0), followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5). In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8), Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8) and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8). In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal) in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular) among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these

  17. Pemanfaatan Augmented Reality Sebagai Media Pembelajaran Pengenalan Warna Objek 3D Kepada Anak Usia Dini Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemmy Gunawan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah cara pengerjaan suatu pekerjaan dari cara konvensional menjadi cara yang lebih praktis. Dengan hadirnya teknologi augmented reality, proses pembelajaran mewarnai untuk anak usia dini menjadi lebih efektif. Pembuatan aplikasi “Mari Mewarnai” menggunakan program unity dengan Framework Vuforia untuk menerapkan teknologi augmented reality. Penerapan augmented reality membutuhkan objek gambar yang digunakan sebagai image target untuk penyesuaian dengan kriteria, jenis kamera yang digunakan, serta jarak kamera terhadap image target. Pada aplikasi “Mari Mewarnai”, setiap objek tiga dimensi yang digunakan telah melalui proses perubahan agar material dari objek tiga dimensi dapat berubah sesuai dengan image target yang terdapat pada kertas gambar. Dengan pembuatan aplikasi “Mari Mewarnai” ini, anak usia dini dapat mewarnai objek dengan baik karena dapat melihat warna asli dari setiap objek tiga dimensi yang ada.

  18. Aplikasi Nilai-Nilai Luhur Pencak Silat Sarana Membentuk Moralitas Bangsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Nur Kholis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Krisis moral yang melanda Indonesia diduga menimbulkan krisi social, ekonomi budaya, politik dan hukum, hal ini melanda semua lapisan masyarakat. Krisis moral juga menyebabkan munculnya krisi kepercayaan masyarakat pada pemerintah. Yang lebih parah krisis moral berdampak pada dekadensi moral para generasi penerus bangsa yakni pemuda. Pencak silat merupakan budaya asli Indonesia yang memiliki empat aspek yaitu: Aspek mental spiritual, aspek seni budaya, aspek beladiri, dan aspek olahraga. Keempat aspek tersebut dalam satu kesatuan yang utuh. Selain empat tersebut pencak silat juga mengandung nilai-nilai positif yaitu : 1 Meningkatkan ketaqwaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, 2 Cinta Tanah Air dan Bangsa, 3 Kesehatan dan kebugaran, 4 Membangkitkan rasa percaya diri, 5 Melatih ketahanan mental, 6 Mengembangkan kewaspadaan diri yang tinggi, 7 Membina spotifitas dan jiwa ksatria, 8 Disiplin dan keuletan yang lebih tinggi. Secara keseluruhan pencak silat mengajarkan sifatdan sikap taqwa, tanggap, tangguh, tanggon dan trengginas.

  19. HAMBATAN SEMANTIK DAN BUDAYA DALAM PROSES TRANSFER IDE OLEH MAHASISWA JURUSAN NON BAHASA INGGRIS DALAM PENULISAN PARAGRAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Rusmono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Proses transfer ide dalam bentuk tulisan yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa jurusan ilmu perpustakaan dan informasi sebagai mahasiswa jurusan non Bahasa Inggris (SNED yang mempelajari Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing (EFL perlu diinvestigasi. Ketidakmampuan untuk menjembatani kesenjangan antara ide dalam bahasa ibu (Bahasa Inggris dengan ide dalam bahasa pembaca (Bahasa Inggris menghambat pemahaman pembaca, khususnya pembaca yang merupakan penutur asli Bahasa Inggris. Paragraf yang ditulis oleh mahasiswa SNED sebagai pembelajar Bahasa Inggris tidak dapat dipahami karena hambatan linguistik dan budaya. Sejumlah kecil mahasiswa yang membuat tulisan Bahasa Inggris dalam ujian tengah semester memperlihatkan gambaran ketidaktepatan dalam hal menyusun kalimat sehingga Bahasa Inggris mereka pada tingkatan tertentu terdengar seperti Bahasa Indonesia. Dalam hal ini kemampuan mereka untuk menggunakan Bahasa Inggris seperti layaknya bahasa Indonesia terbukti sangat rendah sehingga seorang penutur asli Bahasa Inggris yang mencoba untuk memahami ide mereka bisa salah memahaminya. Seorang pembelajar Bahasa Inggris harus memiliki kosakata yang cukup banyak dan setidaknya mengetahui aturan gramatikal seperti formulasi 9BP+3CC (Cd,Cx,Cdx dan PoS misalnya, untuk melengkapi pemahaman sebelum benar-benar dapat mengekspresikan ide dalam tulisan Bahasa Inggris yang dapat dipahami. Selain itu, pengetahuan mahasiswa tentang budaya penutur Bahasa Inggris memainkan peranan yang sangat penting untuk menghasilkan tulisan yang bagus, sebagaimana yang diungkapkan oleh seorang ahli bahasa bahwa seringkali seorang pembelajar bahasa mengetahui aturan tata bahasa tetapi tidak memiliki pengetahuan yang cukup tentang budaya penutur asli. Mahasiswa mengalami kesulitan dalam mengkomunikasikan idenya dikarenakan ekspresi suatu ide terikat oleh budaya yang merupakan entitas independen. Budaya penutur asli mempengaruhi dan membentuk perasaan, sikap, dan respons terhadap

  20. Penerapan Secret Image Sharing Menggunakan Steganografi dengan Metode Dynamic Embedding dan Authentication-Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Widyadhana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teknik yang banyak digunakan untuk menyebarkan suatu citra rahasia kepada n orang adalah dengan cara membagi citra rahasia ke dalam beberapa bagian yang kemudian diproses menggunakan skema (k, n-Shamir Secret Sharing yang dikemukakan oleh Adi Shamir (1979. Bagian-bagian dari citra rahasia yang sudah diproses tersebut disisipkan ke dalam n citra kamuflase dan menghasilkan n citra stego. Penyisipan dilakukan sedemikian rupa sehingga kualitas visual citra stego semirip mungkin dengan citra kamuflase. Cara untuk memproteksi citra stego dari orang yang tidak berhak adalah dengan cara menyisipkan suatu bit otentikasi yang berfungsi sebagai suatu digital signature dari citra stego. Citra rahasia dapat dirangkai kembali jika terdapat minimal k citra stego asli. Teknik ini dinamakan Secret Image Sharing.

  1. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSANMENENTUKAN KUALITASBIBIT IKAN GURAMEDI PEKON SUKOSARI MENGGUNAKAN APLIKASI VISUAL BASIC 6.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilin Kristina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy merupakan ikan asli perairan Indonesia yang sudah menyebar ke wilayah Asia Tenggara dan Cina. Salah satunya di pekon Sukosari yang saya tempati ini. Merupakan salah satu ikan labirinth dan secara taksonomi termasuk famili Osphronemidae. Ikan gurame adalah salah satu komoditas yang banyak dikembangkan oleh para petani, hal ini dikarenakan permintaan pasar cukup tinggi.Ikan ini merupakan salah satu jenis ikan konsumsi yang sudah cukup dikenal dan banyak diminati di Indonesia. Hal ini karena ikan gurame memiliki kelebihan yaitu rasa daging yang enak, pemeliharaan mudah serta harga relatif stabil. Ikan ini sudah lama dikenal orang dan telah banyak dibudidayakan.Untuk menentukan jenis bibit gurame saya menggunakan aplikasi visual basic 6.0, jadi dengan mudah kita mengetahui kualitas bibit gurame dengan aplikasi ini.

  2. BILOU DAN TANTANGAN MENGKONSERVASINYA DI MENTAWAI: Sebuah Tinjauan dari Perspektif Sosial Budaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Indrizal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini merupakan sebuah essai ilmiah berisi pokok-pokok pemikiran tentang perlunya mengakomodasi perspektif sosial budaya dalam upaya pelestarian bilou (Hylobates klossii di Kepulauan Mentawai. Penulis bermaksud menunjukkan perlunya pendekatan terpadu, meliputi  persepektif sosial budaya dalam rangka pembangunan konservasi bilou. Di satu sisi secara internal persepsi dan pemanfaatan bilou dalam kehidupan tradisional orang Mentawai erat kaitannya dengan sistem kepercayaan, adat istiadat dan kebiasaan hidup suku asli Mentawai sendiri. Di sisi lain orang Mentawai juga dihadapkan dengan berbagai bentuk kemasan modernitas yang dipromosikan dan bahkan mungkin didesakkan “pihak luar”. Di tengah-tengah ancaman kepunahan bilou di Kepulauan Mentawai dewasa ini, maka amatlah penting memetik pembelajaran dari kearifan lokal setempat dan menyeleksinya untuk dijadikan bagian dari penedekatan dan intrumen terpadu pelestarian bilou. Sebagaimana juga penting meninjau ulang berbagai bentuk promosi modernitas dan intervensi pembangunan yang selama ini kontra-produktif terhadap tujuan konservasi bilou, meliputi perlunya regulasi baru dan penegakan hukum yang lebih konsekuen.

  3. KERACUNAN BAHAN KIMIA BERACUN DI RUMAH TANGGA DAN PENANGGULANGANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satmoko Satmoko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pada umumnya semua bahan kimia merupakan racun, termasuk obat-obatan. Bahan kimia beracun di dalam rumah setiap saat dapat mengancam keselamatan kita, terutama anak-anak.Bahan bahan kimia yang sering digunakan dan, disimpan di rumah tangga adalah sangat beragam. Hal ini perlu diperhatikan oleh masyarakat umum karena bahan kimia tersebut dapat membahayakan anak-anak, khususnya balita atau bahkan orang dewasa apabila dalam pelabelan tidak jelas atau memindahkan wadah asli bahan kimia ke wadah lain tanpa diberikan keterangan atau label.Bahan kimia yang sering disimpan di rumah tangga adalah antara lain, spiritus (metil alkohol, asam cuka, air aki, aseton (penghapus cat kuku, bensin, pestisida, deterjen, karnper, kaporit, karbol, minyak tanah, terpentin, oli, obat obatan (boorwater, asetosal, obat-obatan penurun panas, barbiturat, mereurochrom, dan lain sebagainya.  

  4. PEMBATALAN MEREK DI PENGADILAN NIAGA MEDAN (Studi Putusan No. 03/Merek/2008/PN.Niaga/Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandras Mandras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Filosofi perlindungan atas kekayaan intelektual yang bermanfaat bagi pengembangan ekonomi dan teknologi bagi mayarakat lokal yang pertama A Normative Justification dan Kedua A Nationalistic Justification. Adapun manfaat yang bisa dirasakan oleh masyarakat, yaitu mereka mendapatkan barang yang asli, bukan tiruan. Akan tumbuh juga di dalam masyarakat semangat untuk terus berkreasi karena telah merasakan manfaat positifnya. Adanya kreativitas yang tinggi di antara sesama produsen diharapkan bisa meningkatkan daya saing produk karena selalu ada inovasi. Merek diatur dalam Undang-Undang No. 15 Tahun 2001, dimana merek sendiri merupakan bagian salah satu Hak Kekayaan Intelektual, yang merupakan ”hak milik” seseorang/beberapa orang secara bersama-sama bersifat mutlak, eksklusif serta mempunyai jangka waktu yang terbatas. Sebagai kekayaan bagi pemiliknya, merek mempunyai manfaat dan berguna bagi kehidupan manusia serta bernilai ekonomis. Sebagai hak kekayaan intelektual merek juga memiliki aspek sengketa, dimana dalam kajian ini akan dibahas tentang pembatalan merek dengan menganalisis Putusan No. 03/Merek/2008/PN.Niaga/Medan.

  5. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Air Traffic Activity FY 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    LOCKA FL L 1 MIA 520 1 1 4-3 " ORANGE VA N ZUC I 0 f’ 1 3 JRANGE CITY IA N Z4P 31 0 t) 3I DRAN6E COUNTY TX N I BT 60 0 U ’- DRANGE MUNICIPAL MA N TSW...119 3 0 119 D % EVADALE (EVA) TX 3 D 0 3 KOU4TZE/SILS9EE (45R TIX 24 3 0 24 0 ORANGE COUNTY 0RG) TX 60 3 0 63 3 TOTAL 2223 13 866 1329 19 BROWNSVILLE...C3UNTY ( ASLI TX 89 D 0 R9 TOTAL 992 3 257 676 LUBBOCK ILBI) TX 3565 1312 312 1442 i󈧗 PLAINVIEW HALE COUNTY (PVN) TX 331 3 0 330 I POST-GARZA COUNTY

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLC435 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC435 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 SLC435E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SLC435E 373 Show SLC435 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC435 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC435Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC43...5E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC435 (SLC435Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC435Q.Seq.d/ GGAGA...I815Q) /CSM/SL/SLI8-A/SLI815Q.Seq.d/ 694 0.0 SLC435 (SLC435Q) /CSM/SL/SLC4-B/SLC4

  7. Interelasi Ni lai Jawa dan Islam dalam Berbagai Aspek Kehidupan

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    Muhammad Ali Mustofa Kamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengkaji proses akulturasi budaya Jawa dan Islam dengan mengeksplorasi berbagai aspek interelasi nilai dari berbagai segi kehidupan melalui pendekatan antropologi budaya. Keadaan masyarakat Jawa, sebelum munculnya berbagai asimilasi agama dan budaya asli, telah memiliki peradaban Jawa yang khas yang tercermin dalam sistem sosial dan norma kemasyarakatan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa keberhasilan proses akulturasi antara budaya Jawa dengan Islam tak terlepas dari proses penyebaran Islam yang masuk ke tanah Jawa secara damai. Akulturasi antara Islam dengan budaya Jawa terbukti dapat melahirkan kedewasaan masyarakat dalam beragama, baik dalam karya sastranya, system ekonomi, mistisme, pola kepercayaan budaya dan ritual. Penyatuan antara budaya Jawa dengan Islam nampak jelas dalam kecenderungan masyarakat Muslim Jawa yang taat agama namun tetap tidak bisa meninggalkan tradisi ke-Jawanya.

  8. Investigasi Email Spoofing dengan Metode Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Lesmana Suryana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Email spoofing merupakan kegiatan melakukan manipulasi data pada header email. Serangan yang paling terkenal dari email spoofing adalah serangan phishing, Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberi wawasan tentang cara kerja melakukan pengiriman email spoofing dan mampu melakukan identifikasi email spoofing dengan melakukan analsis pada header email yang diterima. Metodologi yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah DFRWS (Digital Forensics Research Workshop, karena setiap langkah yang dilakukan dapat memberikan penjelasan yang lengkap. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah email spoofing dapat dikirimkan dengan memanfaatkan layanan web hosting yang menyediakan layanan untuk pengiriman email dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP dan hasil selanjutnya adalah mengetahui perbedaan antara email spoofing dan email asli, perbedaan tersebut akan  diketahui dengan jelas ketika membuka header email rinci. Kata Kunci: DFRWS, Email, Investigasi , Phishing, Spoofing

  9. ANALISIS FLYPAPER EFFECT PADA BELANJA DAERAH KABUPATEN DAN KOTA DI PROVINSI BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Amalia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the flypaper effect on the country and city in Banten Province in 2010-2013. The main objective of this research is to provide empirical evidence for the occurrence of flypaper effect on General Allocation Fund (DAU and Local Revenue (PAD to Regional Expenditure (BD of country/city in Banten Province. In this case, the dependent variable used is the shopping area while the independent variable is PAD and DAU. Object of research include 8 counties and cities in Banten Province with data source Realisasi Budget Report 2010-2013. Design research using model hypothesis testing using secondary data in the form of panel data. The method of analysis of data used is multiple regression.This research result indicates that (1 PAD and DAU simultaneously influence significantly to regional expenditure, (2 PAD and DAU partially influential significantly against regional expenditure, (3 there is no flypaper effect on contry and city in Banten in the 2010-2013. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi terjadinya flypaper effect pada belanja daerah kabupaten dan kota di Provinsi Banten tahun 2010-2013.Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah memberikan bukti empiris terjadinya flypaper effect pada Dana Alokasi Umum (DAU dan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD terhadap Belanja Daerah kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Banten. Dalam hal ini, variabel dependen yang digunakan adalah belanja daerah sedangkan variabel independennya adalah Pendapatan Asli Daerah dan Dana Alokasi Umum. Objek penelitian meliputi 8 kabupaten dan kota di Provinsi Banten dengan sumber data yang diperoleh dari Laporan Realisasi APBD 2010-2013. Desain penelitian menggunakan model pengujian hipotesis dengan menggunakan data sekunder dalam bentuk data panel. Adapun metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa (1 PAD dan DAU secara simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Belanja Daerah, (2 PAD dan DAU secara parsial berpengaruh

  10. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on iron status indices and iron deficiency anaemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-12-31

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI=42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI=28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (pvitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  11. An unceasing problem: soil-transmitted helminthiases in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Atiya, A S; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Ariffin, W A Wan; Abdullah, H Che; Surin, Johari

    2007-11-01

    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.

  12. Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Allotey, Pascale; Evans, Natalie; Hardon, Anita; Imelda, Johanna D; Soyiri, Ireneous; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-10-13

    Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16-35 in 2013-2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli) families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes) and self-report questionnaires. Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9Kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m 2 ). The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16-20 and 28.4 % at ages 31-35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16-35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.

  13. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8. Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2 of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p < 0.01. Moreover, a significant reduction in the prevalence of IDA by almost 22% than prevalence at baseline was reported among children in the vitamin A group compared with only 2.3% reduction among children in the placebo group. In conclusion, vitamin A supplementation showed a significant impact on iron status indices and IDA among Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities.

  14. MOTIVASI DAN SIKAP BAHASA MAHASISWA JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS UNDIKSHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.I. Kusuma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi motivasi dan sikap bahasa mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha terhadap bahasa Inggris dan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Sejumlah 70 mahasiswa tahun pertama di Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris tahun akademik 2014/2015 disurvei dengan menggunakan AMTB (Attitude, Motivation Test Battery yaitu kuesioner yang diadaptasikan dari Gardner (1985 untuk mengetahui motivasi dan sikap bahasa, yang meliputi a ketertarikan terhadap Bahasa Inggris, b dukungan dari orang tua, c intensitas motivasi, d sikap terhadap pembelajaran bahasa Inggris, e sikap terhadap penutur asli bahasa Inggris, f orientasi integratif, g keinginan untuk mempelajari bahasa Inggris, dan h orientasi instrumental. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan inferensial. Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner, mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, yang bukan merupakan penutur asli bahasa Inggris, mempelajari bahasa Inggris dengan alasan instrumental dan integratif, dan memiliki sikap yang sangat tinggi terhadap bahasa Inggris dan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini juga memaparkan implikasi terhadap pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Kata Kunci: bahasa Inggris, motivasi, sikap. Abstract This study investigated motivation orientation and attitude towards the target language of 70 English Education Department students of Ganesha University of Education. The researcher administered survey using AMTB (Attitude, Motivation Test Battery which was adapted from Gardner (1985. The survey included eight domains, namely a interest in English, b parental encouragement, c motivational intensity, d attitude towards learning English, e attitude towards English-speaking people, f integrative orientation, g desire to learn English, and h instrumental orientation. The data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. The result reveals that English Education Department students of Ganesha University of Education

  15. Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status Indices and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Zabedi, Ebtesam M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Moktar, Norhayati; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin; Jani, Rohana; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world including developed and developing countries. Despite intensive efforts to improve the quality of life of rural and aboriginal communities in Malaysia, anaemia and IDA are still major public health problems in these communities particularly among children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 250 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in Malaysia to investigate the effects of a single high-dose of vitamin A supplementation (200,000 IU) on iron status indices, anaemia and IDA status. The effect of the supplement was assessed after 3 months of receiving the supplements; after a complete 3-day deworming course of 400 mg/day of albendazole tablets. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be high: 48.5% (95% CI = 42.3, 54.8). Moreover, 34% (95% CI = 28.3, 40.2) of the children had IDA, which accounted for 70.1% of the anaemic cases. The findings showed that the reduction in serum ferritin level and the increments in haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation were found to be significant among children allocated to the vitamin A group compared to those allocated to the placebo group (p Orang Asli children. Hence, providing vitamin A supplementation and imparting the knowledge related to nutritious food should be considered in the efforts to improve the nutritional and health status of these children as a part of efforts to improve the quality of life in rural and aboriginal communities. PMID:24384995

  16. The genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhalifah, Hanim Kamis; Syaza, Fatnin Hisham; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2016-07-15

    This article explores the genetic history of the various sub-populations currently living in Peninsular Malaysia. This region has received multiple waves of migrants like the Orang Asli in prehistoric times and the Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs during historic times. There are three highly distinct lineages that make up the Orang Asli; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. The Semang, who have 'Negrito' characteristics, represent the first human settlers in Peninsular Malaysia arriving from about 50,000ya. The Senoi later migrated from Indochina and are a mix between an Asian Neolithic population and the Semang. These Asian genomes probably came in before Austroasiatic languages arrived between 5000 and 4000years ago. Semang and Senoi both now speak Austro-Asiatic languages indicative of cultural diffusion from Senoi to Semang. In contrast, the Proto-Malays who came last to the southern part of this region speak Austronesian language and are Austronesians with some Negrito admixture. It is from this group that the contemporary Malays emerged. Here we provide an overview of the best available genetic evidences (single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, blood groups, human platelet antigen, human leukocyte antigen, human neutrophil antigen and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) supporting the complex genetic history of Peninsular Malaysia. Large scale sampling and high throughput genetic screening programmes such as those using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analyses have provided insights into various ancestral and admixture genetic fractions in this region. Given the now extensive admixture present in the contemporary descendants of ancient sub-populations in Peninsular Malaysia, improved reconstruction of human migration history in this region will require new evidence from ancient DNA in well-preserved skeletons. All other aspects of the highly diverse and complex genetic makeup in Peninsular Malaysia should be

  17. Coming of age, becoming obese: a cross-sectional analysis of obesity among adolescents and young adults in Malaysia

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    Christopher Pell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Methods Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16–35 in 2013–2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes and self-report questionnaires. Results Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9Kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16–20 and 28.4 % at ages 31–35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. Conclusion The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16–35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.

  18. Immediate overdenture for improving aesthetic of anterior teeth with periodontal problem

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    FX. Ady Soesetijo

    2012-03-01

    untuk mempertahankan gigi asli mereka. Overdenture adalah gigi tiruan lepasan sebagian atau lengkap yang bertumpu pada satu atau lebih gigi asli yang tersisa, akar dan/atau implan gigi. Gigi asli yang tersisa di dalam mulut dapat memaksimalkan retensi, stabilisasi dan mencegah trauma pada mukosa oral. Selain itu, dipertahankannya sisa akar gigi dapat menghambat resorpsi tulang alveolar serta peran proprioseptor ligamen periodontal tetap efektif. Dengan demikian, dapat dikatakan bahwa perawatan overdenture adalah perawatan prostodontik pencegahan. Tujuan: Tujuan dari laporan kasus ini adalah untuk mempresentasikan kasus gigi-gigi anterior rahang atas dan rahang bawah dengan penyakit periodontal melalui perawatan endodontik dan prostodontik untuk memulihkan fungsi fonetik dan estetik. Kasus: Wanita usia 22 tahun dengan masalah periodontal (protrusi, goyang °1–°2 dan disertai dengan retraksi gingival pada 12, 11, 21, 22 dan 32, 31, 41, 42. Pasien datang ke rumah sakit gigi dan mulut ingin memperbaiki giginya untuk mengembalikan fungsi estetik dan fonetik. Pasien merasa kurang percaya diri terhadap penampilannya. Tatalaksana kasus: Overdenture dipasang segera setelah perawatan one visit endodontik yang diikuti dengan pemotongan mahkota klinis. Relining dengan resin akrilik diperlukan untuk menyesuaikan gigi tiruan terhadap jaringan pendukungnya. Pasien cukup puas dengan perawatan ini. Kesimpulan: Disimpulkan bahwa, gigi-gigi anterior rahang atas dan rahang bawah dengan masalah periodontal dapat diperbaiki melalui pendekatan perawatan konservasi dan prostodonsi untuk memperbaiki penampilan dan fungsi.

  19. GAMBARAN PRAKTIK PENGGUNAAN JAMU OLEH DOKTER DI ENAM PROVINSI DI INDONESIA

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    Delima Delima

    2013-02-01

    Jamu pada bulan Januari 2010 di Kendal. Untuk mencapai kegiatan ini, dilakukan pencatatan penggunaan jamu oleh dokter praktik. Studi deskriptif potong lintang ini dilakukan di 6 provinsi di Jawa dan Bali. Dokter yang terdaftar sebagai anggota perhimpunan seminat terkait jamu diundang dan diminta mengisi kuesioner terstruktur. Sejumlah 108 dokter praktik yang menggunakan jamu asli Indonesia berusia 26-70 tahun, baik dokter umum  maupun spesialis, berpendidikan strata 1 hingga strata 3 bersedia menjadi responden. Sebanyak 76,9 % dokter melakukan praktik jamu antara 1—10  tahun dengan median  2 pasien/hari (kisaran 0—40. Dokter praktik jamu juga melakukan cara pengobatan tradisional lain seperti akupunktur (47,2 %, pijat/releksi (7,4 %, akupresur (6,5 %. Selain memberikan jamu untuk pasien, semua dokter juga memanfaatkan jamu untuk diri sendiri dan keluarga. Lebih banyak menggunakan jamu asli Indonesia bentuk tunggal atau ramuan dalam sediaan kapsul maupun rebusan simplisia. Jamu terutama untuk pengobatan hipertensi, dislipidemia, diabetes mellitus, ISPA, hepatitis, hiperurisemia, osteoartritis, diare, kanker, dan gastritis. Jenis bahan jamu yang banyak dipakai adalah temulawak, sambiloto, kunyit, pegagan, kumis kucing, seledri, meniran, jati belanda, jahe, dan kunir putih. Sebagai kesimpulan, sebagian besar dokter praktik jamu di Jawa Bali sudah melakukan praktik menggunakan jamu asli Indonesia dalam 10 tahun terakhir dipadu dengan obat tradisional yang berasal dari luar negeri dan pengobatan tradisional lain namun pengobatan konvensional masih dipegang sebagai standar pengobatan tertinggi. Kata kunci: jamu, saintifikasi jamu, pengobatan tradisional

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O

    2014-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two

  1. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30

  2. SISTEM OTENTIKASI UNTUK SQUID BERBASIS WEB

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    Febriliyan Samopa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam sebuah jaringan komputer terdapat bermacam-macam tipe user dengan berbagi tingkatan yang berbeda yang juga dibutuhkan perlakuan yang berbeda pada tiap user yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan dalam menggunakan akses web, baik berupa http, ftp, gopher, dan lain-lain. Dimana masing-masing user memiliki skala prioritas dalam penggunaan bandwidth, jumlah koneksi maksimum, waktu koneksi, ukuran file maksimum, situs yang tidak boleh diakses dan lain-lain. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah perangkat lunak yang dapat melakukan otentikasi user berdasarkan data konfigurasi yang disimpan dalam basisdata. Selain itu, perangkat lunak yang dibuat dapat memproses request dari client berdasarkan data konfigurasi dengan lebih cepat. Permasalahan yang mucul adalah bagaimana merancang dan membuat suatu perangkat lunak yang dapat melakukan otentikasi user berdasarkan data konfigurasi yang diambil dari basisdata, serta dapat memproses request dari client dengan lebih cepat berdasarkan hak akses yang dimilikinya.Dalam penelitian ini didesain dan diimplementasikan suatu sistem otentikasi user dengan mengambil data user yang tersimpan dalam basisdata MySQL. Disamping itu, dilakukan rekayasa pada beberapa rutin proses yang terdapat dalam squid proxy, supaya proses-proses dapat melakukan pengambilan data konfigurasi yang dialihkan dan disimpan dalam basisdata MySQL. Data konfigurasi ini didasarkan pada pembagian hak akses yang dimiliki oleh masing-masing grup user. Antarmuka berbasis web digunakan sebagai salah satu layanan bagi admin untuk mempermudah pengelolaan dan pengolahan data konfigurasi yang dibuat.Berdasarkan uji coba yang telah dilakukan, terbukti sistem yang dibuat dapat bekerja dengan baik dan tidak melenceng dari fungsi asli sebelum dilakukan perubahan. Bahkan pada penanganan request client yang berukuran besar, kinerja squid mengalami peningkatan dalam hal kecepatan proses yang dibutuhkan. Sebagai contoh, request client pada  file

  3. KIAT MAHASISWA BERKOMUNIKASI DIDALAM BAHASA INGGRIS PASKA PENDEKATAN FRESHNESS DAN ENTHUSIASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Rusmono

    2014-05-01

    Abstrak Melalui DIMBI (Diskusi Ilmiah Mahasiswa Berbahasa Inggris terperoleh simpulan bahwa para pembelajar (baca: Mahasiswa ingin agar pesan yang mereka komunikasikan dapat berterima. Dengan menggabungkan kosa-kata dan gramatika saja pesan yang mereka sampaikan sebagai penutur belum cukup untuk memenuhi keberterimaan oleh penerima pesan pada bahasa sasaran (Bahasa Inggris. Diperlukan unsur kultur untuk mencapai bahasa sasaran. Unsur kultur akan sangat menentukan makna yang ditangkap oleh penerima pesan, terutama bilamana penerima pesan tadi adalah penutur asli (native speaker.  Pembelajar berada dalam situasi yang dikategorikan Bahasa Inggris sebagai Bahasa Asing (English As A Foreign Language , bukan sebagai Bahasa Kedua (English As A Second Language. Ketika bergagas melalui ujaran didalam Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa kedua, pembelajar dilibatkan dengan bahasa ini didalam kehidupan sehari-hari mereka sedangkan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing seperti misalnya di Indonesia, perolehan dan penggunaan Bahasa Inggris tergantung dan terbatas pada rancangan belajar di ruang kelas dengan segala dampak penyertanya. Upaya sekecil apapun oleh pembelajar harus dilihat dari segi positifnya untuk kemudian dicarikan cara pengembangannya. Kiat penuh kekeliruan sekalipun perlu dihidupkan agar komunikasi tetap berlangsung lancar dan berterima. Pendekatan melalui teacher demeanor yang menyegarkan dan penuh semangat membawa dampak positif bagi pembelajar berupa keberanian berekspresi, terlepas dari ketidakpasan disana-sini. Kata kunci: kosa kata, gramatika, komunikasi, kultur, bahasa sasaran.

  4. Management of Duane retraction syndrome with prismatic glasses

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    Aygit ED

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebru Demet Aygit,1 Murat Kocamaz,1 Asli Inal,1 Korhan Fazil,1 Osman Bulut Ocak,1 Serpil Akar,2 Birsen Gokyigit1 1Strabismus Department, Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Ophthalmology Department, Medicine Faculty, Baskent University, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To report the results of using prismatic glasses for Duane retraction syndrome (DRS. Methods: Data were obtained from the records of patients who were evaluated during the year 2000 in the Strabismus Unit of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital. The average follow-up was 12.2±17.7 months. In all cases, 2 main variables were evaluated: horizontal deviation in the primary position and face turn. Prismatic glasses were provided to patients according to the degree of shift in the primary position. Results: The mean age of patients was 11.2 years. An analysis was performed on the data collected from 12 cases; 7 patients were females (58.3% and 5 were males (41.7%, with 11 (91.7% cases being of type I DRS. All 12 patients had abnormal head posture (face turn and an angle of mean deviation equaling 10 PD (prism dioptri. Conclusion: Treatment was individualized on a case-by-case basis. Prismatic glasses are useful for eliminating abnormal head posture and ocular misalignment in selected cases. Keywords: Duane, prismatic glasses, abnormal head posture

  5. PENINGKATAN GOOD GOVERNANCE BERDASARKAN UU NO. 32 TAHUN 2004 JO. UU. 12 TAHUN 2008 DI KECAMATAN BOROBUDUR KABUPATEN MAGELANG

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    Arif Hidayat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Penyelenggaraan Otonomi Daerah dengan berbagai prinsip diharapkan mampu menjembatani antara kepentingan Pusat dan Daerah. Perubahan penyelenggaraan otonomi ini berkonsekuensi pada perubahan kelembagaan di daerah sesuai dengan sumberdaya dan kebutuhan daerah masing-masing. Idealnya kewenangan daerah tersebut diselenggarakan berdasarkan kriteria eksternalitas, akuntabilitas dan efisiensi sebagai pedoman standar pelayanan minimal. Rendahnya pemahaman organisasi perangkat daerah mengenai urusan pemerintahan yang bersifat pilihan berpotensi pada rendahnya upaya peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat sesuai dengan kondisi, kekhasan, dan potensi unggulan daerah yang bersangkutan sehingga perlu membentuk Organisasi Perangkat Daerah sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan kemampuan masing-masing dan ditetapkan dalam Peraturan Daerah (Perda sesuai dengan acuan UU No. 32 Tahun 2004 yang telah direvisi dengan UU No. 12 Tahun 2008 tentang Pemerintah Daerah. Daerah diharapkan mampu menyusun kelembagaan penyelenggaraan otonomi di daerah, termasuk perangkat organisasi Kecamatan sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan kemampuannya. Tugas utama perangkat daerah adalah memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat di daerah, memberdayakan berbagai sumber di daerah dan melaksanakan program-program pembangunan di daerah. Berdasarkan Tiga tujuan pokok tersebut, maka hal yang harus dicapai oleh Pemerintah Daerah adalah pelayanan yang prima, Masyarakat yang mandiri dan optimalisasi pendapatan asli daerah untuk pelaksanaan pembangunan daerah. Dengan demikian, Pemerintah Daerah dapat mencapai pelayanan prima, masyarakat yang mandiri, dan optimalisasi pendapatan daerah. Kata Kunci : organisasi perangkat kecamatan, pelayanan prima, good governance

  6. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yussup, Sofia Sakina; Marzukhi, Marlia; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Mamat, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Farida Zuraina

    2017-01-01

    The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM)-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes. PMID:29085238

  7. Effect of ethnicity and socioeconomic variation to the gut microbiota composition among pre-adolescent in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chun Wie; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Chin, Yuee Teng; Loke, P'ng; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-08-20

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in mammalian host metabolism and physiological functions. The functions are particularly important in young children where rapid mental and physical developments are taking place. Nevertheless, little is known about the gut microbiome and the factors that contribute to microbial variation in the gut of South East Asian children. Here, we compared the gut bacterial richness and composition of pre-adolescence in Northern Malaysia. Our subjects covered three distinct ethnic groups with relatively narrow range of socioeconomic discrepancy. These included the Malays (n = 24), Chinese (n = 17) and the Orang Asli (indigenous) (n = 20). Our results suggested a strong ethnicity and socioeconomic-linked bacterial diversity. Highest bacterial diversity was detected from the economically deprived indigenous children while the lowest diversity was recorded from the relatively wealthy Chinese children. In addition, predicted functional metagenome profiling suggested an over-representation of pathways pertinent to bacterial colonisation and chemotaxis in the former while the latter exhibited enriched gene pathways related to sugar metabolism.

  8. Irradiation of honey for food and medicinal purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Zainon Othman; Salabiah Abd Majid

    2002-01-01

    Honey has been used as food and for its medicinal value for centuries. Even though its microbial content is usually low as its acidity and high viscosity can inhibit any microbial growth, some incidents of contamination with Clostridium spores were reported. Therefore, ionising radiation can be considered to decontaminate the pathogens or even sterilise (Pucuk daun, durian, gelam, bunga gelam and Asli) and three imported honeys (manuka Clement, Waitemata and Capilani Sweet Meadow). Results showed that the microbial count was 2.1 rather low in all honey hence membrane filtration method is more suitable than spread plate method to determine the microbial count in honey samples. The lowest microbial count was 2.1 counts/g for bunga gelam and the highest was 33.4 counts/g for capilano sweet in the sensory tests for taste, viscosity, colour and overall acceptance (P<0.05). Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy and 50 kGy (in gelam, pucuk daun, durian, manuka clement and waitemata) did not give any effect on the antibacterial property when the irradiated honey was added into the bacterial suspension of staphylococcus aureus. Heat at 50 degree C did not reduce the antibacterial property of irradiated honey. All local honeys showed antimicrobial indicated for its high medicinal value. The results show that gamma irradiation is useful to decontaminate honey from pathogenic contaminants or even to sterilise honey for safe use without any changes in its organoleptic and antibacterial property. (Author)

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2003-01-01

    + 241 pp. [BRC Occasional paper 1.] -Gerrit Knaap, Frédéric Mantienne, Les relations politiques et commerciales entre la France et la péninsule Indochinoise (XVIIe siècle. Paris: Les Indes Savantes, 2001, 395 pp. -Uli Kozok, James T. Collins, Malay, world language; A short history. Second edition. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan bahasa dan pustaka, 2000, xii + 101 pp. -Nathan Porath, Hoe Ban Seng, Semalai communities at Tasek Bera; A study of the structure of an Orang Asli society. [A.S. Baer and R. Gianno, eds.] Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Centre for Orang Asli concerns, 2001, xii + 191 pp. -Nathan Porath, Narifumi Maeda Tachimoto, The Orang Hulu; A report on Malaysian orang asli in the 1960's. [A.S. Baer, ed.] Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Centre for Orang Asli concerns, 2001, xiv + 104 pp. -Martin Ramstedt, Raechelle Rubinstein ,Staying local in the global village; Bali in the twentieth century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999, xiii + 353 pp., Linda H. Connor (eds -Albert M. Salamanca, Thomas R. Leinbach ,Southeast Asia: diversity and development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000, xiii + 594 pp., Richard Ulack (eds -Heather Sutherland, Muhamad Hisyam, Caught between three fires; The Javanese pangulu under the Dutch colonial administration, 1882-1942. Jakarta: Indonesian-Netherlands cooperation in Islamic studies (INIS, 2001, 331 pp. [Seri INIS 37.] -Heather Sutherland, Roderich Ptak, China's seaborne trade with South and Southeast Asia (1200-1750. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999, xii + 366 pp. [Variorum collected studies series CS638.] -Sikko Visscher, M. Jocelyn Armstrong ,Chinese populations in contemporary Southeast Asian societies. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001, xiv + 268 pp., R. Warwick Armstrong, Kent Mulliner (eds -Reed Wadley, Clifford Sather, Seeds of play, words of power; An ethnographic study of Iban shamanic chants. Kuching: Tun Jugah foundation, 2001, xvii + 753 pp. [Borneo classic series 5.] -Boris Wastiau, Raymond Corbey, Tribal art traffic; A chronicle

  10. Yerel Girişimcilik Dinamikleri: Adapazarı’nda Mobilyacılık Sektörünün Sözlü Tarih Yöntemiyle Anlaşılması

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKTAROĞLU, Serkan; ÖZDEMİR, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    5901 Sayılı Türk Vatandaşlığı Kanunu, vatandaşlığının kazanılması ve kaybedilmesi konularında, vatandaşlık hukuku sistematiğine bağlı kalarak bir takım yenilikler getirmektedir. Genel içeriği itibariyle kökten bir değişiklik yaratmamakla birlikte yeni kanun, Türk vatandaşlığının kazanılmasında soybağı, evlilik, evlat edinme gibi asli ve sonradan kazanma biçimlerini 403 Sayılı Türk Vatandaşlığı Kanunundan farklı biçimde ele almıştır. Madde başlıkları ve alt başlıkların düzenlenişi, ifadelerdek...

  11. In silico evaluation of miRNA binding site in mutated 3'UTR mRNA of G6PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syarifah Anis Wafa Binti Syed Mohd; Noorden, Mohd Shihabudin; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Ismail, Endom

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non coding RNA sized 21-25 nucleotide. It has the ability to bind to the 3'- untranslated regions (3'UTR) of their target genes. Consequently, the binding of miRNA in the 3'UTR of targeted mRNA will regulate the expression of this gene. Thus, changes in 3'UTR may affect miRNA binding to mRNA of their target gene, leading to aberrations in mRNA regulations or expression and likely contribute to the various phenotypic changes or clinical risk for certain diseases in man. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate candidate miRNAs species involved during the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA with and without a specific 3'UTR nucleotide change that was previously shown to be responsible for G6PD deficiency in a Negrito sub-group of the Malaysian Orang Asli. We have conducted in silico analysis using TargetScan, PITA, RegRNA 2.0 and miRanda platform. Our results indicate that three potential miRNAs may have a functional role towards the regulated expression of those bearing the 3'UTR mutation. The role of these eleven miRNA can be investigated in future in vitro expression studies in order to verify its miRNA:mRNA relationship.

  12. UJI EFEK ANALGETIK EKSTRAK METANOL DAUN MANGGA ARUM MANIS (Mangifera indica L. Var. Arum manis TERHADAP MENCIT PUTIH BETINA

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    Mhd Riza Marjoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan tanaman sebagai salah satu bahan pengobatan di Indonesia sudah dikenal sejak lama dan sampai sekarang masih banyak dilakukan oleh masyarakat secara luas. Mangga varietas arumanis yang merupakan produk asli Indonesia merupakan salah satudari tanaman tersebut yang telah digunakan secara tradisional oleh masyarakat untuk meredakan rasa nyeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek analgetik dari ekstrak methanol daun mangga arumanis menggunakan 3 variasi dosis.Penelitian ini menggunakan 15 ekor mencit putih betina sebagai hewan uji yang dikelompokan menjadi 5 kelompok. Kelompok pertama diberi obat analgetik tramadol sebagai kontrol positif, kelompok kedua diberi aquades sebagai kontrol negatif, dan kelompok ketiga sampai kelima diberi ekstrak methanol daun mangga arumanis dengan 3 variasi dosis 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg setiap 0,5 ml secara oral.  Pengamatan yang dilakukan terhadap hewan uji adalah respon berupa melompat dan atau menjilat kaki sebelum perlakuan, dan pada menit ke-30, 60, 90, 120 setelah diberi rangsangan nyeri berupa suhu panas 55 0 C menggunakan metoda hot plate. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga dosis ektrak metanol daun mangga arum manis memiliki efek analgesik pada mencit putih betina

  13. Perubahan Identitas Tekstual dalam Hasil Terjemahan dan Permasalahan Keberterimaannya: Kasus Teks Eksposisi

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    Rochayah Machali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation can be defined as the replacement of textual material in one language (SL by equivalent textual material in another language (TL. The term ‘textual’ means that the input for the translation process is ‘text’, rather than individual sentences. A text is a unit of language in use. It best regarded as a semantic unit, which is encoded in sentences. The encoding involves a planned activity that involves seven aspects (called ‘segi’ in this article. The aspects have been used to compare the original text or SL text (TSu and its translated versions or TL texts (TSa. The findings indicate that the textual changes affect the identity of the text to some degree, in particular aspects of ‘informativity’ and ‘relevance’ embodied in the text identity.   Penerjemahan dapat didefinisikan sebagai penggantian bahan tekstual dalam bahasa sumber (SL dengan bahan tekstual yang sepadan dalam bahasa sasaran (TL. Istilah tekstual berarti bahwa masukan untuk proses penerjemahan adalah teks, bukan kalimat-kalimat yang terpisah. Sebuah teks merupakan unit dalam penggunaan bahasa. Unit tersebut dapat dipandang sebagai unit semantik yang disandikan dalam kalimat-kalimat. Penyandian merupakan sebuah kegiatan yang terencana yang meliputi tujuh aspek yang disebut ‘segi’ dalam artikel ini. Aspek-aspek tersebut digunakan untuk membandingkan teks asli (TSu dan versi terjemahan (TSa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perubahan tekstual yang terjadi sedikit banyak mempengaruhi identitas teks, khususnya aspek-aspek ‘informativity’ dan ‘relevance’ yang terwujud dalam identitas teks.

  14. Sistem Perencanaan Penambahan Stok Barang menggunakan Metode Fuzzy C-Means dan Fuzzy Tsukamoto (Studi Kasus di Distributor Alfamart Semarang

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    Tono Puryanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gudang barang suatu perusahaan merupakan tempat penyimpanan barang yang akan dijual kepada pelanggan. Permasalahan utama pada gudang barang suatu perusahaan adalah terjadinya penumpukan barang atau barang keluar lebih banyak daripada barang masuk yang dapat mengakibatkan kerugian bagi perusahaan. Penambahan stok barang pada gudang dilakukan berdasarkan permintaan pelanggan dan stok barang saat itu. Banyak permintaan pelanggan setiap waktu selalu berubah yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penumpukan barang atau kekurangan barang. Hal ini menyebabkan sulit dalam pengambilan keputusan jumlah barang yang akan dikirim. Salah satu cara untuk membantu pengambilan keputusan tersebut yaitu dengan pembangunan aplikasi perencanaan penambahan stok barang yang menggunakan konsep logika fuzzy. Fuzzy merupakan suatu cara untuk menyelesaikan masalah ketidakpastian. Pada aplikasi perencanaan penambahan stok barang, proses penentuan penambahan stok barang dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode fuzzy C-Means dan mekanisme inferensi fuzzy Tsukamoto. Hasil akhir dari aplikasi ini berupa jumlah barang yang akan dikirim. Hasil tersebut menjadi saran yang dapat dipertimbangkan oleh admin bagian pengiriman barang. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan data Coca-Cola pada bulan September 2014 sampai Oktober 2014. Pada pengujian sistem dilakukan 11 kali pengujian dengan memasukkan stok dan permintaan data asli menghasilkan tingkat keakuratan sistem sebesar 80,22 %. Tingkat keakuratan sistem dapat berubah tergantung pada data pelatihan yang digunakan pada proses pelatihan fuzzy C-Means.

  15. REKONSTRUKSI PENDIDIKAN PESANTREN SEBAGAI CHARACTER BUILDING MENGHADAPI TANTANGAN KEHIDUPAN MODERN

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    Mohammad Muchlis Solichin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Sebagai lembaga pendidikan tertua dan asli (indegenous Indonesia, pesantren menampilkan suatu sistem pendidikan tradisional dengan mempertahankan tradisi dan tetap berlandaskan pada nilai-nilai dan ajaran Islam. Dalam perkembangannya, banyak pesantren yang menyelenggarakan pendidikan madrasah dan sekolah sebagai respon pesantren terhadap perkembagan dan perubahan yang terjadi di masyarakat. Dengan dikenalnya pendidikan sekolah dan madrasah, maka pesantren sebagai lembaga character building menghadapi berbagai tantangan kehidupan modern yang cenderung materialis, oportunis, dan hedonis. Untuk itu, pesantren harus mampu merumuskan pendidikan yang berorientasi pada penamanaman nilai-nilai keislaman yang berdasarkan pada fithrah (potensi dasar peserta didik.   Abstract: As the oldest and indegenous educational institution of Indonesian, pesantren featuring a traditional education system, maintains the tradition while still being based on the values ​​and teachings of Islam. In its development, many pesantrens adopt madrasah and school as education systems to respond the development and changes in society. Through the adoption of school and madrasah, pesantren as character building institution has to face modernity which tends to be materialistic, oppurtunistic, hedonic. For this reason, pesantren should be able to formulate its education by implementing Islamic values ​​ based on the human nature (basic potential.   Kata Kunci: Pendidikan, pesantren, character building, modern

  16. STRUKTUR SEMANTIK Verba PROSES TIPE KEJADIAN Bahasa Jawa : KaJIAN METABAHASA SEMANTIK ALAMI

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    Agus Subiyanto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Verba proses tipe kejadian merupakan bagian dari verba proses yang mengungkapkan kejadian tidak bergerak. Verba kejadian memiliki komponen dan struktur semantis tertentu yang membedakannya dengan verba tindakan dan verba keadaan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan komponen dan struktur semantik verba kejadian dalam bahasa Jawa (BJ. Penelitian ini menggunakan ancangan Metabahasa Semantik Alami (MSA, yaitu teori semantik yang menggunakan perangkat makna asali, yang telah dikembangkan pertaman kali oleh Wiezbicka. Data yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini meliputi data tulis dan data lisan, yang diperoleh dari penutur asli BJ dan majalah BJ. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa verba kejadian memiliki beberapa komponen semantik, yakni: [+dinamis], [-kesengajaan], [+/kepungtualan], [+/-telik], [-kinesis], dan [gerakan]. Verba kejadian ini dibentuk dengan makna asali TERJADI dan MELAKUKAN. Dengan perangkat makna asali yang tertuang dalam sintaksis MSA, eksplikasi dari verba kejadian BJ dapat dijelaskan dengan tuntas. Kata Kunci : verba proses tipe kejadian, bahasa Jawa, Metabahasa Semantik Alami

  17. VARASI DAN SPECIES TUMBUHAN DI WILAYAH KONSERVASI (WILDLIFE CONSERVATION DAN UPAYA PELESTARIANNYA DI UNIVERSITAS LA TROBE, BUNDOORA DAN BENDIGO, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA

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    Achmad Munandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian deskriptif ini difokuskan pada tiga permasalahan hal yaitu pertama penelitian flora yang terdapat di kampus Universitas La Trobe dan di lingkungan SMU wilayah Bendigo, Melbourne Utara. Kedua jenis-jenis tumbuhan apa saja yang sudah dikembangkan/diteliti universitas tersebut untuk kepentingan industri dan bisnis. Ketiga mengobservasi upaya-upaya mereka dalam melestarikan flora asli Australia melalui pendidikan. Landasan teoritik yang berkaitan dengan masalah ini adalah hubungan antara klimatologi dengan flora yang terdapat di daerah sub tropis. Faktor-faktor klimatologi ini adalah: Suhu, kelembaban, cahaya dsb., yang berbeda dengan daerah tropis, demikian halnya dengan floranya. Hasil pengamatan (observasi di universitas ini menunjukkan bahwa implementasi oendidikan untuk memanfaatkan flora untuk industri dan oengelolaan lingkungan: oelestarian flora, fauna, konservasi air dan tanah sudah diwujudkan baik dalam teori maupun praktek. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan metode dan pendekatan: tanya jawab, diskusi dan mengamati langsung flora yang terdapat di lingkungan universitas dan sekolah, serta pemanfaatannya. Kesimpulan: pertama, flora di daerah ini menunjukkan variasinya sedikit, namun jumlahnya besar (a.l. Eycalyptus sp.. Pemanfaatan flora yang terdapat di lingkungan kampus untuk keperluan industri dan farmasi, dilakukan melalui Riset dan Pengembangan (Research and Development secara teratur dan terus menerus. Hal yang sama pada pelestarian flora dengan malalui implementasi pendidikan. Rekomendasi: Variasi flora di suatu wilayah local, regional, nasional dan internasional seyogyanya dipelajari dengan baik dan dicari guna manfaatnya dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan penduduk serta berupaya melestarikannya untuk generasi yang akan dating, yang dilakukan melalui pendidikan di sekolah dan universitas.

  18. KREATIVITAS GURU BIOLOGI DALAM MEMETAKAN KOMODITAS HAYATI UNGGULAN LOKAL KE DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI SMA

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    Asep Agus Sulaeman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kreativitas guru Biologi SMA dalam memetakan topik-topik dari berbagai aspek komoditas hayati unggulan lokal melalui penggunaan metode mind map dan mengetahui kemampuan guru dalam memetakan topik-topik komoditas hayati unggulan lokal ke dalam pembelajaran Biologi di SMA. Analisis data kreativitas guru Biologi SMA dilakukan secara deskriptif kuantitatif terhadap mind map dengan menggunakan kriteria sesuai instrumen yang dikembangkan. Adapun analisis data tentang jumlah topik-topik Biologi dan jenis kegiatan pembelajaran berbasis komoditas hayati unggulan lokal dilakukan secara deskriptif kuantatif dan kualitatif. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan nilai aspek-aspek kreativitas guru Biologi yang tinggi, yaitu kemampuan berpikir asli (91,67, peka terhadap masalah (91,67, kemampuan berpikir lancar (90, kemampuan berpikir luwes (88,33, dan kemampuan berpikir terperinci (86,67. Berdasarkan hasil pemetaan yang dilakukan guru, dapat diidentifikasi 15 topik Biologi SMA yang berkaitan dengan komoditas hayati unggulan lokal di Kabupaten Majalengka. Adapun kegiatan pembelajaran berbasis komoditas hayati unggulan yang diusulkan oleh guru tersebar di masing-masing tingkatan kelas dan semesternya dengan jumlah yang berbeda-beda.

  19. ANALISA PENGARUH MODIFIKASI BENTUK HALUAN KAPAL TERHADAP HAMBATAN TOTAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CFD

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    Deddy Chrismianto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hambatan merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang mempengaruhi dalam perancangan sebuah kapal. Kapal dengan bentuk haluan yang baik akan memberikan efisiensi hambatan yang dihasilkan sehingga operasional kapal dan pergerakan kapal lebih baik dan efisien pula. Pada penelitian ini diselidiki bentuk haluan yang menghasilkan hambatan total paling kecil dengan menggunakan program Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD dengan menggunakan program komputer berbasis CFD. Berdasarkan hasil analisa dan perhitungan menggunakan CFD didapatkan nilai hambatan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan nilai hambatan pada model asli kapal. Nilai hambatan total terkecil pada kondisi kecepatan menggunakan fn 0,26 dari model 5 adalah 208,534 KN. Selisihnya 2,127 KN lebih kecil 1,01 % hambatan totalnya dibandingkan model originalnya yaitu 210,661 KN. Kemudian Nilai hambatan total terkecil pada kondisi kecepatan menggunakan fn 0,22 didapatkan nilai hambatan total 184,804 KN pada simulasi model 5 dan hasil hambatan total dari model original adalah 190.243 KN. Selisihnya 5,439 KN lebih kecil 2,86 % hambatan totalnya dibandingkan model original. Lalu nilai hambatan total terkecil pada kondisi kecepatan menggunakan fn 0,30 didapatkan nilai hambatan total 271,903 KN pada simulasi model 3 dan hasil hambatan total dari model original adalah 331.665 KN. Selisihnya 59,762 KN lebih kecil 18,02 % hambatan totalnya dibandingkan model original.

  20. Assessment of environmental factors that affect the fireflies for ecotourism in Unesco Tasik Chini biosphere reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Norzeana; Sulaiman, Norela

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to study the firefly species found in Tasik Chini, the soil factors that suitable for larval development fireflies flashes, and the sociological aspects of the community's availability to engage in firefly ecotourism. This was achieved through firefly sampling, soil analysis, abiotic data collection and by questionnaire surveys from local community perceptions and knowledge on fireflies and ecotourism. Fireflies sampling were conducted from December 2011 to January 2013 at Kampung Melai and Kampung Cenahan. Three non-synchronize fireflies genus were found, namely Colophotia sp., Pygoluciola sp., and Pyrocoelia sp. A total of 25 questionnaires were given to four groups of respondents consisting orang asli (5 respondents), boat operator (2 respondents), resort workers (5 respondents) and FELDA residents (13 respondents). The questionnaires were analysed using Rasch Winstep Software based on Rasch Measurement Model. Results of the survey indicated that the local community was not ready for ecotourism in their area. Meanwhile, the soil pH was very acidic and the heavy metals concentration was high, which is not good for the development of firefly larvae. In conclusion, Tasik Chini was not having the potential for ecotourism. Despite the fact, improvement of soils with soil remediation methods can be apply for enhancing larvae development and having more awareness campaign of ecotourism to local community.

  1. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

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    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  2. A small skull from Flores dated to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C; Persson, L; Alexandersen, V; Lynnerup, N

    2012-02-01

    A human skull with mandible from the Ngada District on the island of Flores, Indonesia, is described in order to contribute to the knowledge of variation in cranial architecture, which is important in interpretations of evolutionary cerebralisation. The skull was excavated in 1924 and sent to the National Museum in Copenhagen. The "Copenhagen Flores" (CF) male skull is radiocarbon-dated and of modern age. The cranium is small, but larger than e.g. Liang Bua skull (LB1) in every measurement. The (CT-scan based) cranial capacity of 1258 ml is normal for modern humans, but somewhat lower than values from the middle or upper Palaeolithics. The metric cranial data analysed in FORDISC, characterize the skull as a male Vietnamese rather than a Chinese or White individual. Tooth morphology shows the sundadont pattern and tooth size corresponds to that of teeth from Bali, Java and Malayan Orang Asli. Remarkable are the marked asymmetries in the dentition with rotation of an upper premolar and congenital absence of a third molar. In these respects the CF skull is similar to dentitions belonging to the pygmoid villagers of Rampasasa, a village not far from the Liang Bua cave, and to LB1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI FLORA DI INDONESIA

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    Cecep Kusmana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepuluauan seluas sekitar 9 juta km2 yang terletak diantara dua samudra dan dua benua dengan jumlah pulau sekitar 17.500 buah yang panjang garis pantainya sekitar 95.181 km. Kondisi geografis tersebut menyebabkan negara Indonesia menjadi suatu negara megabiodiversitas walaupun luasnya hanya sekitar 1,3% dari luas bumi. Dalam dunia tumbuhan, flora di wilayah Indonesia termasuk bagian dari flora dari Malesiana yang diperkirakan memiliki sekitar 25% dari spesies tumbuhan berbunga yang ada di dunia yang menempati urutan negara terbesar ketujuh dengan jumlah spesies mencapai 20.000 spesies, 40%-nya merupakan tumbuhan endemik atau asli Indonesia. Negara Indonesia termasuk negara dengan tingkat keterancaman dan kepunahan spesies tumbuhan tertinggi di dunia. Saat ini tercatat sekitar 240 spesies tanaman dinyatakan langka, diantaranya banyak yang merupakan spesies tanaman budidaya. Selain itu, sekitar 36 spesies pohon di Indonesia dinyatakan terancam punah, termasuk kayu ulin di Kalimantan Selatan, sawo kecik di Jawa Timur, Bali Barat, dan Sumbawa, kayu hitam di Sulawesi, dan kayu pandak di Jawa serta ada sekitar 58 spesies tumbuhan yang berstatus dilindungi.Keywords: keanekaragaman hayati flora, megabiodiversitas, tingkat kepunahan, tumbuhan dilindungi, tumbuhan langka

  4. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAN PERANGKAT LUNAK VISUALISASI HASIL PEMINDAIAN OPTIS TRIANGULAR DENGAN PEMANGKASAN OBJEK TIGA DIMENSI BERBASIS PARTISI OCTREE

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    Rully A. Hendrawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Perkembangan mesin pemindai tiga dimensi memungkinkan perngarsipan substansi fisik dari dokumen tiga dimensi. Tentunya agar data hasil pengarsipan ini dapat dinikmati oleh banyak orang, maka diperlukan sebuah media untuk mempublikasikan arsip-arsip tersebut. Komputer personal yang ada saat ini adalah salah satu alternatif yang memungkinkan. Arsip-arsip digital tersebut pada saat ini umumnya adalah sebuah model 3-D dalam bentuk kumpulan mesh (permukaan yang dibangun dari poligon yang padat poligon, bentuk geometri ini disimpan dalam suatu file berformat PLY. File ini nantinya akan dibaca dan divisualisasikan dengan bantuan OpenGL. Untuk memperlancar pengontrolan model dilakukan pemisakan antara proses visualisasi ketika sebuah model sedang dikontrol dan setelah selesai. Bentuk sederhana dari model tersebut ditampilkan ketika model sedang dikontrol, setelah selesai baru digambar bentuk asli dari model tersebut. Selain itu dilakukan juga pemangkasan bagian-bagian yang berada diluar batas pandang berbasis sel dengan menggunakan struktur data Octree untuk mempartisi ruang. Perangkat lunak ini dapat memvisualisasikan struktur geometri dari sebuah model tanpa mempedulikan substansi permukaannya. Ketika model hanya tampak sebagian saja, proses visualisasi akan lebih cepat karena dilakukan pemangkasan pada bagian yang tidak tampak. Partisi ruang dengan menggunakan struktur data Octree mengurangi kompleksitas pada saat proses pemangkasan karena pengecekan terhadap batas pandang bukan dilakukan per poligon namun per partisi secara hirarki. Kata Kunci : Visualisasi 3D, Mesh Padat Poligon, Render, Octree.

  5. Pengenalan Isyarat Tangan Menggunakan Leap Motion Controller untuk Pertunjukan Boneka Tangan Virtual

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    Iskandar Dzulkarnain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leap Motion Controller memiliki keterbatasan dalam menangkap gerak isyarat tangan. Keterbatasan tersebut menyebabkan gerakan tangan model boneka virtual tidak seakurat gerakan tangan pelakon. Selain itu, konfigurasi bone model dimensi tiga untuk Leap Motion Controller berbeda dengan konfigurasi bone dimensi tiga pada umumnya. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan pengenalan isyarat tangan menggunakan Leap Motion Controller untuk pertunjukan boneka tangan virtual. Pengenalan isyarat tangan tersebut dilakukan dengan memetakan hasil penjejakan tangan dari Leap Motion Controller ke dalam model prefab tangan Leap SDK. Setelah berhasil dipetakan, konfigurasi bone dari model prefab tangan Leap SDK diadaptasi ke dalam model boneka tangan virtual. Adaptasi tersebut dilakukan dengan mengatur posisi dan orientasi bone pada model dimensi tiga boneka tangan. Setelah posisi dan orientasi bone yang sesuai ditemukan, model dimensi tiga boneka tangan diuji menirukan gerakan boneka tangan asli. Pengujian boneka tangan virtual pada sembarang orang dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat kesinkronan gerak mulut atas dan mulut bawah boneka tangan virtual. Dari pengujian sembarang orang, didapatkan hasil 50% setuju dan 5,6% sangat setuju gerak mulut atas sinkron dengan gerak tangan. Sedangkan untuk gerak mulut bawah sinkron dengan gerak tangan didapatkan 16,7% setuju dan 11,1% sangat setuju.

  6. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  7. Effect of ethnicity and socioeconomic variation to the gut microbiota composition among pre-adolescent in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chun Wie; Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Chin, Yuee Teng; Loke, P’ng; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in mammalian host metabolism and physiological functions. The functions are particularly important in young children where rapid mental and physical developments are taking place. Nevertheless, little is known about the gut microbiome and the factors that contribute to microbial variation in the gut of South East Asian children. Here, we compared the gut bacterial richness and composition of pre-adolescence in Northern Malaysia. Our subjects covered three distinct ethnic groups with relatively narrow range of socioeconomic discrepancy. These included the Malays (n = 24), Chinese (n = 17) and the Orang Asli (indigenous) (n = 20). Our results suggested a strong ethnicity and socioeconomic-linked bacterial diversity. Highest bacterial diversity was detected from the economically deprived indigenous children while the lowest diversity was recorded from the relatively wealthy Chinese children. In addition, predicted functional metagenome profiling suggested an over-representation of pathways pertinent to bacterial colonisation and chemotaxis in the former while the latter exhibited enriched gene pathways related to sugar metabolism. PMID:26290472

  8. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA VIGENERE DAN METODE LSBMR PADA CITRA DIAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzus Sa’id

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi komputer yang sangat bermanfaat pada kehidupan manusia sekarang adalah kecepatan dalam menyampaikan informasi dari tempat yang jauh yaitu melalui Internet. Dalam pengiriman informasi tersebut terdapat masalah yang mengganggu keamanan yang dilakukan oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak bertanggung jawab yaitu dengan  mengubah bahkan mengganti informasi data dalam sebuah media data citra yang disampaikan. Penulis menggunakan kriptografi dengan algoritma Vigenere untuk mengacak pesan dan steganografi dengan metode modifikasi Least Significant Bit Matching Revisited sebagai media yang akan menyembunyikan informasi berupa setiap  nilai bit data pesan ke dalam nilai bit media citra. Setelah dianalisis dan diimplementasikan maka diperoleh bahwa citra yang digunakan untuk cover-image masih tampak seperti normal sehingga tidak menimbulkan kecurigaan bagi orang yang melihatnya, dari hasil pengujian 3 buah citra didapatkan hasil rata-rata PSNR sebesar 65,18773622225307dB pada citra yang belum mengalami serangan noise salt & paper. Kemudian jika diekstraksi dan didekripsi maka akan didapat kembali pesan asli yang telah dienkripsi dan disisipkan  tersebut  secara  utuh. Dengan demikian, kriteria steganografi yang baik yaitu imperceptibility, fidelity dan recovery dapat terpenuhi. Kata Kunci: Citra Digital, Kriptografi, Steganografi, Vigenere, LSBMR (Least Significant Bit Matching Revisited.

  9. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yussup, Sofia Sakina; Marzukhi, Marlia; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Mamat, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Farida Zuraina

    2017-01-01

    The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM)-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes.

  10. IMPLEMENTASI VERNAM CIPHER DAN STEGANOGRAFI END OF FILE (EOF UNTUK ENKRIPSI PESAN PDF

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    Marsela Sutikno Dibiyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keamanan pesan dalam proses pengiriman informasi menjadi hal yang sangat penting, dikarenakan meningkatnya tingkat kebutuhan masyarakat akan jaminan keamanan. Dengan metode konvensional, masyarakat mengamankan pesan format Word dengan melakukan konversi ke format PDF dengan harapan pesan tidak dapat dirusak oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Namun format PDF juga rentan terhadap kerusakan serta keamanan informasi yang terdapat di dalamnya juga tidak terjamin ,karena orang lain bisa mengetahui secara jelas serta bisa dengan mudah melakukan modifikasi isi dari pesan format PDF. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan sebuah alat bantu yang mampu menjaga keaslian dan kerahasiaan pesan tersebut.Metode yang diimplementasikan adalah  dengan mengubah pesan asli menjadi pesan acak yang sudah dienkripsi oleh suatu kunci. Selain itu pesan yang sudah diubah menjadi pesan acak harus disembunyikan ke sebuah media. Algoritma yang digunakan untuk mengacak pesan rahasia tersebut adalah kriptografi Vernam Cipher yang dikombinasikan dengan Steganografi End of File untuk menyembunyikan pesan yang sudah dienkripsi ke dalam media gambar .Hasil yang diperoleh bahwa pesan yang sudah terenkripsi dengan Vernam Cipher dan disisipkan ke dalam media gambar dengan metode end of file tidak mengalami perubahan gambar secara kasat mata, karena metode steganografi end of file tidak akan mengubah kualitas gambar / citra. Kata Kunci : Kriptografi, Vernam Cipher, Steganografi, End of File, media gambar.

  11. Konsep Eirene Berdasarkan Efesus 2:11-22 dan Implementasinya dalam Kekristenan Masa Kini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangyu Wangyu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pertama, setelah setiap pembaca memahami makna eirene diharapkan akanmenerapkan kata eirene ini, di dalam kehidupan setiap hari sebagai salam sapaan sepertilayaknya kata syalom. Dan juga menghidupinya di dalam kehidupan Kristennya.Kedua, hendaklah setiap pemimpin gereja atau para gembala jemaat memahamibahasa asli Alkitab baik itu bahasa Ibrani untuk Perjanjian Lama maupun bahasa Yunaniuntuk Perjanjian Baru supaya dapat mengajar jemaatnya dengan baik.Ketiga, hendaklah setiap orang percaya mengimplementasikan makna eirene inididalam kehidupannya setiap hari, baik dalam ruang lingkup kelurga, tempat kerja ataudimanapun dia berada, harus menjadi pelaku eirene.Keempat, hendaklah setiap pemimpin gereja dan anggota jemaatnya yang sudahmengalami eirene dapat memberitakan, berita eirene (damai sejahtera kepada orang lainyang belum mengalaminya, supaya orang lainpun didamaikan dengan Allah dansesamanya.Dan akhirnya, doa penulis semoga Allah sumber damai sejahtera yang sudahmendamaikan manusia lewat Anak-Nya Yesus Kristus, akan melimpahi semua orangpercaya dengan damai sejahtera. Penulis sangat mengharapkan agar karya ilmiah ini dapatmenjadi berkat bagi setiap pembaca dan orang percaya masa kini.

  12. Unravelling the Genetic History of Negritos and Indigenous Populations of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. PMID:25877615

  13. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sakina Mohd Yussup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes.

  14. PENGAMANAN DOKUMEN TEKS MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA KRIPTOGRAFI MODE OPERASI CIPHER BLOCK CHAINING (CBC DAN STEGANOGRAFI METODE END OF FILE (EOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Lestiawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi memudahkan setiap orang untuk saling terhubung satu sama lain, hal ini menyebabkan pertukaran data maupun informasi dapat dengan mudah dilakukan. Kemudahan akses informasi ini memberi pengaruh dengan adanya ancaman yang dapat membahayakan informasi tersebut, misalnya berupa interupsi, penyadapan, maupun modifikasi informasi. Sebagai contoh sebuah perusahaan ingin mengirimkan sebuah dokumen penting atau pesan kepada mitra bisnisnya tetapi perusahaan ingin agar dokumen/pesan tersebut aman dari ancaman penyadapan yang dapat dilakukan oleh pihak lain. Kriptografi dan steganografi merupakan teknik pengamanan pesan diharapkan dapat tetap menjaga kerahasiaan isi dari informasi dan memberikan keyakinan pada penerima bahwa informasi tersebut memang berasal dari pengirim yang tepat begitu pula, metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah mode operasi Cipher Block Chaining dan metode End Of File dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java. Penggabungan teknik pengamanan kriptografi dan steganografi akan meningkatkan keamanan pesan atau informasi dan menjamin kerahasiaan serta mengurangi resiko informasi dapat dilihat oleh pihak lain. Aplikasi pengamanan dokumen teks yang dibangun dapat mengamankan pesan/informasi dengan baik. Karena pesan berhasil teracak dan citra yang dihasilkan tidak menampakkan perbedaaan kualitas citra yang terlalu jauh dibandingkan dengan citra asli.   Kata Kunci: ancaman, kriptografi, steganografi, Cipher Block Chaining, End Of File.

  15. Menggali Potensi Lokal Mewujudkan Kemandirian Desa

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    Fajar Sidik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini menganalisis pelaksanaan desa wisata di Desa Bleberan, Kecamatan Playen, Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Sebelum ada Badan Usaha Milik Desa (BUMDes, Desa Bleberan dikenal sebagai desa pelosok, terisolir, dan kekurangan air. Tingginya angka kemiskinan menjadi masalah utama yang dihadapi masyarakat setempat. Namun, setelah Pemerintah Desa bersama warga setempat berhasil membentuk BUMDes, kini Desa Bleberan berkembang dan menjadi desa wisata terbaik di Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Kajian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif deskriptif. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Sementara, analisis data dilakukan melalui tahapan sebagai berikut; (1 reduksi data, (2 penyajian data, dan (3 kesimpulan/verifikasi. Agar hasil kajian dapat kredibel, maka teknik triangulasi data digunakan saat validasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam pelaksanaan Desa Wisata di Bleberan (2010-2014, pendapatan asli desa secara signifikan meningkat. Hal tersebut tidak lepas dari peran modal sosial yang dimiliki warga yang telah berkembang dengan baik seperti Organisasi Desa, Kepercayaan, Norma, dan Jaringan. Namun, pengelolaan BUMDes dinilai kurang efektif karena belum dikelola secara transparan dan akuntabel. Kemudian, upaya mewujudkan desa mandiri juga menghadapi tantangan sosial yaitu adanya kecemburuan antar dukuh terkait dengan dana bantuan yang diberikan serta munculnya pelaku ekonomi di sekitar area wisata yang berasal dari keluarga berekonomi mapan.

  16. Management Stategik Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (BUMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavip Agus Rayanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As one of the potential source of local government revenue, it seems that the Local Government Owned Enterprise (Badan Usaha Milik Daerah BUMD have contributed very little to the whole Local Government Revenue (Pendapatan Asli Daerah. It is also ironic that insofar the existence of BUMD has been much rely on the government regulation and given monopoly in its business. The ambiguous mission of BUMD — between an agent of development and a profit center — proved to be the main obstacle for its management system. From the strategic management perspective and SWOT analysis, it is found out that BUMD should adopt a turn-around approach, to minimize its weaknesses and try to get maximum benefit of the wide-opened opportunities. The strategic issues to be tackled by the BUMD management are quite complex. But among the most important issues are: the lack of professional human resources, the inflexible organisational structure and the low product or service quality. To address these issues, it is recommended that BUMD would come up with strategic human resource development programs, to apply more adaptive and flat organisational structure, and to adopt Total Quality Management (TQM system in order to be more responsive to its customers.

  17. Kajian Algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining Dan Market Basket Analysis Dalam Pengenalan Pola Belanja Customer Untuk Layout Toko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusito Rusito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini membahas tentang keterkaitan antar item yang dibeli oleh customer dalam toko ritel. Pengetahuan keterkaitan item yang dibeli dapat digunakan untuk  menentukan tata letak barang dagangan toko ritel. Hal ini penting agar konsumen dapat mudah mendapatkan barang yang dibutuhkan. Sehingga dapat meningkatkan omzet penjualan toko ritel sehingga akhirnya menambah keuntungan bagi pemilik toko ritel. Teknik yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan penggalian data dan keterkaitan pembelian tersebut menggunakan pendekatan Association rule dan Market Basket Analysis. Sedangkan untuk mencari keterkaitan item tersebut digunakan algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining. Digunakan karena mampu menangani jumlah database yang besar dan sangat baik disisi kecepatan pemrosesan. Berbagai aplikasi telah diidentifikasi, termasuk misalnya, cross-selling, analisis situs Web, pendukung keputusan, evaluasi kredit, acara prediksi kriminal, analisis perilaku pelanggan  dan deteksi penipuan. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh  pola-pola belanja customer untuk membentuk suatu layout display dalam toko ritel. Penelitian ini juga menyajikan suatu kerja algoritma yang lebih efektif dari algoritma asli karena terdapat pembatasan perulangan. Untuk kombinasi maksimal 5 item dengan waktu eksekusi 421.06 detik untuk 200 nota.   Kata kunci : Data Mining, Algoritma Sequential Pattern Mining, Market Basket Analysis, Apriori, Layout, Toko Ritel

  18. Detection in Malaysia of a Borrelia sp. From Haemaphysalis hystricis (Ixodida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J J; Lim, F S; Tan, K K; Chen, F S; Phoon, W H; Khor, C S; Pike, B L; Chang, L Y; AbuBakar, S

    2017-09-01

    Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp. from ticks in Portugal and Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Borrelia sp. detected in H. hystricis, and in Malaysia. The zoonotic potential of this Borrelia sp. merits further investigation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Revitalization BMT and Cooperatives Function in Developing Syari'ah Economy

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    Ach Baihaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Islamic economics have been more improvement, as in infrastructure, assets and number of employee year of the year. But by that improvement, there are some problems to be payed attention, like development of quality of human resources in Islamic economics system with holistic approach. So that, to strengthen the character of Islamic economics system need to restore it’s concept to the nature of Islamic thought consider with the Islamic economics history and also accommodate local wisdom. To support the improvement of Islamic economics proper with ideology objectives of islam, cooperation and BMT should be have priority to increase their functions and responsibilities in economics development. Operational of cooperation and BMT will make variability of Islamic contracts more variative. Then Islamic contract by partnership approach based profit and losses sharing will have more proportions and cost of control also will be more efficient and worries about information asymmetry will be declined. It caused, awareness of partnership and togetherness to increase cooperation member welfare will be easily achived. Keywords: business entity, Islamic Financial Institutions, Cooperation, BMT Judul Asli : Revitalisasi Fungsi BMT dan Koperasi dalam Pengembangan Ekonomi Syari’ah

  20. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E

    2015-04-14

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Food restrictions during pregnancy among Indigenous Temiar women in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifah Zahhura, S A; Nilan, P; Germov, J

    2012-08-01

    A qualitative comparative case study was conducted to compare and contrast food taboos and avoidance practices during pregnancy among Orang Asli or indigenous Temiar women in four distinct locations that represent different lifestyle experiences and cultural practices. Through snowballing sampling, a total of 38 participants took part in five focus groups: one group each in Pos Simpor and Pos Tohoi in Kelantan state, one group in Batu 12, Gombak in Selangor state, and two groups in a regroupment scheme (RPSOA) in Kuala Betis, Kelantan. All the transcripts were coded, categorised and 'thematised' using the software package for handling qualitative data, NVivo 8. Variant food prohibitions were recorded among the Temiar women residing in different locations, which differ in food sources and ways of obtaining food. Consumption of seventeen types of food items was prohibited for a pregnant Temiar woman and her husband during the prenatal period. Fear of difficulties during labour and delivery, convulsions or sawan, harming the baby (such as foetal malformation), and twin pregnancy seemed to trigger many food proscriptions for the pregnant Temiar women, most of which have been passed on from generation to generation. The findings of this study confirm that beliefs about food restrictions are strong among those Temiar living a traditional lifestyle. However, those who have adopted a more modern lifestyle also preserve them to some extent.

  2. Combination of Aloe vera and xenograft induction on decreasing of NF-kb of tooth extraction socket preservation in Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb. As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan

  3. KOMPOSISI DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI ASAP CAIR SABUT KELAPA YANG DIBUAT DENGAN TEKNIK PEMBAKARAN NON PIROLISIS Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Liquid Smoke of Coconut Fiber Made by NonPirolisis Combusting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feti Fatimah

    2012-05-01

    mengkaji pembuatan asap cair dengan teknik non pirolisis dari bahan dasar sabut kelapa. Selanjutnya pada asap cair yang dihasilkan dengan teknik ini, dilakukan redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbonaktif. Kualitas asap cair yang dihasilkan diuji dengan melihat komponen penyusun asap cair dengan kromatografi gas - spektrofotometer massa (GC-MS serta uji aktivitas antibakteri terhadap 3 jenis bakteri yaitu Salmonella choleraeaeus, Bacillus subtilus dan Staphylococcus aureus menggunakan teknik sumur pada media PCA dengan jumlah populasi 108/ml. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa asap cair asli (tanpa redistilasi dan penyerapan dengan karbon aktif sedikitnya mengandung 21 komponen, asap cair redistilasi sedikitnya mengandung31 komponen dan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mengandung sedikitnya 5 komponen. Dari hasil uji antibakteri diketahui bahwa asap cair hasil redistilasi menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri yang lebih baik dibandingkan asap cair asli, sedangkan asap cair hasil penyerapan dengan karbon aktif mempunyai aktivitas yang paling kecil dibandingkan keduanya. Hal tersebut dikarenakan kandungan senyawa 2-metoksifenol yang paling tinggi pada asap cair redistilasi dibandingkan keduanya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa teknik redistilasi dapat meningkatkan kualitas asap cair sabut kelapa yang dibuat dengan metode pembakaran non pirolisis.

  4. Makna Mendidik pada Kriya Songket Silungkang Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiwirman -

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the handicraft products related to Silungkang ceremony in West Sumatra is woven songket. This study is aimed at documenting the indigenous culture of Minangkabau which is closely linked to the existence of weaving/songket Silungkang, and reviewing the various motives of songket in the same way as the language which is used as a tool of communication. This type of research is closely linked with the methods of ethnography, then it is processed through a qualitative description. The result of the research shows that songket attire is a symbol of the livelihood of indigenous people in the value of educating people and is used for all forms of ceremonial pomp (ceremonial. Therefore, the motives of songket have a strong position as a means of communication, for a variety of motives with their meanings are part of the indigenous institutions that must be obeyed.     Keywords: Symbol, Songket, Culture     ABSTRAK Salah satu produk kerajinan yang terkait dengan upacara Silungkang di Sumatera Barat adalah tenunan songket. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendokumentasikan budaya asli Minangkabau yang terkait erat dengan keberadaan tenun/songket Silungkang, dan mengkaji berbagai motif songket dengan cara yang sama sebagaimana bahasa yang digunakan sebagai alat komunikasi. Jenis penelitian ini berhubungan erat dengan metode etnografi, maka penelitiannya  diproses melalui deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pakaian songket merupakan simbol dari kehidupan masyarakat adat dalam hal mendidik masyarakat dan digunakan untuk semua bentuk kemegahan upacara (seremonial. Oleh karena itu, motif songket memiliki posisi yang sangat kuat sebagai sarana komunikasi karena berbagai motif dengan maknanya masing-masing merupakan bagian dari adat istiadat yang harus dipatuhi.   Kata kunci: simbol, songket, budaya

  5. Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

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    Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height of the children. METHODS/FINDINGS: Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374 of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5 and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the

  6. Changing sex ratio of mortality in the Semai Senoi, 1969-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1991-04-01

    An excess of male over female deaths is characteristic of modern national populations, whereas in some high-mortality societies female mortality exceeds that of males. Among the Semai Senoi, a Malaysian Orang Asli ("aboriginal") population, women experienced higher mortality than males in the decades before 1969. This differential occurred in all age classes older than 15 years so that the sex ratio progressively increased with age. A recent (1987) restudy of the Semai population found that sex-specific differential mortality is much reduced. A comparison of the 1969 and 1987 life tables shows a sharp shift in the sex ratios of mortality for the post-15-year-old age classes (the geometric means of age classes 15-44 were 0.768 in 1969 and 0.997 in 1987) so that male and female expectations of further life at age 15 are now nearly identical. In contrast to the best-known cases of high female mortality (mostly in South Asia), Semai sex differential mortality does not include the childhood ages. The Semai have traditionally been relatively sexually egalitarian, and sex bias in care has not occurred. Analysis of sex-specific causes of death for the pre-1969 population suggests that maternal mortality is the major cause of the excess female deaths. The reduced number of maternal deaths seems largely due to better health care, particularly the availability of hospital services. Interestingly, the reduction in female mortality has occurred simultaneously with increased fertility, and overall mortality has continued at relatively high levels (eO less than 36). Thus, rather than forming a component of a unitary demographic transition, declining sex differences in mortality can be accounted for by a specific factor, better maternal care.

  7. Distribution of alpha thalassaemia gene variants in diverse ethnic populations in malaysia: data from the institute for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan

    2013-09-10

    Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, α-³·⁷ and -α⁴·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α-³·⁷ deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α-³·⁷ deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α⁺ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α⁰ thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.

  8. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Choy Seow; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Nasr, Nabil A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. In Malaysia, many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of giardiasis. However, there is a scarcity of information on the genetic diversity and the dynamics of transmission of G. duodenalis. The present study was conducted to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages based on multilocus analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Faecal specimens were collected from 484 Orang Asli children with a mean age of 7 years and examined using light microscopy. Specimens positive for Giardia were subjected to PCR analysis of the three genes and subsequent sequencing in both directions. Sequences were edited and analysed by phylogenetic analysis. G. duodenalis was detected in 17% (84 of 484) of the examined specimens. Among them, 71 were successfully sequenced using at least one locus. Genotyping results showed that 30 (42%) of the isolates belonged to assemblage A, 32 (45%) belonged to assemblage B, while discordant genotype results were observed in 9 specimens. Mixed infections were detected in 43 specimens using a tpi-based assemblage specific protocol. At the sub-assemblages level, isolates belonged to assemblage A were AII. High nucleotide variation found in isolates of assemblage B made subtyping difficult to achieve. The finding of assemblage B and the anthroponotic genotype AII implicates human-to-human transmission as the most possible mode of transmission among Malaysian aborigines. The high polymorphism found in isolates of assemblage B warrants a more defining tool to discriminate assemblage B at the sub-assemblage level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ETHNO-BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE MEYAH TRIBE FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA (Catatan Etnobiologi Pada Suku Meyah di Pantai Utara Manokwari, Papua Barat

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    Sepus Fatem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tropical forests provide many products such as fruits, seeds, resin, medicines, meat and by-products such as non-timber forest products. In June 2005, February 2008 and June 2009, ethno botanical and ethno zoological surveys were conducted among Meyah hunter-gatherers and on the flora and fauna. This paper aims to reveal the interaction between the Meyah Tribe in the Northern Part of Manokwari and utilization of forest products. Our study reports that the tribe used about 67 species of plants and 11 wild animals to support their livelihood. Due to the expansion of the Manokwari regency as part of the development process in West Papua Province, we would therefore like to suggest that the local government should pay attention to developing and preserving the biodiversity in this area. ABSTRAK Hutan tropis pada prinsipnya menyediakan berbagai kebutuhan manusia baik buah, biji, resin, tumbuhan obat, daging dan dikenal sebagai  hasil hutan bukan kayu. Survei etnobiologi ini dilakukan pada bulan June 2005, Februari 2008 dan Juni 2009 pada masyarakat yang melakukan kegiatan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan berburu satwa liar. Tulisan ini bermaksud untuk mengungkapkan interaksi Suku Meyah di Wilayah Pantai Utara Manokwari dalam pemanfaatan produk hasil hutan bukan kayu. Studi ini mencatat sekitar 67 spesies tumbuhan dan 11 jenis satwa lair yang di manfaatkan untuk menopang kehidupan suku Meyah. Data jumlah jenis tumbuhan dan satwa liar yang di manfaatkan ini, di harapkan dapat berguna bagi  pemerintah daerah dan lembaga lainnya dalam mengatur pola pemanfaatan sumberdaya hutan non kayu. Dalam hubungan dengan pemekaran wilayah, maka tantangan terhadap kelestarian sumberdaya hutan ini sangat besar, karena diprediksi akan mengalami tekanan dan kerusakan. Dengan demikian siklus kehidupan masyarakat akan terganggu. Sehingga di butuhkan kebijakan guna  mengakomodir kepentingan masyarakat asli dan juga kebutuhan pembangunan.

  10. PROSES REPRESENTASI SIMBOL MATEMATIKA PADA PROSES BERMAIN ANAK TK

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    Ari Kusuma Sulyandari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the representation of children in kindergartens of the objects and symbols of numbers 1 to 10 when playing activities. So the mathematical activity in appropriate with the child's development. This study uses qualitative descriptive by Moleong. The collection of data through observation, interviews, photo and recording. To check the validity of researchers used data triangulation of data sources, theory and methodology. Results of the study is that children need visual in process representation. They need to understand the concept of visualization when many objects, counting objects, understand the numbers 1 to 10. Children are not able to think abstractly. Representation of children has not been perfect. Method of learning in kindergarten helps learning to count and recognize numbers. Especially if done with playing. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui proses representasi anak TK pada simbol matematika bilangan asli 1 sampai 10 pada proses bermain sehingga pembelajaran matematika sesuai dengan perkembangan anak. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi berupa foto serta perekaman. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan pada saat penelitian adalah analisis deskriptif untuk mengecek keabsahan peneliti menggunakan data triangulasi sumber data, teori, dan metodologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anak usia TK membutuhkan visual dalam aktivitas representasi. Anak-anak membutuhkan bantuan visual saat memahami konsep banyak benda, menghitung benda, memahami bilangan 1 sampai 10. Hal ini dikarenakan anak usia TK masih belum dapat berpikir secara abstrak sehingga representasi anak usia TK masih belum sempurna. Penggunaan metode pembelajaran tematik terpadu di TK mempermudah pembelajaran berhitung dan mengenal angka terlebih jika dilakukan dengan bermain.

  11. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

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    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  12. Public health implications of lead poisoning in backyard chickens and cattle: four cases

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    Roegner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amber Roegner,1 Federico Giannitti,2 Leslie W Woods,2 Asli Mete,2 Birgit Puschner1,2 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Lead intoxication in livestock has historically been associated with cattle turned out to pasture and accidental ingestion of lead from drinking crankcase oil, licking grease from machinery, chewing on plumbing or batteries, or drinking water contaminated from leaching materials. Even with the decrease in manufactured items produced with lead, contaminants persist in the landscape and may enter the food supply through animal products. Changing patterns of open range herds moving to new pasture and the increased popularity of urban/suburban backyard chickens or other livestock necessitates public awareness about the clinical signs of lead intoxication, the potential for subclinical animals, public health concerns, particularly for exposure in children, and testing options available. Cases of lead intoxication in livestock demand a thorough case work-up to identify all sources of lead, address subclinical cases, evaluate risk to consumers, and make management suggestions for future prevention. We discuss four recent cases of confirmed lead poisoning in backyard chickens and open range cattle and assess the public health implications therein. Taken as a whole and considering the potential of the remaining herd or flock to be affected without necessarily showing signs, public health officials and veterinarians should be prepared to advise clients on case work-up and management and prevention considerations. Backyard chickens and cattle may not present for suspected lead poisoning as in several of the cases discussed herein yet may still contain concerning tissue or blood levels. The authors believe increased

  13. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PAD DAN DANA PERIMBANGAN DENGAN BELANJA MODAL PEMDA KUDUS

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    Subowo -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan hubungan antara pendapatan asli daerah (PAD dan Dana Perimbangan dengan belanja modal dan mendeteksi kontribusi PAD, Dana Perimba-ngan dan Belanja Modal terhadap pemerintah daerah APBD Kudus. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif. Sampel penelitian yang digunakan adalah Laporan Realisasi Anggaran Pemerintah Daerah Kudus mulai tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Variabel gayutnya (Y adalah Belanja Modal (Y1, sedangkan variabel bebas (X dalam penelitian ini adalah PAD (X1 dan Dana Perimbangan (X2. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data sekunder yang diambil dengan cara dokumentasi teknis. Penelitian ini menggunakan korelasi produk momen untuk melihat hu-bungan antar variabel-variabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya hubungan yang signifikan antara PAD dan Dana Perimbangan dengan Belanja Modal. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between PAD and balance fund with Capital expenditure and to detect the contribution of PAD, balance fund and capital expenditure to the APBD of Kudus local government. This research includes quantitative descriptive research. The sample of the research was the Local Government Budget Realization Report of Kudus started from 2003 up to 2008. Here, the dependent variable (Y is Capital Expenditure (Y1, while the independent variable (X in this research is PAD (X1 and the Balance Fund (X2. This research used secondary data taken by applying the technical documentation. This research used correlation product moment to see the relationship between the variables. The result indicates that there are significant relationships between  PAD and balance fund with capital expenditure.

  14. Human neutrophil antigen profiles in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Siti M; NurWaliyuddin, Hanis Z A; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Norazmi, Mohd N; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Edinur, Hisham A

    2015-10-01

    Human neutrophil antigens (HNA) are polymorphic and immunogenic proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-related alloimmune neutropenia. The characterisation of HNA at a population level is important for predicting the risk of alloimmunisation associated with blood transfusion and gestation and for anthropological studies. Blood samples from 192 healthy, unrelated Malays were collected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (HNA-1, -3, -4) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (HNA-5). The group comprised 30 Banjar, 37 Bugis, 51 Champa, 39 Jawa and 35 Kelantan Malays. The most common HNA alleles in the Malays studied were HNA-1a (0.641-0.765), -3a (0.676-0.867), -4a (0.943-1.000) and -5a (0.529-0.910). According to principal coordinate plots constructed using HNA allele frequencies, the Malay sub-ethnic groups are closely related and grouped together with other Asian populations. The risks of TRALI or neonatal neutropenia were not increased for subjects with HNA-1, -3 and -4 loci even for donor and recipient or pairs from different Malay sub-ethnic groups. Nonetheless, our estimates showed significantly higher risks of HNA alloimmunisation during pregnancy and transfusion between Malays and other genetically differentiated populations such as Africans and Europeans. This study reports HNA allele and genotype frequencies for the five Malay sub-ethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia for the first time. These Malay sub-ethnic groups show closer genetic relationships with other Asian populations than with Europeans and Africans. The distributions of HNA alleles in other lineages of people living in Malaysia (e.g. Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli) would be an interesting subject for future study.

  15. Design of environmental education module towards the needs of aboriginal community learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasman, Siti Mariam; Yasin, Ruhizan Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Non-formal education (NFE) refers to a program that is designed for personal and social education for learners to improve the level of skills and competencies outside formal educational curriculum. Issues related to geography and environment of different Aboriginal communities with other communities play an important role in determining the types and methods that should be made available to the minority community groups. Thus, this concept paper is intended to cater for educational environment through the design and development of learning modules based on non-formal education to the learning of Aboriginal community. Methods and techniques in the design and construction of the modules is based on the Design and Development Research (DDR) that was based on instructional design model of Morrison, Kemp and Ross which is more flexible and prioritizes the needs and characteristics of learners who were involved in the learning modules of the future. The discussion is related to the module development which is suitable to the learning needs of the community and there are several recommendations which may be applied in the implementation of this approach. In conclusion, the community of Orang Asli should be offered the same education as other communities but it is important to distinguish acceptance of learning techniques or approaches used in the education system to meet their standards. The implications of this concept paper is to meet the educational needs of the environment which includes a few aspects of science and some learning activities using effective approaches such as playing and building their own knowledge of meaning.

  16. POLITIK HUKUM PEMBENTUKAN PERATURAN DAERAH NOMOR 5 TAHUN 2006 TENTANG INVESTASI INFRASTRUKTUR JALAN DAN LANDING SITE EKS JALAN PERTAMINA OLEH PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN BARITO TIMUR

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    Ruslan Abdul Rasyid

    2015-06-01

    investasi menjadi minimal yang berdampak pada Pendapatan Asli Daerah Sendiri (PADS Kabupaten Barito Timur menjadi tidak maksimal. Kata kunci: peraturan daerah, politik hukum, implikasi hukum

  17. Burden of Giardia duodenalis Infection and Its Adverse Effects on Growth of Schoolchildren in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Jani, Rohana; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Moktar, Norhayati; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children. Methods/Findings Weight and height of 374 children aged 7–12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of

  18. KESTABILAN IODIUM DALAM GARAM PADA BERBAGAI TIPE DAN RESEP MASAKAN

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    Ance Murdiana Dahro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam jangka panjang fortifikasi garam dianggap cara yang paling tepat guna dan ekonomis untuk menanggulangi masalah kekurangan iodium. Dalam kaitan tersebut perlu diketahui kestabilan iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan dari berbagai tipe dan resep di tingkat lapangan. Sampel berupa masakan yang berasal dari 6 kota di 6 provinsi di Indonesia, banyak dikonsumsi dan dijual di tempat yang banyak dikunjungi orang. Penentuan sampel masakan dilakukan setelah pengujian garam yang digunakan dengan menggunakan pereaksi Iodinatest buatan Indofarma. Bila setelah penambahan pereaksi pada garam timbul warna ungu menandakan bahwa garam tersebut mengandung iodium, masakan ituu kemudian ditetapkan sebagai sampel. Jumlah garam yang ditambahkan diketahui dari wawancara dengan penjual makanan tersebut. Jumlah iodium dalam garam yang ditambahkan kedalam masakan diketahui setelah dilakukan analisis garam di laboratorium. Dari iodium yang tersisa dalam makanan dapat dihitung jumlah iodium yang hilang. Dibuat pula beberapa masakan serupa dengan menggunakan resep asli di laboratorium (simulasi. Pelepasan iodium dari makanan dilakukan melalui dua tahap yaitu digestasi kering lalu dilanjutkan dengan digestasi cara basah. Penetapan iodium dilakukan dengan reaksi "Sandell Kolthoff'. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah iodium yang tersisa pada umumnya amat rendab (dibawah 50 ug/100 gram masakan. Tiap jenis masakan bervariasi dalam keasaman, jenis dan jumlah bumbu yang ditambahkan. Iodium yang rusak/hilang dari masakan tipe asam yang dimasak atau tidak dimasak (contoh kuah empek-empek atau asinan sekitar 60-85%, dari masakan bersantan tapi dimasak tidak lama (contoh soto santan sekitar 40-50%, dari masakan bersantan dikeringkan (contoh rendang sekitar 60-70%, dari masakan yang digoreng (contoh sambal hijau sekitar 45-60%, dari masakan yang diolah tidak lama (contoh sayur tettu, rujak cingur sekitar 40-50%, sedangkan dari masakan yang dimasak lebih dari

  19. Sistem Honorifik Bahasa Lapung Dialek Pesisi di Kabupaten Tanggamus (suatu kajian sosiolinguistik

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    Dessy Saputry

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan dan menemukan bentuk, jenis, faktor sosial, dan kaidah pemakaian honorifik bahasa Lampung dialek Pesisir di Kabupaten Tanggamus. Penelitian ini berupa penelitian deskriptif-naturalistik. Sumber data adalah para informan yang dijaring dengan teknik simak libat cakap (SLQ. Para informan berasal dari daerah-daerah di Kabupaten Tanggamus, Provinsi Lampung. Subjek penelitian ini adalah penutur asli (informan bahasa Lampung dialek Pesisir yang bertempat tinggal di Kabupaten Tanggamus, Provinsi Lampung. Subjek penelitian ini berjumlah 14 penutur yang diambil secara acak 2 orang dari tiap lokasi penelitian. Sumber data lisan diambil melalui wawancara. Keabsahan data dilakukan dengan cara: (1 perpanjangan kesertaan; (2 ketekunan pengamatan; (3 triangulasi; (4 pemeriksaan sejawat melalui diskusi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ternyata bentuk hononfik bahasa Lampung dialek Pesisir di Kabupaten Tanggamus meliputi: (1 kata; (2 kelompok kata; (3 singkatan kata; (4 kelompok singkatan kata; dan (5 gabungan singkatan dan kata. Jenis honorifik meliputi hononfik: (1 kekerabatan; (2 kata ganti per­sona; (3 pangkat, jabatan, dan profesi; (4 gelar; (5 religius; (6 tokoh gaib; dan (7 umum. Faktor-faktor sosial penentu pemilihan honorifik meliputi faktor: (1 hubungan kekerabatan; (2 usia; (3 jenis kelamin; (4 status sosial; {5 latar belakang etnik; (6 situasi dan forum; (7 hubungan antarinterlokutor, (8 lokasi. tempat tinggal; dan (9 status perkawinan. Adapun kaidah pemakaian honorifik bahasa Lampung dialek Pesisir di Kabupaten Tanggamus meliputi kaidah: (1 alternasi; (2 kookurensi; dan (3 sekuensi. Honorifik dapat menambah kekayaan bahasa Lampung. Pemilihan honorifik yang tepat merupakan salah satu cara atau strategi untuk menunjukkan sopan santun dan sikap hormat terhadap or­ang lain. Katakunci: sistem honorifik, bentukjenisfaktor sosial, kaidabpemakaian honorifik, kajian sosiolinguistik

  20. SEJARAH LISAN INTEGRASI PAPUA KE INDONESIA: PENGALAMAN ORANG KAIMANA PADA MASA TRIKORA DAN PEPERA

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    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2015-01-01

    lain adalah terkait cerita dari Letnan Kolonel Untung Syamsuri, mantan komandan Cakrabirawa, yang terlibat dalam “kudeta” Partai Komunis Indonesia di tahun 1965. Dari beberapa wawancara, orang asli Kaimana lebih mengagumi dan menghormati petugas Indonesia karena lebih humanis.Kata kunci: integrasi, Pepera, Kaimana 

  1. Book Reviews

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    R.C. Kwantes

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available - H.E.M. Braakhuis, R.D. Bruce, El Libro de Chan K’in. INAH, Colección cientifica: lingüistica 12, Mexico 1974. 385 pp.''Los Lacandones 2: Cosmovisión maya. INAH, Publicaciones antropológicas 26, Mexico 1971. 187 pp., C. Robles, E.Ramos Chao (eds. - A. Day, Ann Kumar, Surapati, Man and Legend: A study of three Babad traditions, Australian National University Centre of Oriental studies, Oriental Monograph series. No. 20. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1976. ix + 421 pp. - P. van Emst, Josef Franz Thiel, Grundbegriffe der Ethnologie. Vorlesungen zur Einführung. Collectanea Instituti Anthropos Vol. 16. Anthropos-Institut. St. Augustin, Haus Völker und Kulturen, 1977. 198 pp. - H.J. de Graaf, J. Kathirithamby-Wells, The British West Sumatran Presidency (1760-1785. Problems of early colonial enterprise. Penerbit Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 1977, 270 + VII pp. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Iskandar Carey, Orang Asli: The aboriginal tribes of Peninsula Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1976. 376 pp. Bibliography, index; 17 ills., 9 plates in colour. - S. Kooijman, Wolf Bleek, Achter de coulissen. Antropologisch veldwerk in Ghana. Terreinverkenningen in de Culturele Antropologie. Van Gorcum, Assen/Amsterdam 1978. - J.M. Pluvier, R.C. Kwantes, De ontwikkeling van de nationalistische beweging in Nederlandsch-Indië; bronnenpublikatie. Eerste stuk, 1917 - medio 1923. Groningen, Tjeenk Willink, 1975. xxxv + 625 blz. Afkortingen, woordenlijst, registers. - P. van de Velde, Wim van Dooren, Dialektiek, een historische en systematische inleiding. Van Gorcum, Assen/Amsterdam, 1977. X + 142 blz. - J.A. Zevenbergen, M.B. Hooker, Legal pluralism, an introduction to colonial and neo-colonial laws. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975. 601 pp.

  2. Perdagangan Internasional: Pengaruhnya Terhadap Perubahan Sistem Nilai Budaya Orang Maluku

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    Mus Huliselan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Keterlibatan Orang Maluku dalam percaturan perdagangan internasional dan perjumpaan dengan berbagai pedagang asing telah membawa perubahan dalam peradaban Orang Maluku. Dari para pedagang asing ini para Sultan dan raja-raja memperoleh pengetahuan tentang: agama, perdagangan, pelayaran maupun berbagai teknologi baru. Perdagangan internasional membawa dampak yang cukup penting bagi kehidupan sosial budaya Maluku, karena menjadi ruang perjumpaan berbagai Negara dengan latar budaya yang berbeda-beda dan berpengaruh terhadap budaya asli Maluku, namun identitas Maluku tetap terjaga, yakni ciri kebudayaan monodualitas. Dalam kebudayaan monodualistis kedua kelompok harus tetap ada dan satu harus memberikan kemungkinan kepada yang lain untuk tetap hidup, sebab kalau satu tidak ada maka keberadaan yang lain tidak berarti. Dalam waktu bersamaan juga tumbuh ikatan-ikatan persaudaraan yang didasarkan pada nilai tolong menolong antar sesama. Hal ini lahir sebagai upaya penegakan keseimbangan baru dalam perbedaan untuk peredam kekerasan dan keinginan untuk hidup berdampingan secara damai.   Abstract The involvement of the Moluccan in the international trade and the interaction with the foreign traders has brought the transformation in the civilization of tbe Moluccas. Through these foreign traders sultans and the kings achieving knowledge on religion, trade, seafaring and new technologies. The international trade has created major impacts on the social and cultural life in the moluccas asnit save as a interaction space for countries with variois background and has influenced the original cultural of the Moluccas although the identity of the Moluccas is the existed with the monodualism characteristic. In the perspective of the monodualistic culture every group has to still exist and must depend one another to support every part. As the meaning of one always depends on the existence of the other. In the same time the brotherhood relationship has grew

  3. Distribution of Alpha Thalassaemia Gene Variants in Diverse Ethnic Populations in Malaysia: Data from the Institute for Medical Research

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    Syahzuwan Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567 were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, ––SEA, ––THAI, ––FIL; two single-gene deletions, α–3.7 and –α4.2; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana, Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring. A high incidence of α–3.7 deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the ––SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α–3.7 deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α+ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α0 thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.

  4. Visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian pre-school children - The SEGPAEDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F L M; Thavaratnam, L K; Shukor, I N C; Ramasamy, S; Rahmat, J; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P; Alagaratnam, J

    2018-02-01

    Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria. A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia. Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.

  5. Implementasi Teknik Watermarking menggunakan FFT dan Spread Spectrum Watermark pada Data Audio Digital

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    HANNAN HARAHAP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penggunaan teknologi dan internet yang berkembang dengan pesat menyebabkan banyak pemalsuan dan penyebaran yang tidak sah terhadap data digital. Oleh karena itu, sangat diperlukan suatu teknologi yang dapat melindungi hak cipta data multimedia seperti audio. Teknik yang sering digunakan dalam perlindungan hak cipta adalah watermarking karena teknik ini memiliki tiga kriteria utama dalam keamanan data, yaitu robustness, imperceptibility, dan safety. Untuk itu, pada penelitian ini dirancang suatu skema yang dapat melindungi hak cipta data audio. Metode yang digunakan adalah Fast Fourier Transform, yang mengubah data audio asli ke dalam domain frekuensi sebelum dilakukan proses penyisipan watermark dan proses ekstraksi watermark. Watermark disebar pada komponen yang paling signifikan dari spektrum magnitude audio host. Teknik watermarking pada penelitian ini dapat menghasilkan Signal-to-Noise Ratio di atas 20 dB dan Bit Error Rate di bawah 5%. Kata kunci: Audio watermarking, Copyright Protection, Fast Fourier Transform, Spektrum magnitude ABSTRACT The use of technology and internet has grown rapidly that causes a lot of forgery and illegal proliferation of digital data. It needs a technology that can protect the copyright of multimedia data such as audio. The most common technique in copyright protection is watermarking because it has three main criteria in data security: robustness, imperceptibility, and safety. This research created a scheme that can protect a copyright of audio data. The method that we used is Fast Fourier Transform. This method changes the original audio data into frequency domain before the embedding and extraction process. The watermark is spread into the most significant component of the magnitude spectrum of audio host. This technique obtains Signal-to-Noise Ratio above 20 dB and Bit Error Rate below 5%. Keywords: Audio watermarking, Copyright Protection, Fast Fourier Transform, Magnitude spectrum

  6. Aplikasi Simulasi dan Main Angklung (Saung Berbasis Android

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    Danal Meizantaka Daeanza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern way of thinking cause traditional music instruments start to lose its enthusiasm. Today’s generation is more familiar with multimedia features presented by computers. Angklung which is one of the world heritage of musical instruments from Indonesian culture is the one that affected by the rapid technology development. Based on such situation, this research is conducted to design a mobile device application which introduces Angklung. The Application is implemented on a mobile device with Android Operating System. The method used in this research is Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC. The evaluation of this application uses two parameters, the Black-box method, and questionnaire. Black-box method evaluation results showed that this application is running according to specification requirements. The result obtained from the questionnaire with Likert scale showed the average score from each question is 88%. So it can be concluded that the application gains positive feedback and has been qualified to be considered as good. Pola pikir yang dipandang modern membuat alat musik tradisional semakin kehilangan penggemar. Generasi muda lebih akrab dengan fitur multimedia yang disuguhkan oleh komputer. Angklung yang merupakan alat musik warisan dunia dari kebudayaan asli Indonesia menjadi salah satu yang terkena dampak dari perkembangan pesat teknologi. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dilakukan penelitian untuk merancang sebuah aplikasi perangkat seluler untuk mengenalkan angklung. Aplikasi ini diimplementasikan pada perangkat seluler dengan sistem operasi Android. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC. Pengujian aplikasi menggunakan dua jenis parameter pengujian yaitu metode black-box dan kuesioner. Metode black-box menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi sudah berjalan sesuai spesifikasi kebutuhan begitu juga dengan tiap fungsi aplikasi. Hasil yang diperoleh dari data kuesioner dengan implementasi skala

  7. “John A. MacMillan: Pioneer Missionary of Spiritual Warfare and the Believer’s Authority”

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    Paul King

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people associate teaching on spiritual warfare and the authority of the believer from charismatic or Word of Faith sources, especially like Kenneth Hagin. However, the original source of teaching on this doctrine comes from classic holiness roots in the Higher Life and Keswick movements, especially from John A. MacMillan, a missionary, writer, editor, and professor with the Christian and Missionary Alliance. In 1932 he wrote a series of articles entitled “The Authority of the Believer,” eventually published in book form, distributed widely and republished in other periodicals. MacMillan had a remarkable and extensive ministry in the exercise of the authority of the believer and spiritual warfare spanning more than thirty years. His experiences include divine protection, healing, divine intervention, power encounters with demonic forces, and teaching on territorial spirits and generational bondages. Numerous evangelical and charismatic leaders have quoted or referred to his teachings and principles.Banyak orang mengasosiasikan pengajaran peperangan rohani dan otoritas orang percaya dari karismatik atau sumber Firman Iman, terutama seperti Kenneth Hagin. Namun, sumber asli dari pengajaran doktrin ini berasal dari akar kekudusan klasik dalam gerakan Higher Life dan Keswick, terutama dari John A. MacMillan, seorang misionaris, penulis, editor, dan profesor dengan Christian and Missionary Alliance. Pada tahun 1932 ia menulis serangkaian artikel yang berjudul “Otoritas orang percaya,” akhirnya diterbitkan dalam bentuk buku, didistribusikan secara luas dan diterbitkan di majalah lainnya. MacMillan memiliki pelayanan yang luar biasa dan luas dalam pelaksanaan otoritas orang percaya dan peperangan rohani yang lebih dari tiga puluh tahun. Pengalamannya termasuk perlindungan ilahi, penyembuhan, campur tangan ilahi, pertemuan kuasa dengan kekuatan jahat, dan pengajaran tentang roh teritorial dan perbudakan generasi. Banyak pemimpin injili dan

  8. Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Jani, Rohana; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Moktar, Norhayati; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children. Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal children.

  9. KREATIVITAS EKONOMI MASYARAKAT LOKAL DI KERESIDENAN JEPARA 1830-1900

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    Alamsyah Alamsyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research shows that in the period of 1830-1900 the inhabitants of Jepara Residency were quite dynamic even though the economic principle had moved from maritime to agrarian. The inhabitants’ creativity which was based on soft skill raised the economic autonomy. They did not rely on the maritime and plantation economy so much. However, the plantation economy gave an opportunity for the creative economy to be born. Then, the inhabitants’ economic creativity created industry and indigenous handicraft. The introduction of export plants which was supported by capitalism did not raise the inhabitants’ dependence towards the colonial economic system. What happened precisely was the interdependence between government, capitalist and inhabitants. When the colonial economic penetration was more intensive, the people were able to adapt to the economic change without being dependent upon the colonial economic structure. It was shown by the inhabitants’ alternative economy. Key words: economic creativity, local society, Jepara residency  Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada periode 1830-1900 penduduk Keresidenan Jepara cukup dinamis meskipun prinsip ekonomi telah berpindah dari maritim ke agraris. Kreativitas penduduk yang didasarkan pada soft skill mengangkat otonomi ekonomi. Mereka tidak begitu banyak bergantung pada ekonomi maritim dan ekonomi perkebunan. Namun, ekonomi perkebunan memberikan kesempatan bagi ekonomi kreatif untuk berkembang. Kemudian, kreativitas ekonomi penduduk menciptakan industri dan kerajinan asli. Pengenalan tanaman ekspor yang didukung oleh kapitalisme tidak meningkatkan ketergantungan penduduk terhadap sistem ekonomi kolonial. Apa yang terjadi justru adalah saling bergantungnya antara pemerintah, kapitalis dan penduduk. Ketika penetrasi ekonomi kolonial lebih intensif, orang-orang mampu beradaptasi dengan perubahan ekonomi tanpa bergantung kepada struktur ekonomi kolonial. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan

  10. Integrasi Transformasi Spektral Citra Landsat Etm+ dan SIG untuk Pemetaan Pola Rotasi Tanam Lahan Sawah Kabupaten dan Kota Semarang serta Daerah Sekitarnya di Jawa Tengah

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    Sri Retno Murdiyati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pengurangan daerah beras seiring dengan meningkatnya populasi memberikan dampak pada ketersediaan pangan. Yang sesuai dan optimal manajemen beras yang diperlukan dengan mempertimbangkan sumber daya iklim dan pola tanam yang tepat waktu di lahan pertanian produktif, untuk mendukung kebutuhan dasar makanan untuk masyarakat, serta memberikan dukungan untuk Ketahanan Pangan Nasional. Studi ini dimaksudkan untuk menyelidiki keakuratan penggunaan spektrum nilai proses transformasi dan GIS untuk mengidentifikasi dan inventarisasi rotasi pola tanam di sawah dengan approach.The ekologi metode penelitian terdiri dari interpretasi klasifikasi multi-temporal ETM + Landsat digital dibantu menggunakan algoritma kemungkinan maksimum diawasi, dan dibantu dengan proses transformasi nilai spektral dari Analisis Principal Component (PCA, NDVI dan Tasseled Cap Transformasi (TCT. ETM + Landsat data yang digunakan adalah 5 Desember 2000, 24 April 2001, dan 1 Juli, 2001 di 120/065 path / row. Analisis ini selesai melalui membandingkan hasil dari proses transformasi Principal Component Spectral Analysis (PCA, NDVI dan Tasseled Cap Transformasi (TCT dan proses transformasi gabungan dari tiga dari mereka, dengan hasil yang diperoleh dari klasifikasi tutupan lahan menggunakan saluran asli. Peran GIS dalam penelitian mengumpulkan data pendukung seperti peta zona agroklimat, peta tanah, peta bentuk lahan, peta sawah irigasi, dan setelah itu dilapisinya semua dari mereka untuk pola tanam peta, dengan mengikuti tanda-tanda, untuk menghasilkan beras tanam peta rotasi pola. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara terpisah menggunakan proses transformasi nilai-nilai spektral multi-temporal yang disediakan akurasi rendah, tetapi dengan visual yang jelas, yaitu Principal Component Analysis, NDVI dan Tasseled Cap Transformasi 96,13%, 68,17%, dan 92,44% . Hasil akurasi dari proses transformasi spektral gabungan memberikan nilai 92,61%. Penggunaan multi-temporal Landsat

  11. Kain Songket Palembang dengan Penerapan Teknik Batik sebagai Produk Fesyen

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    Nadina Sukma Salim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimnya perkembangan motif Songket Palembang dan menghadapi kemunculan ‘songket’ mesin yang harga jualnya jauh lebih murah membuat beberapa pengrajin tenun songket asli menggunakan material alternatif, seperti sutera campuran, benang emas campuran, dan lain-lain untuk tetap bertahan. Semaraknya tren batik di Indonesia sejak UNICEF menetapkan batik sebagai warisan tak benda asli Indonesia, namun banyak masyarakat dalam dan luar Palembang yang tidak kenal dengan Batik Palembang. Kenyataannya, karena ketidakpahaman ini dan karena sisi ekonomis menyebabkannya sebagian masyarakat terpaksa memilih tekstil hasil industri pabrik dibanding karya asli daerah. Akhirnya, kepentingan untuk mempopulerkan motif batik Palembang yang mulai terlupakan juga menjadi kepentingan penelitian ini, selain kebutuhan akan variasi baru kreasi kain Songket Palembang. Hubungan dengan Cina dan India memberikan pengaruh dalam beberapa ragam hias dan warna pada kain Songket Palembang. Kesultanan Palembang Darussalam membeli benang emas dari Cina untuk ditenun menghiasi Songket Palembang sebagai pakaian  mewah kalangan bangsawan wanita. Berdasarkan kuantitas benang dan motif yang diterapkan di dalamnya, kain songket berbeda bagi golongan penggunanya. Diketahui, sebagai komoditi dagang dari Jawa, batik juga dikenakan oleh masyarakat Palembang. Motif-motif tertentu digemari dan menjadi ciri khas motif Palembangan hingga kini. Batik Palembang tidak dibuat di Palembang melainkan di Pesisir Jawa. Oleh karena itu, motifnya merupakan paduan ragam hias flora fauna Palembang dan corak songket selain motif India dan daerah pembuatnya. Akhirnya, salah satu solusi yang ditawarkan untuk keragaman variasi ini adalah menerapkan teknik batik di atas permukaan kain Songket Palembang sebagai salah satu cara menghias permukaan kain. Penerapan ini dapat dilakukan karena kain terbuat dari benang sutera alam. Menggunakan mode kualitatif, data-data didapat melalui literatur, wawancara dan

  12. TINGKAT KONSISTENSI PEMUDA TANI TERHADAP TRANSFORMASI SEKTOR PERTANIAN DI KABUPATEN PONOROGO

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    Eri Yusnita Arvianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sebagai salah satu daerah di propinsi Jawa Timur yang menyumbang devisa terbesar di Indonesia melalui pengiriman TKI di luar negeri adalah kabupaten Ponorogo. Fenomena tersebut menyebabkan adanya permasalahan tata keruangan wilayah maupun sosiologi pedesaan .Hal ini memberikan dampak pada pergeseran mata pencaharian dari petani menjadi bukan petani. Salah satu wilayah yang mengalami perubahan menjadi perkotaan adalah di lima desa Kabupaten Ponorogo yaitu Mojorejo, Kemuning, Siwalan, Babadan, Demangan Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat konsistensi pemuda tani terhadap mata pencahariannya di Kabupaten Ponorogo. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survey. Data yang dikumpulkan diperoleh melalui teknik wawancara dengan para pemuda tani yang tersebar di lima desa di Kecamatan kota Ponorogo.Teknik analisis datanya menggunakan purposive sample dengan mengambil 60 sampel. Kemudian mendeskripsikan konsistensi pemuda tani dengan cara skoring. Selanjutnya diklasifikasikan dalam tiga kelas, yaitu kelas tidak konsisten, kurang konsisten, dan konsisten. Di Kabupaten Ponorogo terdapat 38.3% pemuda tani tidak konsisten (23pemudatani.Pemuda yang tidak konsisten di dominasi oleh para pemuda tani yang penguasaan lahannya sempit (2.000m2, pendapatan tinggi (> Rp. 15.000.000,00 per tahun dan merupakan penduduk asli. ABSTRACT As one of the areas in the province of East Java, which accounts for the largest foreign exchange in Indonesia through sending workers in a foreign country is Ponorogo. The phenomenon led to problems of spatial planning regions and rural sociology. It is an impact on the livelihoods of farmers shifting to non-farmers. One area that has been changed into an urban village is in five Ponorogo is Mojorejo, Myrtle, Siwalan, Babadan, Demangan This study aims to determine the consistency of farm youth to livelihood in Ponorogo. This study used survey method. The data collected was obtained through interviews with youths techniques

  13. Kajian Estetika Desain Batik Khas Sleman "Semarak Salak"

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    Irfa'ina Rohana Salma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBatik merupakan karya seni adiluhung bangsa Indonesia yang keindahannya telah diakui dunia. Tekstil tradisional yang proses pendekorasiannya menggunakan lilin (malam sebagai  warna ini, kembali mengalami tren yaitu mulai digemari lagi oleh masyarakat. Kegairahan memakai batik turut membangkitkan kembali IKM batik di berbagai daerah yang selama ini mengalami kelesuan produksi. Kreativitas penciptaan karya batik mengalami peningkatan. Banyak pemerintah daerah mulai membangkitkan potensi kreatif di bidang seni batik, salah satunya adalah Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pemerintah Kabupaten Sleman lewat kreativitas desainer ingin menciptakan desain batik baru yang mencerminkan identitas sosial budaya dan alamnya, yang akan digunakan sebagai batik khas daerah. Desain batik dengan judul “Semarak Salak” adalah salah satu hasil karya desain batik khas Sleman yang sumber inspirasi penciptaannya digali dari hasil bumi asli Sleman yaitu salak pondoh. Pengkajian estetika terhadap karya desain batik “Semarak Salak” bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan nilai-nilai keindahan universal dari karya tersebut. Metode yang dipakai yaitu pendekatan studi kepustakaan. Dari hasil pengkajian didapatkan hasil bahwa karya desain  batik   “Semarak Salak” mengandung nilai-nilai keindahan yang terdapat dalam komposisi motif, komposisi warna, kesesuaian dengan ciri khas Sleman, serta kandungan makna filosofisnya. Kata kunci: estetika, desain batik, Sleman, semarak salak AbstractBatik is a valuable artwork of beauty of Indonesia which has been recognized worldwide. Traditional textile processes decorated by wax (malam asthis color barrier, re-experiencing a trend that began more favored by the public. Wearing batik excitement helped revive batik SMEs in various areas that have experienced a declined in production. Creation of batik has increased. Many local governments began to awaken the creative potential in the arts of batik, one of

  14. A Review of Adult Obesity Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K G

    2016-06-01

    A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m 2 for overweight and 27.0 kg/m 2 for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention

  15. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENYERAPAN TENAGA KERJA DI PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pangastuti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan ekonomi tidak lepas dari peran manusia dalam mengelolanya. Manusia merupakan tenaga kerja, input pembangunan, juga merupakan konsumen hasil pembangunan itu sendiri. Permasalahan pokok dalam ketenagakerjaan Indonesia terletak pada tingkat kesempatan kerja. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh PDRB , Upah minimum Kabupaten/ Kota (UMK, Pengangguran, Serta Pendapatan Ali Daerah (PAD terhadap penyerapan tenaga di Provinsi Jawa Tengah tahun 2008-2012. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah studi dokumentasi, sehingga tidak diperlukan teknik sampling serta kuesioner. Analisis kuantitatif dalam penelitian ini menggunakan regresi linier berganda dengan Metode Random Effect (REM. Hasil penelitian menunjukan pengaruh PDRB terhadap penyerapan tenaga kerja memiliki hubungan yang negatif sebesar 0.000504. Pengaruh UMK terhadap penyerapan tenaga kerja memiliki pengaruh positif dengan besarnya koefisien 0.06523. Pengaruh pengangguran terhadap penyerapan tenaga kerja memiliki pengaruh positif dengan besarnya koefisien 2.480002. Pengaruh PAD terhadap penyerapan tenaga kerja memiliki hubungan positif dengan besarnya koefisien 0.000170. Nilai probabilitas masing masing variabel yang tidak signifikan yaitu PDRB, Upah Minimum Kabupaten/Kota (UMP, serta Pendapatan Asli Daerah. Variabel yang signifikan yaitu Penganguran karena nilai probabilitas < dari alpha. Sehingga perlu dikajinya faktor-faktor lain yang dapat mempengaruhi penyerapan tenaga kerja di Jawa Tengah antara lain jumlah perusahaan, nilai produksi, suku bunga dan lain sebagainya.  Economic development can not be separated from the human role in managing it. Humans are the workforce, construction input, is also a result of consumer development itself. The main problem in Indonesia employment lies in the level of employment. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of GDP, minimum wage Regency / City (UMK, Unemployment, And Ali Revenue (PAD

  16. KONVERGENSI ESTIMATOR DALAM MODEL MIXTURE BERBASIS MISSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dwidayati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Model mixture dapat mengestimasi proporsi pasien yang sembuh (cured dan fungsi survival pasien tak sembuh (uncured. Pada kajian ini, model mixture dikembangkan untuk  analisis cure rate berbasis missing data. Ada beberapa metode yang dapat digunakan untuk analisis missing data.  Salah satu metode yang dapat digunakan adalah Algoritma EM, Metode ini didasarkan pada dua langkah, yaitu: (1 Expectation Step dan (2 Maximization Step. Algoritma EM merupakan pendekatan iterasi untuk mempelajari model dari data dengan nilai hilang melalui empat  langkah, yaitu(1 pilih himpunan inisial dari parameter untuk sebuah model, (2 tentukan nilai ekspektasi untuk data hilang, (3 buat induksi parameter model baru dari gabungan nilai ekspekstasi dan data asli, dan (4 jika parameter tidak converged, ulangi langkah 2 menggunakan model baru. Berdasar kajian yang dilakukan dapat ditunjukkan bahwa pada algoritma EM, log-likelihood untuk missing data  mengalami kenaikan setelah dilakukan setiap iterasi dari algoritmanya. Dengan demikian berdasar algoritma EM, barisan likelihood konvergen jika likelihood terbatas ke bawah. Model mixture can estimate the proportion of recovering (cured patients and function of survival but do not recover (uncured patients. In this study, a model mixture has been developed to analyze the curing rate based on missing data. There are some methods applicable to analyze missing data. One of the methods is EM Algorithm, This method is based on two (2 steps, i.e.: ( 1 Expectation Step and ( 2 Maximization Step. EM Algorithm is an iteration approach to study the model from data with missing values in four (4 steps, i.e. (1 to choose initial set from parameters for a model, ( 2 to determine the expectation value for missing data, ( 3 to make induction for the new model parameter from the combined expectation values and the original data, and ( 4 if parameter is not converged, repeat step 2 using new model. The current study indicated that for

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M.I. van der Sluys

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, John Robert Shepherd, Marriage and mandatory abortion among the 17th-century Siraya. Arlington: American Anthropological Association, 1995, iv + 99 pp. [American Ethnological Society Monograph Series 6.] - Bernice de Jong Boers, Michael Hitchcock, Islam and identity in Eastern Indonesia. Hull: The University of Hull Press, 1996, ix + 208 pp. - Dwight Y. King, Audrey R. Kahin, Subversion as foreign policy; The secret Eisenhower and Dulles debacle in Indonesia. New York: The New Press, 1995, 230 + 88 pp., George McT. Kahin (eds. - Han Knapen, Harold Brookfield, In place of the forest; Environmental and socio-economic transformation in Borneo and the eastern Malay peninsula. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press, 1995, xiv + 310 pp. [UNU Studies on Critical Environmental Regions.], Lesley Potter, Yvonne Byron (eds. - Niels Mulder, E. Paul Durrenberger, State power and culture in Thailand. New Haven: Yale University, Southeast Asia Studies, 1996, vii + 200 pp. [Monograph 43.] - Peter Pels, Margaret J. Wiener, Visible and invisible realms; Power, magic and colonial conquest in Bali. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, xiv + 445 pp. - Marie-Odette Scalliet, Annabel Teh Gallop, Early views of Indonesia; Drawings from the British Library. Pemandangan Indonesia di masa lampau; Seni gambar dari British Library. London: The British Library, Jakarta: Yayasan Lontar, 1995, 128 pp., 86 ill., 39 pl. - Cornelia M.I. van der Sluys, Marina Roseman, Healing sounds from the Malaysian rain forest; Temiar music and medicine. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993, xvii + 233 pp. - Cornelia M.I. van der Sluys, John D. Leary, Violence and the dream people; The Orang Asli in the Malayan emergency, 1948-1960. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University, Center for International Studies, 1995, xxiii + 238 pp. [Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 95.] - H. Steinhauer, Darrell T. Tryon, Comparative

  18. PUBLIC POLICY IN ISLAMIC FRAMEWORK: EXPLORING PARADIGM BASED ON ISLAMIC EPISTEMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader Cassim Mahomedya

    2015-12-01

    Islami, Ekonomi Islam telah dan masih menyertakan dasar-dasar epistemology-ontology kebiasaan orang-orang barat (occidentalisme, sehingga masih terikat pada teori- teori arus utama dan perangkat ekonomi mikro neo-klasik dan ekonomi makro Keynesian. Hal ini menjadi kelemahan utama yang dihadapi oleh para ekonom Islam dalam membentuk suatu identitas yang berbeda dalam bidang penelitiannya. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menekankan pentingnya hubungan antara epistemologi, ilmu pengetahuan, dan ekonomi Islam. Setelah keterkaitan ini dipahami dan disadari, hal ini akan memberi arti dalam mengartikulasikan suatu episteme bagi ekonomi Islam dan untuk memperoleh darinya dan kemudian mengkonstruksikan sebuah matrix konsep, kategori ontology dan aksioma yang tepat bagi episteme tersebut. Hal ini sangat mendesak jika para ekonom Islam dan para ahli ilmu sosial muslim bercita-cita untuk mewujudkan tujuan- tujuan Islam dan menghindari jebakan rekan- rekannya di dunia barat. Mereka harus merencanakan sebuah cara baru dan berbeda dalam memajukan ilmu pengetahuannya, konsisten dengan pandangan yang berdasarkan sumber-sumber Islam yang asli.

  19. Management of anterior teeth damage caused by complex caries through aesthetic endorestoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Zubaidah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a microbiological disease that result in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. It is multifactorial, therefore prevention must be based on a multifactorial approach. The damage of anterior teeth due to complex caries, for certain person may interfere their performance and decrease their self confidence aesthetically. Restoration of tooth form and function, especially on anterior teeth is highly valuable. Purpose: To present a case of maxillary anterior teeth with complex caries, through endorestoration treatment for recovering its original function and aesthetic. Case: The 21 years old male patient with complex carries on maxillary anterior teeth number 12, 11, 21, 22 and 23. The patient felt bad about his performance and affect his self confidence. The patient visited the clinic to repair his teeth and to get its form and function aesthetically. Case management: The endorestoration treatment was performed for carious teeth through pulpectomy followed by insertion of post retention and porcelain fused to metal crowns. Conclusion: Anterior teeth with severed complex caries can be managed through endorestoration treatment to recover its performance and function aesthetically.Latar belakang: Dental karies adalah penyakit infeksi yang berakibat kerusakan jaringan kalsifikasi dan bersifat multifactorial. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dilakukan dengan pendekatan multifactorial. Kerusakan gigi anterior karena karies kompleks untuk orang-orang tertentu mungkin berdampak pada penampilan dan penurunan kepercayaan diri karena factor estetik. Perbaikan gigi anterior dari berbagai kerusakan baik dalam hal bentuk maupun fungsinya sangat besar nilainya. Tujuan: Untuk menunjukkan kasus gigi anterior rahang atas karena karies kompleks melalui perawatan endorestorasi untuk mengembalikan fungsi gigi asli dan estetik. Kasus: Laki-laki usia 21 tahun dengan karies kompleks pada gigi anterior rahang atas 12, 11, 21

  20. Cardio-metabolic health risks in indigenous populations of Southeast Asia and the influence of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maude E; Chan, Kevin K L; Naidu, Rakesh; Mohamad, Nazaimoon W; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Quek, Kia-Fatt; Ahmad, Badariah; Harnida, Siti M I; Zain, Anuar Z M; Kadir, Khalid A

    2015-01-31

    South East Asia (SEA) is home to over 30 tribes of indigenous population groups who are currently facing rapid socio-economic change. Epidemiological transition and increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) has occured. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Orang Asli (OA) indigenous people comprise 0 · 6% (150,000) of the population and live in various settlements. OA comprise three distinct large tribes with smaller sub-tribes. The three large tribes include Proto-Malay (sub-tribes: Orang Seletar and Jakun), Senoi (sub-tribes: Mahmeri and Semai), and Negrito (sub-tribes: Jehai, Mendriq and Batek). We studied the health of 636 OA from seven sub-tribes in the Peninsular. Parameters that were assessed included height, weight, BMI and waist circumference whilst blood pressure, cholesterols, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels were recorded. We then analysed cardio-metabolic risk factor prevalences and performed multiple pair-wise comparisons among different sub-tribes and socio-economic clusters. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were recorded in the seven sub-tribes.. Prevalence for general and abdominal obesity were highest in the urbanized Orang Seletar (31 · 6 ± 5 · 7%; 66 · 1 ± 5 · 9%). Notably, hunter gatherer Jehai and Batek tribes displayed the highest prevalence for hypertension (43 · 8 ± 9 · 29% and 51 · 2 ± 15 · 3%) despite being the leanest and most remote, while the Mendriq sub-tribe, living in the same jungle area with access to similar resources as the Batek were less hypertensive (16.3 ± 11.0%), but displayed higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (27.30 ± 13.16%). We describe the cardio-metabolic risk factors of seven indigenous communities in Malaysia. We report variable prevalence of obesity, cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes in the OA in contrast to the larger ethnic majorities such as Malays, Chinese and Indians in Malaysia These differences are likely to be due to

  1. ANALISIS PERTUMBUHAN DAN KONTRIBUSI FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PENERIMAAN RETRIBUSI DAERAH KABUPATEN KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Rosalina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kontribusi yang diberikan oleh retribusi daerah terhadap PAD di Kabupaten Kudus sudah cukup besar, namun masih belum optimal dan bahkan kecenderungan menurun, sehingga perlu ditemukan permasalahannya dan dipecahkan agar tidak memberikan gangguan bagi penerimaan asli daerah dan kinerja pemerintahan Kabupaten Kudus. Variabel-variabel penelitian yaitu jumlah rumah sakit dan puskesmas, penerbitan KTP dan akta catatan sipil, jumlah kendaraan bermotor bersama-sama merupakan penyumbang bagi penerimaan retribusi daerah dalam bentuk pos pungutan retribusi daerah. Berdasarkan analisis dapat diperoleh hasil bahwa jumlah rumah sakit dan puskesmas memberikan kontribusi bagi pos retribusi pelayanan kesehatan dengan rata-rata sebesar 66,3% per tahun yang tumbuh cenderung meningkat dari tahun 2001 hingga tahun 2011 dan menurun pada tahun 2012 dan 2013, jumlah penerbitan KTP dan akta catatan sipil memberikan kontribusi bagi pos retribusi ganti cetak KTP, KK dan akta catatan sipil dengan rata-rata sebesar 1,73% per tahun dengan pertumbuhan cenderung meningkat dari tahun 2001 hingga 2008 dan mengalami penurunan pada tahun 2009 hingga 2013, jumlah kendaraan diproyeksikan oleh pos penerimaan retribusi parkir di tepi jalan umum, retribusi pengujian kendaraan bermotor, retribusi terminal, retribusi tempat parkir dan retribusi ijin trayek dengan rata-rata sebesar 7,62% per tahun dengan pertumbuhan rata-rata 20% pertahun.  Retribution income in Kudus gives a big contribution into government self-income, but in the last years the retribution income of Kudus region is not significant and it tends to attenuate. Considering to this current background, it is necessary to ascertain and solve the issues, particularly in order to bear the governmental self-income and disrupt to the work of the regional government of Kudus. The research variables are the number of hospital and puskesmas, the number of civilian registration and the number of vehicle. These variables in the

  2. KONVERGENSI ESTIMATOR DALAM MODEL MIXTURE BERBASIS MISSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dwidayati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Model mixture dapat mengestimasi proporsi pasien yang sembuh (cured dan fungsi survival pasien tak sembuh (uncured. Pada kajian ini, model mixture dikembangkan untuk  analisis cure rate berbasis missing data. Ada beberapa metode yang dapat digunakan untuk analisis missing data. Salah satu metode yang dapat digunakan adalah Algoritma EM, Metode ini didasarkan pada 2 (dua langkah, yaitu: (1 Expectation Step dan (2 Maximization Step. Algoritma EM merupakan pendekatan iterasi untuk mempelajari model dari data dengan nilai hilang melalui 4 (empat langkah, yaitu(1 pilih himpunan inisial dari parameter untuk sebuah model, (2 tentukan nilai ekspektasi untuk data hilang, (3 buat induksi parameter model baru dari gabungan nilai ekspekstasi dan data asli, dan (4 jika parameter tidak converged, ulangi langkah 2 menggunakan model baru. Berdasar kajian yang dilakukan dapat ditunjukkan bahwa pada algoritma EM, log-likelihood untuk missing data mengalami kenaikan setelah dilakukan setiap iterasi dari algoritmanya. Dengan demikian berdasar algoritma EM, barisan likelihood konvergen jika likelihood terbatas ke bawah.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Model mixture can estimate proportion of recovering patient  and function of patient survival do not recover. At this study, model mixture developed to analyse cure rate bases on missing data. There are some method which applicable to analyse missing data. One of method which can be applied is Algoritma EM, This method based on 2 ( two step, that is: ( 1 Expectation Step and ( 2 Maximization Step. EM Algorithm is approach of iteration to study model from data with value loses through 4 ( four step, yaitu(1 select;chooses initial gathering from parameter for a model, ( 2 determines expectation value for data to lose, ( 3 induce newfangled parameter

  3. Ragam Vegetasi dalam Puisi‐Puisi Palestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Hindun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetasi Palestina adalah sekelompok tanaman yang tumbuh di bumi Palestina. Para penyair Palestina, melalui puisinya, mengemukakan beragam vegetasi yang tumbuh di Palestina sehingga menimbulkan permasalahan ragam vegetasi apa saja yang disebut dalam puisi dan apa fungsi penyebutannya? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengungkap ragam vegetasi asli Palestina dalam puisi karya penyair Palestina. Teori yang dimanfaatkan adalah teori adab al-muqawamah, yang mengatakan bahwa karya sastra merupakan piranti perlawanan terhadap segala penjajah dalam bentuk kata sehingga karya sastra tersebut dapat menggugah semangat pembacanya untuk berjuang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ragam vegetasi Palestina adalah penanda keberadaan wilayah dan bangsa Palestina yang berarti bahwa ada tanah tempat tanaman itu tumbuh dan ada bangsa yang memanfaatkan tanaman itu dalam kehidupan mereka. Penyebutan ragam vegetasi Palestina itu menjadi simbol perlawanan bangsa Palestina terhadap penjajahan Israel yang menduduki tanah Palestina melalui aneksasi dan kolonialisasi. Puisi perlawanan ini merupakan sebuah upaya untuk membangkitkan kesadaran umat manusia di dunia, khususnya bangsa Palestina, untuk melawan segala bentuk penjajahan di muka bumi. Palestine’s vegetation is a group of plants growing in the Palestine’s soil. The Palestinian poets, through their poetries, explained the variety of plants growing in Palestine. Therefore, the research questions are what kinds of native plant growing in Palestine and why the Palestinian poets explain those plants in their poetries? The analysis theory is adab al-muqawamah meaning that literary work is an instrument to fight all forms of occupation and colonialism by using words to inspire the readers to fight. The result is that Palestine’s plant variety is a symbol of the presence of the region and the Palestinians, which means that there is a land where the plants grow and there is a nation that use the plants in their lives

  4. PENGARUH BENTUK ATAP BANGUNAN TRADISIONAL DI JAWA TENGAH UNTUK PENINGKATAN KENYAMANAN (Sebuah pencarian model arsitektur tropis untuk aplikasi desain arsitektur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Sanjaya

    2006-01-01

    menggunakan bahan bangunan modern, aspek kenyamanan termal dan kekokohan konstruksi tidak dipertimbangkan. Dengan demikian diperlukan upaya untuk memahami konsep dasar pembentukan arsitektur tradisional ini dalam konteks arsitektur tropis dan kekokohan konstruksinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran bagi masyarakat luas, mahasiswa dan arsitek, agar dapat memahami arti penting kenyamanan termal yang dapat diupayakan melalui perencanaan atap yang baik. Untuk mencapai hasil yang diharapkan, maka penelitian ini didekati dengan analisa terhadap kekokohan konstruksi, baik pada bangunan tradisional yang masih asli, maupun bangunan modern yang menggunakan atap tradisional Jawa. Analisa kenyamanan termal dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat-alat bantu berupa termometer digital, hygrometer digital dan anemometer digital. Hasil penelitian ini berupa rekomendasi desain untuk penyesuaian pada penggunaan material baru dengan bentuk atap bangunan tradisional Jawa. Dengan menampilkan software program komputer berbasis Visual Basic, diharapkan penelitian ini lebih mudah dipahami oleh masyarakat luas dan dapat diterapkan dalam desain bangunan. Kata kunci: Arsitektur tradisonal Jawa, kenyamanan termal, arsitektur tropis.

  5. Model Komunikasi Kyai dengan Santri (Studi Fenomenologi Pada Pondok Pesantren “Ribathi” Miftahul Ulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Fuad Nasvian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pondok pesantren merupakan lembaga pendidikan Islam yang telah ada sejak masa awal Bangsa Indonesia. Pesantren merupakan merupakan tempat dimana ilmu agama Islam dan budaya asli Indonesia disandingkan dan disebarkan, namun keberadaan mereka saat ini banyak dituding sebagai sumber dari terorisme, khususnya pasca serangan World Trade Center New York 2011 lalu. Keberadaan pesantren sendiri tidak lepas dari sosok seorang Kyai sebagai sumber penyampai ilmu khususnya agama Islam, dan sebagai tokoh masyarakat yang dituakan. Penempatan posisi Kyai dalam pondok pesantren saat ini tidak lepas dari komunikasi yang dilakukan beliau terhadap santri, dimana dengan segala keterbatasannya, Kyai harus mampu tetap menjadi pengayom santri dan pesantren. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menyusun, memahami dan menganalisis model komunikasi Kyai dengan santri, khususnya pada konteks Pondok Pesantren “Ribathi” Miftahul Ulum. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi sebuah kajian yang memperkaya pemikiran dan data mengenai komunikasi dari perspektif budaya timur. Penelitian ini diharapkan menjadi bagian dari upaya kontekstualisasi agama Islam yang relevansinya dianggap minim dalam kehidupan saat ini. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan metode fenomenologi, yang didukung dengan teknik pengumpulan data dengan pengamatan pemeranserta. Fenomenologi digunakan untuk memahami bagaimana seseorang mengalami dan memberi makna pada sebuah pengalaman. Jadi merupakan riset terhadap dunia kehidupan orang-orang, pengalaman subjektif mereka terhadap kehidupan pribadi sehari-hari. Jadi kebenaran murni berasal dari statement obyek penelitian. Hasil penelitian ini berupa konstruksi model Komunikasi Kyai dan santri di Pondok Pesantren Ribathi Miftahul Ulum terbentuk dari interaksi tinggi antara Ustadz dengan Kyai, serta Ustadz dengan Santri, dimana Ustadz berfungsi sebagai pihak yang mampu menyambungkan komunikasi Kyai dengan santri. Model Komunikasi Kyai dan

  6. PESANTREN DESA PEGAYAMAN, MELEBURNYA JAGAT BALI DALAM KEARIFAN ISLAM

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    Moh. Mashur Abadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tidak seperti desa-desa Bali lainnya, semua warga Pegayaman adalah orang-orang Islam yang taat, dan mereka adalah orang Bali asli. Mereka menyebut dirinya dengan sebutan nyama Selam (saudara Muslim, tetapi pada saat yang sama mereka juga adalah nyama Bali (saudara Bali. Di Pegayaman, jagat Bali dengan tradisi Hindunya yang warna-warni lenyap. Dari fakta antropologis dan sosiologis terlihat bahwa Islam telah datang ke desa indah ini sejak dulu dan telah memainkan peranan penting pada semua aspek kehidupan desa. Sampai pada tingkatan tertentu, keseluruhan desa tersebut dapat dipandang sebagai sebuah pesantren. Sebelumnya terisolasi dari dunia luar, akhirnya Pegayaman memiliki akses dengan dunia luar khususnya dengan saudara Muslimnya di Jawa, Sasak, dan Madura, dan genealogi pengetahuan Islam Pegayaman terbentuk dari hubungan ini. Saat ini orang Islam Pegayaman menghadapi tantangan modernisasi dan globalisasi. Tetapi tampaknya common themes Pegayaman, yaitu kesadaran diri sebagai Muslim dan sebagai orang Bali, akan membimbing mereka sama seperti yang telah dilakukan para pendahulunya.   Abstract: Unlike other villages in Bali, all Pegayaman people are faithful moslems and they are native Balinese. They call themself as nyama Selam (Moslem brother, but at the same time as nyama Bali (Balinese brother. In Pegayaman, the realm of Bali, with it’s colorful Hindu’s traditions, disappear. From anthropological and sociological facts, it’s clear that Islam has come to this beautiful village for a long times ago and played an important role in all aspects of the village’s life. In some extent, the whole village can be regarded as Pesantren in it’s literal meaning. Previously isolated from outside world, eventually Pegayaman has access to touch with the outside world, especially with their fellow moslems in Java, Sasak, and Madura, in which a genealogy of Islamic knowlegde has been developed. Nowdays, the moslems of Pegayaman face the

  7. Pengembangan Sentra Industri Tas Dan Koper Tanggulangin Dalam Menghadapi MEA

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    Gusti Adriansyah

    2017-10-01

    pendapatan asli daerah Kabupaten Sidoarjo.

  8. Pengaruh Macam Eksplan dan Konsentrasi 2,4 D terhadap Induksi Kalus Kluwek (Pangium edule Reinw. secara In Vitro

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    Hendy Dwi Prabakti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKluwek adalah tanaman asli Indonesia memiliki fungsi ekologi dalam perbaikan lingkungan dan potensial untuk dibudidayakan. Tanaman ini memiliki nilai konservasi dan ekonomi atau disebut jenis tanaman Multi Purpose Tree Species (MPTS atau tanaman multi guna. Tanaman MPTS adalah tanaman serbaguna yang dapat diambil buah, bunga, kulit, dan daunnya. Kebanyakan pemakaian Pangium edule didasarkan pada adanya asam sianida. Perbanyakan bibit lewat biji sangat terbatas karena keberhasilan perkecambahan hanya 10 %. Karena itu perlu pengadaan bibit kluwek siap tanam yang mencukupi diperoleh melalui perbanyakan vegetatif kultur jaringan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui respon eksplan dan pengaruh konsentrasi pemberian 2,4 D Induksi Kalus Pangium edule Reinw. melalui kultur in vitro, serta interaksi macam eksplan dengan 2,4 D. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Jurusan Agronomi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang tersusun secara faktorial dengan dua faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama yaitu Macam eksplan terdiri dari 2 taraf: E1 = Daun; dan E2 = Endosperm. Faktor kedua yaitu taraf konsentrasi 2,4 D yang diberikan: D0 = 0,0 ppm; D1 = 0,2; D2 = 0,4 ppm; D3 = 0,6 ppm; D4 = 0,8 ppm; D5 = 1 ppm. Data dianalisis dengan anova dan apabila terdapat perbedaan nyata diantara perlakuan maka dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT dengan taraf kepercayaan 95 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, terdapat interaksi yang sangat nyata antara macam eksplan dan 2,4 D. Hasil terbaik, berturut-turut parameter kedinian kalus, pembentukan kalus, dan penambahan biomassa, ditunjukkan dengan penambahan 2,4 D 0,8 ppm, 1 ppm, dan 0,4 ppm pada 14 hari, 86,67% dan 66 mg. Parameter warna kalus pada 2,4 D 1 ppm dengan skor 4,2 skor dan tekstur kalus pada 0,8 ppm 2,4-D dengan skor 4.Kata kunci: Kluwek (Pangium edule Reinw., MPTS, Asam Sianida How to citate: Hendy Dwi Prbakti, Didik

  9. ANIMASI IKLAN 3D SAFETY DRIVING

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    Yusron Aulia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah aplikasi video iklan bertemakan tentang keamanan mengemudi sebagai media edukasi kepada masyarakat tentang pentingnya  keamanan  dalam  mengemudi.  Begitu  pentingnya  keamanan  mengemudi, maka  menjadi  pengemudi  aman  menjadi  keharusan  bagi setiap  anggota  masyarakat. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah observasi, dokumentasi dan studi pustaka. Untuk pengembangan sistem multimedia dilakukan berdasarkan tiga tahapan yaitu: Pra Produksi, Produksi, dan Pasca Produksi. Hasil dari penelitian   ini   berupa   aplikasi   video   iklan   animasi   3D   bertemakan   keamanan mengemudi. Aplikasi yang dihasilkan berekstensi .mpeg untuk CD/DVD, .mkv untuk diputar di computer, dan .mp4 yang diunggah di internet. Selain fungsi iklan animasi ini sebagai penyampaian pesan dan memotivasi masyarakat untuk lebih disiplin, tertib dan aman dalam mengemudi, dan juga sebagai penginspirasi untuk lebih mengembangkan animasi karya asli Indonesia Kata kunci : animasi, iklan, 3D, safety, driving.The purpose of this research  is to create  an  application  video on driving safety themed advertising  as a medium to educate people about the importance of safety in driving. Once the importance of driving safety, becomes a safe driver is a must for every member of the community. Data collection methods used in this study is the observation, documentation and literature.  For the development of multimedia systems is done based on three stages: Pre-Production,  Production,  and Post Production.  The results of this research  is  the  application  of 3D  animation  video ads  themed  driving  safety. The resulting application extension .Mpeg to CD / DVD .Mkv to be played on the computer, and .Mp4 uploaded on the internet. In addition to the function of these animated ads as delivering  a  message  and  motivate people to be more disciplined

  10. ANALISIS PENGEMBANGAN SEKTOR BASIS EKONOMI DAN POTENSI PENINGKATAN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI KABUPATEN BLORA

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    Yayik Kartika Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisa keadaan pertumbuhan ekonomi, pengembangan sektor basis ekonomi, dan faktor yang memiliki pengaruh dominan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi di Kabupaten Blora tahun 1990-2013 dengan menggunakan alat analisis basis ekonomi dan persamaan simultan dengan metode Two Stage Least Squared (2SLS. Variabel endogen dalam penelitian ini adalah pertumbuhan ekonomi, pendapatan asli daerah, dan upah minimum, sedangkan variabel eksogennya adalah angkatan kerja, tabungan, pengeluaran pemerintah daerah, dan jumlah penduduk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 3 sektor basis ekonomi di Kabupaten Blora yang diperoleh dari analisis basis ekonomi yaitu sektor pertambangan dan galian; sektor pertanian; dan sektor keuangan, persewaan, dan jasa perusahaan. Berdasarkan hasil uji persamaan simultan menunjukkan bahwa variabel tabungan, pengeluaran pemerintah daerah, upah minimum, dan jumlah penduduk merupakan faktor yang memiliki pengaruh dominan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi di Kabupaten Blora. Saran dalam penelitian ini adalah Pemerintah Kabupaten Blora harus mengembangkan ketiga sektor basis ekonomi dan faktor yang berpengaruh dominan tersebut serta harus melakukan proteksi terutama untuk sektor basis ekonomi, sehingga dapat membantu meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi di Kabupaten Blora.  The purpose of this research was to determine and analyze the condition of economic growth, the economic base sector for development, and factors which have a dominant influence on the economic growth in Blora years 1990-2013 and used analysis of the economic base and the analysis of simultaneous equations with Two Stage Least Square method (2SLS. The rate of economic growth, regional income, and the minimum wage is an endogenous variable, while the labor force, savings, regional government expenditure, and resident are exogenous variable. The results showed that there are three sectors of the economic base in Blora

  11. Health in a fragile state: a five-year review of mortality patterns and trends at Somalia’s Banadir Hospital

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    Kulane A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Asli Kulane,1 Douglas Sematimba,1 Lul M Mohamed,2 Abdirashid H Ali,2 Xin Lu1,3,4 1Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Women and Child Care Section, Banadir Maternity & Children Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia; 3College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 4Flowminder Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden Background: The recurrent civil conflict in Somalia has impeded progress toward improving health and health care, with lack of data and poor performance of health indicators. This study aimed at making inference about Banadir region by exploring morbidity and mortality trends at Banadir Hospital. This is one of the few functional hospitals during war. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted with data collected at Banadir Hospital for the period of January 2008–December 2012. The data were aggregated from patient records and summarized on a morbidity and mortality surveillance form with respect to age groups and stratified by sex. The main outcome was the number of patients that died in the hospital. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate the association between sex and hospital mortality. Results: Conditions of infectious origin were the major presentations at the hospital. The year 2011 recorded the highest number of cases of diarrhea and mortality due to diarrhea. The stillbirth rate declined during the study period from 272 to 48 stillbirths per 1,000 live births by 2012. The sum of total cases that were attended to at the hospital by the end of 2012 was four times the number at the baseline year of the study in 2008; however, the overall mortality rate among those admitted declined between 2008 and 2012. Conclusion: There was reduction in patient mortality at the hospital over the study period. Data from Banadir Hospital are consistent with findings from Banadir region and could give credible public health

  12. Serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization

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    Dilektasli AG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asli Gorek Dilektasli,1 Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu,1 Esra Uzaslan,1 Ferah Budak,2 Funda Coskun,1 Ahmet Ursavas,1 Ilker Ercan,3 Ercument Ege1 1Department of Pulmonary Disesaes, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Biostatistics, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey Introduction: Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 18 (CCL-18 has been shown to be elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. This study primarily aimed to evaluate whether the serum CCL-18 level differentiates the frequent exacerbator COPD phenotype from infrequent exacerbators. The secondary aim was to investigate whether serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods: Clinically stable COPD patients and participants with smoking history but normal spirometry (NSp were recruited for the study. Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test, spirometry, and 6-min walking test were performed. Serum CCL-18 levels were measured with a commercial ELISA Kit. Results: Sixty COPD patients and 20 NSp patients were recruited. Serum CCL-18 levels were higher in COPD patients than those in NSp patients (169 vs 94 ng/mL, P<0.0001. CCL-18 level was significantly correlated with the number of exacerbations (r=0.30, P=0.026, although a difference in CCL-18 values between infrequent and frequent exacerbator COPD (168 vs 196 ng/mL subgroups did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.09. Serum CCL-18 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients who had experienced at least one exacerbation during the previous 12 months. Overall, ROC analysis revealed that a serum CCL-18 level of 181.71 ng/mL could differentiate COPD patients with hospitalized exacerbations from those who were not hospitalized with a 88% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity (area under curve: 0.92. Serum CCL-18 level had a strong correlation with the frequency of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (r=0.68, P<0

  13. PROTOTIPE ALAT PENGEKSTRAK PATI SAGU TIPE MIXER ROTARY BLADE BERTENAGA MOTOR BAKAR Prototype of Mixer Rotary Blade of Sago Starch Extractor Powered by Internal Combustion Engine

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    Darma Darma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Papua and West Papua Province have a large potential of sago. Approximately 994,000 hectares, mostly natural sago forest was existed in this area. Sago starch has long been an important source of nutrition troughout Papua. Product of sago palm is not only starch as source of carbohydrate for food stuff, but also for basic material of industries such as paper, plywood, hardboard, and food indutries. Traditional methods are used for starch extraction in almost all part of Papu, which is not efficient and production capacity is very low. The effort to increase sago starch production could be carry out by introducing mechanical equipment (traditional to mechanized processing. The objective of this research was to design mixer rotary blade of sago starch extraction powered by internal combustion engine. The result was prototype of mechanical sago starch extractor. The prototype has high performance with extraction capacity 160 kg of disintegrated pith per hour or equal to 33 kg of wet starch per hour, extractable starch more than 99 % while starch losses in hampas less lhan 1 %. Hopefully, application of this machine to the sago farmer will transform agricultural system from subsistence to commercial. It means that increasing of economic income. In conclusion, technically and economically this prototype was feasible. ABSTRAK Provinsi Papua dan Papua Barat memiliki potensi sagu yang sangat besar. Sekitar 994.000 hektar yang sebagian besar merupakan hutan sagu alam terdapat di kedua provinsi ini. Pati sagu telah lama digunakan sebagai sumber nutrisi bagi penduduk asli papua. Pati sagu tidak hanya digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat, namun juga digunakan seba- gai bahan dasar industri kertas, plywood, hardbord, dan pangan. Pengolahan sagu secara tradisional yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat tidak efisien dan kapasitas produksinya sangat rendah. Peningkatan produksi dapat dilakukan dengan mengintroduksi peralatan pengolahan mekanis untuk merubah metode

  14. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BUILDING PURSUITS IN ISLAM

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    Spahic Omer

    2014-02-01

    realisasi lingkungan binaan Islam tersebut. Pada penulisan makalah ini, penulis  telah berusaha semaksimal mungkin untuk menarik pada sumber-sumber asli yang berhubungan dengan tema, yang paling  penting  adalah  Alquran  dan  kompilasi  otentik  kata-kata  dan  tindakan  Nabi  Muhammad  (Hadits. Akhirnya, makalah ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran, baik dari para profesional dan pembaca umum, mengenai pentingnya konseptualisasi, menciptakan dan menggunakan lingkungan yang dibangun Islam. Pendekatan dalam makalah ini adalah konseptual, bukan empiris.   Kata kunci: Pendirian Bangunan, Lingkungan binaan, Islam, Muslim, Nabi Muhammad saw

  15. REBUILDING THE PROFESSIONAL TEACHING CAPACITY OF UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDENTS OF UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR (A Case Study on Student-Teachers of PBI Students of Tarbiyah Faculty

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    Mardiana Nurdin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi kapasitas pengajaran yang profe­sional mahasiswa PPL PBI UIN Alauddin Makassar yang melibatkan 4 guru pamong dan 30 mahasiswa PPL. Data dikumpulkan melalui survei online, lembar pengamatan dan dokumentasi yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode campuran qualitatif dan kuantitatif. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa: 1 mahasiswa PPL berpendapat bahwa seorang guru bahasa Inggris seharusnya mampu melakukan tanggung jawabnya sebagai seorang guru yang memiliki kompetensi paedagogik, profesional, sosial, dan kepribadian, 2 mahasiswa PPL cenderung menerima pebelajar mandiri, kerja berpasangan dan kerja kelompok, mengadaptasi pengajaran untuk memenuhi kebutuhan siswa sebelum praktik pembelajaran, tetapi cenderung menguranginya selama proses pembelajaran; mahasiswa PPL juga cenderung menerima pengajaran grammar secara eksplisit, koreksi kesalahan, dan pengucapan seperti penutur asli, pengetahuan teknikal, dan keterampilan interpersonal sebelum praktik mengajar dan meningkatkan proporsinya selama proses mengajar, 3 Guru pamong berpendapat bahwa maha­siswa PPL PBI UIN alauddin harus meningkatkan kemampuan bahasa Inggris, penggunaan metode pengajaran yang inovatif, penilaian autentik, dan penggu­naan media yang bervariasi. Abstract: This research aims to explore the professional teaching capacity of undergraduate English education students of UIN Alauddin Makassar. It involves 4 supervising-teachers and 30 student-teachers. The data were collected through online survey questionnaires, feedback observation sheets and documentation; analyzed quanti­tatively and qualitatively. The research finds that: 1 the student-teachers perceive an EFL teacher should be able to do their responsibilities which involves peda­gogic, professional, social, and personal competences; 2 the student-teachers have a tendency to accept learner autonomy, pair/group work, adapting teaching to cater for learner needs before

  16. AKSIOLOGI REOG PONOROGO RELEVANSINYA DENGAN PEMBANGUNAN KARAKTER BANGSA

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    Asmoro Achmadi

    2016-03-01

    praktek-praktek yang fana dan radikalisme yang merajalela, nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam seni Reog dapat digunakan sebagai landasan untuk membangun karakter bangsa yang lebih baik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah herme¬neutika dan heuristik. Yang pertama digunakan untuk meng-ungkapkan makna yang terkandung dalam objek penelitian dalam bentuk fenomena kehidupan melalui pemahaman dan interpretasi, sedangkan yang kedua digunakan untuk menemukan dan mengembangkan metode baru lainnya dalam ilmu terutama filsafat. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa seni Reog Ponorogo adalah bagian budaya biasanya asli dari Ponorogo. Bila dilihat dari perspektif nilai-nilai hirarkis, Reog me¬ngandung kekudusan, spiri¬tual, hidup, dan nilai-nilai yang menyenang¬kan. Bangsa Indonesia saat ini menghadapi korupsi, terorisme, radikalisme, dan tantangan globalisasi yang dapat menyebabkan lemahya karakter nasional. Nilai-nilai seni Reog dapat digunakan sebagai sumber inspirasi dan dapat berkontribusi pada pembentukan karakter bangsa. Apa yang perlu disajikan adalah penguatan empat pilar bangsa dan refleksi dari lima kebajikan penting dari seni Reog. Keywords: reog Ponorogo, nilai, karakter bangsa, Babad Ponorogo.

  17. IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN PEMUNGUTAN PAJAK BUMI DAN BANGUNAN

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    Arifuddin - Sahabu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKS   Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan bentuk studi kasus. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik wawancara, dokumentasi, dan observasi. Analisis data mengunakan metode analisis Miles dan Huberman, dengan melalui tiga prosedur yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data dan menarik kesimpulan/verifikasi. Sedangkan keabsahan menggunakan teknik berdasarkan atas kriteria derajat kepercayaan, keteralihan, ketergantungan, dan kepastian suatu data. Tuntutan menghadapi  implementasi Otonomi Daerah mengandung arti pentingnya Pemerintah Daerah memperhatikan kemampuan “self suporting” dalam bidang keuangan. Sumber pendapatan daerah tidak hanya di peroleh dari Pendapatan Asli Daerah, tetapi juga berupa pemberian bagi hasil dari penerimaan Pemerintah Pusat. Diantara sumber penerimaan tersebut adalah Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan. Dalam Undang-undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1999 Tentang perimbangan keuangan antara Pemerintah Pusat  dan Daerah, diantaranya dijelaskan bahwa sumber penerimaan daerah dalam penyelenggaraan desentralisasi berasal dari dana perimbangan penerimaan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan disamping pemberian Dana Alokasi Umum dan Alokasi Khusus. Langkah Implementasi dari pelaksanan pemungutan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan tersebut dilakukan Departemen Keuangan melalui Kantor Pelayanan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan, sedang Pemerintah daerah menerima pelimpahan penagihan pada Sektor Perkotaan dan Sektor Pedesaan. Meskipun telah ada pelimpahan kewenangan kepada daerah, akan tetapi pelimpahan kewenangan tersebut terbatas pada mekanisme penagihan saja, sedang implementor yang menyangkut masalah administrasi masih berada pada Kantor Pelayan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan. Kondisi demikian ini ditambah dengan kurangnya koordinasi antara unit organisasi pelaksana menyebabkan setiap tahun terjadi tunggakan. Sebagai sandaran teoritik utama  untuk mendiskripsikan serta menganalisis hambatan-hambatan implementasi kebijakan publik (dalam hal ini pemungutan

  18. Perilaku Masyarakat dalam Pengelolaan Sampah Anorganik di Kecamatan Abepura Kota Jayapura

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    Albert Abrauw

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kecamatan Abepura Kota Jayapura Provinsi Papua. Pengelolaan sampah anorganik yang dilakukan di wilayah ini digali melalui kajian perilaku masyarakat. Tujuan dilakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk 1 mengkaji karakteristik sosial-ekonomi masyarakat di daerah penelitian; 2 mengakaji perilaku masyarakat Kecamatan Abepura dalam pengelolaan sampah anorganik; 3 mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perilaku masyarakat guna mewujudkan Kota Jayapura yang BERIMAN.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik sosial-ekonomi masyarakat yang meliputi pendidikan formal  responden 90% sangat tinggi (SLTA-Sarjana, 62,7% profesi responden (PNS/wiraswata, jumlah anggota keluarga (4-5 orang cukup besar. Pendapatan responden (3.000.000-4.000.000 cukup besar, jumlah penduduk non Papua cukup tinggi 60%. Perilaku dominan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan sampah anorganik menunjukan dominan sedang (95%. Perilaku masyarakat dalam pengelolaan sampah anorganik menunjukkan gejala apatisme terhadap lingkungan dan ikut menunjang program pemerintah menjadikan Kota Jayapura yang BERIMAN. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perilaku sedang dalam pengelolaan sampah anorganik secara signifikan terpengaruh kuat adalah pengetahuan terhadap perilaku masyarakat karena kurangnya sosialisasi pemerintah kepada masyarakat terkait UU No 18 Tahun 2008 dan PERDA Jayapura Kota BERIMAN dan pengelolaan sampah, serta faktor lingkungan budaya (suku bangsa/adat istiadat masyarakat yang meliputi adanya kurang kepedulian terhadap kondisi lingkungan Kota Jayapura baik dari suku asli Papua dan non Papua dalam perilaku pengelolaan sampah anorganik. Sedangkan jumlah anggota keluarga, jenis pekerjaan, tingkat pendidikan, pendapatan menunjukkan arah hubungan negatif dengan sifat korelasi lemah terhadap perilaku pengelolaan sampah anorganik.       ABSTRACT This research was conducted in AbepuraSubdistrict, Jayapura City, Papua Province. The inorganic waste management in

  19. MESIN PENCETAKAN DENGAN PENGGERAK DARI PARAMETER PROGRAM BERBASIS WINDOWS

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    Dwi Sunaryono

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Proses pencetakan merupakan alat bantu yang harus ada pada semua aplikasi terutama pada pembuatan aplikasi sistem informasi. Dua model pembuatan pencetakan yang selama ini tersedia adalah dengan pembuatan laporan langsung lewat program atau dengan pencetakan lewat alat bantu yang terpisah dengan program. Persoalan terbesar pada proses pembuatan laporan terjadi pada fleksibilitas dari isi laporan, sehingga mudah di ubah tanpa mengubah program asli (executable atau membuka alat bantu yang dipakai. Persoalan ini dapat diatasi dengan mengubah pendekatan ke pemisahan program utama yang mengurus masalah inti dari aplikasi sedangkan pembuatan laporan pencetakan dapat ditugaskan pada mesin penggerak yang bisa di modifikasi, sehingga mudah di pelihara khususnya terjadi permintaan perubahan format laporan atau perubahan lainnya yang berkaitan dengan pembuatan laporan. Pembuatan laporan dapat diatur dengan dimiripkan dengan skrip program tertentu dengan membangun fungsi generik untuk membantu mempercepat pembuatan format laporan. Tujuan pencetakan dapat diatur tergantung dari kebutuhan pelaporan yang diinginkan misalnya pencetakan lewat port LPT, lewat driver manufacturer, lewat word dan lewat excel. Khusus untuk

  20. ANALISIS FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KONSUMEN DALAM PEMAKAIAN PRODUK LAYANAN SELULER DENGAN MEMPERTIMBANGKAN ASPEK 7P’S OF MARKETING (STUDI KASUS : PT. TELKOM AREA BLORA

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    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan dunia telekomunikasi yang semakin pesat dan ketatnya persaingan antar provider telepon seluler, membuat para produsen tidak gegabah dalam menentukan dan mengembangkan jenis produknya. Setelah kemunculan telepon seluler dengan teknologi AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone Systems dan GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communication, kemudian berkembang teknologi CDMA (Code Devision Multiple Acess. PT.Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Kancatel Blora sebagai penyedia layanan Telkom Flexi untuk wilayah Kabupaten Blora, menghadapi beberapa hal penting dalam memperkenalkan produknya. Nilai penjualan diharapkan untuk lebih berkembang lagi, namun harus menghadapi tantangan dari pesaing dengan produk baru yang inovatif. Untuk itu, TelkomFlexi mengambil tindakan dengan memberikan produk yang berkualitas, layanan yang baik dan fasilitas yang memadai bagi para penggunanya, akan tetapi pada kenyataannya hingga sekarang ini jumlah pengguna Flexi wilayah Blora masih rendah jika dibanding dengan wilayah lain. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini menganalisa faktor-faktor apa yang mempengaruhi preferensi konsumen diwilayah Blora dalam menggunakan suatu produk mobile communication. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis faktor untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa yang mempengaruhi preferensi konsumen dalam menggunakan suatu produk mobile communication. Analisis faktor yaitu suatu metode reduksi data untuk menemukan variabel baru yang disebut faktor yang jumlahnya lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan jumlah aslinya, yang tidak berkorelasi satu sama lainnya, variabel baru tersebut memuat sebanyak mungkin informasi yang terkandung di dalam variabel asli. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 9 faktor yang mempengaruhi preferensi konsumen dalam menggunakan suatu produk mobile communication, yaitu : faktor bukti fisik, faktor fitur tambahan produk, faktor proses, faktor harga, faktor karyawan, faktor kinerja inti produk, faktor promosi, faktor tampilan nyata produk, faktor

  1. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

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    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan hutan tanaman di lahan gambut tidak terlepas dari sorotan isu negatif lingkungan terkait dengan penurunan kedalaman muka air tanah, sehingga terjadi perubahan ekosistem asli. Kegiatan reklamasi lahan untuk HTI Acacia crassicarpa dalam jangka panjang disinyalir akan menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap perubahan karakteristik tanah gambutnya seperti tingkat kematangan dan laju penurunan permukaan tanah gambut (subsiden. Kajian mengenai dampak pembangunan HTI di lahan gambut terhadap tingkat kematangan dan laju subsiden perlu dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai kondisi exsisting daya dukung lahannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tingkat kematangan gambut baik secara vertikal (berdasarkan kedalaman gambut maupun secara horizontal (berdasarkan jarak dari bibir kanal dan mengetahui laju subsiden sebagai dampak dari reklamasi lahan gambut menjadi HTI A. crassicarpa. Penelitian dilakukan di PT AA, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau. Plot penelitian ditempatkan dalam satu transek sepanjang 100 m yang dibuat tegak lurus dengan kanal tersier, terdapat 12 plot dan dalam satu transek terdapat 3 titik pengamatan sehingga total titik pengamatan adalah 36 titik. Parameter yang diamati adalah dinamika kedalaman muka air tanah, nilai kadar serat tanah gambut dan laju subsiden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dampak perubahan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut di lokasi penelitian hanya mempengaruhi tingkat kematangan gambut pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m, sedangkan jarak kanal tersier sebesar 125 m tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap tingkat kematangan gambut. Pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m tingkat kematangan gambut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lapisan di bawahnya. Pembangunan HTI A. crassicarpa di lokasi penelitian menyebabkan laju subsiden sebesar rata-rata 5,5 cm/tahun.  ABSTRACT The establishment of forest on peat areas is insepatable from the glare of the negative environmental issues associated

  2. Kontribusi Penentu Produktivitas Karyawan Seni di Bali

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    Putri Anggreni

    2004-01-01

    . Besarnya kontribusi keenam variabel bebas mulai dari yang tertinggi hingga yang terendah dalam menjelaskan produktivitas, yaitu: pemasaran (X6 = 4,2%, proses berkarya (X4 = 1,8%, bahan baku (X,, kreativitas (X2 = 1,2%, proses produksi (X5 = 0,9%, dan desain (X3 = 0,3%. Dari hasil penelitian ini, dapat diketahui bahwa variabel pemasaran berpengaruh secara signifikan dan memeberikan kontribusi paling besar terhadap produktivitas karyawan seni di Bali. Hal tersebut diduga karena diterapkannya strategi pemasaran yang terfokus pada kepentingan mencari keuntungan, dalam usaha untuk mendapatkan penghasilan (income generating, dalam rangka meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidup mereka. Untuk mendorong berkembangnya kemampuan seniman Bali, perlu dicari strategi produksi dan pemasaran produk seni yang mendorong berkembangnya kreativitas, desain, dan proses berkarya yang original dan bernilai seni tinggi. Hal tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan menetapkan segmentasi pasar yang dituju. Di mana dengan mengetahui sasaran pasar yang diinginkan, akan memudahkan dalam pemasaran produk seni yang dihasilkan, di samping itu juga dapat digunakan untuk memenuhi permintaan dan harapan dari konsumen/pelanggan yang berdampak pada kepuasan dari konsumen/pelanggan terhadap produk seni yang dibeli. Sedangkan strategi pemasaran yang dilaksanakan melalui peningkatan kemampuan eksternal dengan mengikuti perkembangan teknologi. Penerapan   perkembangan   teknologi   dilakukan   melalui   usaha pengawetan terhadap karya seni yang dihasilkan, dengan tujuan agar karya seni tersebut dapat tahan lama dan berkualitas tinggi, baik yang dilakukan dengan cara tradisional maupun modern (mekanis. Di samping itu, juga dalam usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi dan efektivitas dari proses produksi, sehingga produk seni yang dihasilkan benar-benar merupakan produk seni yang memiliki kualitas, nilai seni yang tinggi, dan original (merupakan karya seni asli" para seniman. Kata kunci: produktivitas karyawan seni di Bali

  3. Strategi Budaya Orang Bugis Pagatan dalam Menjaga Identitas Ke-Bugis-an dalam Masyarakat Multikultur

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    Andi Muhammad Akhmar

    2017-07-01

    berlangsung dalam beberapa periode. Periode pertama migrasi orang Bugis ke Pagatan pada abad ke-18, adalah kalangan perintis sekaligus pendiri kerajaan Pagatan. Periode kedua migrasi orang Bugis ke Pagatan berlangsung pada paruh awal abad abad ke-20, merupakan migrasi dalam skala besar yang diakibatkan oleh pecahnya perang Bone tahun 1908.  Periode ketiga migrasi orang Bugis ke Pagatan pada paruh kedua abad ke-20, yaitu saat berlangsungnya peristiwa pemberontakan DI/TII Kahar Muzakkar. Selain itu, pada akhir abad ke-20, terdapat pula kelompok-kelompok nelayan Bugis yang pada awalnya hanya mencari ikan di Pagatan, berangsur-angsur membawa keluarga mereka menetap di sana, yang dikenal dengan istilah pappagatang. Dominasi orang Bugis pada sektor sosial budaya, ekonomi, dan politik disebabkan oleh kemampuan mereka beradaptasi dengan komunitas lain, khususnya orang-orang Banjar sebagai penduduk asli Kalimantan. Orang Bugis memiliki sejumlah keunggulan dalam bidang pertanian, perikanan, kelautan, dan perdagangan, serta memiliki etos kerja yang tinggi yang bersumber dari nilai-nilai budaya siri na pesse (harga diri dan rasa iba serta filosofi hidup orang Bugis lainnya.

  4. Penangan Pasien dengan Riwayat Stroke dengan Gigi Tiruan Lengkap Overdenture

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    Anak Agung Istri Putri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Pada kondisi sistemik tertentu yang tidak memungkinkan untuk dilakukan pencabutan seperti pada pasien dengan riwayat stroke perawatan dengan overdenture merupakan alternatif yang paling tepat. Overdenture adalah gigi tiruan lengkap atau sebagian yang didukung oleh mucoperiostium dan beberapa gigi atau akar gigi asli yang telah dilakukan perawatan saluran akar, untuk menghambat proses resobsi tulang alveolaris sehingga retensi dan stabilisasi gigi tiruan lengkap dapat ditingkatkan. Tujuan. Laporan kasus ini untuk mengetahui penanganan pasien dengan riwayat stroke dengan Gigi Tiruan Lengkap (GTL overdenture. Kasus. Pasien wanita, 58 tahun dating atas kemauan sendiri ke RSGM Prof. Soedomo Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Gadjah Mada, ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan rahang atas dan rahang bawah, karena gigi tiruan yang dipakai sebelumnya sudah tidak nyaman diapakai mengunyah, pasien dengan riwayat stroke, saat ini masih dalam perawatan. Gigi yang masih tinggal adalah gigi 28, gigi 42 dan gigi 43, oleh karena merupakan kontra indikasi pencabutan, maka gigi yang masih tinggal tidak dicabut dan direncanakan sebagai gigi penyangga GTL overdenture dengan kaitan coping pada gigi 28, kaitan magnet pada gigi 42 dan base root pada gigi 43, selanjutnta diinsersikan GTL overdenture rahang atas dan rahang bawah, yang diperiksa: retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetika dan fonetik. Kontrol dilakukan 1 minggu kemudian diperiksa keluhan pasien saat memakai GTL: pada pemeriksaan subyektif dan obyektif, diperiksa retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetik dan fonetik. Hasil. Perawatan GTL overdenture dengan menggunakan gigi yang masih tinggal dengan kombinasi penyangga overdenture pada pemeriksaan subyektif pasien merasa lebih nyaman, pada pemeriksaan obyektif overdenture dapat meningkatkan retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetika, fonetik. Kesimpulan. Pemakaian GTL overdenture dapat meningkatkan retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetika dan fonetik. Overdenture

  5. Strategi Pembuatan Film Dokumenter yang Tepat untuk Mengangkat Tradisi-Tradisi di Balik Reog Ponorogo

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    PM. Onny Prihantono

    2009-01-01

    ternyata juga sarat akan tradisi/kebiasaan yang telah dibawa sejak jaman nenek moyang, mulai dari gerakan tari yang erotis, mabuk-mabukan hingga hubungan sesama jenis/homoseksual. Tradisi tersebut identik dengan reog sebagai hiburan rakyat jelata yang bebas dan spontan, tak terikat aturan, sehingga seringkali menimbulkan kontroversi di kalangan masyarakat modern karena bertentangan dengan norma-norma masyarakat terutama norma kesusilaan dan kesopanan. Di sisi lain, setiap tradisi tersebut kaya dengan nilai-nilai luhur budaya yang harus dilestarikan untuk kelangsungan sejarah. Jika tidak, maka pernyataan bahwa reog adalah jati diri dan ciri khas Ponorogo akan luntur dan dapat mudah diambil/diklaim menjadi milik masyarakat lain. Film dokumenter sebagai media audio visual mampu memaparkan kepada masyarakat mengenai kehidupan pelaku reog Ponorogo sesungguhnya. Dengan menggunakan metode wawancara dan dokumentasi kehidupan sehari-hari, tradisi-tradisi yang kontroversial tersebut dapat digali secara transparan. Pendapat yang beragam tentang gerakan tari yang seronok, mabuk-mabukan hingga hubungan homoseksual justru menjadi kekuatan untuk mengetahui jejak sejarah reog di bumi Ponorogo. Dengan begitu masyarakat Indonesia takkan ragu lagi bahwa reog memang adalah aset kebudayaan asli milik bangsa Indonesia sejak nenek moyang. Bagaimanapun kesenian reog tetap merupakan hiburan rakyat, kesenangan adalah tujuan utama yang dicari. Ekspresi kesenian yang terlalu dibatasi akan mematikan antusiasme masyarakat terhadap kesenian tersebut. Kata kunci: reog ponorogo, film dokumenter, seni, budaya.

  6. Exercise electrocardiographic responses and serum cystatin C levels among metabolic syndrome patients without overt diabetes mellitus

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    Tanindi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi1 Hilal Olgun1 Ayse Tuncel2 Bulent Celik3 Hatice Pasaoglu2 Bulent Boyaci11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyObjectives: An impaired heart rate response during exercise (chronotropic incompetence and an impaired heart rate recovery (HRR after exercise are predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Cystatin C is a novel marker for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate exercise electrocardiographic responses in patients with metabolic syndrome who were without overt diabetes mellitus, in addition to the association of serum cystatin C levels with the exercise electrocardiographic test results.Method: Forty-three consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic without angina pectoris were recruited if they met criteria for metabolic syndrome but did not have overt diabetes mellitus. Serum cystatin C levels were measured, and all participants underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing. Patients who were found to have ischemia had a coronary angiography procedure.Results: The mean cystatin C level of patients was higher in metabolic syndrome group than healthy controls (610.1 ± 334.02 vs 337.3 ± 111.01 µg/L; P < 0.001. The percentage of patients with ischemia confirmed by coronary angiography was 13.9% in the metabolic syndrome group. Cystatin C levels in the ischemic patients of the metabolic syndrome group were higher than that in nonischemic patients (957.00 ± 375.6 vs 553.8 ± 295.3 µg /L; P = 0.005. Chronotropic incompetence was observed in 30.2% of the patients with metabolic syndrome compared with 16.7% in the control group (P = 0.186. Chronotropic response indices were 0.8 ± 0.18 versus 0.9 ± 0.10 for the two groups, respectively (P = 0.259. HRR was significantly lower in the metabolic syndrome patients compared with the controls (20.1 ± 8.01 vs 25.2

  7. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

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    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    gigi terhadap bakteri Streptococus mutans dan Lactobacilli dalam saliva. Metode: Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah single-blind, randomized clinical trial study dengan crossover. Lima kelompok perlakuan melakukan pembersihan gigi, tiap kelompok terdiri dari 14 mahasiswa kedokteran gigi, sehat dan memiliki kebersihan mulut yang baik. Tiap subyek diberi 5 macam perlakuan untuk membersihkan gigi menggunakan sikat gigi elektrik dimodifikasi dengan siwak, sikat gigi elektrik dengan pasta gigi mengandung ekstrak siwak (colgate kayu sugi, sikat gigi elektrik dengan pasta gigi umum (colgate total, siwak asli, dan salin. Saliva pasien digunakan untuk menganalisa pengurangan banyaknya bakteri Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacilli sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan menggunakan Caries Risk Test (CRT dari Vivadent. Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan adanya penurunan skor Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacilli setelah pembersihan gigi dibandingkan sebelumnya. Sementara itu tidak ada perbedaan signifikan terhadap penurunan skor Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 dan Lactobacilli (p=0.396 ketika dibandingkan antar kelompok. Kesimpulan: Mengunyah kayu siwak mempunyai efek antimikrobial yang hampir sama dengan menyikat gigi menggunakan kombinasi pasta gigi biasa dan pasta gigi yang mengandung siwak, akan tetapi meyikat gigi dengan sikat elektronik yang dimodifikasi dengan siwak dapat menurunkan jumlah bakteri.

  8. Eski Mezopotamya’da Siyasi Örgütlenmede Din Olgusu Religion In The Political Structure Of Ancient Mesopotamia

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    Yusuf KILIÇ

    2013-07-01

    zere, tarihi devirler Mezopotamya ve Mısır’da eş zamanlı olarak başlamakta, siyasi örgütlenmeler de gene buralarda karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Mezopotamya’da devletin merkezi, Kalkolitik ve Eski Tunç çağda karşımıza çıkan tapınak idi. Tapınak yalnızca dinin merkezi değil, iktisadi hayatın da merkezidir. Tapınağın bu çoğul fonksiyonu sebebi ile devletin siyasi ve idari mekanizmasının da dinden etkilenmesi, daha doğru bir ifade ile söz konusu mekanizmanın kendisine kaynak olarak dini göstermesi kaçınılmazıdır .“En” adını taşıyan kralın asli görevi, tapınağı ve ekonomiyi tanrı adına yönetmekti. Tapınak ekonomisinin en önemli vasfı, iş gücünün kontrolünü elinde tutmasıdır. Öte yandan toplumsal organizasyonların düzenli bir şekilde devam edebilmesi ve toplum içinde düzenin ve birlikteliğin sağlanması için bir takım kurallara ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Din, sonuçları bakımından, bu toplumsal görevi üstlenmektedir. Eskiçağ tarihi bakımından değerlendirdiğimizde iki farklı sonuç elde etmemiz mümkündür. Buna göre; “bin tanrılı halk” nitelemesinin gerisinde, dini hoşgörüyü, çeşitli halkların kendisine karşı politik bir tehlike oluşturmasını önlemek maksadıyla kullanan Hitit devleti örneğinin yanı sıra, tanrıların sayısının gittikçe azaldığı, dinin hoşgörüden ziyade merkezileştirme fonksiyonu gördüğü Sami kavimleri karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Çalışmamızın amacı, eskiçağ milletlerinin bir fetih politikası olarak din olgusunu olumlu ve olumsuz sonuçlar doğuracak yönde nasıl değerlendirdiğini gözler önüne sermektir.

  9. Evaluation on Performances of Yoghurt Used Modern Technology Versus Natural One

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    W Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-01-01

    , fresh milk, lactic acids bacteria, incubator, ampel bamboo   Abstrak. Penelitian untuk mempelajari performans (cita-rasa termasuk: warna, aroma/bau, tekstur, keasaman/rasa asam/pH, dan finansial suatu produk susu yaitu yogurt yang menggunakan teknologi modern versus alami (bambu ampel telah dilakukan di PT Perusahaan Prima Rasa, Denpasar. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua perlakuan (perlakuan A = teknologi modern, dan B = teknologi alami. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk: 1 mempelajari perbedaan cita-rasa dan keuntungan finansial yogurt yang menggunakan teknologi modern dan alami, 2 dipakai sebagai acuan dalam membuat suatu usaha bisnis produk susu dimasa yang akan datang, dan 3 meningkatkan kuantitas dan kualitas yogurt serta pendapatan asli daerah Bali. Dalam penelitian ini pembuatan yogurt yang menggunakan teknologi modern (perlakuan A menggunakan beberapa bahan-bahan dan alat-alat seperti susu sapi segar, skim, starter (bakteri asam laktat impor dari Kanada dan harganya mahal, inkubator listrik atau steroform untuk pemeramannya. Sedangkan pembuatan yogurt yang menggunakan teknologi alami (perlakuan B prosesnya hampir sama dengan yang menggunakan teknologi modern, hanya saja tidak menggunakan starter impor dan tidak menggunakan inkubator listrik (menggunakan bamboo ampel dan starter yang digunakan adalah bakteri asam laktat yang secara alami terdapat dalam bambu ampel tersebut. Bambu ampel yang digunakan sebagai inkubator itu ditutupi dengan daun pisang yang telah dilayukan. Bambu ampel ini mudah didapat, tersedia sepanjang tahun dan murah harganya. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak enam kali. Data yang diperoleh dianalisa dengan t test, keuntungan finansial dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yogurt dengan teknologi alami mempunyai aroma lebih kuat secara nyata sebesar 14,29% dibandingkan yogurt dengan teknologi modern, tetapi teksturnya (kelembutannya adalah sebaliknya, yogurt dengan teknologi modern lebih tinggi secara nyata

  10. PERANAN SEKTOR PERIKANAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN WILAYAH DAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGANYA DALAM RANGKA OTONOMI DAERAH KABUPATEN BALANGAN

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    Syahrida Ariani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Balangan mempunyai sumber daya perairan yang cukup besar dan berpotensi meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah, diharapkan peran pemerintah Kabupaten Balangan yang mempunyai wewenang sebagai pelaksana eksplorasi dan pengelolaan kekayaan perairan harus bisa menggali potensi dari sektor perikanan agar lebih optimal dalam rangka pelaksanaan otonomi daerah.  Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan teknik perencanaan pembangunan wilayah Kabupaten Balangan.  Sedangkan secara khusus penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peranan sektor perikanan terhadap perekonomian Kabupaten Balangan dan menetapkan alternatif strategi pengembangan sektor perikanan dalam rangka otonomi daerah di Kabupaten Balangan Metode penelitian yang digunakan bersifat deskriptif kualitatif, sedangkan pendekatan yang digunakan adalah studi kasus dan analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis keuntungan dan analisis SWOT (Isu Strategis & Identifikasi Masalah Berdasarkan hasil analisis SWOT dan perhitungan pembobotan dengan matriks QSP didapatkan alternatif strategi urutan prioritas untuk pengembangan sektor perikanan sebagai berikut : 1 Pemerintah daerah komitmen terhadap pengembangan sektor perikanan melalui alokasi anggaran, 2 Pemerintah daerah melalui Dinas PTPHPP meningkatkan peran BBI dan UPR untuk mengasilkan induk dan benih yang berkualitas dan memiliki sertifikasi, 3 Meningkatkan peran dan fungsi penyuluh perikanan, 4 Meningkatkan pemanfaatan potensi lahan budidaya dengan komoditas unggulan yang bernilai ekonomis tinggi, 5 Pemerintah daerah melalui dinas Pertanian TPHPP melakukan pembinaan dan pendampingan kepada masyarakat sehingga dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan masyarakat dalam penguasaan teknologi, 6 Memfasilitasi masyarakat untuk mengakses permodalan ke perbankan, 7 Perlu adanya regulasi kebijakan dan langkah nyata untuk mengatasi meningkatnya harga pakan, 8 Pemerintah Daerah melalui Dinas Perindustrian

  11. Cemaran Kapang pada Pakan Sapi dan Uji In Vitro Sirih terhadap Pertumbuhan Kapang Aspergillus flavus (MOLD CONTAMINATION IN CATTLE FEED AND IN VITRO ASSAY OF PIPER BETEL AGAINTS GROWTH OF MOLD CONTAMINANT ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    . Penicillium sp and 17 species of mold were the most frequently found compared to other fungi. Powders the best form of the piper betel as antimold. ABSTRAK Cemaran kapang pada pakan dan bahan penyusunnya adalah penting sebab kapang yang tergolong patogenik dan toksigenik dapat mencemari dan menyebabkan mikosis dan mikotoksikosis pada ternak sapi. Informasi mengenai kapang pencemar diperlukan dalam usaha pengendaliannya. Berdasarkan penelitian sebelumnya diketahui daun sirih (Piper betle mempunyai aktivitas antikapang yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh data cemaran kapang pada pakan ternak sapi dan bahan penyusunnya dari propinsi Banten, Lampung, DKI Jakarta, dan Jawa Barat, serta menguji sirih sebagai obat herbal antikapang yang telah terpilih dari tanaman obat tradisional asli Indonesia. Isolasi dan  identifikasi kapang telah dilakukan pada tepung, gliserida, onggok, jagung, kacang, kelapa, kopi, konsentrat, lamtoro, nenas, beras, rumput, sawit, singkong, ampas tahu, tepung ikan, tepung tulang dari provinsi Banten, Lampung, DKI Jakarta, dan Jawa Barat. Isolasi dilakukan dengan membiakkan sampel pada media agar, Kapang yang sudah tumbuh pada media diidentifikasi. Pakan yang telah dicampur dengan ektrak dan serbuk ditambahkan inokulum kapang, kemudian diinkubasi. Setelah 3-7 hari diinkubasi, dihitung colony forming unit (CFU yang berkembang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar pakan tercemar kapang, tetapi levelnya masih berada di bawah batas ambang. Cemaran kapang pada tepung, jagung, konsentrat, dan ampas tahu melebihi batas ambang. Kapang-kapang tersebut adalah Aspergillus sp, A. amstelodami, A. clavatus, A. candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. niger, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Hyphomycetes sp., Miselia sterilata, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., dan Rhizopus sp. Kapang Penicillium sp adalah yang paling banyak ditemukan pada pakan yakni sebanyak 2,56.107 CFU. Uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa

  12. Polisiye Roman Temsilcisi Ümit Deniz’in Romanlarında Cinayet Kurgusu The Murder Plot in The Novels of Umit Deniz

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    Nurullah ULUTAŞ

    2012-09-01

    kitlelelerine hitap eder. Gizem, merak, gerilim, suç, katil gibi asli ögelerin kullanıldığı bu romanlarda okurun olay halkalarını takip ederek uyanık tutulması asıl amaçtır. Modern zamanlarda cinayetin ciddi bir sosyolojik vak’aya dönüşmesi, edebiyatın bu olguya ilgisini arttırmıştır. Edebiyat, bu olgunun arkasında yatan psikolojik saikleri deşifre etmeyi bir sanat formasyonu olarak ele almak durumundadır. Yer yer kriminolojik bilgileri de romanlarında kullanan yazarlar, cinayeti, verimli bir tema olarak romanlarında işlerler. Ümit Deniz’in yedi romanının incelendiği bu çalışmada yazarın cinayet kurgusunu nasıl ele aldığı, işlenen cinayetlerin toplum üzerindeki psikolojik etkileri irdelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Yazarın romanlarında kullandığı tekniklerin de sorgulandığı bu çalışma, Türk Edebiyatı’ndaki polisiyenin Batı’dakinden farkını da ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Ümit Deniz’in romanlarında yer verdiği ana karakterler, benzer cinayet kurguları, modern ve geleneksel motifler, devrik öyküleme metodu, yazarın romanlarını canlı tutma adına başvurduğu kurgusal araçlar vb. özellikler teknik ve kuramsal açıdan irdelenmiştir. İncelenen romanların gerek olay örüntüleri gerekse kurgusal kusurları metin merkezli eleştiriye tabi tutulmuştur.

  13. PENGARUH TERAPI KURKUMINOID EKSTRAK RIMPANG KUNYIT DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN NATRIUM DIKLOFENAK TERHADAP FUNGSI GINJAL PENDERITA OSTEOARTRITIS

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    Nyoman Kertia

    2012-07-01

    was significantly decreased the serum BUN and creatinin level compared to those increased level in diclofenac sodium treatment. AbstrakLatar belakang: Osteoartritis merupakan penyakit sendi yang paling banyak dijumpai di masyarakat. Pasien osteoartritis sering menggunakan obat anti inflamasi non steroid seperti natrium diklofenak. Data menunjukkan banyaknya efek samping natrium diklofenak khususnya terhadap fungsi ginjal. Data penelitian di Kotamadya dan Kabupaten Malang menunjukkan bahwa penduduk yang menggunakan jamu masing-masing adalah 476 orang dan 580 orang per seribu pasien. Kunyit (Curcuma domestica Val. adalah salah satu tumbuhan asli Asia yang biasa dibuat jamu yang utamanya digunakan untuk mengurangi peradangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai keamanan terapi kurkuminoid ekstrak rimpang kunyit dibandingkan dengan natrium diklofenak terhadap fungsi ginjal penderita osteoartritis. Metode: Penelitian ini dirancang sebagai prospective randomized open and blinded evaluation (PROBE. Subjek dengan osteoartritis lutut yang memenuhi syarat dan bersedia ikut dalam penelitian ini dibagi menjadi dua kelompok secara random yaitu kelompok yang mendapatkan terapi kurkuminoid ekstrak rimpang kunyit 30 mg diminum 3 kali sehari (kelompok kurkuminoid dan kelompok yang mendapatkan terapi natrium diklofenak 25 mg diminum 3 kali sehari (kelompok diklofenak. Penilaian hasil terapi yang meliputi kadar blood urea nitrogen (BUN dan kreatinin serum dilakukan sebelum dan setelah 4 minggu terapi. Analisis data untuk membandingkan perubahan kadar BUN dan kreatinin pada masing-masing kelompok perlakuan dilakukan dengan student t test. Hasil: Pada kelompok yang mendapat terapi kurkuminoid ekstrak rimpang kunyit terjadi penurunan kadar BUN serum yang tidak bermakna (p=0,52 dan penurunan kadar kreatinin serum secara bermakna (p=0,03. Pada kelompok yang mendapat terapi natrium diklofenak terjadi peningkatan kadar BUN serum secara bermakna (p<0,01 dan peningkatan kadar kreatinin

  14. SENI USIK WIWITAN: INTERVENSI KESEHATAN BERBASIS BUDAYA LOKAL TERHADAP IBU HAMIL TRIMESTER III DI KOTA BANDUNG, JAWA BARAT

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    Siti Sugih Hartiningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Permasalahan kematian ibu akibat persalinan hingga saat ini masih menjadi perhatian banyak pihak. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan, namun angka kematian ibu masih tetap tinggi. Kesehatan fisik dan psikis ibu sangat menentukan terjadinya persalinan yang aman dan tidak beresiko. Senam hamil yang telah menjadi salah satu program di tingkat pelayanan dasar dapat dikombinasikan dengan aktivitas lain untuk meningkatkan ketenangan psikologis ibu. Seni Usik Wiwitan yang terdiri dari olah nafas dan olah tubuh (ngajurus dan olah rasa (tumekung dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan fisik dan psikis ibu. Tujuan: Penelitian ini ingin mengetahui pengaruh kombinasi senam hamil dan seni Usik Wiwitan terhadap kesehatan ibu hamil. Metode: Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di wilayah binaan Puskesmas Ibrahim Adjie Kota Bandung, yaitu Kelurahan Kebon Gedang dan Cibangkong, dengan total sampel 41 orang ibu hamil trimester III yang dalam kondisi sehat. Penetapan kelompok intervensi dan kontrol dilakukan dengan pengundian. Intervensi yang diberikan adalah senam hamil kombinasi dengan latihan seni Usik Wiwitan berupa ngajurus dan tumekung selama 16 kali pertemuan dalam 8 minggu, sedangkan kelompok kontrol hanya melakukan senam hamil saja dalam waktu yang sama. Parameter yang diukur adalah kondisi fisik dan psikis ibu berdasar pemeriksaan tekanan darah, kadar protein urine, kondisi edema pada tubuh ibu dan instrumen kecemasan yaitu State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Hasil: Hasil uji pre dan post test pada kelompok kontrol dan intervensi menunjukkan bahwa ada beda antara kelompok ibu hamil yang diintervensi dengan senam hamil kombinasi seni  Usik Wiwitan. Pada kelompok intervensi di pertemuan ke-8 dan ke-16 mengalami penurunan tekanan darah, protein urine dan tingkat kecemasan yang lebih signifikan dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol. Kesimpulan: Seni usik wiwitan yang merupakan kesenian asli Sunda memberikan pengaruh yang positif pada kondisi kesehatan fisik dan

  15. Peran Tradisi Lisan Iko-Iko Berbasis Sastra Melayu dalam Penguatan Komunitas Etnis Bajo

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    I Ketut Suardika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Etnia Bajo merupakan  suatu komunitas berbudaya  Melayu hidup secara berkelompok  di berbagai wilayah pesisir pantai dan pulau terpencil eli Nusantara dan Asia Tenggara. Di Kawasan Barat Indonesia dan Malay­ sia Barat disebut Orang Laut, atau Suku Laut. Di Malaysia Timur, Brunai Darussalam, dan Philipina disebut Orang Bajau.Meskipun memiliki nama yang berbeda-beda berdasarkan  geografis tempat tinggalnya, tetapi dari segi  budaya  memiliki  persamaan  khususnya  proses  pewarisan  pengetahuan,  nilai, dan  keterampilan dalam bentuk  penguatan  komunitas  melalui tradisi lisan Iko-iko, nauya (nyanyian dan pantun. Beberapa kajian  menunjukkan   bahwa  Etnis  Bajo  ini  berasal  dari  Selat  Malaka,  selanjutnya   mereka  tersebar  di kawasan  Kepulauan  Melayu  (Malaysia,  Indonesia,  Brunai Darussalam, dan Philipina  akibat  kedatangan imperialisme  Portugis  yang merebut  Malaka  pada tahun 1511, Orang Bajo  sebagai salah satu inti rakyat Kerajaan Malaka bangkit melawan Imperialisme Portugis, setelah kerajaannya  takluk. mereka tetap melan­ jutkan perlawanan  eli laut dengan tersebar  di eli berbagai  kawasan tersebut. Pola pemukiman  yang semi­ nomaden  sebagai  nelayan  tradisional,  mengakibatkan  mereka mengembangkan sistem  pembelajaran  asli (learning comunitas system. Salah satu media pembelajaran  yang banyak digunakan adalah iko-iko (cerita kepahlawanan, jenis  tradisi  lisan  ini terancam  punah karena  kurang  eliminati generasi  muda, umumnya mereka yang bisa mengisahkannya berusia sekitar 50 tahun ke atas. Tradisi sastra iko-iko berperan menyam­ paikan pesan  moral dan semangat  juang yang dituturkan  secara lisan  dari generasi  ke generasi, berkisah tentang kepahlawanan dan elibawakan selama beberapa jam yang dinyanyikan menjelang tidur dan atau saat dalam  pelayaran.  Ciri  khas  iko-iko  adalah  lirik  dan baitnya  secara  teratur  yang