WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian trend analysis

  1. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  2. Analysis of Trend of Malaria Prevalence in the Ten Asian Countries from 2006 to 2011: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shongkour Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To control the malaria mortality, the global and national communities have worked together and produced impressive results in the world. Some of the Asian counties’ malaria mortality rate is more compared to countries with high health facilities around the world. This paper’s main aim is to describe trend of malaria cases and mortality in 10 Asian countries using the World Health Organization data. Methods. Malaria mortality data was collected systematically from WHO and UN database for the period 2006–2011. We estimated malaria mortality by age and countries. We also explored the dynamic relationships among malaria death rate, total populations, and geographical region using a map. During 2006–2011, the average malaria death per 10,000 population of all ages was 0.239 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.373, of children aged less than 5 year 1.143 (0.598 to 1.687, and of age greater than 5 years 0.089 (0.043 to 0.137 in Asian countries. Malaria prevalence per 10,000 populations steadily decreased from 486.7 in 2006 to 298.9 in 2011. Conclusion. The findings show that malaria mortality is higher for children aged less than 5 years compared with with adults selected in Asian countries except Sri Lanka.

  3. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleo George

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The references were collated and categorized according to subject, Plasmodium species, and whether they contained original or derivative data. Results 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2009 related to malaria in the target countries. The annual output of malaria-related papers increased linearly whereas the overall biomedical output from these countries grew exponentially. The percentage of malaria-related publications was nearly 3% (111/3741 of all biomedical publications in 1992 and decreased to less than 1% (118/12171; p Conclusions The proportion of malaria-related publications out of the overall biomedical output from the 11 target Asian-Pacific countries is decreasing. The discovery and evaluation of new, safe and effective drugs and vaccines is paramount. In addition the elimination of malaria will require operational research to implement and scale up interventions.

  4. 2011 Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT[R] Examinees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Geographic Trend Report presents trends in the student pipeline for graduate management education. Examination of data collected from respondents taking the Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) during the 2007 and 2011 testing years (TY) and from the requested destination of their score reports forms the basis of this report.…

  5. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  6. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  7. NASA trend analysis procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  8. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T L; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H L; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations. Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians' increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty. Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  9. Recent trends and patterns in breast cancer incidence among Eastern and Southeastern Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Joubert, Clementine; Boniol, Mathieu; Hery, Clarisse; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Won, Young-Joo; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Chen, Chien-Jen; You, San-Lin; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Law, Stephen Chun-Key; Mang, Oscar; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chia, Kee-Seng; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Chen, Jian-Guo; Curado, Maria Paula; Autier, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Incidence of breast cancer is rising in Asian countries, and breast cancer is the most common cancer among Asian women. However, there are few recent descriptive reports on the epidemiology of breast cancer among Eastern and Southeastern Asian populations. We examined incidence trends for invasive breast cancer in women aged ≥20 years from 15 registries in Eastern (China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan) and Southeastern Asia (the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) for the period 1993-2002 mainly using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volumes VIII and IX. We compared trends in annual incidence rates and age-specific incidence curves over a 10-year period. We also compared the incidence rates of Asian-Americans with the rates of their Asian counterparts. Breast cancer incidence rates increased gradually over time in all study populations. Rates were relatively high in Southeastern Asia and became progressively lower along a south-to-north gradient, with a fourfold geographic variation within the study populations. Age-specific incidence curves showed patterns that gradually changed according to incidence rates. Breast cancer incidence among Asian women living in the United States was 1.5-4 times higher than the corresponding incidence rate in the women's respective countries of origin. Breast cancer incidence is expected to continue to increase for the next 10 years in Asia and may approach rates reported among Asian-Americans. The number and mean age of breast cancer cases is expected to increase as the female Asian population ages, the prevalence of certain risk factors changes (early menarche, late menopause, low parity, late age at first live birth, and low prevalence of breastfeeding), and as Asian countries introduce mass screening programs.

  10. Rainfall trends in the South Asian summer monsoon and its related large-scale dynamics with focus over Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M.; Syed, F. S.; Hannachi, A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and economy, as both these factors largely depend on the availability of water. In this study, South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trends on seasonal and monthly (June-September) time scales have been investigated using three observational data sets. Our analysis identify a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, with significant increasing trends over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The dipole is also evident in monthly rainfall trend analyses, which is more prominent in July and August. We show, in particular, that the strengthening of northward moisture transport over the Arabian Sea is a likely reason for the significant positive trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of northward moisture transport over the Bay of Bengal. The leading empirical orthogonal functions clearly show the strengthening (weakening) patterns of vertically integrated moisture transport over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and monthly interannual time scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirm the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the extra-tropical phenomena could influence the mean monsoon rainfall trends over Pakistan by enhancing the cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea.

  11. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  12. Modern trends in hypercomplex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kähler, Uwe; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the session "Quaternionic and Clifford Analysis" at the 10th ISAAC Congress held in Macau in August 2015. The covered topics represent the state-of-the-art as well as new trends in hypercomplex analysis and its applications.

  13. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  14. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  15. Webometric Analysis of Top Ten Asian and Indian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal, Samir Kumar; Sutradhar, B; Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi

    2016-01-01

    The paper tries to assess all the existing ranking systems which are used to rank higher educational institutions. The aim of the paper is to provide sufficient background to design and develop a new ranking system for a country. An attempt has been taken to find out the reasons of low ranking of Indian universities with respect to the world university ranking through webometric analysis of top ten Indian and Asian universities. A comparative study of top Ten Indian Universities and Asian uni...

  16. Cancer incidence trends among Asian American populations in the United States, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Scoppa, Steve; Gibson, James T; Liu, Lihua; Morris, Cyllene; Kwong, Sandy; Fish, Kari; Wilkens, Lynne R; Goodman, Marc T; Deapen, Dennis; Miller, Barry A

    2013-08-07

    National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990-2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990-1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990-2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004-2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990-2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990-2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990-2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.8; Koreans: APC 1990-2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.6 to 3

  17. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Asian American Populations in the United States, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese. Methods Cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2008 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER) registries. Incidence rates from 1990 through 2008 and average percentage change were computed using SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Rates for non-Hispanic whites are presented for comparison. Results Prostate cancer was the most common malignancy among most groups, followed by lung, colorectal, liver, and stomach cancers. Breast cancer was generally the most common cancer in women, followed by colorectal and lung cancers; liver, cervix, thyroid, and stomach cancers also ranked highly. Among men, increasing trends were observed for prostate (Asian Indians and Pakistanis: APC 1990–2003 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.3 to 4.1; Filipinos: APC 1990–1994 = 19.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 35.4; Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.8 to 4.0), colorectal (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.5), and liver cancers (Filipinos: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.7; Koreans: APC 1990–2006 = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4 to 3.7; Vietnamese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.3 to 2.8), whereas lung and stomach cancers generally remained stable or decreased. Among women, increases were observed for uterine cancer (Asian Indians: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.3 to 5.8; Chinese: APC 2004–2008 = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.4 to 12.9; Filipina: APC 1990–2008 = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.7; Japanese: APC 1990–2008 = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), colorectal cancer (Koreans: APC 1990–2008 = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.9; Laotians: APC: 1990–2008 = 5.9, 95% CI = 4.0 to 7.7), lung cancer (Filipinas: APC 1990–2008 = 2.1, 95% CI = 1

  18. Levels and trends of HBCD and BDEs in the European and Asian environments, with some information for other BFRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Robin J; Herzke, Dorte; Harrad, Stuart; Morris, Steven; Bersuder, Philippe; Allchin, Colin R

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we review recent data for brominated flame retardants (particularly BDEs, HBCD and TBBP-A) in samples from the European and Asian environments, including recent temporal trend studies. Research is active and we cite over 100 studies published during 2005-2007. Environmental compartments studied comprise the atmosphere, indoor and outdoor air, sewage sludges, soils and sediments and a variety of biological samples and food chains. Findings include that the lack of reference materials for use in analytical quality control and method validation identified earlier has been addressed, and certified concentrations are now available for a number of BDE congeners in six pre-existing and one new reference materials. BDE209 was certified in three samples of indoor dust. The analysis of BDE209 remains problematic, but suitable methods for its determination are available and need to be applied. The contamination of indoor environments with BFRs has been recognised as representing a significant uptake pathway, particularly via dust. Additional data for TBBP-A are needed from areas, where it is produced and used, primarily Asia, as the worst-case scenario. As a reactive flame retardant it is less likely to leach from finished products. Also, issues regarding the importance of e-waste recycling as a source of BFRs to the local populations and the local environment require urgent study, certainly in China and possibly elsewhere. Generally, trends show a levelling in concentrations of BDEs and increases in concentrations of HBCD wherever determined and BDE209 in Asia.

  19. Suitability of European climate for the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: recent trends and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Medlock, Jolyon M.; Ducheyne, Els; McIntyre, K. Marie; Leach, Steve; Baylis, Matthew; Morse, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species that has the potential to transmit infectious diseases such as dengue and chikungunya fever. Using high-resolution observations and regional climate model scenarios for the future, we investigated the suitability of Europe for A. albopictus using both recent climate and future climate conditions. The results show that southern France, northern Italy, the northern coast of Spain, the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and western Turkey were climatically suitable areas for the establishment of the mosquito during the 1960–1980s. Over the last two decades, climate conditions have become more suitable for the mosquito over central northwestern Europe (Benelux, western Germany) and the Balkans, while they have become less suitable over southern Spain. Similar trends are likely in the future, with an increased risk simulated over northern Europe and slightly decreased risk over southern Europe. These distribution shifts are related to wetter and warmer conditions favouring the overwintering of A. albopictus in the north, and drier and warmer summers that might limit its southward expansion. PMID:22535696

  20. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  1. Clustering asian and north african countries according to trend of colon and rectum cancer mortality rates: an application of growth mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, Farid; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death with half a million deaths per year. Incidence and mortality rates have demonstrated notable changes in Asian and African countries during the last few decades. In this study, we first aimed to determine the trend of colorectal cancer mortality rate in each Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) region, and then re-classify them to find more homogenous classes. Our study population consisted of 52 countries of Asia and North Africa in six IHME pre-defined regions for both genders and age-standardized groups from 1990 to 2010.We first applied simple growth models for pre-defined IHME regions to estimate the intercepts and slopes of mortality rate trends. Then, we clustered the 52 described countries using the latent growth mixture modeling approach for classifying them based on their colorectal mortality rates over time. Statistical analysis revealed that males and people in high income Asia pacific and East Asia countries were at greater risk of death from colon and rectum cancer. In addition, South Asia region had the lowest rates of mortality due to this cancer. Simple growth modeling showed that majority of IHME regions had decreasing trend in mortality rate of colorectal cancer. However, re-classification these countries based on their mortality trend using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to colorectal mortality trend. In general, our statistical analyses showed that most Asian and North African countries had upward trend in their colorectal cancer mortality. We therefore urge the health policy makers in these countries to evaluate the causes of growing mortality and study the interventional programs of successful countries in managing the consequences of this cancer.

  2. [The trend and prospect of studies of East Asian medical history in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyuhwan

    2010-06-30

    Studies of East Asian medical history in Korea have progressively accumulated in the last twenty years. First, Korean scholars broadened the focus of research from China-centered research to East Asian research. Studies of Toyo medical history in Korea mainly concentrated on Chinese medical history. Toyo medical history originated from Japanese orientalism and imperialism. Today the studies of East Asian medical history in Korea include Korea, China and Japan, and attempt to deal with East Asia as a single conceptual category. Second, researchers in East Asian medical history are steadily increasing. They study Chinese medical history or Japanese medical history from universities. As they continue their research in academic positions, successive researchers emerge. Third, the number of Korean scholars remains relatively small, but they pursue original research. Their interests are in the discourse of East Asian medical history, colonial modernity, environmental history, oral history, and history of disease.

  3. Temporal trends in colorectal cancer incidence among Asian American populations in the United States, 1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the incidence and trends in colorectal cancer (CRC among Asian American populations in the United States. Methods: CRC incidence data from 1994 through 2013 were obtained from 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. SEER*Stat and IBM SPSS Statistics were used. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of CRC among Asian Americans decreased from 45.6 per 100,000 in 1994 to 33.0 per 100,000 in 2013, with the annual percent change being −1.8% (P<0.05. The incidences were higher for men, the elderly (aged 60 years or older, and several geographic areas. For those younger than 70 years, the rectal site was more affected compared with those aged 70 years or older, in whom the proximal site were more affected. Most patients presented with localized and regional stages. Men, 80 years or older, in situ stage, and some geographic areas such as Connecticut and California experienced significant incidence decreases in the 20-year observation period. Conclusion: Although CRC incidence has declined among Asian American populations in the United States in the past 2 decades, there are persistent differences by age and geographic areas. Further research is needed to guide the design and implementation of tailored strategies to reduce CRC outcome differences across Asian American populations.

  4. Using Growth Mixture Modeling for Clustering Asian and North African Countries on the Road Injury Death Trend (1990-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Maryam; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Zayeri, Farid

    2017-09-01

    The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions. Moreover, the classification was done based on the death rate using growth mixed modeling. The road injury death trend for men had more variations than women. Classification of these countries based on mortality using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to trend in road fatalities. Disregarding gender and sex, there were four optimal classes. The first three classes had a decreasing trend with the third class having the greatest decreasing trend. South Korea and Taiwan were in this group. Afghanistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Iran, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman lay in group 4 and had an increasing trend in road injury deaths. Successful interventions that developed countries have used to avoid casualties of road injuries could be used in developing countries. These include passing laws making the use of seatbelts and child seats compulsory and determining appropriate speed limits.

  5. Using Growth Mixture Modeling for Clustering Asian and North African Countries on the Road Injury Death Trend (1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The physical injuries and financial implications as a result of road accidents have serious economic, cultural, and social effects. We conducted this study to determine any changes in the trend of road-accident-related deaths in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010. Methods: The current study was carried out using data from the Global Burden of Disease database. First, the process was assessed using the growth curve divided into six regions. Moreover, the classification was done based on the death rate using growth mixed modeling. Results: The road injury death trend for men had more variations than women. Classification of these countries based on mortality using the latent growth mixture model resulted in more homogeneous classes according to trend in road fatalities. Disregarding gender and sex, there were four optimal classes. The first three classes had a decreasing trend with the third class having the greatest decreasing trend. South Korea and Taiwan were in this group. Afghanistan, Indonesia, Thailand, Iran, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman lay in group 4 and had an increasing trend in road injury deaths. Conclusions: Successful interventions that developed countries have used to avoid casualties of road injuries could be used in developing countries. These include passing laws making the use of seatbelts and child seats compulsory and determining appropriate speed limits.

  6. Analysis of gravity data using trend surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Asimopolos, Laurentiu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we have developed algorithms and related software programs for calculating of trend surfaces of higher order. These methods of analysis of trends, like mobile media applications are filtration systems for geophysical data in surface. In particular we presented few case studies for gravity data and gravity maps. Analysis with polynomial trend surfaces contributes to the recognition, isolation and measurement of trends that can be represented by surfaces or hyper-surfaces (in several sizes), thus achieving a separation in regional variations and local variations. This separation is achieved by adjusting the trend function at different values. Trend surfaces using the regression analysis satisfy the criterion of least squares. The difference between the surface of trend and the observed value in a certain point is the residual value. Residual sum of squares of these values should be minimal as the criterion of least squares. The trend surface is considered as regional or large-scale and the residual value will be regarded as local or small-scale component. Removing the regional trend has the effect of highlighting local components represented by residual values. Surface analysis and hyper-surfaces principles are applied to the surface trend and any number of dimensions. For hyper-surfaces we can work with polynomial functions with four or more variables (three variables of space and other variables for interest parameters) that have great importance in some applications. In the paper we presented the mathematical developments about generalized trend surfaces and case studies about gravimetric data. The trend surfaces have the great advantage that the effect of regional anomalies can be expressed as analytic functions. These tendency surfaces allows subsequent mathematical processing and interesting generalizations, with great advantage to work with polynomial functions compared with the original discrete data. For gravity data we estimate the depth of

  7. Height of south Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0–20 years : secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. Aims: To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0–20

  8. Analysis of temperature trends in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosic, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Unkašević, Miroslava; Marković, Slobodan; Petrović, Predrag

    2017-04-01

    An analysis of air temperature trends in Northern Serbia for the annual and seasonal time series is performed for two periods: 1949-2013 and 1979-2013. Three data sets of surface air temperatures: monthly mean temperatures, monthly maximum temperatures, and monthly minimum temperatures are analyzed at 9 stations that have altitudes varying between 75 m and 102 m. Monthly mean temperatures are obtained as the average of the daily mean temperatures, while monthly maximum (minimum) temperatures are the maximum (minimum) values of daily temperatures in corresponding month. Positive trends were found in 29 out of 30 time series, and the negative trend was found only in winter during the period 1979-2013. Applying the Mann-Kendall test, significant positive trends were found in 15 series; 7 in the period 1949-2013 and 8 in the period 1979-2013; and no significant trend was found in 15 series. Significant positive trends are dominated during the year, spring, and summer, where it was found in 14 out of 18 cases. Significant positive trends were found 7, 5, and 3 times in mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively. It was found that the positive temperature trends are dominant in Northern Serbia.

  9. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.

  10. Analysis of Vegetation Index Variations and the Asian Monsoon Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sunhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation growth depends on local climate. Significant anthropogenic land cover and land use change activities over Asia have changed vegetation distribution as well. On the other hand, vegetation is one of the important land surface variables that influence the Asian Monsoon variability through controlling atmospheric energy and water vapor conditions. In this presentation, the mean and variations of vegetation index of last decade at regional scale resolution (5km and higher) from MODIS have been analyzed. Results indicate that the vegetation index has been reduced significantly during last decade over fast urbanization areas in east China, such as Yangtze River Delta, where local surface temperatures were increased significantly in term of urban heat Island. The relationship between vegetation Index and climate (surface temperature, precipitation) over a grassland in northern Asia and over a woody savannas in southeast Asia are studied. In supporting Monsoon Asian Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, the data in this study have been integrated into Giovanni, the online visualization and analysis system at NASA GES DISC. Most images in this presentation are generated from Giovanni system.

  11. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-07-02

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N-45°N and 85°E-120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200-hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called "southern flood and northern drought" (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition.

  12. Colorectal cancer burden and trends in a South Asian cohort: experience from a regional tertiary care center in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasinghe, P C; Ediriweera, D S; Hewavisenthi, J; Kumarage, S K; Fernando, F R; Deen, K I

    2017-10-30

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in the south Asian region due to the changing socio-economic landscape and population demographics. There is a lack of robust high quality data from this region in order to evaluate the disease pattern and comparison. Using generalized linear models assuming Poisson distribution and model fitting, authors describe the variation in the landscape of CRC burden along time since 1997 at a regional tertiary care center in Sri Lanka. Analyzing 679 patients, it is observed that both colon and rectal cancers have significantly increased over time (pre 2000-61, 2000 to 2004-178, 2005 to 2009-190, 2010 to 2014-250; P < 0.05). Majority of the cancers were left sided (82%) while 77% were rectosigmoid. Over 25% of all CRC were diagnosed in patients less than 50 years and the median age at diagnosis is < 62 years. Increasing trend is seen in the stage at presentation while 33% of the rectal cancers received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Left sided preponderance, younger age at presentation and advanced stage at presentation was observed. CRC disease pattern in the South Asian population may vary from that observed in the western population which has implications on disease surveillance and treatment.

  13. FOOD PRICE TREND ANALYSIS: LESSONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    FOOD PRICE TREND ANALYSIS: LESSONS FOR STRENGTHENING FOOD. SECURITY POLICY IN TANZANIA. F. MARO and F. MWAIJANDE1. Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH). P. O. Box 4102, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 1Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), P. O. Box ...

  14. Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J

    2011-08-01

    We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.

  15. Racial Discrimination and Asian Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    Although research on racial discrimination and mental health has proliferated, findings are varied and dispersed. This study explored the critical question of how Asians, in particular, deal with discrimination and how this relates to Asian mental health. With 99 correlations from 23 independent studies, the overall relationship between racial…

  16. The Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory: Development, Factor Analysis, Reliability, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Li,Lisa C.; Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2004-01-01

    The development of the 29-item Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory (AARRSI) is presented. In the first study, data from 161 Asian American respondents were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded 3 subscales composed of Socio-Historical Racism (14 items), General Racism (8 items), and Perpetual Foreigner Racism (7…

  17. Coupling detrended fluctuation analysis of Asian stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhen; Zhu, Yingming; Yang, Liansheng; Mul, Remco A. H.

    2017-04-01

    This paper uses the coupling detrended fluctuation analysis (CDFA) method to investigate the multifractal characteristics of four Asian stock markets using three stock indices: stock price returns, trading volumes and the composite index. The results show that coupled correlations exist among the four stock markets and the coupled correlations have multifractal characteristics. We then use the chi square (χ2) test to identify the sources of multifractality. For the different stock indices, the contributions of a single series to multifractality are different. In other words, the contributions of each country to coupled correlations are different. The comparative analysis shows that the research on the combine effect of stock price returns and trading volumes may be more comprehensive than on an individual index. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data with the residual errors of the vector autoregression (VAR) model, we find that the VAR model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the coupled correlations among four financial time series.

  18. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  19. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Trends in MODIS Geolocation Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Data from the two MODIS instruments have been accurately geolocated (Earth located) to enable retrieval of global geophysical parameters. The authors describe the approach used to geolocate with sub-pixel accuracy over nine years of data from M0DIS on NASA's E0S Terra spacecraft and seven years of data from MODIS on the Aqua spacecraft. The approach uses a geometric model of the MODIS instruments, accurate navigation (orbit and attitude) data and an accurate Earth terrain model to compute the location of each MODIS pixel. The error analysis approach automatically matches MODIS imagery with a global set of over 1,000 ground control points from the finer-resolution Landsat satellite to measure static biases and trends in the MO0lS geometric model parameters. Both within orbit and yearly thermally induced cyclic variations in the pointing have been found as well as a general long-term trend.

  1. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  2. A new era of Asian urology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    Economic prosperity and increasing connectivity have made Asia an emerging centre of growth in health care, including in the field of urology. Large and varied patient populations, the availability of a trained workforce, the use of English as a common communication language, and overall low costs have contributed to this change. Rapid growth of regional urological associations and journals has fuelled the aspirations and abilities of Asian urologists to not only keep abreast of but often lead the change in urological disease management. Asian urology has immense potential to expand in areas in which it currently lags behind, the most important being research. The increasing ability to travel aids in developing networks for collaboration. However, Asian urologists will need to look at sustainable models of engagement and temper the need for short-term results if these opportunities are to reach their maximal potential.

  3. Japanese elderly persons walk faster than non-Asian elderly persons: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masataka; Kamide, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify ethnic differences in walking speed by comparing walking speed in both Japanese and non-Asian elderly individuals and to investigate the necessity of consideration of ethnic differences in walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Articles that reported comfortable walking speeds for community-dwelling elderly individuals were identified from electronic databases. Articles that involved community-dwelling individuals who were 60 years old or older and well functioning were included in the study. Articles that involved Asians were excluded. Weighted means for 5-m walking times were calculated as walking speeds from the Japanese and non-Asian sample data. The effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on 5-m walking times were then investigated using meta-regression analysis. [Results] Twenty studies (34 groups) were included for Japanese, and 16 studies (28 groups) were included for non-Asians. The weighted mean 5-m walking time was estimated to be 4.15 sec (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.87-4.44) for Japanese and 4.24 sec (95% CI: 4.09-4.40) for non-Asians. Furthermore, using meta-regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the 5-m walking time was 0.40 sec faster (95% CI: 0.03-0.77) for Japanese than for non-Asian elderly individuals. [Conclusion] Walking speed appeared faster for Japanese community-dwelling elderly individuals than for non-Asian elderly individuals.

  4. Verbal Decision Analysis: Foundations and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Moshkovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of research in multiple criteria decision analysis is to develop tools to help people make more reasonable decisions. In many cases, the development of such tools requires the combination of knowledge derived from such areas as applied mathematics, cognitive psychology, and organizational behavior. Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA is an example of such a combination. It is based on valid mathematical principles, takes into account peculiarities of human information processing system, and fits the decision process into existing organizational environments. The basic underpinnings of Verbal Decision Analysis are demonstrated by early VDA methods, such as ZAPROS and ORCLASS. New trends in their later modifications are discussed. Published applications of VDA methods are presented to support the findings.

  5. Skin color analysis using a spectrophotometer in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Yong Oock; Park, Be-young Yun

    2010-08-01

    To objectively describe skin color, the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color coordinates and melanin and erythema indexes are used. However, it was difficult to understand the relationship among these parameters and to convert them into each other. We introduced a new technique to measure L*a*b* color coordinates and the melanin and erythema indexes at the same time. We analyzed the skin color of normal Asians using this method. The skin color of the forehead, cheek, upper inner arm, dorsum of hand, and anterior chest of 148 volunteers was measured using a spectrophotometer. Using a computer analysis program, L*a*b* values and the melanin and erythema indexes were presented at the same time. The averages of these data were shown according to gender, age, body parts, and correlations among the melanin and erythema indexes and L*a*b* color coordinates, and then they were analyzed. The averages of the melanin and erythema indexes of 148 participants were 1.10 +/- 0.29 and 1.29 +/- 0.38, respectively. The averages of the L*, a*, and b* values were 64.15 +/- 4.86, 8.96 +/- 2.65, and 18.34 +/- 2.39, respectively. The melanin and erythema indexes were higher in males than in females. While the correlation of the melanin index with the L* value was negative, it was positively correlated with the a* and b* values. While the erythema index showed a weak correlation with the b* value, its correlation was negative with the L* value and positive with the a* value. Our method of skin color measurement is useful. We consider the data of this study valuable basic data for the evaluation of colors of pigmental skin diseases and scars in the future.

  6. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  7. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  8. Decoupling and Sources of Structural Transformation of East Asian Economies: An International Input-Output Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Ko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to answer two questions using input-output decomposition analysis: 1 Have emerging Asian economies decoupled? 2 What are the sources of structural changes in gross outputs and value-added of emerging Asian economies related to the first question? The main findings of the study are as follows: First, since 1990, there has been a trend of increasing dependence on exports to extra-regions such as G3 and the ROW, indicating no sign of "decoupling", but rather an increasing integration of emerging Asian countries into global trade. Second, there is a contrasting feature in the sources of structural changes between non-China emerging Asia and China. Dependence of non-China emerging Asia on intra-regional trade has increased in line with strengthening economic integration in East Asia, whereas China has disintegrated from the region. Therefore, it can be said that China has contributed to no sign of decoupling of emerging Asia as a whole.

  9. Cosmeceuticals: current trends and market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Fredric S; Cazzaniga, Alex; Hann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The desire to maintain a youthful image combined with an emerging global market with disposable income has driven the development of many new industries. The cosmeceutical industry is based on the development and marketing of products that lie between cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Today, there are over 400 suppliers and manufacturers of cosmeceutical products, and the industry is estimated to grow by 7.4% by 2012. Although a number of products advertise predictable outcomes, the industry is largely unregulated and any consumers of cosmeceutical products should consult a dermatologist prior to use. This review will provide a snapshot of the current trends of this industry and provide an analysis of this multi-billion dollar market. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of regional and temporal characteristics of PM10 during an Asian dust episode in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Lee, Haengah Kim; Jun, Na-Young

    2006-05-01

    This study analyzes the regional and temporal distributions of PM10 concentrations observed in major metropolitan cities in Korea before, during and after a recent Asian dust episode in 2002. There were spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations among the mid-western, the southwestern, the southeastern, and the southern parts of Korea during this Asian dust period due to the different air mass movement time and the different wind directions and speeds of prevailing winds in each city or region. The origins of the three-day Asian dust episode were identified by an analysis of two-day backward isentropic air trajectories. The different origins for each day also significantly contributed to the spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations. A significant relationship was found between PM10 concentrations on the day preceding the first peak day and the first peak day of the Asian dust period but only in the mid-western areas. The concentrations of PM10 just after the Asian dust episode were much higher than those just before. There was a significant increase in a coarse fraction, having soil origins, of particles during the Asian dust episode. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cr extracted from the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected in 7 cities during the Asian dust episode were much higher when compared with other days in 2001. However, the Asian dust did not consistently increase the concentrations of lead, cadmium and copper as they are influenced by local sources such as local traffic or industrial emissions.

  11. Multifractal Analysis of Asian Foreign Exchange Markets and Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kwon, Okyu; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the multifractal spectra of daily foreign exchange rates for Japan, Hong-Kong, Korea, and Thailand with respect to the United States Dollar from 1991 to 2005. We find that the return time series show multifractal spectrum features for all four cases. To observe the effect of the Asian currency crisis, we also estimate the multifractal spectra of limited series before and after the crisis. We find that the Korean and Thai foreign exchange markets experienced a significant increase in multifractality compared to Hong-Kong and Japan. We also show that the multifractality is stronge related to the presence of high values of returns in the series.

  12. A multifractal analysis of Asian foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, G.; Eom, C.; Havlin, S.; Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F.; Stanley, H. E.; Kim, S.

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the multifractal spectra of daily foreign exchange rates for Japan, Hong-Kong, Korea, and Thailand with respect to the United States in the period from 1991 until 2005. We find that the return time series show multifractal spectrum features for all four cases. To observe the effect of the Asian currency crisis, we also estimate the multifractal spectra of limited series before and after the crisis. We find that the Korean and Thai foreign exchange markets experienced a significant increase in multifractality compared to Hong-Kong and Japan. We also show that the multifractality is stronger related to the presence of high values of returns in the series.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL TREND IN ETHIOPIA INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and uninterrupted rainfall data series are required to interpret such changes. These data series could be subjected to statistical techniques to identify significant trends and their slope. Therefore, Rainfall being an important climatic element, the study of its variation, particularly, trends (gradual change) of total annual and ...

  14. Analysis of EIF4G1 in Parkinson's disease among Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Ho, Patrick; Prakash, Kumar-M; Foo, Jia-Nee; Liu, Jian-Jun; Au, Wing-Lok; Tan, Louis C; Tan, Eng-King

    2013-04-01

    Sequence analysis of all the exons of EIF4G1 in 96 Asian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) did not reveal any pathogenic mutations. A novel coding variant (Pro693Ser) in exon 15 (position 2077) was detected in one PD patient but not in 539 control subjects. Analysis of a coding polymorphic variant (rs2178403) in 1330 subjects revealed similar frequency between control subjects (0.638) and PD patients (0.640). EIF4G1 is an uncommon cause of PD in our Asian cohort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. When the Asian Girl Speaks: A Comparative Analysis of Two Young Adult Novels in English Written by Asian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalaine Yanilla Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary award winning young adult novels in English: Sing to the Dawn by Minfong Ho, and A Step from Heaven by An Na. Sing to the Dawn, published in Singapore, won first prize in the 1975 Council of Interracial Books for Children in New York; while A Step from Heaven, published in New York, won the 2002 Michael L. Printz Award. By using feminist and critical stylistics, this paper aims to answer the following questions: Do Asians retain their “voice” even when they write in English and live in foreign lands? Given this situation, how do they make their voice heard? How do the two women Asian writers represent the voice of their young female protagonists? Is the voice still distinctly Asian in spite of speaking in English and being written by Asian writers who have long lived in America? When the Asian girl speaks, who listens? Literally and figuratively speaking, has the Asian female finally found her voice?By answering these questions, this paper aims to identify at least some aspects of the Asian “voice” in English and determine the Asian female identity represented in the two young adult novels.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  17. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seho Cha

    Full Text Available Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10, is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples collected during November-December 2014. The dust samples were collected using the impinger method, and the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using PCR followed by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the sequencing data were performed using Mothur software. The data showed that the number of operational taxonomic units and diversity index during Asian dust events were higher than those during non-Asian dust events. At the phylum level, the proportions of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were different between Asian dust and non-Asian dust samples. At the genus level, the proportions of the genus Bacillus (6.9%, Arthrobacter (3.6%, Blastocatella (2%, Planomicrobium (1.4% were increased during Asian dust compared to those in non-Asian dust samples. This study showed that the significant relationship between bacterial populations of Asian dust samples and non-Asian dust samples in Korea, which could significantly affect the microbial population in the environment.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Dongwook; Lim, Sora; Kim, Kyung Sang; Jheong, Weonhwa; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Eung-Roh; Chung, Hyun-Mi; Choe, Joonho; Kim, Myung Kyum; Seo, Taegun

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10), is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples collected during November-December 2014. The dust samples were collected using the impinger method, and the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using PCR followed by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the sequencing data were performed using Mothur software. The data showed that the number of operational taxonomic units and diversity index during Asian dust events were higher than those during non-Asian dust events. At the phylum level, the proportions of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were different between Asian dust and non-Asian dust samples. At the genus level, the proportions of the genus Bacillus (6.9%), Arthrobacter (3.6%), Blastocatella (2%), Planomicrobium (1.4%) were increased during Asian dust compared to those in non-Asian dust samples. This study showed that the significant relationship between bacterial populations of Asian dust samples and non-Asian dust samples in Korea, which could significantly affect the microbial population in the environment.

  19. Meta-analysis identifies common variants associated with body mass index in East Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Wanqing; Cho, Yoon Shin; Zheng, Wei; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Kato, Norihiro; Qi, Lu; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Okada, Yukinori; Tabara, Yasuharu; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhu, Dingliang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Mo, Zengnan; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI) have been identified through genome-wide association studies conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and approximately 2.4 million SNPs in 27,715 East Asians, followed by in silico and de novo replication in 37,691 and 17,642 additional East Asians, respectively. We identified ten BMI-associated loci at the genome-wide significance level (P

  20. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trend analysis and change point detection in temperature and precipitation series have been investigated by many researchers throughout the world (Serra et al. 2001; Turkes and Sumer 2004;. Zer Lin et al. 2005; Partal and Kahya 2006;. Keywords. Climate change; temperature; precipitation; trend analysis; change point ...

  1. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  2. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL TREND IN ETHIOPIA INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requires transformation of the data to normal if the data is non-normally distributed, which .... is evident from Table l, column 5 and 6, the data are positively skewed and the relallf.Ve peaked~ness is large for some stations. Most of the data could not be represented by normlil distribution. ... generalize trend at regional level.

  3. Analysis of Engineering Discipline Grade Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Charles D.; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun

    2008-01-01

    Among the academic community, there is a perception that there is an upward shift in grade point average over an extended period of time without a corresponding increase in achievement. This trend has become an alarming topic among educators, industry and the general public. Some attribute increases in GPA to improvements in student quality while…

  4. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed

  5. Temporal precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, in this study, for the first time, both parametric and non-parametric methods were employed to detect rainfall trend in the basin for the period 1982–2011. The trends were determined at 30 rainfall stations using the Mann–Kendall (MK) test, the Sen's slope estimator and the linear regression analysis. Lag-1 approach ...

  6. Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over India: Observed from long ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's advanced very high resolution radiometer to investigate the trends and variability in ET over India from 1983 to 2006. Trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test showed that the domain average ET decreased during the period at ...

  7. Analysis of rainfall variations and trends in coastal Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of rainfall variations and trends in coastal Tanzania. Julius Francis, Shigalla B Mahongo. Abstract. Rainfall in coastal Tanzania has been investigated for their variability and trends from seven key weather stations during the last 50 years (1960-2009). Results indicate that the island of Mafia receives the highest ...

  8. Efficacy and Safety of IncobotulinumtoxinA in Asian Subjects: A Pooled Analysis of Clinical Trials in the Treatment of Glabellar Frown Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyle; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Chao, Yates Yen-Yu; Goodman, Greg J

    2016-09-01

    Owing to differences in facial anatomy and cultural beauty ideals, dose adaptations are often necessary when administering botulinum toxin type A to Asians and non-Asians. To assess potential differences in the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA in Asian and non-Asians. Efficacy data were pooled from several Phase II/III trials that used 20 U incobotulinumtoxinA to treat glabellar frown lines in Asian subjects. The variable of interest was investigator-assessed improvement in scores on the 4-point Facial Wrinkle Scale from baseline to days 30, 60, 90, and 120. Subjects with a 1-point improvement were considered 'responders'. Data were also assessed for treatment-emergent adverse events, treatment-emergent serious adverse events, and adverse events of special interest among a pool of incobotulinumtoxinA safety studies. Four trials were pooled, comprising 19 Asian and 563 non-Asian subjects. At maximum frown on day 30, 100% of Asians and 87% of non-Asians were responders; by day 120, values were 37% and 40%, respectively. At rest on day 30, 63% of Asians and 56% of non-Asians were responders. Corresponding values for day 120 were 11% and 25%. The mean change in score on the Facial Wrinkle Scale from baseline over time was similar in both groups. Very few adverse events occurred. Overall, treatment-emergent adverse events were lower amongst Asians than non-Asians. Compared with non-Asians, a trend towards slightly higher responses was observed in Asians at maximum frown. There were no clinically relevant differences in the safety of incobotulinumtoxinA when administered to Asian and non-Asian subjects. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1084-1087.

  9. [Comparison of application of Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear regression analysis for rate trend analysis in epidemiology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Z; Wang, C; Shen, C F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Song, G D; Xue, X D; Xu, Z L; Zhang, S; Jiang, G H

    2017-05-10

    We described the time trend of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from 1999 to 2013 in Tianjin incidence rate with Cochran-Armitage trend (CAT) test and linear regression analysis, and the results were compared. Based on actual population, CAT test had much stronger statistical power than linear regression analysis for both overall incidence trend and age specific incidence trend (Cochran-Armitage trend P valueanalysis remained the same when population size was reduced by 100 times and AMI incidence rate remained unchanged. The two statistical methods have their advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to choose statistical method according the fitting degree of data, or comprehensively analyze the results of two methods.

  10. Analysis of Knowledge Management Trend by Bibliometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu-Hao Tsai; Jiann-Min Yang

    2010-01-01

    The analysis is mainly concentrating on the knowledge management literatures productivity trend which subjects as "knowledge management" in SSCI database. The purpose what the analysis will propose is to summarize the trend information for knowledge management researchers since core knowledge will be concentrated in core categories. The result indicated that the literature productivity which topic as "knowledge management" is still increasing extremely and will demonstrat...

  11. A wavelet analysis of co-movements in Asian gold markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debojyoti; Kannadhasan, M.; Al-Yahyaee, Khamis Hamed; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the cross-country co-movements of gold spot returns among the major gold consuming countries in Asia using wavelet-based analysis for a dataset spanning over 26 years. Wavelet-based analysis is used since it allows measuring co-movements in a time-frequency space. The results suggest intense and positive co-movements in Asia after the Asian financial crisis of 1997 at all frequencies. In addition, the Asian gold spot markets depict a state of impending perfect market integration. Finally, Thailand emerges as the potential market leader in all wavelet scales except one, which is led by India. The study has important implications for international diversification of a single-asset (gold) portfolio.

  12. Trend analysis of journal metrics: a new academic library service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Temporal trends in source normalized impact per paper (SNIP) values for the three top-ranking nursing journals were analyzed and compared to explore whether predicting future SNIP values based on trend analysis could be an innovative service provided by librarians. The International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, and Journal of Advanced Nursing were the three top-ranked nursing journals according to 2015 SNIP values. SNIP values for the selected journals were retrieved from the Scopus database, and extracted data were exported to Joinpoint trend analysis software to perform trend analysis. The trend in SNIP values for the International Journal of Nursing Studies was the most stable and positive, whereas the trend in SNIP values for the Journal of Advanced Nursing was the most negative. The annual percentage change of the most recent trend line, which is the best indicator for predicting future SNIP values, was the largest for the International Journal of Nursing Studies. Predictions of journal metrics based on statistical joinpoint regression may not be completely accurate. Using this technique, however, a librarian can reasonably claim which journal will retain or even improve its prestige in the future and thus safely advise prospective authors on where to publish their research.

  13. Gay Asian men in Sydney resist international trend: no change in rates of unprotected anal intercourse, 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Ven, Paul; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett

    2004-02-01

    Against a background of increasing unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the Sydney gay community (and internationally), complementary cross-sectional surveys of sexual practice were conducted among gay men of Asian background in 1999 (N = 319) and 2002 (N = 457). Self-complete questionnaires were used with recruitment at gay bars, gay social functions, and gay sex-on-premises venues. In 2002, self-report HIV status was 73.7% HIV-negative, 3.6% HIV-positive, and 22.8% unknown status (no significant change from 1999). Over time, the proportion of gay Asian men who reported any UAI with regular partners (in the previous 6 months) did not change significantly: 27.9% in 1999; 24.3% in 2002. Similarly, rates of any UAI with casual partners remained steady: 16.3% in 1999; 14.4% in 2002. Only one factor, more extensive engagement in esoteric practices (fisting, sadomasochism, group sex, rimming), was independently associated with sexual risk practice. This suggests that risk in this population of gay men, as in others, has more to do with the sexual cultures in which men are embedded rather than individual-level differences.

  14. Identification and analysis of immune-related transcriptome in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish diseases caused by pathogens are limiting their production and trade, affecting the economy generated by aquaculture. Innate immunity system is the first line of host defense in opposing pathogenic organisms or any other foreign material. For identification of immune-related genes in Asian seabass Lates calcarifer, an important marine foodfish species, we injected bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a commonly used elicitor of innate immune responses to eight individuals at the age of 35 days post-hatch and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to selectively amplify spleen cDNA of differentially expressed genes. Results Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of 3351 ESTs from two SSH libraries yielded 1692 unique transcripts. Of which, 618 transcripts were unknown/novel genes and the remaining 1074 were similar to 743 known genes and 105 unannotated mRNA sequences available in public databases. A total of 161 transcripts were classified to the category "response to stimulus" and 115 to "immune system process". We identified 25 significantly up-regulated genes (including 2 unknown transcripts) and 4 down-regulated genes associated with immune-related processes upon challenge with LPS. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of these genes after LPS challenge. Conclusions The present study identified 1692 unique transcripts upon LPS challenge for the first time in Asian seabass by using SSH, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Some of the identified transcripts are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. The obtained immune-related genes may allow for a better understanding of immunity in Asian seabass, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in Asian seabass. PMID:20525308

  15. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  16. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  17. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Hu; Jingzhen Wang; Mingming Cui; Jing Tao; Youqing Luo

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory proteins form the basis of insect olfactory recognition, which is crucial for host identification, mating, and oviposition. Using transcriptome analysis of Anoplophora glabripennis antenna, we identified 42 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 14 pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs), 1 odorant-degrading enzymes (ODE), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), 11 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), and 4 ionotropic receptor (IR). All CS...

  18. Recent trends in Inner Asian forest dynamics to temperature and precipitation indicate high sensitivity to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, B.; Pederson, N.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.; D'Arrigo, R.; Ciais, P.; Davi, N.; Frank, D. C.; Leland, C.; Myneni, R.; Piao, S.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems play an important role in regulating global climate and their response to climate change will depend on interactions between temperature, precipitation, and CO2. However, in cool-arid environments, precipitation is not the only limitation to forest productivity. For example, interactions between changes in precipitation and air temperature may enhance soil moisture stress while simultaneously extending growing season length, with unclear consequences for net carbon uptake. This presentation evaluates recent trends in productivity and seasonality of forests located in Inner Asia (Mongolia and Northern China) using satellite remote sensing, dendrochronology, and dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) simulations to quantify the sensitivity of forest dynamics to decadal climate variability and trends. Long-term trends from satellite observations of FPAR between 1982-2010 show a greening of 21% of the region in spring (March, April May), but with 10% of the area 'browning' during summertime (June, July, August), the results of which are corroborated by trends in NPP simulated by the LPJ DGVM. Spring greening trends in FPAR are mainly explained by long-term trends in precipitation whereas summer browning trends are correlated with decreasing precipitation. Tree ring data from 25 sites confirm annual growth increments are mainly limited by summer precipitation (June, July, August) in Mongolia, and spring precipitation in northern China (March, April, May), with relatively weak prior-year lag effects. An ensemble of climate projections from the IPCC CMIP3 models indicates that warming temperatures (spring, summer) are expected to be associated with higher summer precipitation, which combined with CO2 causes large increases in NPP and eventual increase in forest cover in the Mongolian steppe. In the absence of a strong direct CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth (e.g., due to nutrient limitation), water stress or decreased carbon gain from higher

  19. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  20. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  1. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Wang, Jingzhen; Cui, Mingming; Tao, Jing; Luo, Youqing

    2016-05-25

    Olfactory proteins form the basis of insect olfactory recognition, which is crucial for host identification, mating, and oviposition. Using transcriptome analysis of Anoplophora glabripennis antenna, we identified 42 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 14 pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs), 1 odorant-degrading enzymes (ODE), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), 11 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), and 4 ionotropic receptor (IR). All CSPs and PBPs were expressed in antennae, confirming the authenticity of the transcriptome data. CSP expression profiles showed that AglaCSP3, AglaCSP6, and AglaCSP12 were expressed preferentially in maxillary palps and AglaCSP7 and AglaCSP9 were strongly expressed in antennae. The vast majority of CSPs were highly expressed in multiple chemosensory tissues, suggesting their participation in olfactory recognition in almost all olfactory tissues. Intriguingly, the PBP AglaPBP2 was preferentially expressed in antenna, indicating that it is the main protein involved in efficient and sensitive pheromone recognition. Phylogenetic analysis of olfactory proteins indicated AglaGR1 may detect CO2. This study establishes a foundation for determining the chemoreception molecular mechanisms of A. glabripennis, which would provide a new perspective for controlling pest populations, especially those of borers.

  2. Trend analysis of journal metrics: a new academic library service?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Temporal trends in source normalized impact per paper (SNIP) values for the three top-ranking nursing journals were analyzed and compared to explore whether predicting future SNIP values based on trend analysis could be an innovative service provided by librarians. Methods: The International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, and Journal of Advanced Nursing were the three top-ranked nursing journals according to 2015 SNIP values. SNIP values for the sel...

  3. Trend analysis of journal metrics: a new academic library service?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Temporal trends in source normalized impact per paper (SNIP) values for the three top-ranking nursing journals were analyzed and compared to explore whether predicting future SNIP values based on trend analysis could be an innovative service provided by librarians. Methods The International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, and Journal of Advanced Nursing were the three top-ranked nursing journals according to 2015 SNIP values. SNIP values for the selected ...

  4. Declining and stabilising trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch Turkish, Moroccanand South Asian children 3-16 years of age between 1999 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In many developed countries, overweight and obesity prevalence seems to stabilise. The aim of this study was to determine trends between 1999 and 2011 in overweight and obesity prevalence, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian

  5. Detection of Functional Change Using Cluster Trend Analysis in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Stuart K.; Mansberger, Steven L.; Demirel, Shaban

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Global analyses using mean deviation (MD) assess visual field progression, but can miss localized changes. Pointwise analyses are more sensitive to localized progression, but more variable so require confirmation. This study assessed whether cluster trend analysis, averaging information across subsets of locations, could improve progression detection. Methods A total of 133 test–retest eyes were tested 7 to 10 times. Rates of change and P values were calculated for possible re-orderings of these series to generate global analysis (“MD worsening faster than x dB/y with P trend analysis detects subsequently confirmed deterioration sooner than either global or pointwise analyses. PMID:28715580

  6. Analysis of recent trends of global radiation ground measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remund, Jan

    2010-05-01

    This analysis is focused on long time series of global radiation with a duration of at least 40 years within the period 1950 - 2009. Like this work lies in-between the analysis for worldwide (satellite) data with approx. 20 years of duration and those for some few sites with very long measurements. A total of 24 sites based on Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, http://proto-geba.ethz.ch) have been used. These 24 sites have been grouped to 10 regional clusters including 2 - 13 stations. The following three questions have been investigated: 1. Trend of the time series of monthly data (full period and several sub periods); 2. Trends of 5, 10 and 20 years means; 3. Dependence of the variability on the length of a measured period. Trends of monthly values: For the whole period between 1950 and 2009 and all sites a negative and statistically significant trend of -1.41 W/m2 per decade could be found. For most grouped sites no significant trend is visible. Nevertheless for Germany / Austria a slightly positive trend can be seen and for Switzerland, Asia, India and Canada a negative trend. For the two sub periods 1950 - 1985 and 1985 - 2009 a significant trend could be found for most groups and stations. For the first period 1950-1985 only negative trends were found. For the second period 1985-2009 (including data for most sites up to 2005) all regions except India and Canada showed a positive trend. For the mean of all sites the dimming for the period 1950 - 85 and the brightening for the period 1985 - 2009 is statistically significant. The negative trend during the dimming period is clearly stronger (approx. factor 2) than the positive trend during the brightening phase. The individual regions and groups show a great variety of different trends for the analyzed sub periods. The negative trend found in Hinkelman et al. (2009) for the period after 2000 could be found only at 2 stations out of the 24. Trends of 5, 10 and 20 year means: Similar to the trends of the monthly

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  8. SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Report to help utilities and energy efficiency organizations forecast the order in which important SSL applications will become cost-effective and estimate when each "tipping point" will be reached. Includes performance trend analysis from DOE's LED Lighting Facts® and CALiPER programs plus cost analysis from various sources.

  9. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  10. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis: Are we overdoing? An Asian survey on trends in bariatric surgery with a systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Kumar, S Saravana; Swamy, Parimala Devi Kumara; Palanivelu, C; Raj, P Praveen

    2017-12-11

    Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is the most common cause of mortality in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. There is considerable variation in practice regarding methods, dosages and duration of prophylaxis in this patient population. Most of the literature is based on Western patients and specific guidelines for Asians do not exist. We conducted a web-based survey amongst 11 surgeons from high-volume centres in Asia regarding their DVT prophylaxis measures in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We collected and analysed the data. The reported incidence of DVT and VTE ranged from 0% to 0.2%. Most surgeons (63.64%) preferred to use both mechanical and chemoprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin being the most preferred form of chemoprophylaxis (81.82%). There was an equal distribution of weight-based, body mass index-based and fixed-dose regimens. Duration of chemoprophylaxis ranged from 3-5 days after surgery to 2 weeks after surgery. For high-risk patients, 60% surgeons preferred to start chemoprophylaxis at least 1 week before surgery. Routine use of inferior vena cava filters in high-risk patients was not preferred with some surgeons adopting a selective use (36.36%). The purpose of this survey was to understand the trends in DVT prophylaxis amongst different high-volume bariatric centres in Asia and to relate the same with the existing literature on the different steps in prophylaxis. There is, however, a need for consensus guidelines for DVT prophylaxis in Asian obese.

  11. Crossing trend analysis methodology and application for Turkish rainfall records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekâi

    2018-01-01

    Trend analyses are the necessary tools for depicting possible general increase or decrease in a given time series. There are many versions of trend identification methodologies such as the Mann-Kendall trend test, Spearman's tau, Sen's slope, regression line, and Şen's innovative trend analysis. The literature has many papers about the use, cons and pros, and comparisons of these methodologies. In this paper, a completely new approach is proposed based on the crossing properties of a time series. It is suggested that the suitable trend from the centroid of the given time series should have the maximum number of crossings (total number of up-crossings or down-crossings). This approach is applicable whether the time series has dependent or independent structure and also without any dependence on the type of the probability distribution function. The validity of this method is presented through extensive Monte Carlo simulation technique and its comparison with other existing trend identification methodologies. The application of the methodology is presented for a set of annual daily extreme rainfall time series from different parts of Turkey and they have physically independent structure.

  12. Monitoring a municipal wastewater treatment process using a trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Kuokkanen, Anna; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2017-09-13

    New monitoring methods are required to enhance the operation of a wastewater treatment process and to meet the constantly tightening regulations for the effluent discharges. An on-line optical monitoring device, that analyses the morphological parameters of the flocs, has been shown to be a potential tool for assessing the wastewater quality and the state of the activated sludge process. In this paper, the earlier presented trend analysis method is applied to the operating conditions, the treatment results and the optical monitoring variables of a full-scale biological wastewater treatment process. The trend episodes and the deviation indices resulted from the trend analysis provide warning of the changes in the monitored variables and the received information can be used as assistance in the treatment process operation and avoiding harmful environmental risks.

  13. Trend-Analysis and Research Direction in Construction Management Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Planning and scheduling, both in the form of pre-assembly construction as well as increase in cost and time are all themes that haven’t been studies in a trend-analysis, with the purpose of finding gaps and research directions in the literature. The aim of this paper is therefor to analyze these ...

  14. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents results of trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) time series of the period 1950–2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 temperature ...

  15. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  16. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in South Africa in 2010. ... Southern African Business Review ... In South Africa, the King II Report on Corporate Governance recommended that organisations should produce a sustainability report some time during the reporting cycle (IOD 2009: 13). The latest ...

  17. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in South Africa in 2010. 29 the strategy ... M. Ungerer. 30 could result in a competitive advantage for the organisation (Lazarus & McManus. 2006: 925). Table 1: The advantages and disadvantages of transparency in disclosure of strategic information.

  18. Trend and Homogeneity Analysis of Precipitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Javari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine trend and homogeneity through the analysis of rainfall variability patterns in Iran. The study presents a review on the application of homogeneity and seasonal time series analysis methods for forecasting rainfall variations. Trend and homogeneity methods are applied in the time series analysis from collecting rainfall data to evaluating results in climate studies. For the homogeneity analysis of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall, homogeneity tests were used in 140 stations in the 1975–2014 period. The homogeneity of the monthly and annual rainfall at each station was studied using the autocorrelation (ACF, and the von Neumann (VN tests at a significance level of 0.05. In addition, the nature of the monthly and seasonal rainfall series in Iran was studied using the Kruskal-Wallis (KW test, the Thumb test (TT, and the least squares regression (LSR test at a significance level of 0.05. The present results indicate that the seasonal patterns of rainfall exhibit considerable diversity across Iran. Rainfall seasonality is generally less spatially coherent than temporal patterns in Iran. The seasonal variations of rainfall decreased significantly throughout eastern and central Iran, but they increased in the west and north of Iran during the studied interval. The present study comparisons among variations of patterns with the seasonal rainfall series reveal that the variability of rainfall can be predicted by the non-trended and trended patterns.

  19. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources ConservationService (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of ...

  20. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  1. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  2. Trend analysis and survival of primary gallbladder cancer in the United States: a 1973-2009 population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Simoes, Eduardo J; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-04-01

    Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1.4% of all reported gastrointestinal cancers. Gallbladder cancer was more common in females than males (71 vs. 29%, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 1.4 per 100,000, significantly higher in females than males (1.7 vs. 1.0). Trend analysis showed that the incidence rate has been decreasing over the last three decades for males. However, among females, the incidence rate had decreased from 1973 to mid-90s but has remained stable since then. Trend analysis for stage at diagnosis showed that the proportion of late-stage cases has been increasing significantly since 2001 after a decreasing pattern since 1973. Survival has improved considerably over time, and survival is better in females than males and in Asian/Pacific Islanders than other racial groups. The highest survival was in patients who received both surgery and radiation. Trend analysis revealed a recent increase of the incidence of late-stage gallbladder cancer. Highest survival was associated with receiving both surgery and radiation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Asian and Hispanic Americans' cancer fatalism and colon cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2013-03-01

    To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.

  4. Trend detection and analysis in Eastern Europe and European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K.; Henebry, G. M.; Owsley, B.

    2014-12-01

    A confluence of computing power, cost of storage, ease of access to data, and ease of product delivery make it possible to harness the power of multiple remote sensing data streams to monitor land surface dynamics. Change detection has always been a fundamental remote sensing task, and there are myriad ways to perceive differences. From a statistical viewpoint, image time series of the vegetated land surface are complicated data to analyze. The time series are often seasonal and have high temporal autocorrelation. These characteristics result in the failure of the data to meet the assumption of most standard parametric statistical tests. Failure of statistical assumptions is not trivial and the use of inappropriate statistical methods may lead to the detection of spurious trends, while any actual trends and/or step changes might be overlooked. Methods for the analysis of messy satellite data, which are often influenced by discontinuity, missing observations, non-linearity, and seasonality, are still being developed within the remote sensing community. We have found several examples of research that compares trends from different datasets. However, there is a dearth of information on the comparison of trend detection methods themselves for standardized datasets. Here we describe three different trend detection methods, and compare their results for a set of synthetic time series exhibiting monotonic trends as well as step changes. We will vary the length of the time series, the number of observations per year and the number of missing values. We will also vary the seasonality and the strength of the autocorrelation. We will then discuss a case study for Eastern Europe and European Russia where we investigate time series of MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted (NBAR) data at 8-day and 500m resolution between 2001 and 2013. We investigate basic vegetation indices such as NDVI and EVI but also extend the analysis towards a disturbance index which identifies how pixels differ from

  5. Trends in ophthalmology journals: a five-year bibliometric analysis (2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Schulz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the trends in the ophthalmic literature over a 5-year period in relation to country, research expenditure and demographics. METHODS: Articles published between 2009 and 2013 by the 20highest-contributing countries in the 20 top-ranked ophthalmology journals were identified by their country of affiliation. The number of articles published and mean impact factor were measured per country for each year and trends explored using regression analysis with 5-year and 10-year forecasts calculated. Data on research expenditure was collected and tested for correlation with the number of articles and mean impact factor. RESULTS: The analysis included 19 338 articles. The USA, UK and Europe accounted for 60.2% of articles published, with the USA contributing 7388 articles (34.0%. The USA also demonstrated the highest mean impact factor (3.5. Research expenditure was significantly correlated with both research output (r=0.86, P<0.001 and scholarly impact (r=0.42, P<0.001. China (P<0.01, Korea (P<0.01 and India (P<0.02 demonstrated a significant growth in research output over the study period. The research contribution of these three countries combined is forecasted to overtake that of Europe within ten years, with China expected to be the second-largest contributor within five years. These countries were also among those demonstrating the greatest growth in research expenditure. CONCLUSION: While the USA and European countries are major contributors of ophthalmic research, the productivity of some Asian countries is growing impressively. The contribution of China, Korea and India is forecasted to outweigh that of Europe by 2023. Research expenditure is highly correlated with research productivity and these trends reflect the differing economic priorities across the world.

  6. Temperature analysis over southwest Iran: trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    The present study intends to show the effect of climate change on trends and patterns of temperature over the southwestern part of Iran. The research has been divided into two parts. The first part consists of an analysis of the temperature trends of mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX), and minimum temperature (TMIN) over 39 stations in the study region for the period 1950-2007. The trends in these parameters were detected by linear regression, and significance was tested by t test. Mann-Kendall rank test (MK test) was also employed to confirm the results. The second part of the research involved future projection of temperature based on four models. The models used were Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, European Center Hamburg Model, Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, and UK Meteorological Office. Temperature projections were done under B1 and A1B emissions scenarios. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable as compared with summer, spring, and autumn seasons. Results of modeling showed that temperature may increase between 1.69 and 6.88 °C by 2100 in the study area. Summer temperatures may increase with higher rates than spring, winter, and autumn temperatures.

  7. Trends in biomedical informatics: automated topic analysis of JAMIA articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeon-Eui; Sun, Jimeng; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a growing interdisciplinary field in which research topics and citation trends have been evolving rapidly in recent years. To analyze these data in a fast, reproducible manner, automation of certain processes is needed. JAMIA is a "generalist" journal for biomedical informatics. Its articles reflect the wide range of topics in informatics. In this study, we retrieved Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and citations of JAMIA articles published between 2009 and 2014. We use tensors (i.e., multidimensional arrays) to represent the interaction among topics, time and citations, and applied tensor decomposition to automate the analysis. The trends represented by tensors were then carefully interpreted and the results were compared with previous findings based on manual topic analysis. A list of most cited JAMIA articles, their topics, and publication trends over recent years is presented. The analyses confirmed previous studies and showed that, from 2012 to 2014, the number of articles related to MeSH terms Methods, Organization & Administration, and Algorithms increased significantly both in number of publications and citations. Citation trends varied widely by topic, with Natural Language Processing having a large number of citations in particular years, and Medical Record Systems, Computerized remaining a very popular topic in all years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Hastings

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  9. THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LIMITED SOUTH ASIAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS AFTER FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the recent global crisis, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe, there is some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, risk management and audit system. The 2009 India Code of Corporate Governance also revealed that during the crisis time, there are certain weaknesses although corporate structure is fairly durable. Hence, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies limited South Asian representative corporate governance (CG standards into two (2 groups: India and Malaysia latest CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including corporate governance principle from Thailand and Indonesia, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses ACCA and OECD and ICGN principles as reference. Second, it, through analysis, identifies differences and advantages between above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for South Asian representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards. Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.

  10. Linguistic Preprocessing and Tagging for Problem Report Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Robert J.; Malin, Jane T.

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Robert Beil, Systems Engineer at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) develop a prototype tool suite that combines complementary software technology used at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and KSC for problem report preprocessing and semantic tag extraction, to improve input to data mining and trend analysis. This document contains the outcome of the assessment and the Findings, Observations and NESC Recommendations.

  11. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  12. Analysis of Violence Against Women Act and the South Asian Immigrants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Shreya Bhandari

    2008-01-01

    The issue of domestic violence among South Asian immigrant population in the United States is examined in the light of the Violence Against Women Act. The paper gives a background to the issue of domestic violence in the South Asian community and examines the Violence Against Women Acts of 1994, 2000 and 2005 with regard to issues affecting South Asian women. It addresses issues around marriage and has emphasized the difficulties of women with dependent immigration status. Policy alternatives...

  13. Analysis and Functional Annotation of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wayne B. Hunter; Michael T. Smith; Laura E. Hunnicutt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is one of the most economically and ecologically devastating forest insects to invade North America in recent years...

  14. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    directionality. It is based on 44 year hindcast model data (1958-2001) of the HIPOCAS project, enabling to work with a longer time series compared to the existing measured ones. 41 nodes of this database are used, containing 3 hourly simulated data of significant wave height and wave direction, among other parameters. For storm definition, the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method is used with some additional duration requirements in order to analyse statistically independent events (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2006). Including both wave height and storm duration, the wave storminess is characterised by the energy content (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2004), being in turn log-transformed because of its positive scale. Separately, the wave directionality itself is analysed in terms of different sectors and approaching their probability of occurrence by counting events and using Bayesian inference (Agresti, 2002). Therefore, the original data is transformed into compositional data and, before performing the trend analysis, the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation (Egozcue et al., 2003) is done. In general, the trend analysis methodology consists in two steps: 1) trend detection and 2) trend quantification. For 1) the Mann Kendall test is used in order to identify the nodes with significant trend. For these selected nodes, the trend quantification is done, comparing two methods: 1) a simple linear regression analysis complemented with the bootstrap technique and 2) a Bayesian analysis, assuming normally distributed data with linearly increasing mean. Preliminary results show no significant trend for both annual mean and maximum energy content except for some nodes located to the Northern Catalan coast. Regarding the wave direction (but not only considering stormy conditions) there is a tendency of North direction to decrease whereas South and Southeast direction seems to increase.

  15. Asians' Facial Responsiveness to Basic Tastes by Automated Facial Expression Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Cao, Lianyu; Cao, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Growing evidence shows that consumer choices in real life are mostly driven by unconscious mechanisms rather than conscious. The unconscious process could be measured by behavioral measurements. This study aims to apply automatic facial expression analysis technique for consumers' emotion representation, and explore the relationships between sensory perception and facial responses. Basic taste solutions (sourness, sweetness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) with 6 levels plus water were used, which could cover most of the tastes found in food and drink. The other contribution of this study is to analyze the characteristics of facial expressions and correlation between facial expressions and perceptive hedonic liking for Asian consumers. Up until now, the facial expression application researches only reported for western consumers, while few related researches investigated the facial responses during food consuming for Asian consumers. Experimental results indicated that facial expressions could identify different stimuli with various concentrations and different hedonic levels. The perceived liking increased at lower concentrations and decreased at higher concentrations, while samples with medium concentrations were perceived as the most pleasant except sweetness and bitterness. High correlations were founded between perceived intensities of bitterness, umami, saltiness, and facial reactions of disgust and fear. Facial expression disgust and anger could characterize emotion "dislike," and happiness could characterize emotion "like," while neutral could represent "neither like nor dislike." The identified facial expressions agree with the perceived sensory emotions elicited by basic taste solutions. The correlation analysis between hedonic levels and facial expression intensities obtained in this study are in accordance with that discussed for western consumers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Trend and Cycle Analysis of Annual and Seasonal Precipitation in Liaoning, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual and seasonal precipitation data for 49 meteorological stations over the period of 1960–2006 in Liaoning province were analyzed. Liaoning experienced province-wide decreases in precipitation over the 47-year period, with annual precipitation decreasing by 96% of the stations, followed by 92, 84, 63, and 27%, respectively, for summer, autumn, spring, and winter precipitation. Regional trend analysis confirmed the province-wide decrease, which was detected by the site-specific analysis, but a greater number of significant declines were found for annual, summer, and autumn precipitation for Liaoning province and for three of its four subregions. Four significant cycles with alternation patterns were detected mainly at the time scales of 3–5, 10-11, 20–23, and 31.2 years for each of the four subregions (Liaodong Peninsula, Northeastern Mountain, Western Highland, and Central Plain and the entire Liaoning province, with the dominant periodicities being 10-11 years. The 10-11-year periodic variation of Liaoning annual precipitation was negatively associated with sunspot activity and positively associated with the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM at the same time scale, while the 31.2-year periodic variation of Liaoning annual precipitation was positively correlated with both the EASM and ENSO activities at the 30–33-year time scale.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  18. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  19. Preventing preeclampsia and its fetal complications with low-dose aspirin in East Asians and non-East Asians:A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jie; He, Huan; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Low-dose aspirin can reduce the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, the effects of ethnicity upon low-dose aspirin's efficacy has not been analyzed. Here, we comparatively evaluated the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia and related fetal complications in East Asian and non-East Asian pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Several databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-dose aspirin with either placebo or no treatment in pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preeclampsia and related fetal outcomes were tabulated. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced preeclampsia risk in both East Asians (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.35) and non-East Asians (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77-0.92). Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced IUGR risk in East Asians (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67) but not in non-East Asians (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41-1.77). Low-dose aspirin did not significantly reduce the risk of cesarean section in either East Asians (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.14-3.22) or non-East Asians (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.19). Low-dose aspirin is effective in reducing preeclampsia risk in both East Asians and non-East Asians and has differential effects in East Asians and non-East Asians with respect to IUGR.

  20. Predictors of Asian American Adolescents' Suicide Attempts: A Latent Class Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Maffini, Cara S.

    2011-01-01

    Although suicide-related outcomes among Asian American adolescents are a serious public health problem in the United States, research in this area has been relatively sparse. To address this gap in the empirical literature, this study examined subgroups of Asian American adolescents for whom family, school, and peer relationships exerted…

  1. Epidemiology and trend analysis on malignant mesothelioma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zuo, Tingting; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Yang, Zhixun; Chen, Wanqing

    2017-08-01

    Population-based cancer registration data were used to analyze the epidemiology and trend of malignant mesothelioma in China, and the result would provide basic data for its prevention and control. Malignant mesothelioma data in 2013 were retrieved from the database of National Cancer Registry. Malignant mesothelioma incidence and mortality were estimated using age-specific rate by urban/rural and gender according to the national population in 2013. Malignant mesothelioma data from 22 cancer registries were used for trend analysis during 2000-2013. It is estimated that there were 2,041 new malignant mesothelioma cases and 1,659 malignant mesothelioma deaths occurred in 2013. The crude incidence rate in China were 1.50/106 (males 1.67/106, females 1.32/106), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 1.03/106 and 1.02/106, respectively. The crude mortality rate in China was 1.22/106 (males 1.67/106, females 1.32/106), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 0.83/106 and 0.81/106, respectively. There was an increasing trend of incidence rate for malignant mesothelioma in registration areas of China during 2000-2013 with annual percentage change (APC) of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.6%-4.5%]. After age standardization, no significant differences were observed. No matter for crude mortality rates or age-standardized mortality rates, no significant differences were observed during 2000-2013. Malignant mesothelioma is the major occupational and environmental neoplasm associated with asbestos exposure. The increasing incidence trend suggests that more attention should be paid on this disease.

  2. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  3. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome: A retrospective analysis from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Jae; Clare, Robert M; Gao, Runlin; Held, Claes; Himmelmann, Anders; James, Stefan K; Lim, Soo Teik; Santoso, Anwar; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Wallentin, Lars; Becker, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    In the PLATO trial, ticagrelor was superior to clopidogrel in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at the expense of increased nonfatal bleeding. Because Asian patients, when compared with non-Asian patients, are believed to be more susceptible to bleeding, we evaluated the effects of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in Asian (n=1,106) and non-Asian (n=17,515) patients with acute coronary syndrome enrolled in the PLATO study. Interaction between Asian/non-Asian and primary efficacy end point (a composite of vascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and net clinical benefit (composite of primary efficacy end point and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery or non-CABG-related major bleeding) were evaluated with a Cox proportional hazards model. Baseline demographics and comorbidities were different between Asians and non-Asians. The overall cardiovascular event rates were higher in Asians, but bleeding rates were similar. Despite these observed differences, the effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel were not significantly different between Asians and non-Asians with respect to the primary efficacy outcome (hazard ratio for Asians vs non-Asians, 0.84 [95% CI 0.61-1.17] vs 0.85 [95% CI 0.77-0.93], P=.974), net clinical benefit (0.85 [95% CI 0.65-1.11] vs 0.93 [95% CI 0.86-0.99], P=.521), or individual efficacy end points. There was no significant interaction for bleeding (PLATO major bleeding, 1.02 [95% CI 0.70-1.49] vs 1.04 [95% CI 0.95-1.14], P=.938) and other related adverse events with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel between Asians and non-Asians. We observed consistency of effects in Asian patients receiving ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the PLATO study. The relatively modest number of Asian patients in this analysis supports further investigation of larger cohorts to confirm our observations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Declining and stabilising trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and South Asian children 3-16 years of age between 1999 and 2011 in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Verkerk, P H; Middelkoop, B J C

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, overweight and obesity prevalence seems to stabilise. The aim of this study was to determine trends between 1999 and 2011 in overweight and obesity prevalence, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian children in the Netherlands. A cross-sectional population-based study with 136 080 measurements of height and weight of 73 290 children aged 3-16 years. BMI class and BMI z-score were determined with the latest International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) criteria, with overweight defined as an adult BMI equivalent ≥ 25 and obesity ≥ 30. Time trends per year were analysed using logistic and linear regression analyses. The prevalence of overweight in Dutch children declined from 13% to 11% (OR 0.960; 95% CI 0.954 to 0.965), but increased in Turkish children from 25% to 32% (OR 1.028; 95% CI 1.020 to 1.036). In Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian children, overweight rates were stable, but obesity prevalence decreased (OR 0.973; 95% CI 0.957 to 0.989, OR 0.964; 95% CI 0.943 to 0.985, respectively) as well as the mean BMI z-score (B=-0.010; 95% CI -0.014 to -0.006, B=-0.010; 95% CI -0.016 to -0.004). In Turkish children, trends limited to the period 2007-2011 showed no statistically significant relationship for all outcome measures. The decrease in obesity prevalence in Dutch, Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian children suggests that overweight children became less adipose. The stabilising trend in overweight and obesity prevalence in Turkish children since 2007 may signify a levelling off for this ethnic group.

  5. Race, unemployment rate, and chronic mental illness: a 15-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2014-07-01

    Before abating, the recession of the first decade of this century doubled the US unemployment rate. High unemployment is conceptualized as a stressor having serious effects on individuals' mental health. Data from surveys administered repeatedly over 15 years (1997-2011) described changes over time in the prevalence of chronic mental illness among US adults. The data allowed us to pinpoint changes characterizing the White majority--but not Black, Hispanic, or Asian minorities--and to ask whether such changes were attributable to economic conditions (measured via national unemployment rates). We combined 1.5 decades' worth of National Health Interview Survey data in one secondary analysis. We took social structural and demographic factors into account and let adjusted probability of chronic mental illness indicate prevalence of chronic mental illness We observed, as a general trend, that chronic mental illness probability increased as the unemployment rate rose. A greater increase in probability was observed for Blacks than Whites, notably during 2007-2011, the heart of the recession Our results confirmed that structural risk posed by the recent recession and by vulnerability to the recession's effects was differentially linked to Blacks. This led to the group's high probability of chronic mental illness, observed even when individual-level social structural and demographic factors were controlled. Future research should specify the particular kinds of vulnerability that created the additional disadvantage experienced by Black respondents.

  6. Habitat Preference, Dispersal, and Population Trends of Three Species of Invasive Asian Carps in Tributaries of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    of the lower block net. Some individuals were euthanized in MS222 and preserved in formalin to be kept as voucher specimens . All carp specimens were...preserved and kept as vouchers and for further study. All voucher specimens were deposited into the Illinois Natural History Survey Fish Collection...carp and no other Asian carp specimens , indicating temporary nonresident utilization of small streams. Because of the paucity of Asian carp

  7. Learning from Trending, Precursor Analysis, and System Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, R. W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Duffey, R. B. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Models of reliability growth relate current system unreliability to currently accumulated experience. But “experience” comes in different forms. Looking back after a major accident, one is sometimes able to identify previous events or measurable performance trends that were, in some sense, signaling the potential for that major accident: potential that could have been recognized and acted upon, but was not recognized until the accident occurred. This could be a previously unrecognized cause of accidents, or underestimation of the likelihood that a recognized potential cause would actually operate. Despite improvements in the state of practice of modeling of risk and reliability, operational experience still has a great deal to teach us, and work has been going on in several industries to try to do a better job of learning from experience before major accidents occur. It is not enough to say that we should review operating experience; there is too much “experience” for such general advice to be considered practical. The paper discusses the following: 1. The challenge of deciding what to focus on in analysis of operating experience. 2. Comparing what different models of learning and reliability growth imply about trending and precursor analysis.

  8. E-selectin gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Asian population: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojun Cai

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T may be associated with essential hypertension (EH, but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH.We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893-2.748, P<0.001 in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679-10.420, P<0.001 in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981-2.808, P = 0.001 in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627-0.983, P = 0.035 in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336-4.652, P = 0.739 in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649-0.999, P = 0.049 in allelic model.The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk.

  9. Subgroup analysis of Asian patients in the INPULSIS® trials of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zuojun; Azuma, Arata; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Li, Huiping; Fujimoto, Tsuyoshi; Bailes, Zelie; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Kim, Dong S

    2016-11-01

    In the two-replicate randomized Phase III INPULSIS® trials in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nintedanib 150 mg bd significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) compared with placebo. The key secondary endpoints were time to first investigator-reported acute exacerbation and change from baseline in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, both over 52 weeks. Here, we assessed the effect of nintedanib in Asian patients. Pre-specified subgroup analyses of the effect of nintedanib on the primary and key secondary endpoints in Asian versus White patients were undertaken based on pooled data from the two INPULSIS® trials. Safety data were analyzed descriptively. Of the treated patients, 322 were Asian (nintedanib n = 194; placebo n = 128) and 608 were White (nintedanib n = 360; placebo n = 248). In Asian patients, the nintedanib versus placebo difference in the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC was 94.1 mL/year (95% CI: 33.7, 154.6). The treatment effect of nintedanib on the annual rate of decline in FVC in Asian and White patients was similar (treatment-by-subgroup interaction P = 0.72) and consistent with the overall population. No significant treatment-by-subgroup interaction was observed for the key secondary endpoints between Asian and White patients. In Asian patients, the most common adverse event in the nintedanib group was diarrhoea (56.2% of patients vs 15.6% for placebo). In pre-specified subgroup analyses of Asian versus White patients with IPF in the INPULSIS® trials, race did not influence the effect of nintedanib on disease progression. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Analysis of Violence Against Women Act and the South Asian Immigrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Bhandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of domestic violence among South Asian immigrant population in the United States is examined in the light of the Violence Against Women Act. The paper gives a background to the issue of domestic violence in the South Asian community and examines the Violence Against Women Acts of 1994, 2000 and 2005 with regard to issues affecting South Asian women. It addresses issues around marriage and has emphasized the difficulties of women with dependent immigration status. Policy alternatives are examined and discussed with regard to efficacy and efficiency of the policy.

  11. Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and NSCL/P risk in Asians: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. RESULTS: Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI of 1.41(1.23-1.61 in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19-2.42 in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations.

  12. Association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and NSCL/P Risk in Asians: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Ren, Yangwu; Shen, Li; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Baosen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in Asian populations. However, findings have been conflicting. In order to investigate the association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods We searched Pubmed, MedLine and EmBase database to selected eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model to assess the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and NSCL/P in both Asian children and mothers. Results Finally, nine case-control studies were included. Overall, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NSCL/P showed pooled ORs (95%CI) of 1.41(1.23–1.61) in Asian children, and 1.70(1.19–2.42) in Asian mothers. Subgroup analyses by geographical locations further identified the association in Eastern Asian children, Western/Central Asian children and mothers, but not in Eastern Asian mothers. However, no significant relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and NSCL/P was found in this meta-analysis. Conclusions The MTHFR 677T allele was associated with an increased risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. PMID:24658649

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  16. Publication Trends in Thanatology: An Analysis of Leading Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Joachim; Doka, Kenneth J; Neimeyer, Robert A; Vallerga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To identify important trends in thanatology as a discipline, the authors analyzed over 1,500 articles that appeared in Death Studies and Omega over a 20-year period, coding the category of articles (e.g., theory, application, empirical research), their content focus (e.g., bereavement, death attitudes, end-of-life), and for empirical studies, their methodology (e.g., quantitative, qualitative). In general, empirical research predominates in both journals, with quantitative methods outnumbering qualitative procedures 2 to 1 across the period studied, despite an uptick in the latter methods in recent years. Purely theoretical articles, in contrast, decline in frequency. Research on grief and bereavement is the most commonly occurring (and increasing) content focus of this work, with a declining but still substantial body of basic research addressing death attitudes. Suicidology is also well represented in the corpus of articles analyzed. In contrast, publications on topics such as death education, medical ethics, and end-of-life issues occur with lower frequency, in the latter instances likely due to the submission of such work to more specialized medical journals. Differences in emphasis of Death Studies and Omega are noted, and the analysis of publication patterns is interpreted with respect to overall trends in the discipline and the culture, yielding a broad depiction of the field and some predictions regarding its possible future.

  17. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  18. Long-Term Thermospheric Trends Based on Satellite Drag Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, F. A.; Grossbard, N. J.

    2004-05-01

    A new database of thermospheric densities has been derived for the period 1970 - 2000 from satellite orbital decay analysis. The data are generated from actual radar tracking observations, rather than from the less accurate historical element sets, to form precise orbit and drag/density data with improved accuracy and one-day resolution. Satellites with high eccentricities were used to achieve long lifetimes and relatively localized latitude and local time resolution. Data are compared to three empirical models (Jacchia, NRLMSIS and NASA MET). The data were normalized to remove systematic model errors vs solar activity detected in all three models. A linear regression through the normalized data was obtained for each satellite. The weighted average of these fits show, at 400 km altitude, a downward trend of about 5% over 30 years with a 95% confidence interval of about 25%. The data are also analyzed as a function of altitude, solar flux and geomagnetic activity, and compared to theoretical predictions. Assuming a linear fit, these results tend to agree with other recent studies indicating a long-term cooling trend in the thermosphere.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Web Usability Analysis of Asian Countries’ Official Tourism Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaslin Md. Dahlan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Demands for tourism websites from worldwide providers is now surging. It is a quality measurement of advertising, information providing and persuasive marketing all in one. The evaluation of website’s usability illuminates the specific strengths and weaknesses of each websites studied. A selection of 39 Asian countries was studied. A criterion for selection was for the country to have an official tourism website hosted and managed by a government agency. This non-commercial study is to ensure the reliability of information. A walkthrough content analysis method was used for the evaluation. The month-long evaluation experiments the seven elements of webs’ features and functions with 44 attributes. Results were varied with highest and lowest scores were tabulated and discussed. Tourism websites that scored the highest overall and categorical sections obviously placed tourism as their main industry of the economy. The study is limited by the availability of the websites during the evaluation period. No re-evaluation on another date was done, as to avoid biasness.

  20. CTLA-4 polymorphisms associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asians: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility, but the results remained inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between four common CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk by a meta-analysis, aiming to derive a comprehensive and precise conclusion. We searched EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang databases until July 18th, 2016. Finally, ten eligible studies involving 4,544 breast cancer patients and 4,515 cancer-free controls were included; all these studies were from Asia. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the breast cancer risk in five genetic models. The results indicated that the CTLA-4 +49A>G (rs231775 polymorphism had a significant association with decreased breast cancer risk in allelic, homozygous, dominant and recessive models. Also, the +6230G>A (rs3087243 polymorphism reduced breast cancer risk especially in the Chinese population under homozygous and recessive models. In contrast, the −1661A>G (rs4553808 polymorphism increased breast cancer risk in allelic, heterozygous and dominant models, whereas −1722 T>C (rs733618 did not relate to breast cancer risk. In conclusion, CTLA-4 polymorphisms significantly associate with breast cancer susceptibility in Asian populations, and different gene loci may have different effects on breast cancer development. Further large-scale studies including multi-racial populations are required to confirm our findings.

  1. Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbell, R.; Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2012-09-01

    This report is a summary of the finance trends for small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects (PV <1 MW), large-scale PV projects (PV greater than or equal to 1 MW), and concentrated solar power projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The report presents REFTI data during the five quarterly periods from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first half of 2011. The REFTI project relies exclusively on the voluntary participation of industry stakeholders for its data; therefore, it does not offer a comprehensive view of the technologies it tracks. Despite this limitation, REFTI is the only publicly available resource for renewable energy project financial terms. REFTI analysis offers usable inputs into the project economic evaluations of developers and investors, as well as the policy assessments of public utility commissions and others in the renewable energy industry.

  2. Investigating cultural evolution using phylogenetic analysis: the origins and descent of the southeast Asian tradition of warp ikat weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    The warp ikat method of making decorated textiles is one of the most geographically widespread in southeast Asia, being used by Austronesian peoples in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, and Daic peoples on the Asian mainland. In this study a dataset consisting of the decorative characters of 36 of these warp ikat weaving traditions is investigated using Bayesian and Neighbornet techniques, and the results are used to construct a phylogenetic tree and taxonomy for warp ikat weaving in southeast Asia. The results and analysis show that these diverse traditions have a common ancestor amongst neolithic cultures the Asian mainland, and parallels exist between the patterns of textile weaving descent and linguistic phylogeny for the Austronesian group. Ancestral state analysis is used to reconstruct some of the features of the ancestral weaving tradition. The widely held theory that weaving motifs originated in the late Bronze Age Dong-Son culture is shown to be inconsistent with the data.

  3. Trends and correlation analysis in diagnosing turbine rotor bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GAŁKA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent rotor bow in a steam turbine is a serious failure which usually demands a time-consuming and costly repair. Its vibration-related symptoms are not specific and qualitative diagnosis typically has to employ results obtained during transients.In a 230 MW power steam turbine, gradual dynamic behavior deterioration was observed, immediately after commissioning. Increase of the fundamental component of rear intermediate-pressure turbine bearing vertical vibration was detected, with the time constant of the order of months. Permanent rotor bow, exceeding 200 m, turned out to be the cause. Rotor repair resulted in a dramatic improvement of dynamic behavior, which, however, soon began to deteriorate again. Vibration spectra had been detected in the off-line mode since commissioning, which allowed to determine vibration time histories.Vibration trends analysis does not provide sufficient information to determine root cause, but allows for eliminating a number of possible malfunctions that give similar symptoms. In particular, the possibility of a sudden random-type damage due to human error is eliminated, which in fact is the most common cause of a permanent bow.Analysis of vibration amplitude correlation between vertical and axial directions reveals very strong correlation between fundamental components in the turbine under consideration, as well in the other one, in which similar failure has been observed. Third unit of the same type, apart from qualitatively different vibration trends, is characterized by correlation factors lower by a few times.This particular case is indicative of the importance of evolutionary symptoms (vibration amplitude time dependence and increase rate, as well as correlation factors in qualitative diagnosis. Such symptoms can be very useful in distinguishing between possible failures which result in similar changes of machine vibration behavior.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Development Trends in Global Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the economic and statistical analysis of industries associated with the use of renewable energy sources in several countries. The dynamic development and implementation of technologies based on renewable energy sources (hereinafter RES is the defining trend of world energy development. The uneven distribution of hydrocarbon reserves, increasing demand of developing countries and environmental risks associated with the production and consumption of fossil resources has led to an increasing interest of many states to this field. Creating low-carbon economies involves the implementation of plans to increase the proportion of clean energy through renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The priority of this sector is a characteristic feature of modern development of developed (USA, EU, Japan and emerging economies (China, India, Brazil, etc., as evidenced by the inclusion of the development of this segment in the state energy strategies and the revision of existing approaches to energy security. The analysis of the use of renewable energy, its contribution to value added of countries-producers is of a particular interest. Over the last decade, the share of energy produced from renewable sources in the energy balances of the world's largest economies increased significantly. Every year the number of power generating capacity based on renewable energy is growing, especially, this trend is apparent in China, USA and European Union countries. There is a significant increase in direct investment in renewable energy. The total investment over the past ten years increased by 5.6 times. The most rapidly developing kinds are solar energy and wind power.

  5. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  6. Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Alegría, Margarita; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among a nationally representative sample of first-, second-, and third-generation Latinos and Asian Americans to reveal associations with nativity or country of origin. We used data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (2002-2003) to generate nationally representative estimates of mean BMI and obesity prevalence and explored changes in the distribution of BMI by generational status. Analyses tested the association between generational status and BMI and examined whether this association varied by ethnicity, education, or gender. We found substantial heterogeneity in BMI and obesity by country of origin and an increase in BMI in later generations among most subgroups. The data suggest different patterns for Latinos and Asian Americans in the nature and degree of distributional changes in BMI with generational status in the United States. Generational status is associated with increased BMI and obesity among Latinos and Asian Americans. Aggregate estimates not accounting for nativity and country of origin may mask significant heterogeneity in the prevalence of obesity and patterns of distributional change, with implications for prevention strategies.

  7. Recent trend and perspectives in forensic anthropology: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Fonti, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    This paper evaluates research in Forensic Anthropology (FA) in order to report on the state of this field of science. In particular, we carried out a review of all PubMed-listed scientific studies in the past decades using "forensic anthropology" as the keyword. In our "meta-analysis", we observed variation in the number of publications per 2-year interval throughout the study period. In total, 1589 studies were found in the database and 1292 of them were published in the period 2000-2009. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of published articles and time (subdivided into 2-year intervals). The rate of increase was lower in the last decade. Based on the observed trend, we expect that the phenomenon will continue in the near future, reaching a number close to 400 FA publications in PubMed in the biennium 2012-13. We also carried out a specific content analysis of all FA papers published in the journal Forensic Science International in the last decade. During this period, the majority of FA papers concerned skeletal biology, although there was a positive shift toward virtual anthropological studies.

  8. Mobility in Europe: Recent Trends from a Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Manafi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, Europe was confronted with major changes and events offering large opportunities for mobility. The EU enlargement process, the EU policies regarding youth, the economic crisis affecting national economies on different levels, political instabilities in some European countries, high rates of unemployment or the increasing number of refugees are only a few of the factors influencing net migration in Europe. Based on a set of socio-economic indicators for EU/EFTA countries and cluster analysis, the paper provides an overview of regional differences across European countries, related to migration magnitude in the identified clusters. The obtained clusters are in accordance with previous studies in migration, and appear stable during the period of 2005-2013, with only some exceptions. The analysis revealed three country clusters: EU/EFTA center-receiving countries, EU/EFTA periphery-sending countries and EU/EFTA outlier countries, the names suggesting not only the geographical position within Europe, but the trends in net migration flows during the years. Therewith, the results provide evidence for the persistence of a movement from periphery to center countries, which is correlated with recent flows of mobility in Europe.

  9. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  10. Colorectal cancer incidence in 5 Asian countries by subsite: An analysis of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1998-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Jung, Sun Jae; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hai-Rim; Shin, Aesun

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Asia. However, the trends in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite have not been analyzed across Asian countries. We used the most recent, high quality data from 6 cancer registries for two 5-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents to estimate colorectal cancer incidence by subsite in 5 Asian countries. Cases with overlapping lesions or otherwise unspecified colon cancer were re-distributed as proximal or distal colon cancer. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population and incidence rate ratios from 1998 to 2002 to 2003-2007 were calculated for each subsite. For 2003-2007, men in Miyagi, Japan, had the highest ASR for cancer in the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum. Men of Jewish ancestry in Israel had a high ASR for proximal and distal colon cancer, but the lowest ASR for rectal cancer. The proportion of rectal cancer was highest among Korean men (51.39%) and lowest among Israeli women (26.6%). From 1998-2002 to 2003-2007, rectal cancer incidence did not significantly change in most registries, except for men in Miyagi, Japan, and both sexes in Korea. However, during the same period cancer incidence in the proximal and distal colon increased in most registries. In conclusion, there was substantial variation in subsite distributions of colorectal cancer in Asian registries and increases in overall incidence of colorectal cancer could be attributed to increases in colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What's trending now? An analysis of trends in internet searches for labor epidurals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, C D; Carvalho, B

    2017-05-01

    The study aim was to investigate internet use for obtaining information about epidurals for labor and delivery. Google Trends for US data was queried from 2004 to 2015 to find the most common searches and determine temporal trends. The Google Trends query used the term [epidural] and evaluated changes in search trends over time. Search comparisons were made for each year from 2004 to 2015, and three equal time epochs during the study period (2004-07, 2008-11, 2012-15) were compared. We also compared searches for epidurals with commonly searched birth-related terms. Internet searches are increasing; there were 726000 searches for [epidural] in 2015. Search terms with the most significant growth in the past 4years (2012-15) were "birth with epidural," "pain after epidural," "labor without epidural," "epidural birth video," and "epidural vs natural". Searches for epidural side effects, risks, and pain on insertion were among the most common and were increasing most rapidly. Searches related to epidurals were more common than searches related to "natural births", "home births", and "labor pain", but were less common than searches for "midwives" or "doulas". The findings provide an insight into internet use by those seeking information about labor analgesic options. Identifying the most common and rapidly increasing online search queries may guide physician-parturient interactions and online content creation, to address labor analgesic topics that most interest users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The method of trend analysis of parameters time series of gas-turbine engine state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvozdeva, I.; Myrhorod, V.; Derenh, Y.

    2017-10-01

    This research substantiates an approach to interval estimation of time series trend component. The well-known methods of spectral and trend analysis are used for multidimensional data arrays. The interval estimation of trend component is proposed for the time series whose autocorrelation matrix possesses a prevailing eigenvalue. The properties of time series autocorrelation matrix are identified.

  13. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  14. An outcomes analysis of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in a large Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetoh, Theresa; Lye, David C; Cook, Alex R; Archuleta, Sophia; Chan, Monica; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zhong, Lihua; Llorin, Ryan M; Balm, Michelle; Fisher, Dale

    2013-06-01

    Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) facilitates early discharge, easing demands on inpatient resources and allowing patients the opportunity to restore home life. In Singapore, two large hospitals established a common prospective database in 2006. This study presents an analysis of all enrolled cases over 6 years to consider factors potentially causing adverse outcomes. In this prospective observational study, patients' first OPAT episodes, from initiation to completion, re-admission or early cessation, were recorded and analysed using Cox regression to identify factors associated with clinical deterioration leading to unplanned hospital re-admission. Of 2229 first episodes, 1874 (84.1%) completed treatment in OPAT as planned; 201 episodes (9.0%) were complicated by clinical deterioration and re-admitted. Other patients who failed to complete treatment were either re-admitted for elective procedures, experienced adverse drug reactions or peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications, or had other reasons for not completing treatment. Increased risk of clinical deterioration was associated with homecare OPAT (aHR=2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.8; P70 years (aHR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2; P=0.008) and non-private care (aHR=1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.0; P=0.033). Diagnosis and type of antibiotic treatment were not significant risk factors for re-admission. OPAT provides intravenous antibiotics to those who would otherwise remain as hospital inpatients. In this large Asian cohort, clinical factors did not relate to the ability of patients to complete their treatment in OPAT. Criteria identified as significant warrant ongoing consideration as patients are assessed for acceptance into OPAT programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Trends in Housing Construction Cost in Nigeria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upward trends in housing construction costs have been a major issue in the economy as a whole. The research uses typical 3 - bedroom bungalow in Lagos to analyze the trends in housing construction cost from 2000 to 2009. The basic question for this research is whether the inflation in housing construction costs ...

  16. An Internet-Based GIS Platform Providing Data for Visualization and Spatial Analysis of Urbanization in Major Asian and African Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries has been observed to be relatively high in the last two decades, especially in the Asian and African regions. Although many researchers have made efforts to improve the understanding of the urbanization trends of various cities in Asia and Africa, the absence of platforms where local stakeholders can visualize and obtain processed urbanization data for their specific needs or analysis, still remains a gap. In this paper, we present an Internet-based GIS platform called MEGA-WEB. The Platform was developed in view of the urban planning and management challenges in developing countries of Asia and Africa due to the limited availability of data resources, effective tools, and proficiency in data analysis. MEGA-WEB provides online access, visualization, spatial analysis, and data sharing services following a mashup framework of the MEGA-WEB Geo Web Services (GWS, with the third-party map services using HTML5/JavaScript techniques. Through the integration of GIS, remote sensing, geo-modelling, and Internet GIS, several indicators for analyzing urbanization are provided in MEGA-WEB to give diverse perspectives on the urbanization of not only the physical land surface condition, but also the relationships of population, energy use, and the environment. The design, architecture, system functions, and uses of MEGA-WEB are discussed in the paper. The MEGA-WEB project is aimed at contributing to sustainable urban development in developing countries of Asia and Africa.

  17. New trends in data analysis and visualization on the web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Alvarez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies are democratizing  the power of server clusters to perform data analysis. At the same time new tools and new ideas are coming to data visualization on the web. Together this is creating a revolution on the Internet where data is combined with other data and visualized in amazing new ways. And this is now mainstream. The role this revolution has on science and how it is communicated is now starting to become clearer with new trends like citizen science and crowd-sourcing. As a result, researchers are exploiting a new kind of computation power, human computation. In this seminar we will talk about the story behind some of these initiatives while presenting some new projects being developed by Vizzuality. From how to find new exoplanets, to understand climate change or doing better nature conservation, we will try to present you with as many ideas as possible so that you might find a way to use it on your field or engage the general public in your wor...

  18. A trend analysis of ergonomic research themes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.

  19. A multinational, open-label, phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in Asian patients with myelofibrosis: Japanese subset analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oritani, Kenji; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Saito, Shigeki; Ohishi, Kohshi; Handa, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Katsuto; Gopalakrishna, Prashanth; Amagasaki, Taro; Ito, Kazuo; Akashi, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Ruxolitinib is a potent Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated rapid and durable improvements in splenomegaly and symptoms and a survival benefit in 2 phase 3 trials in patients with myelofibrosis. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated and effectively reduced splenomegaly and symptom burden in Asian patients with myelofibrosis in the Asian multinational, phase 2 Study A2202. We present a subset analysis of Japanese patients (n = 30) in Study A2202. At data cutoff, 22 patients were ongoing; 8 discontinued, mainly due to adverse events (n = 4). At week 24, 33 % of patients achieved ≥35 % reduction from baseline in spleen volume; 56.0 % achieved ≥50 % reduction from baseline in total symptom score, as measured by the 7-day Myelofibrosis Symptom Assessment Form v2.0. The most common adverse events were anemia (63 %), thrombocytopenia (40 %), nasopharyngitis (37 %), decreased platelet counts (30 %), and diarrhea (30 %). Dose reductions or interruptions due to hemoglobin decreases were more frequent in Japanese patients; no loss of efficacy and no discontinuations due to hematologic abnormalities were observed. Ruxolitinib was well tolerated in Japanese patients and provided substantial reductions in splenomegaly and myelofibrosis-related symptoms similar to those observed in the overall Asian population and phase 3 COMFORT studies.

  20. The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination-depression relationship among Asian Americans: path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2014-01-01

    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences.

  1. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  2. Refining Asian elephant semen technologies: The need for improved quality analysis and preservation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattananit, P.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate aim of a breeding management programme for captive Asian elephants is to establish a self-sustaining population, while maintaining maximal genetic diversity. In this respect, artificial insemination (AI) is considered a crucial tool for facilitating the exchange of genetic material

  3. Exporting Hong Kong's Higher Education in Asian Markets: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan Chi Keung; Yuen, Timothy Wai Wa; Yuen, Celeste Yuet Mui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid growth and expansion of the Asian economies in recent years, there has been a continued rise of students in Asia who are studying outside their home countries. This study attempts to highlight the major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of Hong Kong's higher education in relation to its potential of being a regional…

  4. Kinetics of viral loads and genotypic analysis of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 infection in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E; Weber, Martha A; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elphas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants.

  5. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Risk in Asian Population: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandana

    2016-10-01

    The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was implicated to be associated with thrombophilia due to its role in catalyzing the formation of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Several case-control studies were investigated MTHFR C677T polymorphism as risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). These studies rendered contradictory results, some indicating that the polymorphism is associated with the risk of RPL whereas others concluded there is no association. To shed light on these inconclusive findings, a meta-analysis of all available studies published from Asian population relating the C677T polymorphism to the risk of RPL was conducted. The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: PubMed, Google Scholars, Elsevier and Springer Link up to December, 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using MetaAnalyst and Mix version 1.7. Meta-analysis results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to the increased RPL risk in Asian population using all five genetic models (for T vs. C: OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.09-1.68, p = 0.009; for TT + CT vs. CC: OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.14-1.82, p = 0.006; for CT vs. CC: OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.07-1.8, p = 0.01; for TT vs. CC: OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.23.2.6, p = 0.007; for TT vs. CT + CC: OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.02-2.56, p = 0.04). In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates a strong association between the MTHFR C677T variant and RPL in Asian population and raising the importance of the use of folate in its treatment and prevention.

  7. TRENDS OF THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR VENTURE FUNDING: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Drachuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore of the global venture capital market and to reveal of its development trends. Methodology. To achieve this goal used methods: statistical analysis, forecasting method autoregression model, the calculation of the coefficient of variation, Spearman rank correlation coefficient and linear Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. The analysis of the development of the global venture capital market for the years 2007-2015 executed. The coefficients of variation of the volume of venture capital investment and the number of venture capital deals are designed. According to the calculations, variations in the volume of venture capital investment rate is 11.8%, which is almost 2.1 times higher than the value of the coefficient of variation in the number of venture capital deals in the global market of venture capital investments (5.7%. It means: the actual data volume of venture capital investment and the number of venture capital deals are homogeneous collections, because the values of the coefficients of variation of these indices is less than 33%. A characteristic feature of these indicators is a low level of variability and minor fluctuations, that is, a tendency even venture investments of innovative development in the world. To determine the closeness of the connection between the amount of capital raised in the IPO, and the number of transactions Spearman rank correlation coefficient is calculated, as well as the strength of correlation between the volume of investment and the number of transactions in the global market transactions M&A – linear Pearson correlation coefficient. Between the amount of capital raised in the IPO, and the amount of venture capital transactions revealed a strong positive correlation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient close to 1. This indicates positive trends in the development of the global market of venture IPO, because by investing venture capital in innovation is a

  8. Social Network Trend Analysis Using Frequent Pattern Mining and Self Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.; Christley, Rob; Coenen, Frans; Patel, Yogesh; Setzkorn, Christian; Williams, Shane

    A technique for identifying, grouping and analysing trends in social networks is described. The trends of interest are defined in terms of sequences of support values for specific patterns that appear across a given social network. The trends are grouped using a SOM technique so that similar tends are clustered together. A cluster analysis technique is then applied to identify "interesting" trends. The focus of the paper is the Cattle Tracing System (CTS) database in operation in Great Britain, and this is therefore the focus of the evaluation. However, to illustrate the wider applicability of the trend mining technique, experiments using a more standard, car insurance, temporal database are also described.

  9. Global research trends in spinal ultrasound: a systematic bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao; Cui, Jin; Shao, Jie; Wang, Qijin; Chen, Xiao; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2017-10-22

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of ultrasound technology in the evaluation of spinal and paraspinal regions. This study aimed to investigate trends in spinal ultrasound research from 1994 to 2015 and compare the contributions of such research from different countries and authors. Bibliometric analysis. Publications related to spinal ultrasound from 1994 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer were used to summarise bibliometric features, including the number of publications, citation frequency, H-index, and country contributions and hotspots (keywords of popular scientific fields). A total of 3859 papers were included. The global inflection point (the point in time when the publication growth rate moved from positive to negative) came in 2010. The United States contributed the largest percentage of articles (1041; 26.9%), with the most citations (19 848) and the highest H-index (61). The journals Osteoporosis International and Spine had the highest publication number. The University of Toronto and the University of California, San Francisco were the most contributive institutions. Studies could be divided into three clusters: surgery, osteoporosis, and others. The keywords 'adolescent idiopathic scoliosis' and 'anaesthesia' were the latest hotspots, appearing around 2012. Spinal ultrasound literature has grown continuously over the last 22 years, with the rate slowing down after 2010. The United States was the largest contributor in this field. Recent studies on topics related to 'adolescent idiopathic scoliosis' and 'anaesthesia' were relatively new and should be closely followed in spinal ultrasound research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Analysis and future trends for the Belgian electrical supply reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, F.; Lobry, J.; Deblecker, O. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of the future trends in the reliability of the electricity supply in Belgium was presented. In an effort to meet the Kyoto obligations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the Belgian government is promoting the use of renewable energy in its electricity supply mix. Among its policies, the government plans to end its nuclear program by 2030 and develop natural gas based thermal plants. It is expected that 6 per cent of the electrical production in Belgium will come from wind. However, that energy source is highly variable and the risk of having fluctuating active power at the output of a wind generator could threaten the reliability of the electrical supply. For that reason, this study applied a reliability index to a modified Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS). This study also demonstrated the absolute need in nuclear alternatives and classical supply, such as natural gas based thermal plants, to maintain the reliability of the electricity supply in Belgium. In addition to these changes in the electricity supply mix, projections have indicated an increase in electricity consumption. The main purpose of this study was to point out the impacts of those expected modifications on the reliability indexes of the Belgian electrical network. The proposed results were obtained by MATLAB simulations performed at the RBTS network which was modified to meet Belgian production plans. It was estimated that even with a 1 GW wind potential planned for 2015, an additional 4.5 GW capacity is needed in cogeneration and combined cycle gas units in order to maintain reliability in power supply. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  11. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senticosus) is not related to true ginseng. In traditional Chinese medicine, Asian ginseng was used as a ... recommend against its use by infants, children, and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. The most common ...

  12. GSTT1 null genotype contributes to lung cancer risk in asian populations: a meta-analysis of 23 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs may contribute to lung cancer risk. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in Asian population but yielded inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 23 studies including 4065 cases and 5390 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of GSTT1 with lung cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by source of controls, smoking status, histological types, and sample size. A statistically significant correlation between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer in Asian population was observed (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 62.0%. Sub-group analysis revealed there was a statistically increased lung cancer risk in ever-smokers who carried the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.96; P heterogeneity = 0.02 and I(2 = 58.1%. It was also indicated that GSTT1 null genotype could increase lung cancer risk among population-based studies (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.003 and I(2 = 56.8%. The positive association was also found in studies of sample size (≤500 participants (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.62; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 65.4%. CONCLUSIONS: These meta-analysis results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 new loci for type 2 diabetes in East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng; Long, Jirong; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Sim, Xueling; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Ying; Go, Min Jin; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Kwak, Soo Heon; Ma, Ronald C.W.; Yamamoto, Ken; Adair, Linda S.; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Gao, Yutang; Hu, Frank B.; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R.; Li, Yun; Liu, Jian Jun; Lu, Wei; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tay, Wan Ting; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wong, Tien Yin; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; So, Wing Yee; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Hara, Kazuo; Cho, Young Min; Cho, Nam H; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hedman, Åsa K.; Morris, Andrew P.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Park, Kyong Soo; Jia, Weiping; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Maeda, Shiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Young; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Teo, Yik Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Shu, Xiao Ou; Mohlke, Karen L.; Kato, Norihiro; Han, Bok-Ghee; Seielstad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in East Asian populations. The first stage meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases and 11,865 controls) was followed by a second stage in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which were mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression1,2, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels3,4. The evidence of T2D association for PEPD5 and HNF4A6,7 has been detected in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings derived from East Asians provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D. PMID:22158537

  14. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  15. Analysis and Functional Annotation of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Smith, Michael T.; Hunnicutt, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is one of the most economically and ecologically devastating forest insects to invade North America in recent years. Despite its substantial impact, limited effort has been expended to define the genetic and molecular make-up of this species. Considering the significant role played by late-stadia larvae in host tree decimation, a small-scale EST sequencing project was done using a cDNA library cons...

  16. ANALYSIS OF EAST ASIAN MEAT IMPORT DEMAND: MARKET PROSPECTS FOR ALBERTA AND CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michele M.; Veeman, Terrence S.; Adilu, Shiferaw

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the demand for meat and the market vulnerabilities that apply to four selected Asian markets that are of potential importance to meat exporters. The markets identified for this purpose are Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore. An initial overview of market prospects and vulnerabilities based on previous studies is reported. Detailed assessments of import demand and substitution between various meats for meat exports from Canada/Alberta to each of these markets wa...

  17. Primary analysis of repeat elements of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer transcriptome and genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKuznetsova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of our Asian seabass genome project, we are generating an inventory of repeat elements in the genome and transcriptome. The karyotype showed a diploid number of 2n=24 chromosomes with a variable number of B-chromosomes. The transcriptome and genome of Asian seabass were searched for repetitive elements with experimental and bioinformatics tools. Six different types of repeats constituting 8-14% of the genome were characterized. Repetitive elements were clustered in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all chromosomes, but some of them were preferentially accumulated in pretelomeric and pericentromeric regions of several chromosomes pairs and have chromosomes specific arrangement. From the dispersed class of fish-specific non-LTR retrotransposon elements Rex1 and MAUI-like repeats were analyzed. They were wide-spread both in the genome and transcriptome, accumulated on the pericentromeric and peritelomeric areas of all chromosomes. Every analyzed repeat was represented in the Asian seabass transcriptome, some showed differential expression between the gonads. The other group of repeats analyzed belongs to the rRNA multigene family. FISH signal for 5S rDNA was located on a single pair of chromosomes, whereas that for 18S rDNA was found on two pairs. A BAC-derived contig containing rDNA was sequenced and assembled into a scaffold containing incomplete fragments of 18S rDNA. Their assembly and chromosomal position revealed that this part of Asian seabass genome is extremely rich in repeats containing evolutionally conserved and novel sequences. In summary, transcriptome assemblies and cDNA data are suitable for the identification of repetitive DNA from unknown genomes and for comparative investigation of conserved elements between teleosts and other vertebrates.

  18. Determinants of Export Services of USA with its Asian Partners: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep KAUR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade in services has accounted for 20 per cent of global trade. Despite the increasing importance of services trade in global economy, there has been limited research on service trade which uses determinants driving such trade. The present paper has examined the export potential in service sector of USA with its Asian trade partners (Japan, China, India, Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong by taking into account geographic, economic and other features. The approach is based on gravity model, widely used to analyze trade in goods and has more recently been applied to service sector. Being a nature of study is of panel data i.e. for 9 years (2000-2008 and six cross sections, the study used panel data methodology. The study revealed that USA has export potential in services for India and Japan. Regarding the convergent and divergent economies, USA had convergence in exports with three Asian countries (Hong Kong, India and Korea and divergence with three Asian countries (Japan, China and Singapore. There is a large scope for export expansion for Hong Kong, India and Korea.

  19. Trend of declining stroke mortality in China: reasons and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, David; Liu, Hongmei; Sun, Haixin; Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Dongling; Chen, Zhenghong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-09-01

    There is a downward trend of stroke-related mortality in the USA. By reviewing all published articles on stroke mortality in China, we analysed its trend and possible factors that have influenced the trend. Both English and Chinese literatures were searched on the mortality of stroke or cerebrovascular diseases in China. Potential papers related to this topic were identified from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Database, SINOMED and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Comparing the results from the most recent population-based epidemiological survey and databank from the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the age-adjusted stroke mortality rate has shown a downward trend among both urban and rural population in the past 30 years in China. Comparing with 30 years ago, the rate of stroke mortality has decreased by more than 31% in urban/suburban population and 11% in rural population. In men, the age-adjusted stroke mortality rate decreased by 18.9% and in women by 24.9% between 1994 and 2013. Factors that may have contributed to the trend of decreased stroke mortality rate include (1) improved healthcare coverage and healthcare environment; (2) improved treatment options and medical technology; (3) support by government to educate the public on stroke and stroke prevention; and (4) improved public knowledge on stroke. The age-adjusted stroke mortality rate in China has shown a downward trend among both urban and rural population in the past 30 years. The major influencing factors that helped in reducing stroke mortality in China included improved healthcare coverage, healthcare environment, the updated treatment options and modern medical technology.

  20. Trends of Amphetamine Type Stimulants DTR Mass Load in Poznan Based on Wastewater Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowicki, Piotr; Klos, Jolanta; Kokot, Zenon J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the monthly DTR mass load of amphetamine-type compounds in Poland as well as an investigation of cyclical behaviour by using time series analysis and especially trends analysis...

  1. Interleukin-23 receptor polymorphism (rs10889677 A/C) in ankylosing spondylitis: Meta-analysis in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Renfang; Xia, Qing; Xu, Shengqian; Fan, Dazhi; Pan, Faming

    2017-12-02

    The association between interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) gene rs10889677 polymorphism and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility was inconsistent in the recent literatures. A systematic review and meta-analysis was therefore performed. Online electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published up to November 2017. Meta-analyses were performed for the comparisons of allele (A versus C) and multiple genetic models, including dominant, recessive, heterozygous, and homozygous models using fixed or random effects models. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were utilized to assess the potential relationship. Sixteen studies containing 19 separate comparisons, totaling 6450 cases and 8009 controls were included. A significant association between rs10889677 A allele and AS susceptibility was detected (OR=1.136, 95%CI=1.043-1.236, P=0.003). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that rs10889677 A allele was significantly associated with AS in Europeans (OR=1.192, 95%CI=1.080-1.315, P<0.001), but not Asians (OR=1.045, 95%CI=0.913-1.197, P=0.523). In addition, there were no significant associations between rs10889677 polymorphism and AS susceptibility in any of dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous models. This meta-analysis demonstrates that IL23R gene rs10889677 A allele confers increased risk of AS in Europeans, but its role in Asian populations needs further exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Temporal Trend of Influenza-Associated Morbidity and the Impact of Early Appearance of Antigenic Drifted Strains in a Southeast Asian Country: e84239

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ie-Bin Lian; Hong-Dar Isaac Wu; Wan-Tzu Chang; Day-Yu Chao

    2014-01-01

    ...) vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial...

  3. The temporal trend of influenza-associated morbidity and the impact of early appearance of antigenic drifted strains in a Southeast Asian country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lian, Ie-Bin; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Chang, Wan-Tzu; Chao, Day-Yu

    2014-01-01

    ...) vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial...

  4. Temporal precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of change in rainfall is crucial for managing the available water resources in the basin. Thus, in this study, for the first time, both parametric ... ture and precipitation among other climate factors have the most interactive interface with climate ... sea levels, rainfall and flood risks. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the trends ...

  5. Trend Analysis of Evapotranspiration over India- Observed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3

    Abstract. Owing to the lack of consistent spatial time series data on actual evapotranspiration (ET), very few studies have been conducted on the long-term trend and variability in ET at a national scale over the Indian subcontinent. The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's Advanced Very ...

  6. Trend analysis of the water requirements, consumption and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Boogaard, H.L.; Ludwig, F.; Baruth, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in European seasonal weather conditions and related crop water requirements, crop water consumption and crop water deficits were studied using the Crop Growth Monitoring System of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission for the period 1976–2005. Soft wheat was selected as

  7. Interaction in Distance Education Environments: A Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Serçin; Yilmaz, Ayse Bagriacik; Dikmen, Cemal Hakan; Ermis, Ugur Ferhat; Gürbüz, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the trend concerning interaction in distance education between the years 2011 and 2015. According to this aim, 544 articles in the databases of EBSCO, Scopus, and Web of Science were examined. The examination has been conducted on the basis of various variables including year, country, number of authors,…

  8. Trends in childhood tuberculosis in Zambia: a situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; O'Grady, Justin; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Janssen, Saskia; Marais, Ben; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-01-01

    To ascertain childhood tuberculosis (TB) trends, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence rates in Zambia. A retrospective review of Zambian annual TB notification data and National TB Programme reports for a 7 year period (2004-2011). TB

  9. Interaction in Distance Education Environments: A Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Serçin; Yilmaz, Ayse Bagriacik; Dikmen, Cemal Hakan; Ermis, Ugur Ferhat; Gürbüz, Onur

    The aim of this study is to determine the trend concerning interaction in distance education between the years 2011 and 2015. According to this aim, 544 articles in the databases of EBSCO, Scopus, and Web of Science were examined. The examination has been conducted on the basis of various variables including year, country, number of authors,…

  10. Food price trend analysis: Lessons for strengthening food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trend implies presence of many layers of markets and the prices were largely controlled by fewer traders rather than marketing forces or other actors like farmers who were down to the value chain. This kind of monopoly leads to price volatility and consumers are forced to pay more, hence, affecting affordability of ...

  11. Analysis of rainfall trend in Ethiopia | Admassu | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural production in Ethiopia is predominantly rain fed. Variation of rainfa ll in space and time affects the agricultural production system in the country. This needs a close study on rainfall variation. Rainfall variation, called trend, has been assessed for total annual, Kiremt (June-September) and Belg (February-May) ...

  12. An Analysis of Trends in Publications on "Tobacco Control"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unutmaz Durmusoglu, Zeynep Didem; Kocabey Çiftçi, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Publications on tobacco control were quantitatively analysed to gain insight into the essential characteristics of the research field and trends and patterns in publication activities. The goal was to detect changes in the number of publications before and after the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO…

  13. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  14. Trends analysis relating to pollution in Sakumo Lagoon, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sakumo Lagoon, situated near Accra, is a Ramsar-listed coastal wetland threatened by urban and agricultural waste, being located in an urban area where access to domestic and waste disposal facilities is a major problem. The aim of this study was to assess the pollution status as well as trends, in terms of pollution ...

  15. Interest Convergence or Divergence? A Critical Race Analysis of Asian Americans, Meritocracy, and Critical Mass in the Affirmative Action Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…

  16. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-12-04

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  17. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkun Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  18. [Incidence and trend analysis of esophageal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, T T; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Zhang, S W; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2016-09-23

    Incidence data retrieved from population-based cancer registration were used to analyze the esophageal cancer incidence and trend in China. The results can provide basic information for prevention and control of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer incidence data in 2012 were retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry, nationwide new esophageal cancer cases were estimated using age-specific rate by urban or rural and gender and national population in 2012. Esophageal cancer incidence data from 22 cancer registries were used to analyze the trend during 2000-2011. The estimates of new cases of esophageal cancer were about 286.7 thousand in 2012 in China. The incidence rate was 21.17/10(5,) the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population and by world population were 14.73/10(5) and 14.93/10(5,) respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate was 1.91%.There was a decreasing trend of incidence rate of esophageal cancer in registration areas of China during 2000-2011 with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 0.9% (95%CI: -1.6% to -0.1%), no significant differences were observed in urban area and an increasing trend with AAPC of 1.3% (95%CI: 0.2% to 2.5%) in rural area. After age standardization, the incidence rate was significantly decreased, with AAPC of -4.0% (95%CI: -5.5% to -2.6%) overall, -3.8% (95%CI: -4.9% to -2.7%) in urban and -1.7% (95%CI: -3.0% to -0.4%) in rural areas. Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China and is an emphasis for cancer control. After effective control of risk factors and development of esophageal cancer screening techniques in high-risk areas for years, esophageal cancer incidence appears to have a significant decreasing trend.

  19. Phylogeographic and Demographic Analysis of the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus is widely distributed in Asia and is adapted to broad-leaved deciduous forests, playing an important ecological role in the natural environment. Several subspecies of U. thibetanus have been recognized, one of which, the Japanese black bear, is distributed in the Japanese archipelago. Recent molecular phylogeographic studies clarified that this subspecies is genetically distantly related to continental subspecies, suggesting an earlier origin. However, the evolutionary relationship between the Japanese and continental subspecies remained unclear. To understand the evolution of the Asian black bear in relation to geological events such as climatic and transgression-regression cycles, a reliable time estimation is also essential. To address these issues, we determined and analyzed the mt-genome of the Japanese subspecies. This indicates that the Japanese subspecies initially diverged from other Asian black bears in around 1.46Ma. The Northern continental population (northeast China, Russia, Korean peninsula subsequently evolved, relatively recently, from the Southern continental population (southern China and Southeast Asia. While the Japanese black bear has an early origin, the tMRCAs and the dynamics of population sizes suggest that it dispersed relatively recently in the main Japanese islands: during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene, probably during or soon after the extinction of the brown bear in Honshu in the same period. Our estimation that the population size of the Japanese subspecies increased rapidly during the Late Pleistocene is the first evidential signal of a niche exchange between brown bears and black bears in the Japanese main islands. This interpretation seems plausible but was not corroborated by paleontological evidence that fossil record of the Japanese subspecies limited after the Late Pleistocene. We also report here a new fossil record of the oldest Japanese black bear from the

  20. Phylogeographic and Demographic Analysis of the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Kohno, Naoki; Mano, Shuhei; Fukumoto, Yukio; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Masami; Yonezawa, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus is widely distributed in Asia and is adapted to broad-leaved deciduous forests, playing an important ecological role in the natural environment. Several subspecies of U. thibetanus have been recognized, one of which, the Japanese black bear, is distributed in the Japanese archipelago. Recent molecular phylogeographic studies clarified that this subspecies is genetically distantly related to continental subspecies, suggesting an earlier origin. However, the evolutionary relationship between the Japanese and continental subspecies remained unclear. To understand the evolution of the Asian black bear in relation to geological events such as climatic and transgression-regression cycles, a reliable time estimation is also essential. To address these issues, we determined and analyzed the mt-genome of the Japanese subspecies. This indicates that the Japanese subspecies initially diverged from other Asian black bears in around 1.46Ma. The Northern continental population (northeast China, Russia, Korean peninsula) subsequently evolved, relatively recently, from the Southern continental population (southern China and Southeast Asia). While the Japanese black bear has an early origin, the tMRCAs and the dynamics of population sizes suggest that it dispersed relatively recently in the main Japanese islands: during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene, probably during or soon after the extinction of the brown bear in Honshu in the same period. Our estimation that the population size of the Japanese subspecies increased rapidly during the Late Pleistocene is the first evidential signal of a niche exchange between brown bears and black bears in the Japanese main islands. This interpretation seems plausible but was not corroborated by paleontological evidence that fossil record of the Japanese subspecies limited after the Late Pleistocene. We also report here a new fossil record of the oldest Japanese black bear from the Middle Pleistocene

  1. Analysis Of Product Positioning On Asian Mobile Phone Products In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid S; Roring, Dio Rio

    2014-01-01

    Cellular phone that was once only used to send messages and get in touch with each other, has now turned into a lot of functions and is very sophisticated, with the development of mobile products makes a mobile phone into an object that is in need tape that used to have multiple mobile phone functions that have only by some well-known product now owned or installed into the phone - mobile phone often known by the mobile phone made €‹€‹in asia or asian mobile phone such as: Oppo, Lenovo, HTC, ...

  2. Track Irregularity Time Series Analysis and Trend Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of linear and nonlinear methods is widely used in the prediction of time series data. This paper analyzes track irregularity time series data by using gray incidence degree models and methods of data transformation, trying to find the connotative relationship between the time series data. In this paper, GM (1,1 is based on first-order, single variable linear differential equations; after an adaptive improvement and error correction, it is used to predict the long-term changing trend of track irregularity at a fixed measuring point; the stochastic linear AR, Kalman filtering model, and artificial neural network model are applied to predict the short-term changing trend of track irregularity at unit section. Both long-term and short-term changes prove that the model is effective and can achieve the expected accuracy.

  3. Identifying potentially disruptive trends by means of keyword network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dotsika, F.; Watkins, A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying potentially disruptive technologies is crucial to safeguarding competitive advantage by enabling stakeholders to assign resources in a manner that increases the chances of exploiting the disruption and/or mitigating the ensuing risks. However, disruptive technologies and emergent trends within known disruptive domains are mostly identified ex-post. This paper contributes to the ex-ante prediction of emergent technologies within disruptive domains by proposing a literature-driven m...

  4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND MODEL ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TOURIST TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Šerić; Marijana Jurišić

    2015-01-01

    The draw and diversity of the destination’s offer is an antecedent of the tourism visits growth. The destination supply differentiation is carried through new, specialised tourism products. The usual approach consists of forming specialised tourism products in accordance with the existing tourism destination image. Another approach, prevalent in practice of developed tourism destinations is based on innovating the destination supply through accordance with the global tourism trends. For this ...

  5. General trends in world biogeographic literature: a preliminary bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J. Morrone; Guerrero, José C.

    2008-01-01

    Records with the search string biogeograph* were collected from the Science Citation Index (SCI). A total of 3456 records were downloaded for the 1945-2006 period from titles of articles and reviews, and 10,543 records were downloaded for 1991-2006, taking into consideration also abstracts and keywords. Temporal trends of publications, geographical and institutional distribution of the research output, authorship, and core journals were evaluated. There were as many as 122 countries carrying ...

  6. Trends in childhood tuberculosis in Zambia: a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; O'Grady, Justin; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Janssen, Saskia; Marais, Ben; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-04-01

    To ascertain childhood tuberculosis (TB) trends, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence rates in Zambia. A retrospective review of Zambian annual TB notification data and National TB Programme reports for a 7 year period (2004-2011). TB trends were stratified by age and HIV status. The total number of children notified during this period with all forms of TB was 40 976. A total of 2670 of 40 976 (6%) were smear-positive cases. Notification rates of all forms of childhood TB show a decline in trends from 135 per 100 000 population in 2004, to 69 per 100 000 population in 2011. Childhood TB is an important but neglected problem in Zambia highlighted by the fact that no data exists on HIV co-infection and MDR-TB. Strengthening of the National TB Programme and diagnostics services/algorithms are required to accurately define the TB burden, HIV co-infection and MDR-TB rates in children in Zambia.

  7. Theory of quantitative trend analysis and its application to the South African elections

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses a quantitative theory of trend analysis. Often trends are based on qualitative considerations and subjective assumptions. In the current approach the author makes use of extensive data bases to optimise the so...

  8. The Impact of Baseline Trend Control on Visual Analysis of Single-Case Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Sterling, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of baseline trend control on visual analyses of AB intervention graphs was examined with simulated data at various values of baseline trend, autocorrelation, and effect size. Participants included 202 undergraduate students with minimal training in visual analysis and 10 graduate students and faculty with more training and experience in…

  9. Linguistic Analysis of Saudi Pidginized Arabic as Produced by Asian Foreign Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds – Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.

  10. Genetic analysis of CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 microsatellites and their association with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asian and Caucasian populations of the East Midlands, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Ghelani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two microsatellites from corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene locus (CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 were reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Caucasians. This study aims to replicate the association in a South Asian (SA and Caucasian RA sample from the East Midlands, UK. DNA from 281 South Asians (111 patients, 43 siblings, 127 controls and 287 Caucasians (116 patients, 64 siblings, 107 controls were genotyped. The Odds Ratio for carrying at least one copy of the CRHRA1*10 risk allele was 1.32 (Confidence Interval, CI=0.77-2.28 in Caucasians and 1.55 (CI=0.92-2.63 in South Asians, indicative of a trend for association. The risk allele CRHRA2*14 was lower in South Asians compared to Caucasians (5.5%-8.6% vs. 17.7-18.2 %; P<0.005. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 in both cohorts. CRHRA1*10 was the frequently transmitted allele in SA patients. A non-significant association was observed with CRHRA1*10 allele in both RA populations.

  11. Analysis options for estimating status and trends in long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Beyer, Hawthorne L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes methods for estimating long-term trends in ecological parameters. Other chapters in this volume discuss more advanced methods for analyzing monitoring data, but these methods may be relatively inaccessible to some readers. Therefore, this chapter provides an introduction to trend analysis for managers and biologists while also discussing general issues relevant to trend assessment in any long-term monitoring program. For simplicity, we focus on temporal trends in population size across years. We refer to the survey results for each year as the “annual means” (e.g. mean per transect, per plot, per time period). The methods apply with little or no modification, however, to formal estimates of population size, other temporal units (e.g. a month), to spatial or other dimensions such as elevation or a north–south gradient, and to other quantities such as chemical or geological parameters. The chapter primarily discusses methods for estimating population-wide parameters rather than studying variation in trend within the population, which can be examined using methods presented in other chapters (e.g. Chapters 7, 12, 20). We begin by reviewing key concepts related to trend analysis. We then describe how to evaluate potential bias in trend estimates. An overview of the statistical models used to quantify trends is then presented. We conclude by showing ways to estimate trends using simple methods that can be implemented with spreadsheets.

  12. Breast Cancer Trend in Iran from 2000 to 2009 and Prediction till 2020 using a Trend Analysis Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahmatkesh, Bibihajar; Keramat, Afsaneh; Alavi, Nasrinossadat; Khosravi, Ahmad; Kousha, Ahmad; Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari; Darman, Mahboobeh; Partovipour, Elham; Chaman, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide with a rising incidence rate in most countries. Considering the increase in life expectancy and change in lifestyle of Iranian women, this study investigated the age-adjusted trend of breast cancer incidence during 2000-2009 and predicted its incidence to 2020. The 1997 and 2006 census results were used for the projection of female population by age through the cohort-component method over the studied years. Data from the Iranian cancer registration system were used to calculate the annual incidence rate of breast cancer. The age-adjusted incidence rate was then calculated using the WHO standard population distribution. The five-year-age-specific incidence rates were also obtained for each year and future incidence was determined using the trend analysis method. Annual percentage change (APC) was calculated through the joinpoint regression method. The bias adjusted incidence rate of breast cancer increased from 16.7 per 100,000 women in 2000 to 33.6 per 100,000 women in 2009. The incidence of breast cancer had a growing trend in almost all age groups above 30 years over the studied years. In this period, the age groups of 45-65 years had the highest incidence. Investigation into the joinpoint curve showed that the curve had a steep slope with an APC of 23.4% before the first joinpoint, but became milder after this. From 2005 to 2009, the APC was calculated as 2.7%, through which the incidence of breast cancer in 2020 was predicted as 63.0 per 100,000 women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of breast cancer continues to increas in Iranian women. It is predicted that this trend will continue until 2020. Therefore, it seems necessary to prioritize the prevention, control and care for breast cancer in Iran.

  13. A 3-D Model Analysis of The Impact of Asian Anthropogenic Emissions on the Sulfur Cycle Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Thornton, Donald; Bandy, Alan; Huebert, Barry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on the SO2 and sulfate aerosol levels over the Pacific region is examined in the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. We focus on the analysis of the data from the NASA Pacific Exploratory Missions (PEM) over the western North Pacific and the tropical Pacific. These missions include PEM-West A in September-October 1991, when the Asian outflow was at the minimum but the upper atmosphere was heavily influenced by the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, and PEM-West B in March-April 1994 when the Asian outflow was at the maximum, and PEM-Tropics A in August-September at a region relatively free of direct anthropogenic influences. Specifically, we will examine the relative importance of anthropogenic, volcanic and biogenic sources to the SO2 and sulfate concentrations over the Pacific, and quantify the processes controlling the distributions of SO2 and sulfate in both the boundary layer and the free troposphere. We will also assess the global impact of SO2 emission in Asia on the sulfate aerosol loading.

  14. Pyrosequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Rice Gall Midge Reveals Differential Response during Compatible and Incompatible Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish S. Bentur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae is a major pest responsible for immense loss in rice productivity. Currently, very little knowledge exists with regard to this insect at the molecular level. The present study was initiated with the aim of developing molecular resources as well as identifying alterations at the transcriptome level in the gall midge maggots that are in a compatible (SH or in an incompatible interaction (RH with their rice host. Roche 454 pyrosequencing strategy was used to develop both transcriptomics and genomics resources that led to the identification of 79,028 and 85,395 EST sequences from gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4 maggots feeding on a susceptible and resistant rice variety, TN1 (SH and Suraksha (RH, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the maggots in SH and RH revealed over-representation of transcripts from proteolysis and protein phosphorylation in maggots from RH. In contrast, over-representation of transcripts for translation, regulation of transcription and transcripts involved in electron transport chain were observed in maggots from SH. This investigation, besides unveiling various mechanisms underlying insect-plant interactions, will also lead to a better understanding of strategies adopted by insects in general, and the Asian rice gall midge in particular, to overcome host defense.

  15. Partner violence victimization and unintended pregnancy in Latina and Asian American women: Analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.

  16. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  17. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Taxak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and susceptibility to depression in Asian population: a systematic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, V

    2014-01-01

    Genetic association studies on MTHFR C677 T polymorphism and depression have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades and results are generally inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of MTHFR C677T polymorphism for depression in Asian population. The author performed a meta-analysis and pooled data from individual case-control studies that examined the association between C677T polymorphism and depression (meta-analysis: 13 studies, 1,120 cases and 1,688 controls).The pooled Odd Ratios (OR) were estimated by both fixed effects and random effects models. Overall, there was an association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and increased risk of depression under five genetic models (OR T vs. C=1.44, 95% CI= 1.56-1.78, P=0.001; OR TT vs. CC= 1.78, 95% CI 1.17– 2.69, P=0.006; OR CT vs CC=1.102, 95% CI=0.91-1.32,P=0.31; OR TT vs. CT+CC=1.73, 95% CI= 0.87-3.41, P=0.11; OR TT+CT vs. CC=1.26, 95% CI=0.96-1.64, P=0.08). Sensitivity analysis suggested exclusion of any single study did not alter the overall pooled Ors. In conclusion results of present meta-analysis supports that there is a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and depression risk, and MTHFR 677T allele contributes to increased risk of depression in Asian individuals.

  19. [Analysis of liver cancer incidence and trend in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Tingting; Zheng, Rongshou; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-09-01

    The national population-based cancer registration data were used to analyze the liver cancer incidence and trend in China, in order to provide advise for making further strategy on liver cancer prevention and control. Liver cancer data of 2011 were retrieved from the database of the National Cancer Registry. The incident cases of liver cancer were estimated using age-specific rate by urban or rural areas and gender according to the national population in 2011. Liver cancer incidence data from 22 cancer registries were used to analyze the incidence trend during 2000-2011. The estimates of new cases of liver cancer were about 356 thousand in China in 2011. The incidence rate was 26.39/10(5,) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population and by world population were 19.48/10(5) and 19.10/10(5,) respectively.There was an increasing trend of incidence rate of liver cancer in China during 2000-2011 with an average annual percentage change(AAPC) of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.5%-1.4%), 1.2% (95%CI: 0.7%-1.8%)in urban areas and 1.1% (95%CI: 0.5%-1.8%) in rural areas. After age standardization, the incidence rate was significantly decreased, with an AAPC of -1.8% (95%CI: -2.4% to -1.2%), -1.6% (95%CI: -2.2% to -0.9%) in urban and -1.4% (95%CI: -2.5% to -0.3%) in rural areas. Liver cancer is a common cancer in China. As changing in people's dietary habits and implementing neonatal HBV vaccination for years, the exposure to risk factors is reducing, and age-standardized incidence rate is decreasing. While cardinal number of population is big and aging population is growing rapidly in the country, trend of incidence rate is increasing, and the burden of liver cancer is still high in China.

  20. Four-Year Enterprise PACS Support Trend Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olbrish, Kenneth; Shanken, Paul; Rabe, Donna; Steven, Lorraine; Irizarry, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    While health care facilities recognize the need for dedicated picture archiving and communication system (PACS) staff at the time of the initial implementation of PACS, they often do not plan accordingly for ongoing or increasing PACS support needs as a PACS matures. This article reviews trends in a health care system’s PACS support data over 4 years to show how PACS support needs evolve over time. PACS support items were logged and categorized over this period and were used by the health car...

  1. All-oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection: a sub-analysis in Asian patients from the HALLMARK DUAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jia-Horng; Lee, Youn-Jae; Heo, Jeong; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Young-Suk; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Torbeyns, Anne; Hughes, Eric; Bhore, Rafia; Noviello, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir (DCV + ASV) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (GT-1b) infection in the HALLMARK DUAL trial. This post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of this treatment in Asian patients. Treatment-naive patients were randomly assigned (2:1; double-blinded) to receive DCV (60 mg once daily) plus ASV (100 mg twice daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. Subsequently, placebo patients entered another study, and the remaining patients continued treatment for an additional 12 weeks. Non-responders to peginterferon/ribavirin and ineligible/intolerant patients received dual therapy for 24 weeks. Sustained virological response at post-treatment Week 12 [sustained virological response (SVR)12] and safety outcomes were evaluated. This post hoc analysis included 186 Asian patients (Korean, 78; Taiwanese, 85; others, 23), of whom 32.3% were cirrhotic. SVR12 was observed in 92.3, 78.6 and 80.0% of treatment-naive, ineligible/intolerant and non-responder patients, respectively, and was comparable with non-Asian patients. SVR12 by baseline factors including age, viral load, interleukin-28B genotype and cirrhosis status was similar between the Asian sub-cohorts. Among 18 Asian patients with NS5A-Y93H or NS5A-L31M/V resistance-associated variants (RAVs), seven patients achieved SVR12. Multivariate regression analysis showed a significant influence of NS5A RAVs in both Asian and non-Asian cohorts. The incidence of serious adverse events in Asian patients was low (7.2%). Two Taiwanese patients had elevated alanine aminotransferase (≥5.1 × ULN); both achieved SVR12. All-oral dual therapy with DCV + ASV resulted in high SVR rates and was well tolerated in Asian patients with HCV GT-1b infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  3. Limits to detectability of land degradation by trend analysis of vegetation index data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a simulation approach for testing the sensitivity of linear and non-parametric trend analysis methods applied to remotely sensed vegetation index data for the detection of land degradation. The intensity, rate and timing...

  4. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  5. Statistical approach to the analysis of olive long-term pollen season trends in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H; Yaezel, L; Oteros, J; Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of long-term airborne pollen counts makes it possible not only to chart pollen-season trends but also to track changing patterns in flowering phenology. Changes in higher plant response over a long interval are considered among the most valuable bioindicators of climate change impact. Phenological-trend models can also provide information regarding crop production and pollen-allergen emission. The interest of this information makes essential the election of the statistical analysis for time series study. We analysed trends and variations in the olive flowering season over a 30-year period (1982-2011) in southern Europe (Córdoba, Spain), focussing on: annual Pollen Index (PI); Pollen Season Start (PSS), Peak Date (PD), Pollen Season End (PSE) and Pollen Season Duration (PSD). Apart from the traditional Linear Regression analysis, a Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) and an ARIMA model were performed. Linear regression results indicated a trend toward delayed PSE and earlier PSS and PD, probably influenced by the rise in temperature. These changes are provoking longer flowering periods in the study area. The use of the STL technique provided a clearer picture of phenological behaviour. Data decomposition on pollination dynamics enabled the trend toward an alternate bearing cycle to be distinguished from the influence of other stochastic fluctuations. Results pointed to show a rising trend in pollen production. With a view toward forecasting future phenological trends, ARIMA models were constructed to predict PSD, PSS and PI until 2016. Projections displayed a better goodness of fit than those derived from linear regression. Findings suggest that olive reproductive cycle is changing considerably over the last 30years due to climate change. Further conclusions are that STL improves the effectiveness of traditional linear regression in trend analysis, and ARIMA models can provide reliable trend projections for future years taking into

  6. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal temperature series in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2017-06-01

    Most of the trend analysis that has been conducted has not considered the existence of a change point in the time series analysis. If these occurred, then the trend analysis will not be able to detect an obvious increasing or decreasing trend over certain parts of the time series. Furthermore, the lack of discussion on the possible factors that influenced either the decreasing or the increasing trend in the series needs to be addressed in any trend analysis. Hence, this study proposes to investigate the trends, and change point detection of mean, maximum and minimum temperature series, both annually and seasonally in Peninsular Malaysia and determine the possible factors that could contribute to the significance trends. In this study, Pettitt and sequential Mann-Kendall (SQ-MK) tests were used to examine the occurrence of any abrupt climate changes in the independent series. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature series suggested that most of the change points in Peninsular Malaysia were detected during the years 1996, 1997 and 1998. These detection points captured by Pettitt and SQ-MK tests are possibly related to climatic factors, such as El Niño and La Niña events. The findings also showed that the majority of the significant change points that exist in the series are related to the significant trend of the stations. Significant increasing trends of annual and seasonal mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in Peninsular Malaysia were found with a range of 2-5 °C/100 years during the last 32 years. It was observed that the magnitudes of the increasing trend in minimum temperatures were larger than the maximum temperatures for most of the studied stations, particularly at the urban stations. These increases are suspected to be linked with the effect of urban heat island other than El Niño event.

  7. A Static Analysis of Pakistan’s Trade Policy with Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amatual R. CHAUDHARY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper critically analyzes Pakistan's trade policy during 1996-2006 and explores the determinants of bilateral export and import flows between Pakistan and selected Asian countries (SAC in recent past. It contains the policy issues which may be helpful for policy makers of other developing countries facing same conditions. A gravity model of international trade is empirically tested with the help of generalized least square (GLS method of estimation in panel data. Our results show that the income of trading countries is a determining factor of Pakistan's import flows but not for export flows. For exports, the openness of economies is playing central role instead the incomes of trading countries. The exchange rate is also found as a determining factor of Pakistan's export flows and import flows. There is convincing evidence that current import and export flows are highly correlated with previous year whereas infrastructural bottlenecks have negative impact on Pakistan's import and export flows.

  8. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  9. INTENSITY OF USE HYPOTHESIS: ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Oladimeji Soile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been made to estimate the relationship between intensity of metal use and per capita income at different levels with results supporting the hypothesis that metal consumption per unit of GDP initially increases, peak and later decline with rising income per head. This paper estimates the intensity of copper use curves for three Asian countries with different economic structure to show that the I-U hypothesis significantly underplay the influence of economic structure and other technological innovations by its exclusive emphasis on per capital income. The results are in general conformity with the notion that the intensity of material use (I-U is higher for industrial and very low for service based economies. Though the finding is mixed in the agrarian country considered, the paper suggests the need for further research to corroborate this outcome.

  10. Analysis of two lysozyme genes and antimicrobial functions of their recombinant proteins in Asian seabass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are important proteins of the innate immune system for the defense against bacterial infection. We cloned and analyzed chicken-type (c-type and goose-type (g-type lysozymes from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The deduced amino acid sequence of the c-type lysozyme contained 144 residues and possessed typical structure residues, conserved catalytic residues (Glu(50 and Asp(67 and a "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. The deduced g-type lysozyme contained 187 residues and possessed a goose egg white lysozyme (GEWL domain containing three conserved catalytic residues (Glu(71, Asp(84, Asp(95 essential for catalytic activity. Real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the two lysozyme genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. The c-type lysozyme was most abundant in liver, while the g-type lysozyme was predominantly expressed in intestine and weakly expressed in muscle. The c-type and g-type transcripts were up-regulated in the kidney, spleen and liver in response to a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The up-regulation of the c-type lysozyme was much stronger than that of the g-type lysozyme in kidney and spleen. The recombinant proteins of the c-type and g-type lysozymes showed lytic activities against the bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae in a dosage-dependent manner. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the two lysozyme genes. There were significant associations of these polymorphisms with resistance to the big belly disease. These results suggest that the c- and g-type genes play an important role in resistance to bacterial pathogens in fish. The SNP markers in the two genes associated with the resistance to bacterial pathogens may facilitate the selection of Asian seabass resistant to bacterial diseases.

  11. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  12. Association between HLA-Ⅱgene polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in Asian and European population: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingqiu; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Yali; Han, Jian; Ma, Xingming; Luo, Yanping; Liang, Yaling; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    It is generally considered that HLA-Ⅱ genes contribute to the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and disease development process. To perform a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between HLA-Ⅱgene polymorphism and host susceptibility to Hp infection. Relevant cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were identified by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CBM up to July 2014. The data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. RevMan5.0 software was used to perform statistical analysis. In Asian population, HLA-DQB1*0303 acted as the protective gene in Hp infection (statistically significant pooled OR = 0.54) and the susceptible genes in Hp infection involved HLA-DQB1*0401, HLA-DQA1*0103 and HLA-DQA1*0301 (statistically significant pooled OR and 95%CI were 3.34(1.93,5.77), 1.64(1.16,2.33) and 2.03(1.20,3.44) respectively). No statistically significant difference between DQB1*0303, HLA-DQA1*0103 and DQA1*0301 and Hp infection in European population (P>0.05). And no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the overall effect of the association between the rest of HLA-Ⅱalleles and Hp infection. In Asian population, the protective gene HLA-DQB1*0303 and the susceptible genes HLA-DQB1*0401, HLA-DQA1*0103 and HLA-DQA1*0301 in Hp infection were established by meta-analysis. And there was no HLA-Ⅱallele was found to associate with Hp infection among European population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Variation Trends in Precipitation in an Upstream Catchment of Huai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the variation trends in precipitation according to the observed data in the Shaying River catchment, upstream of the Huai River from 1951 to 2010, using the linear regression method and Mann-Kendall test. Further study was made by introducing R/S analysis, and the corresponding Hurst Exponent was estimated to predict the future trends of rainfall. The results suggested that the changing trends in precipitation for different time series in the whole catchment were relatively complex and not obvious. The annual precipitation showed a slightly increasing trend over the past 60 years, and in the future it would be antipersistent. For the 38 rainfall stations, the trends in spring and autumn precipitation time series were mostly negative; on the contrary, the trends in summer and winter were mostly positive. The results also indicated that the annual precipitation series showed positive trends in the northern region and negative trends in the southern region. Moreover, the relationships of H-Z and H-β of the 38 stations were analyzed. The results indicated that the greater the absolute values of Z the stronger the persistent nature. Meanwhile, for most of the H values were close to 0.5, the randomness of the future trends could not be ignored.

  14. High diabetes mellitus prevalence with increasing trend among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Tu, Shih-Te; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Su, Shih-Li; Hsu, Shang-Ren; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) and to determine its associated factors in an Asian population. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals in the period of 2000-2010. The data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the prevalence and the associated comorbidities of DM. During 2000-2010, the prevalence of DM progressively increased, with an average prevalence rate of 27.9%. The patients with ages of 55-64 years had the highest association of DM (OR=3.53) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and liver disease were more likely to associate with DM (ORs=1.27, 1.23, 1.30, 2.32, 3.26, 1.6, and 1.68, respectively) compared to those without the variables. The prevalence of DM among TB patients in Taiwan was high and tended to increase in the past decade. Clinically, inquiring about DM history and screening routinely for those without DM history among TB patients should be carried out in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Temporal Trend of Influenza-Associated Morbidity and the Impact of Early Appearance of Antigenic Drifted Strains in a Southeast Asian Country

    OpenAIRE

    Ie-Bin Lian; Hong-Dar Isaac Wu; Wan-Tzu Chang; Day-Yu Chao

    2014-01-01

    Globally, influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, who are suggested to be the major target group for trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the temporal pattern of infl...

  16. Current Trends in Task Analysis: The Integration of Task Analysis and Instructional Design. IDD&E Working Paper No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    One of the major trends occurring in the area of task analysis methodology is the development of better methods to analyze cognitive tasks, including new methodologies for analyzing the ways in which knowledge should be structured within a student's head to facilitate given types of performance. The most important trend is the integration of task…

  17. Cancer burden in slovenia with the time trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, Vesna; Primic Zakelj, Maja; Lokar, Katarina; Jarm, Katja; Ivanus, Urska; Zagar, Tina

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to describe cancer burden and time trends of all cancers combined, the most frequent as well as the rare cancers in Slovenia. The principal data source was the population-based Cancer Registry of Republic of Slovenia. The cancer burden is presented by incidence and prevalence for the period 1950-2013 and by mortality for years 1985-2013. The time trends were characterized in terms of an average annual percent change estimated by the log-linear joinpoint regression. The Dyba-Hakulinen method was used for estimation of incidence in 2016 and the projections of cancer incidence for the year 2025 were calculated applying the Globocan projection software. In recent years, near 14,000 Slovenes were diagnosed with cancer per year and just over 6,000 died; more than 94,000 people who were ever diagnosed with cancer are currently living among us. The total burden of cancer is dominated by five most common cancer sites: skin (non-melanoma), colon and rectum, lung, breast and prostate, together representing almost 60% of all new cancer cases. On average the incidence of common cancers in Slovenia is increasing for 3.0% per year in last decade, but the incidence of rare cancers is stable. Because cancer occurs more among the elderly, and additionally more numerous post-war generation is entering this age group, it is expected that the burden of this disease will be growing further, even if the level of risk factors remains the same as today.

  18. Long-range transport of giant particles in Asian dust identified by physical, mineralogical, and meteorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Seo, J.; Kim, G. M.; Jin, H. C.; Chun, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Giant particles transported over long distances are generally of limited concern in atmospheric studies due to their low number concentrations in mineral dust and possible local origin. However, they can play an important role in regional circulation of earth materials due to their enormous volume concentration. Asian dust laden with giant particles was observed in Korea on 31 March 2012, after a migration of about 2000 km across the Yellow Sea from the Gobi Desert. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that 20% of the particles exceeded 10 μm in equivalent sphere diameter, with a maximum of 60 μm. The median diameter from the number distribution was 5.7 μm, which was larger than the diameters recorded of 2.5 and 2.9 μm in Asian dust storms in 2010 and 2011, respectively, and was consistent with independent optical particle counter data. Giant particles (>10 μm) contributed about 89% of the volume of the dust in the 2012 storm. Illite-smectite series clay minerals were the major mineral group followed by quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and calcite. The total phyllosilicate content was ~52%. The direct long-range transport of giant particles was confirmed by calcite nanofibers closely associated with clays in a submicron scale identified by high-resolution SEM and transmission electron microscopy. Since giant particles consisted of clay agglomerates and clay-coated quartz, feldspars, and micas, the mineral composition varied little throughout the fine (20 μm) size bins. Analysis of the synoptic conditions of the 2012 dust event and its migration indicated that the mid-tropospheric strong wind belt directly stretching to Korea induced rapid transport of the dust, delivering giant particles. Giant dust particles with high settling velocity would be the major input into the terrestrial and marine sedimentary and ecological systems of East Asia and the western Pacific. Analysis of ancient aeolian deposits in Korea suggested the common deposition of giant

  19. Taxonomy and nomenclature of some mainland SE-Asian Coeliccia species (Odonata, Platycnemididae) using micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-12-22

    The taxonomic status of some mainland Southeast Asian Coeliccia species is evaluated. The following synonymies are presented: C. acco is a junior synonym of C. pyriformis; C. tomokunii that of C. scutellum; C.onoi that of C. cyanomelas. C. scutellum hainanense is promoted to species level, C. hainanense. Redescriptions of the holotype of C. pyriformis and of the lectotypes of C. scutellum and C. hainanense are presented with illustrations. The male genital ligulae were examined by means of non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent 3D-reconstruction. The advantage of virtual types generated by micro-CT analysis, particularly for the examination of internal structures, is discussed.

  20. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  1. EMD Method for Minimizing the Effect of Seasonal Trends in Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA is a scaling method commonly used to estimate long-range power-law cross-correlation in nonstationary signals. Recent studies have reported signals superimposed with trends, which often lead to the complexity of the signals and the susceptibility of DCCA. This paper artificially generates long-range cross-correlated signals and systematically investigates the effect of seasonal trends. Specifically, for the crossovers raised by trends, we propose a smoothing algorithm based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD method which decomposes underlying signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and a residual trend. After the removal of slowly oscillating components and residual term, seasonal trends are eliminated.

  2. Smoking and Genetic Risk Variation across Populations of European, Asian, and African-American Ancestry - A Meta-analysis of Chromosome 15q25

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Bracci, Paige M.; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Sanders, Alan R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sung, Yun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations.

  3. The blood pressure sensitivity to changes in sodium intake is similar in Asians, Blacks and Whites. An analysis of 92 randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the meta-analysis of randomized trials was to analyze the significance of ethnicity on the effect of sodium reduction (SR) on blood pressure (BP) by estimating the effect of SR on BP in Asians, Blacks and Whites under conditions, which were adjusted with respect to baseline BP...

  4. Blurring Racial and Ethnic Boundaries in Asian American Families: Asian American Family Patterns, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Danielle Antoinette; Bankston, Carl L.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the authors use statistics from the U.S. Census to examine trends in intermarriage, racial and ethnic combinations, and categorizations among Asian Americans. Specifically, the authors want to consider the extent to which family patterns may contribute to Asian Americans and their descendants' continuing as distinct, becoming members…

  5. Secular trends of low birthweight and macrosomia and related maternal factors in Beijing, China: a longitudinal trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyi; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Juan; Teng, Yue; Wu, Minghui; Teng, Honghong; Zhang, Xue; Qi, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Tan, Chunying; Mi, Jie

    2014-03-18

    Information tracking changes of birthweight is scarce in China. To examine trends of low birthweight (birthweight macrosomia (birthweight ≥ 4000 g) and potential risk factors in Beijing, hospital records from two major obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in urban districts in Beijing were analyzed. Hospital records from 1996 to 2010 were retrieved. Information of prenatal examination and birth outcomes was entered into a structured database. Live births were used for trend analysis. Information of live births in 2010 was used to identify potential risk factors. A total of 63 661 live births were delivered during 1996-2010 in the study hospitals. The average birthweight increased from 3271 g in 1996 to 3 359 g in 2000 and slightly declined to 3 331 in 2010. The percentage of low birthweight fluctuated around 4.0%. No significant increase or decrease was observed. Preterm birth was the main cause of low birthweight, accounting for more than 73% of low birthweight. The average percentage of macrosomia was 7.6%. The percentages of macrosomia increased from 6.6% in 1996 to 9.5% in 2000 and declined to 7.0% in 2010. Excessive gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes were significantly associated with macrosomia. Continuously monitoring abnormal birthweight is needed and intervention should focus on appropriate gestational weight gain and reduction of preterm birth and gestational diabetes.

  6. Trends in Post-mastectomy Reconstruction: A SEER Database Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Julie E.; Summers, Danielle E.; Cui, Haiyan; Carey, Joseph N.; Viscusi, Rebecca K.; Hurst, Craig A.; Waer, Amy L.; Ley, Michele L B.; Sener, Stephen F.; Vijayasekaran, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study was performed to investigate recent trends and factors associated with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using a large population-based registry. We hypothesized that rates of IBR have increased since passage of the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998. Methods The SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database was used to evaluate Stage I–III breast cancer (BC) patients who underwent total mastectomy from 1998–2008. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to study predictors of IBR. Results Of 112,348 patients with BC treated by mastectomy, 18,001 (16%) had IBR. Rates of IBR increased significantly from 1998–2008 (pmastectomy radiation (XRT) and in 14,188 of 86,513 (16.4%) of those not having XRT (p<0.0001). Conclusions The utilization of IBR has increased significantly over the last decade. IBR was found to be significantly associated with age, race, geographical region, stage, ER, grade, LN status, and XRT (p<0.0001). PMID:23861196

  7. Analysis on variability and trend in Antarctic sea ice albedo between 1983 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minji; Kim, Hyun-cheol; Choi, Sungwon; Lee, Kyeong-sang; Han, Kyung-soo

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is key parameter in order to understand the cryosphere climate change. Several studies indicate the different trend of sea ice between Antarctica and Arctic. Albedo is important factor for understanding the energy budget and factors for observing of environment changes of Cryosphere such as South Pole, due to it mainly covered by ice and snow with high albedo value. In this study, we analyzed variability and trend of long-term sea ice albedo data to understand the changes of sea ice over Antarctica. In addiction, sea ice albedo researched the relationship with Antarctic oscillation in order to determine the atmospheric influence. We used the sea ice albedo data at The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring and Antarctic Oscillation data at NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We analyzed the annual trend in albedo using linear regression to understand the spatial and temporal tendency. Antarctic sea ice albedo has two spatial trend. Weddle sea / Ross sea sections represent a positive trend (0.26% ˜ 0.04% yr-1) and Bellingshausen Amundsen sea represents a negative trend (- 0.14 ˜ -0.25%yr-1). Moreover, we performed the correlation analysis between albedo and Antarctic oscillation. As a results, negative area indicate correlation coefficient of - 0.3639 and positive area indicates correlation coefficient of - 0.0741. Theses results sea ice albedo has regional trend according to ocean. Decreasing sea ice trend has negative relationship with Antarctic oscillation, its represent a possibility that sea ice influence atmospheric factor.

  8. The temporal trend of influenza-associated morbidity and the impact of early appearance of antigenic drifted strains in a Southeast Asian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ie-Bin; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Chang, Wan-Tzu; Chao, Day-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Globally, influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, who are suggested to be the major target group for trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the temporal pattern of influenza-associated morbidity among persons older than 64 years over a decade. The temporal patterns of influenza-associated morbidity rates among the elderly older than 64 years indicated that Taiwan's elderly P&I outpatient visits have been decreasing since the beginning of the 1999-2000 influenza season; however, hospitalization has been increasing despite significant increases in vaccine coverage. The propensity score logistic regression model was implemented to evaluate the source of bias and it was found that the TIV-receiving group had a higher propensity score than the non-receiving group (Pappearance of antigenic-drifted strains and concluded that an excess influenza-associated morbidity substantial trends toward higher P&I hospitalization, but not outpatient visits, during the influenza season with early appearance of antigenic-drifted strains.

  9. Analysis of growth trend changes for 51 temperate tree species using Korea national forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M.; Moon, M.; Park, J.; Cho, S.; Kim, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Individual tree growth rates can be affected by various factors such as species, soil fertility, stand development stage, disturbance, and climate etc. To estimate the effect of changes in tree growth rate on the structure and functionality of forest ecosystem in the future, we analyzed the change of species-specific growth trends using the fifth Korea national forest inventory data, which was collected from 2006 to 2010. The ring samples of average tree were collected from nationwide inventory plots and the total number of individual tree ring series was 69,128 covering 185 tree species. Among those, fifty one species with more than 100 tree ring series were used for our analysis. For growth-trend analysis, standardized regional curves of individual species growth were generated from three forest zone in South Korea; subarctic, cool temperate, warm temperate forest zone. Then individual tree ring series was indexed by dividing the growth of the tree by expected growth from standardized regional curves. Then the ratio of all tree ring series were aligned by year and the Spearman's correlation coefficient of each species was calculated. The results show that most of species had increasing growth rates as forests developed after Korean war. For the last thirty years, 67.3% of species including Quercus spp. and Zelkova serrata had positive growth trends, on the other hand, 11.5% of species including Pinus spp. showed negative growth trends probably due to the changes in successional stages in Korean forests and climate change. These trends also vary with climate zone and species. For examples, Pinus densiflora, which showed negative growth trend overall, had steep negative growth trends in boreal and temperate zone, whereas it showed no specific trend in sub-tropical climate zone. Our trend analysis on 51 temperate tree species growth will be essential to predict the temperate forests species change for the this century.

  10. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wayne B; Smith, Michael T; Hunnicutt, Laura E

    2009-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is one of the most economically and ecologically devastating forest insects to invade North America in recent years. Despite its substantial impact, limited effort has been expended to define the genetic and molecular make-up of this species. Considering the significant role played by late-stadia larvae in host tree decimation, a small-scale EST sequencing project was done using a cDNA library constructed from 5(th) -instar A. glabripennis. The resultant dataset consisted of 599 high quality ESTs that, upon assembly, yielded 381 potentially unique transcripts. Each of these transcripts was catalogued as to putative molecular function, biological process, and associated cellular component according to the Gene Ontology classification system. Using this annotated dataset, a subset of assembled sequences was identified that are putatively associated with A. glabnpennis development and metamorphosis. This work will contribute to understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms that underlie coleopteran morphogenesis and enable the future development of novel control strategies for management of this insect pest.

  11. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  12. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  13. Cloud-radiation-precipitation associations over the Asian monsoon region: an observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Dong, Xiquan; Mao, Jiangyu

    2017-11-01

    This study uses 2001-2014 satellite observations and reanalyses to investigate the seasonal characteristics of Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) and their associations with cloud fraction (CF) and precipitation over the Asian monsoon region (AMR) covering Eastern China (EC) and South Asia (SA). The CREs exhibit strong seasonal variations but show distinctly different relationships with CFs and precipitation over the two regions. For EC, the CREs is dominated by shortwave (SW) cooling, with an annual mean value of - 40 W m- 2 for net CRE, and peak in summer while the presence of extensive and opaque low-level clouds contributes to large Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo (>0.5) in winter. For SA, a weak net CRE exists throughout the year due to in-phase compensation of SWCRE by longwave (LW) CRE associated with the frequent occurrence of high clouds. For the entire AMR, SWCRE strongly correlates with the dominant types of CFs, although the cloud vertical structure plays important role particularly in summer. The relationships between CREs and precipitation are stronger in SA than in EC, indicating the dominant effect of monsoon circulation in the former region. SWCRE over EC is only partly related to precipitation and shows distinctive regional variations. Further studies need to pay more attention to vertical distributions of cloud micro- and macro-physical properties, and associated precipitation systems over the AMR.

  14. A competing risk analysis of sequential complication development in Asian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chen, Jeng-Huei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Li-Chia; Lao, Chun-Huan; Luh, Hsing; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

    2015-10-28

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the progression risk of sequential complication in Asian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients using the Taiwan Pay-for-Performance Diabetes Registry and claim data from November 2003 to February 2009. 226,310 adult T2D patients without complication were followed from diagnosis to complications, including myocardial infarction (MI), other ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, chronic kidney disease (CKD), retinopathy, amputation, death or to the end of study. Cumulative incidences (CIs) of first and second complications were analyzed in 30 and 4 years using the cumulative incidence competing risk method. IHD (29.8%), CKD (24.5%) and stroke (16.0%) are the most common first complications. The further development of T2D complications depends on a patient's existing complication profiles. Patients who initially developed cardiovascular complications had a higher risk (9.2% to 24.4%) of developing IHD or CKD, respectively. All-cause mortality was the most likely consequence for patients with a prior MI (12.0%), so as stroke in patients with a prior MI (10.8%) or IHD (8.9%). Patients with CKD had higher risk of developing IHD (16.3%), stroke (8.9%) and all-cause mortality (8.7%) than end-stage renal disease (4.0%). Following an amputation, patients had a considerable risk of all-cause mortality (42.1%).

  15. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...... the opportunities for Asian products, such a demand showed to be especially supported by the first two of these trends. Thus, the categories representing opportunities for Asian exporters (or other producers of these types of products) were: convenience products with an exotic twist and more easily accessible...

  16. Adding trend data to Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Bayesian model of Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis (DB-SRA), informed by a time series of abundance indexes, was developed, using the Sampling Importance...

  17. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in East Asians: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yutaka; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-10-30

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on blood pressure in East Asians. The inclusion criteria of the randomized controlled trials were healthy East Asian adults, exercise group performing regular aerobic exercise and control group not exercising, and a description of the mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure at rest. This study included 31 study groups and 1994 subjects. Pooled changes in blood pressure showed significant reductions (systolic blood pressure: -4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure: -3.2 mmHg). In subgroup analyses, the change in systolic blood pressure for randomized controlled trials meeting the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for physical activity to maintain health was significantly larger than in randomized controlled trials not meeting the guidelines. In addition, meta-regression indicated that the change in systolic blood pressure was significantly related to "exercise time × exercise frequency." The ideal volume of exercise is that for a long time at a high frequency, such as the volume recommended in the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines: moderate intensity and >150 min per week. List of abbreviations: BP: blood pressure; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; RCT: randomized controlled trial; AHA: America Heart Association; ACSM: America College of Sports Medicine; SD: standard deviation; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; PEDro: Physiotherapy Evidence Database; CI: confidence intervals; %HRmax: percentage of maximal heart rate.

  18. Diagnosing chronic fatigue syndrome in south asians: Lessons from a secondary analysis of a UK qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Erandie Ediriweera De Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis (CFS/ME is rarely diagnosed in South Asia (SA, although the symptoms of this condition are seen in the population. Lessons from UK based South Asian, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME communities may be of value in identifying barriers to diagnosis of CFS/ME in SA. Objectives: To explore why CFS/ME may not be commonly diagnosed in SA. Settings and Design: A secondary analysis of qualitative data on the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in BME people of predominantly South Asian origin in the UK using 27 semi-structured qualitative interviews with people with CFE/ME, carers, general practitioners (GPs, and community leaders. Results: CFS/ME is seen among the BME communities in the UK. People from BME communities in the UK can present to healthcare practitioners with vague physical complaints and they can hold a biomedical model of illness. Patients found it useful to have a label of CFS/ME although some GPs felt it to be a negative label. Access to healthcare can be limited by GPs reluctance to diagnose CFS/ME, their lack of knowledge and patients negative experiences. Cultural aspects among BME patients in the UK also act as a barrier to the diagnosis of CFS/ME. Conclusion: Cultural values and practices influence the diagnosis of CFS/ME in BME communities. The variations in the perceptions around CFS/ME among patients, carers, and health professionals may pose challenges in diagnosing CFS/ME in SA as well. Raising awareness of CFS/ME would improve the diagnosis and management of patients with CFS/ME in SA.

  19. Diagnosing Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in South Asians: Lessons from a Secondary Analysis of a UK Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, R Erandie Ediriweera; Bayliss, Kerin; Riste, Lisa; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

    2013-07-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis (CFS/ME) is rarely diagnosed in South Asia (SA), although the symptoms of this condition are seen in the population. Lessons from UK based South Asian, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities may be of value in identifying barriers to diagnosis of CFS/ME in SA. To explore why CFS/ME may not be commonly diagnosed in SA. A secondary analysis of qualitative data on the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in BME people of predominantly South Asian origin in the UK using 27 semi-structured qualitative interviews with people with CFE/ME, carers, general practitioners (GPs), and community leaders. CFS/ME is seen among the BME communities in the UK. People from BME communities in the UK can present to healthcare practitioners with vague physical complaints and they can hold a biomedical model of illness. Patients found it useful to have a label of CFS/ME although some GPs felt it to be a negative label. Access to healthcare can be limited by GPs reluctance to diagnose CFS/ME, their lack of knowledge and patients negative experiences. Cultural aspects among BME patients in the UK also act as a barrier to the diagnosis of CFS/ME. Cultural values and practices influence the diagnosis of CFS/ME in BME communities. The variations in the perceptions around CFS/ME among patients, carers, and health professionals may pose challenges in diagnosing CFS/ME in SA as well. Raising awareness of CFS/ME would improve the diagnosis and management of patients with CFS/ME in SA.

  20. Gender differences in lung cancer mortality trends in Andalusia 1975-2008: a joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Aurelio; Rodríguez-Domínguez, Susana; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Otero-Candelera, Remedios; López-Campos, Jose Luis; Vigil, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Death rates from lung cancer in men are higher in Andalusia than in other Spanish regions. This study describes lung cancer mortality rates and their trends in Andalusia from 1975 through 2008. Data on lung cancer mortality were obtained from the Death Registry of Andalusia. For each gender, age group-specific and standardized (overall and truncated) rates were calculated by the direct method using the world standard population. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify points where a significant change in trends occurred. In men, short-term trends for age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) declined significantly from 2004 through 2008 for each age group Andalusia (Spain).

  1. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis...... (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3....... GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion...

  2. Secular trend analysis of lung cancer incidence in Sihui city, China between 1987 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Lin; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Shang-Hang; Yang, Meng-Jie; Guo, Jie; Lin, Er-Hong; Liu, Qing; Hong, Ming-Huang; Huang, Qi-Hong; Liao, Zheng-Er; Cao, Su-Mei

    2015-07-31

    With industrial and econom ic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends. Joinpoint regression analysis and the age-period-cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends. A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3-fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25-year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the incidence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously significant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80-84 years). The RR of lung cancer showed a fluctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identified an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955-1969. Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.

  3. Analysis of temperature data over semi-arid Botswana: trends and break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphale, Kgakgamatso; Adedoyin, Akintayo; Nkoni, Godiraone; Ramaphane, Galebonwe; Wiston, Modise; Chimidza, Oyapo

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is a global challenge which impacts negatively on sustainable rural livelihoods, public health and economic development, more especially for communities in Southern Africa. Assessment of indices that signify climate change can inform formulation of relevant adaptation strategies and policies for the communities. Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is acknowledged as an expedient measure of the scourge as it is sensitive to variations in radiative energy balance. In this study, a long-term (1961-2010) daily temperature data obtained from nine (9) synoptic stations in Botswana were analyzed for monotonic trends and epochal changes in annual maximum (T max), minimum (T min) temperatures and DTR time series. Most of the considered stations were along the Kalahari Transect, a region which is at high risk of extensive environmental change due to climate change. Mann-Kendall trend and Lepage tests were applied for trend and change point analysis, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that stations in the southern part of the country experienced significant negative trends in annual DTR at the rate of -0.09 to -0.30 °C per decade due to steeper warming rates in annual T min than annual T max trends. On the contrary, stations in the northern part of the country experienced positive trends in annual DTR brought about by either a decreasing annual T min trend which outstripped annual T max or annual T max which outpaced annual T min. The increasing trends in DTR varied from 0.25 to 0.67 °C per decade. For most of the stations, the most significant annual DTR trends change point was in 1982 which coincided with the reversal of atmospheric circulation patterns.

  4. Mapping long-term changes in savannah crop productivity in Senegal through trend analysis of time-series of remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Christian; Rasmussen, Michael Schultz

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing, NDVI, trend analysis, environmental change, rainfall, land cover change, Senegal......Remote sensing, NDVI, trend analysis, environmental change, rainfall, land cover change, Senegal...

  5. Massive gene losses in Asian cultivated rice unveiled by comparative genome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. With increasing world demand for food crops, there is an urgent need to develop new cultivars that have enhanced performance with regard to yield, disease resistance, and so on. Wild rice is expected to provide useful genetic resources that could improve the present cultivated species. However, the quantity and quality of these unexplored resources remain unclear. Recent accumulation of the genomic information of both cultivated and wild rice species allows for their comparison at the molecular level. Here, we compared the genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica with sets of bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences (BESs) from two wild rice species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, and an African rice species, O. glaberrima. Results We found that about four to five percent of the BESs of the two wild rice species and about seven percent of the African rice could not be mapped to the japonica genome, suggesting that a substantial number of genes have been lost in the japonica rice lineage; however, their close relatives still possess their counterpart genes. We estimated that during evolution, O. sativa has lost at least one thousand genes that are still preserved in the genomes of the other species. In addition, our BLASTX searches against the non-redundant protein sequence database showed that disease resistance-related proteins were significantly overrepresented in the close relative-specific genomic portions. In total, 235 unmapped BESs of the three relatives matched 83 non-redundant proteins that contained a disease resistance protein domain, most of which corresponded to an NBS-LRR domain. Conclusion We found that the O. sativa lineage appears to have recently experienced massive gene losses following divergence from its wild ancestor. Our results imply that the domestication process accelerated large-scale genomic deletions in the lineage of Asian cultivated rice and that the close

  6. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Scully

    Full Text Available Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle, and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552, is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent

  7. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin D; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John; Tien, Ming; Geib, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle), and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552), is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent peroxidase activities were

  8. Information for action? Analysis of 2005 South Asian earthquake reports posted on Reliefweb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schreeb, Johan; Legha, Jaswinder K; Karlsson, Niklas; Garfield, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Following a sudden-onset disaster (SOD), rapid information is needed. We assessed the relevance of information available for relief planning on a main Internet portal following a major SOD. We reviewed all information posted on the Reliefweb Web site in the first 7 days following the 2005 South Asian earthquake using a predeveloped registration form focusing on essential indicators. These data were compared with Pakistani government figures posted by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. A total of 820 reports were reviewed. More reports came from nongovernmental organizations (NGOs; 35%) than any other source. A total of 42% of reports addressed only national level information, while 32% specified information at the provincial level. Fewer than 12% of all reports discussed the earthquake at the more local division and district levels. Only 13 reports provided pre-earthquake estimates of the number of people living in the affected areas. A third of all reports cited a common figure of 2.5 million made homeless. These were lower than official figures of 5 million homeless. A total of 43% reported on the estimated number of deaths. The estimated number peaked on day 4 at 40 000. All of these reports were lower than official data, which reported 73 000 deaths in total. Early reports heavily underestimated the number of affected, homeless, injured, and dead. Many reports repeated information provided from previous unnamed sources rather than providing unique contributions from eyewitness reports or from contextual information based on previous work in the area. Better information on predisaster essential indicators should be available and used in combination with post-SOD information to better adapt humanitarian relief and funding according to needs.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Fusarium solani Isolated from the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Erin D.; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John; Tien, Ming; Geib, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle), and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552), is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent peroxidase activities were

  10. Trends in Distance Education: A Content Analysis of Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Gürhan; Çankaya, Serkan; Yunkul, Eyup; Urfa, Mehmet; Toprakliklioglu, Kivanç; Arda, Yagmur; Inam, Nazmiye

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at presenting the results of content analysis on Master's Theses carried out in the field of distance education at higher education level in Turkey between 1986 and 2015. A total of 285 Master's Theses were examined to determine the key words, academic disciplines, research areas, theoretical frameworks, research designs…

  11. Trends in Educational Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Yuksel; Hasancebi, Funda; Varisoglu, Behice; Akcay, Ahmet; Bayrak, Naci; Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on educational research papers published from 2005-2009 in journals listed in SSCI and the ULAKBIM database in Turkey. Study types, research methods, investigated specific topics, used data collection tools, employed data analysis methods, and utilized types of samples and sampling methods were analyzed. A total of 2115 papers…

  12. Open Access Publishing Trend Analysis: Statistics beyond the Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Bravo, Elena; Curti, Moreno; Maurizio Ferri,; Mancini, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this analysis was twofold: to track the number of open access journals acquiring impact factor, and to investigate the distribution of subject categories pertaining to these journals. As a case study, journals in which the researchers of the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) in Italy have…

  13. Neural network analysis of varying trends in real exchange rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Kaashoek (Johan); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper neural networks are fitted to the real exchange rates of seven industrialized countries. The size and topology of the used networks is found by reducing the size of the network through the use of multiple correlation coefficients, principal component analysis of residuals

  14. Five years malaria trend analysis in Woreta Health Center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An estimated 68% of the Ethiopian population, living in 75% of the landmass, is at risk of contracting malaria at any time making it the leading public health problem. The temporal analysis of malaria data could be important to evaluate the performance of malaria prevention programmes. Thus, the aim of this ...

  15. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition analyses of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions have mainly focused on effects of changes in economic activity, energy intensity and fuel mix, and structural changes in energy consumption in different countries or different sectors of the economy. This e-Book introduces a different perspective by identifying five globally relevant factors affecting CO{sub 2} emissions. Changes in carbon intensity of primary energy, efficiency of the energy system, energy intensity of the economy, level of economic development, and the amount of population have been identified by extending the well-known IPAT identity. Empirical part focuses on CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in the ASEAN countries between the years 1980 and 2005. CO{sub 2} emissions are considerable low in many ASEAN countries but have increased in recent years due to the rapid economic growth and increased reliance on fossil fuels. Emission and energy intensities have increased during the industrialization process, but with a shift towards a more service-oriented economy and the increase in GDP per capita, the intensities have started to decrease in some ASEAN countries. However, these changes have not been able to slow down the rapid increase in CO{sub 2} emissions due to the growth of both the economy and the population. With the rapid economic development of the member countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and nations such as China and India since the mid-1980s, the Asia-Pacific region has emerged as the growth centre of the global economy. However, many countries in the region have, instead of being successful, faced serious social and environmental problems, particularly with regard to deforestation, land degradation and the loss of biological diversity. Climate change has been regarded one of the major environmental threats to developing countries. The need to develop theoretical and empirical research in the field of climate and energy policy analysis

  16. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  17. Disutility analysis of oil spills: graphs and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Sotiropoulos, Foivos S

    2014-04-15

    This paper reports the results of an analysis of oil spill cost data assembled from a worldwide pollution database that mainly includes data from the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. The purpose of the study is to analyze the conditions of marine pollution accidents and the factors that impact the costs of oil spills worldwide. The accidents are classified into categories based on their characteristics, and the cases are compared using charts to show how the costs are affected under all conditions. This study can be used as a helpful reference for developing a detailed statistical model that is capable of reliably and realistically estimating the total costs of oil spills. To illustrate the differences identified by this statistical analysis, the results are compared with the results of previous studies, and the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ANALYSIS OF EARNINGS TRENDS IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Monica LOGOFĂTU; Cristian ȘTEFĂNESCU

    2017-01-01

    The problem of human resource management in education is a big challenge for the whole world, both developing and developed countries. The existence of highly motivated teachers, appropriately qualified, adequately supported through various forms and which work in a stimulating environment for teaching and learning represent the core of any educational system. In this work, addressing human resources compensation issue is dual. First, we aim to make a qualitative analysis of the elements of a...

  19. Naval new ship construction cost analysis and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents an analysis of the Ship Construction and Conversion, Navy, Appropriation cost estimates for the ship construction during the period 1960-1992. Emphasis is placed on four specific shipbuilding programs: Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG-51), Fleet Ballistic Submarine (Trident), Attack Submarine (SSN-688), and Guided Missile Cruiser (CG-47). These programs are analyzed to determine how competition/dual sourcing, contrac...

  20. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS, the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3 during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photochemical production (3.1% yr−1 for a mean level of 52 DU. This trend is close to the significant trend of partial column ozone in the lower troposphere (0–3 km resulting from the enhanced photochemical production during summer (3.0% yr−1 for a mean level of 23 DU. Analysis of the CLaMS simulation shows that transport rather than chemistry drives most of the seasonality of tropospheric ozone. However, dynamical processes alone cannot explain the trend of tropospheric ozone in the observational data. Clearly enhanced ozone values and a negative vertical ozone gradient in the lower troposphere in the observational data emphasize the importance of photochemistry within the troposphere during spring and summer, and suggest that the photochemistry within the troposphere significantly contributes to the tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing during the last decade.

  1. Hydrological Trend Analysis Due to Land Use Changes at Langat River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizan Juahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study was carried out to detect the spatial and temporal change (1974-2000 in hydrological trend and its relationship to land use changes in the Langat River Basin. To obtain a clear picture of the hydrological parameters during the study period, rainfall data were analyzed. With the help of GIS and non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK statistical test the significance of trend in hydrological and land use time series was measured. Trend analyses indicated that a relationship between hydrological parameters namely discharge and direct runoff and land use types namely agriculture, forest, urban, waterbody and others was evident. This analysis indicates that rainfall intensity does not play an important role as a pollutant contributor via the rainfall runoff process nor does it directly influence the peak discharges. Land use shows tremendous changes in trend surrounding Dengkil station compared a little changes surrounding Lui station. Mann-Kendall test of trend shows an increasing trend (p-value<0.01 of annual maximum-minimum ratio for Dengkil station, while no significant trend is observed for Lui station. There is evidence that regional variability in discharge behaviour is strongly related to land use or land cover changes along the river basin.

  2. The temporal trend of influenza-associated morbidity and the impact of early appearance of antigenic drifted strains in a Southeast Asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie-Bin Lian

    Full Text Available Globally, influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, who are suggested to be the major target group for trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the temporal pattern of influenza-associated morbidity among persons older than 64 years over a decade. The temporal patterns of influenza-associated morbidity rates among the elderly older than 64 years indicated that Taiwan's elderly P&I outpatient visits have been decreasing since the beginning of the 1999-2000 influenza season; however, hospitalization has been increasing despite significant increases in vaccine coverage. The propensity score logistic regression model was implemented to evaluate the source of bias and it was found that the TIV-receiving group had a higher propensity score than the non-receiving group (P<0.0001. In order to investigate the major factors affecting the temporal pattern of influenza-associated morbidity, we then used the propensity score as a summary confounder in a multivariate Poisson regression model based on the trimmed data. Our final models suggested that the factors affected the temporal pattern of morbidity differently. The variables including co-morbidity, vaccination rate, influenza virus type A and B isolation rate were associated with increased outpatient visits and hospitalization (p<0.05. In contrast, variables including high propensity score, increased 1°C in temperature, matching vaccine strains of type A/H1N1 and type B were associated with decreased outpatient visits and hospitalization (p<0.05. Finally, we assessed the impact of early appearance of antigenic-drifted strains and concluded that an excess influenza-associated morbidity

  3. Analysis of the hotel industry of Romania. Trends and facts

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Petronel, Pectu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the evolution of the Romanian hotel industry by doing a review of its main components: the supply and the demand, during a period of 20 years, between 1994 and 2014. Most of the review is based on the information gathered by the Romanian national institute of statistics. On one hand, it’s centered on the progress hotels made in terms of number and capacity. In order to capture the stages through which this industry has been, the analysis is approached in a deductive...

  4. [Time-trend analysis of diabetes mellitus mortality in Argentina, 1990-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Hernán; Macías, Guillermo

    2017-06-08

    To describe the time trend of mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) in Argentina in the years 1990-2013, by age and sex. Crude, age-specific, and age-adjusted rates of DM mortality in Argentina were calculated for the period 1990-2013. Mortality data were obtained from the Statistical Report on Deaths issued by the Department of Statistics and Health Information. An analysis of this trend was carried out through joinpoint regression models. Analysis of the trend of crude and age-adjusted DM mortality rates yielded a statistically significant model in which mortality increased between 1990 and 2001 and declined thereafter. Furthermore, for age-adjusted rates, there was a significant downward trend of mortality in women (AAPC -1.10, 95%CI -1.70 to -0.50). Age-specific mortality rates multiplied with every 10-year increment in age. All age groups older than 50 years showed a growing mortality trend between 1990 and 2001. DM mortality mainly affects people over the age of 50 and men. A significant downward trend in age-adjusted DM mortality rates was observed for women. These findings highlight the importance of developing policies for prevention and early detection, as well as of proper coding of multiple causes of death.

  5. Trend Analysis of Golestan's Rivers Discharges Using Parametric and Non-parametric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Kouhestani, Nasrin

    2010-05-01

    One of the major problems in human life is climate changes and its problems. Climate changes will cause changes in rivers discharges. The aim of this research is to investigate the trend analysis of seasonal and yearly rivers discharges of Golestan province (Iran). In this research four trend analysis method including, conjunction point, linear regression, Wald-Wolfowitz and Mann-Kendall, for analyzing of river discharges in seasonal and annual periods in significant level of 95% and 99% were applied. First, daily discharge data of 12 hydrometrics stations with a length of 42 years (1965-2007) were selected, after some common statistical tests such as, homogeneity test (by applying G-B and M-W tests), the four mentioned trends analysis tests were applied. Results show that in all stations, for summer data time series, there are decreasing trends with a significant level of 99% according to Mann-Kendall (M-K) test. For autumn time series data, all four methods have similar results. For other periods, the results of these four tests were more or less similar together. While, for some stations the results of tests were different. Keywords: Trend Analysis, Discharge, Non-parametric methods, Wald-Wolfowitz, The Mann-Kendall test, Golestan Province.

  6. Massive gene losses in Asian cultivated rice unveiled by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. With increasing world demand for food crops, there is an urgent need to develop new cultivars that have enhanced performance with regard to yield, disease resistance, and so on. Wild rice is expected to provide useful genetic resources that could improve the present cultivated species. However, the quantity and quality of these unexplored resources remain unclear. Recent accumulation of the genomic information of both cultivated and wild rice species allows for their comparison at the molecular level. Here, we compared the genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica with sets of bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences (BESs from two wild rice species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, and an African rice species, O. glaberrima. Results We found that about four to five percent of the BESs of the two wild rice species and about seven percent of the African rice could not be mapped to the japonica genome, suggesting that a substantial number of genes have been lost in the japonica rice lineage; however, their close relatives still possess their counterpart genes. We estimated that during evolution, O. sativa has lost at least one thousand genes that are still preserved in the genomes of the other species. In addition, our BLASTX searches against the non-redundant protein sequence database showed that disease resistance-related proteins were significantly overrepresented in the close relative-specific genomic portions. In total, 235 unmapped BESs of the three relatives matched 83 non-redundant proteins that contained a disease resistance protein domain, most of which corresponded to an NBS-LRR domain. Conclusion We found that the O. sativa lineage appears to have recently experienced massive gene losses following divergence from its wild ancestor. Our results imply that the domestication process accelerated large-scale genomic deletions in the lineage of Asian

  7. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Fensholt, Rasmus; Verbesselt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    As a way to understand vegetation changes, trend analysis on NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series data have been widely performed at regional to global scales. However, most long-term NDVI datasets are based upon multiple sensor systems and unsuccessful corrections related...... to sensor shifts potentially introduce substantial uncertainties and artifacts in the analysis of trends. The temporal consistency of NDVI datasets should therefore be evaluated before performing trend analysis to obtain reliable results. In this study we analyze the temporal consistency of multi......'Observation de la Terre VEGETATION). Single sensor time series from MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra and Aqua are used as reference datasets. The global land surface is divided into six regions according to the world humidity zones and averaged NDVI time series in each region...

  8. Measuring Asian nurses' organizational commitment: a critical analysis of the psychometric properties of two organizational commitment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and compare the psychometric properties and cultural attributes of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Scale to determine their appropriateness for measuring commitment of Asian nurses, the biggest portion of international nurses. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was cross-culturally cross-validated when compared with the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both instruments were not tested on Asian nurses. More studies are needed to validate the cultural properties of the Organizational Commitment Scale. Healthcare administrators can use culturally validated instruments, which concern cultural context, including languages and cultural values, to understand Asian nurses' organizational commitment and further lower turnover behavior among them. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Diet and Physical Activity Interventions to Prevent or Treat Obesity in South Asian Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway

  10. Diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asian children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Smith, Sarah; Bhopal, Raj; Kasim, Adetayo; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2015-01-09

    The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. RESULTS are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway and South Asian school-children in the UK. A home

  11. The analysis of cultural architectural trends in Crisan locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELA Florentina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data about the identification and analyse of the traditional architectural elements in Crisan locality knowing that the tourism activity is in a continuous development. The field research (during November 2007 enabled us to develop a qualitative and quantitative analysis in terms of identification of traditional architecture elements, their conservation status, and frequency of traditional building materials use, decorative elements and specificcolors used in construction architecture. Further, based on collected data, was realized the chart - Distribution for TraditionalArchitecture Index (TAI on the distance from the center of Crisan locality, showing that in Crisan locality the houses were and are built without taking into account any rule, destroying thus traditional architecture.

  12. ANALYSIS OF EARNINGS TRENDS IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN ROMANIA

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    Monica LOGOFĂTU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of human resource management in education is a big challenge for the whole world, both developing and developed countries. The existence of highly motivated teachers, appropriately qualified, adequately supported through various forms and which work in a stimulating environment for teaching and learning represent the core of any educational system. In this work, addressing human resources compensation issue is dual. First, we aim to make a qualitative analysis of the elements of an effective teachers’ pay system. Secondly, we conducted a quantitative research to analyze and interpret the evolution of salaries in the education sector in Romania and to study possible correlations between these and a number of macroeconomic indicators. In order to improve results educational system it is necessary a strong and ambitious strategy of improving the motivational system and human resources compensation so as to attract and preserve the most qualified human resources in the system.

  13. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  14. Trends of Amphetamine Type Stimulants DTR Mass Load in Poznan Based on Wastewater Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Piotr; Klos, Jolanta; Kokot, Zenon J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the monthly DTR mass load of amphetamine-type compounds in Poland as well as an investigation of cyclical behaviour by using time series analysis and especially trends analysis. Amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA (ecstasy) were detected in wastewater samples collected from the main Wastewater Treatment Plant in the city of Poznan using liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Back-calculations used in the sewage epidemiology approach were applied to estimate the DTR mass load level of the drugs analyzed. Trends analysis was performed by fitting the data to a simple linear regression and then by using smoothing by means of a moving average (Mat lab 2013a). Trend analysis displays a steady tendency of increase or decrease throughout time series. When we plot the observation against time, we may notice that a straight line can describe the increase or decrease in the series as time goes on. Simple linear regression and method of last squares to estimate parameters of a straight-line model were used. Additionally, a lagged plot (autocorrelation plot) was used to investigate an appearance of correlation between amphetamines throughout time. Trends analysis showed the slight increase in consumption of amphetamine and decreasing trend in case of ecstasy and methamphetamine within the investigated period. There is also visible, strong correlation between ecstasy and methamphetamine consumption which cannot be stated in case of amphetamine. Trends analysis is a very useful tool to analyse the increasing or decreasing tendency in consumption of illicit drugs based on the DTR mass load data.

  15. Trends in the production of scientific data analysis resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Jason; Georgescu, Constantin; Wren, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    As the amount of scientific data grows, peer-reviewed Scientific Data Analysis Resources (SDARs) such as published software programs, databases and web servers have had a strong impact on the productivity of scientific research. SDARs are typically linked to using an Internet URL, which have been shown to decay in a time-dependent fashion. What is less clear is whether or not SDAR-producing group size or prior experience in SDAR production correlates with SDAR persistence or whether certain institutions or regions account for a disproportionate number of peer-reviewed resources. We first quantified the current availability of over 26,000 unique URLs published in MEDLINE abstracts/titles over the past 20 years, then extracted authorship, institutional and ZIP code data. We estimated which URLs were SDARs by using keyword proximity analysis. We identified 23,820 non-archival URLs produced between 1996 and 2013, out of which 11,977 were classified as SDARs. Production of SDARs as measured with the Gini coefficient is more widely distributed among institutions (.62) and ZIP codes (.65) than scientific research in general, which tends to be disproportionately clustered within elite institutions (.91) and ZIPs (.96). An estimated one percent of institutions produced 68% of published research whereas the top 1% only accounted for 16% of SDARs. Some labs produced many SDARs (maximum detected = 64), but 74% of SDAR-producing authors have only published one SDAR. Interestingly, decayed SDARs have significantly fewer average authors (4.33 +/- 3.06), than available SDARs (4.88 +/- 3.59) (p production is less dependent upon institutional location and resources, and SDAR online persistence does not seem to be a function of infrastructure or expertise. Yet, SDAR team size correlates positively with SDAR accessibility, suggesting a possible sociological factor involved. While a detectable URL entry error rate of 3.4% is relatively low, it raises the question of whether or not this

  16. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  17. Preservice Drug Usage Among Naval Recruits: A 5-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    marijuana during the previous 12 months. Navy figures for other drugs were: 12 percent used psychedelics , 12 percent used stimulants, 7 percent used...f~’f NPRDC TR 76TQ-45 SEPTEMBER 19ඔ PRESER VICE DRUG ABUSE AMONG NAVAL RECRUITS: "I A’S-YEAR TREND ANALYSIS *. ` it, a 1MLc 171SE NPRDC TR 76TQ-45...September 1976 JU•T;2Y.:..................... PRESERVICE DRUG USAGE AMONG NAVAL RECRUITS: ......... . .. A 5-TEAR TREND ANALYSIS By .... .. Kent S

  18. Trend and Health Management Analyzer (THEMA): A Step Forward to an Integrated Analysis Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Annamaria; Masiello, Stefano; Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This note focuses on the fundamental subject of trend analysis and health management, in space engineering. Thales Alenia Space has been involved in this demanding issue with increasing commitment, with the objective of taking advantage from previous experience, investigating the state of the systems currently in use and forecasting their behavior in the long term. THEMA (Trend and HEalth Management Analyzer), an advanced analysis environment, has been developed by Thales Alenia Space for this purpose. It is described hereinafter, pointing out the operational context it has originated from, its main features and benefits. Insights on further development are provided.

  19. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan. Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984 polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. METHODS: A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76 and 3.86 (2.96-5.03 for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13. Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07. CONCLUSION: Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled

  20. Current trends of liposuction in India: Survey and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methil, Bijoy

    2015-01-01

    Liposuction is the commonest aesthetic procedure performed by Indian plastic surgeons. However, there exists substantial disparity amongst Indian surgeons about guidelines concerning liposuction. To address this disparity, a nationwide email survey (Association of Plastic Surgeons of India [APSI] database) was started in December 2013 and continued for 5 months. The survey was developed with software from www.fluidsurveys.com. The study was designed to cover most aspects of patient selection, perioperative management, technical considerations, postoperative management and complications. This is the first survey to be conducted in India for an extremely popular procedure. It is also one of the most exhaustive surveys that have been conducted in terms of the topics covered. One hundred and eighteen surgeons (including a majority of the cosmetic surgery stalwarts in the country) completed the survey. As expected, the results show a disparity in most parameters but also consolidation on some issues. Liposuction is considered extremely safe (86.1%). The majority of surgeons (70.3%) aspirated >5 L at onetime. The majority (80.2%) felt that the limits for liposuction should be relative and not absolute. The survey highlights lack of standardization with respect to infiltration solutions. The commonest complications observed were contour irregularities, followed by seroma and inadequate skin redrape. The amount of aspirate is the only factor, which achieves statistical significance with respect to major complications. A review of the current evidence and recommendations has been incorporated, along with an in depth analysis of the survey.

  1. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Franciane F; Zandonade, Eliana; Zouain-Figueiredo, Glaucia P

    2014-01-01

    Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually), while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females) and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females). The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. METHODS: This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually, while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females. CONCLUSIONS: The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis.

  3. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    , improvisation, songwriting, lyric analysis, and music and movement to address consumer objectives. Participants indicated they used therapeutic verbal skills and techniques such as humor, redirection, reinforcement, empathy, and affirmation in their clinical practice. Additionally, the results of this survey were compared to the psychiatric portion of a music therapy descriptive study published in 1979. Similarities and differences are discussed.

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seho; Srinivasan,Sathiyaraj; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Dongwook; Lim, Sora; Kim, Kyung Sang; Jheong, Weonhwa; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Eung-Roh; Chung, Hyun-Mi; Choe, Joonho; Kim, Myung Kyum; Seo, Taegun

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10), is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples col...

  5. Empirical Analysis of Non-Performing Loans Trend and Growth Rate in Nigerian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniefiok Akpan Umoren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trend in Non-performing loans (NPLs adversely affected availability of credits to economic agents in all sectors of the economy thereby constraining financial intermediation and economic activities. The study examined the trend and growth rates of NPLs in the Nigerian banking system during the major banking policy reforms regimes namely: pre-consolidation (1979 – 2004 and post consolidation era (2005 – 2014. Time series data collected were analyzed using descriptive and regression analyses. Results indicated irregular fluctuations in NPLs’ trend in both periods. This result suggested prevalent of high credit risk and corresponding reduction in lending capability of banks in the economy. Regression estimates of NPLs’ trend in the two regimes showed significant negative growth rates. This implies that, financial policies implemented in the country yielded positive impacts over time. NPLs assumed an exponential growth rate of -1.39% and -15.55% during the pre and post consolidated eras respectively. An average exponential growth rate of -5.2% was obtained during the entire period. Quadratic trend analysis revealed that, increase influence of time variable significantly reduced NPLs during pre- consolidation regime and the entire period considered. However, this influence was stagnated during post consolidation period. Based on the result, it is recommended that, prudent lending coupled with swift and orderly clean-up of banking system loan portfolios should be adopted to decelerate NPLs trend and growth rate in Nigeria. Time is an important element in designing and implementing any banking and macroeconomic policy.

  6. Analysis of global water vapour trends from satellite measurements in the visible spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mieruch

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides us with a long-term global data set spanning more than 11 years with the potential of extension up to 2020 by GOME-2 data on MetOp.

    Using linear and non-linear methods from time series analysis and standard statistics the trends of H2O columns and their errors have been calculated. In this study, factors affecting the trend such as the length of the time series, the magnitude of the variability of the noise, and the autocorrelation of the noise are investigated. Special emphasis has been placed on the calculation of the statistical significance of the observed trends, which reveal significant local changes from −5% per year to +5% per year. These significant trends are distributed over the whole globe. Increasing trends have been calculated for Greenland, East Europe, Siberia and Oceania, whereas decreasing trends have been observed for the northwest USA, Central America, Amazonia, Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsular.

  7. Global Incidence and Mortality for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Temporal Patterns and Trends in 36 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Goggins, William B; Wang, Harry H X; Fung, Franklin D H; Leung, Colette; Wong, Samuel Y S; Ng, Chi Fai; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, but its specific geographic patterns and temporal trends are under-researched. To test the hypotheses that PCa incidence is higher and PCa mortality is lower in countries with higher socioeconomic development, and that temporal trends for PCa incidence have increased while mortality has decreased over time. Data on age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in 2012 were retrieved from the GLOBOCAN database. Temporal patterns were assessed for 36 countries using data obtained from Cancer incidence in five continents volumes I-X and the World Health Organization mortality database. Correlations between incidence or mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators (human development index [HDI] and gross domestic product [GDP]) were evaluated. The average annual percent change in PCa incidence and mortality in the most recent 10 yr according to join-point regression. Reported PCa incidence rates varied more than 25-fold worldwide in 2012, with the highest incidence rates observed in Micronesia/Polynesia, the USA, and European countries. Mortality rates paralleled the incidence rates except for Africa, where PCa mortality rates were the highest. Countries with higher HDI (r=0.58) and per capita GDP (r=0.62) reported greater incidence rates. According to the most recent 10-yr temporal data available, most countries experienced increases in incidence, with sharp rises in incidence rates in Asia and Northern and Western Europe. A substantial reduction in mortality rates was reported in most countries, except in some Asian countries and Eastern Europe, where mortality increased. Data in regional registries could be underestimated. PCa incidence has increased while PCa mortality has decreased in most countries. The reported incidence was higher in countries with higher socioeconomic development. The incidence of prostate cancer has shown high variations geographically and over time, with smaller

  8. International publication trends in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis: 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil T; Nosik, Melissa R; Carr, James E

    2016-06-01

    Dymond, Clarke, Dunlap, and Steiner's (2000) analysis of international publication trends in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) from 1970 to 1999 revealed low numbers of publications from outside North America, leading the authors to express concern about the lack of international involvement in applied behavior analysis. They suggested that a future review would be necessary to evaluate any changes in international authorship in the journal. As a follow-up, we analyzed non-U.S. publication trends in the most recent 15 years of JABA and found similar results. We discuss potential reasons for the relative paucity of international authors and suggest potential strategies for increasing non-U.S. contributions to the advancement of behavior analysis. © 2015 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  10. Long-term trend analysis on total and extreme precipitation over Shasta Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, Kinya; Cawthorne, Dylan L; Ishida, Kei; Kavvas, M Levent; Anderson, Michael L

    2018-01-13

    California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed to reconstruct 159years of long-term hourly precipitation data at 3km spatial resolution over SDW using the 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2c dataset. Trend analysis on this data indicates a significant increase in total precipitation as well as a growing intensity of extreme events such as 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72-hour storms over the period of 1851 to 2010. The turning point of the increasing trend and no significant trend periods is found to be 1940 for annual precipitation and the period of 1950 to 1960 for extreme precipitation using the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Based on these analysis, we find the trends at the regional scale do not necessarily apply to the watershed-scale. The sharp increase in the variability of annual precipitation since 1970s is also detected, which implies an increase in the occurrence of extreme wet and dry conditions. These results inform long-term planning decisions regarding the future of Shasta Dam and California's water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualitative time trend analysis of ground water monitoring networks : An example from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frapporti, G; Vriend, S P; van Gaans, P F

    1994-03-01

    The detection of significant (short-term) time trends is one of the major goals of ground water monitoring networks. These trends can be used to recognize active geochemical processes and potential environmental threats. This paper presents a case history of time trend analysis on macrochemical parameters of ground water quality. It shows the difficulties and traps that are generally encountered in such studies. The data used originated from the Dutch National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network. This network is operative since 1979, and keeps track of the ground water composition at 350 locations at two depths (ca. 10 and 25 m below surface; general density, one location per 100 km(2)). Prior to the trend analysis the data set was divided into geochemically homogeneous groups using fuzzy c-means clustering. Each group represents a specific ground water type, characterized by a distinct source (seawater, surface water or precipitation) and a unique combination of dominant geochemical processes (e.g. mineralization of organic matter, carbonate dissolution and cation exchange).To study trends qualitatively, the concentrations of the various macro-constituents in ground water are correlated with time of sampling. The nonparametric and outlier insensitive Spearman rank correlation coefficient is computed per well screen. A frequency distribution of correlation coefficients is formed by combining the Spearman correlation coefficients of all individual wells within a homogeneous group. This distribution is tested for trends against the appropriate theoretical distribution of zero correlation by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-sample test. The type of trend is derived from the shape of the distribution.Most ground water types show statistically significant qualitative trends, of which many, however, are caused by changes in the sampling and analytical procedures over the monitoring period. After elimination of differences in limits of detection for NO3, total-P, and

  12. The rs1024611 in the CCL2 gene and risk of gynecological cancer in Asians: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuying; Zhang, Xiuzhen

    2018-02-20

    The -2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism of the CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2), also known as MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1) gene, has been reported to be associated with increased gynecological cancer risk, but the results are conflicting. In this analysis, 1089 cases and 1553 controls from six publications were used to investigate the association between CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism and the risk of gynecological cancer with a meta-analytic approach. Studies published on EBSCO, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Weipu, and CNKI databases were identified (last update was on November 3, 2015). Six articles focused on the association between CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism, and gynecological cancer risk was selected and data were extracted. The cancer type included endometrial cancer (n = 1), breast cancer (n = 2), ovarian cancer (n = 2), and cervical cancer (n = 1). All statistical analyses were performed using the STATA version 12.0 software. The meta-analysis showed that CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism is associated with risk of gynecological cancer (GG vs AG + AA, OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.07-2.24, P < 0.05; AA vs GG, OR = 0.59 95%CI = 0.38-0.92, P < 0.05). Notably, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that the genotype AA is associated with a reduced gynecological cancer risk in Asians, but an increased risk when compared to AG in Europeans. Our data demonstrated the CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of gynecological cancer, and the association differs by ethnicity.

  13. Trend Analysis of Raw Water Parameters in River Benue at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. ... and some laboratory analysis were used to estimate the trend of Escherichia Coli (E.coli), Biochemical oxygen Demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in river Benue at the reach of Makurdi, Benue State.

  14. Trend Analysis of Climate Change Factors and Yield of Yam in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study is to conduct trend analysis of change of climatic factors 1971-2009 and yield of yam1999-2009 in Bayelsa state. Multistage sampling procedure was employed in the random s election of local government areas, communities and rural farming households for the study. Annual mean time ...

  15. Girls and Drugs. A New Analysis: Recent Trends, Risk Factors and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of recent findings on drug and alcohol use trends among girls. Data indicate that girls have caught up with boys in illicit drug and alcohol use and have actually surpassed boys in cigarette and prescription drug use. Also, more girls than boys are new users of substances. Marijuana is the illicit drug most widely…

  16. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  17. Statistical Trend Analysis of Wear Metal Concentration Measurements - Calculation of Significant Wear Metal Production Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    confortably within the 95% confidence band. As anticipated by our error analysis, the point-to-point values of the projected trend, displayed in the...A, lie confortably within the confidence limits, with the exception of the last point, upon the basis of which a T code was issued. The regression

  18. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, F.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Grogan, K.; Horion, S.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a way to understand vegetation changes, trend analysis on NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series data have been widely performed at regional to global scales. However, most long-term NDVI datasets are based upon multiple sensor systems and unsuccessful corrections related to

  19. trend analysis of raw water parameters in river benue at the reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. Trend analysis gives an insight to the ... degradation of surface waters have rendered most water bodies unsuitable for their ... Bridge, the river is 1.194Km wide with average depth and cross sectional area of 7.82m and.

  20. Longitudinal Trend Analysis of Performance Indicators for South Carolina's Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Nurul

    2010-01-01

    This study included an analysis of the trend of performance indicators for the technical college sector of higher education in South Carolina. In response to demands for accountability and transparency in higher education, the state of South Carolina developed sector specific performance indicators to measure various educational outcomes for each…

  1. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  2. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  3. Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Research Trends in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Singh Sehra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap (OSM, based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA to help identify the emerging research trends in OSM. An extensive corpus of 485 academic abstracts of papers published during the period 2007–2016 was used. Five core research areas and fifty research trends were identified in this study. In addition, potential future research directions have been provided to aid geospatial information scientists, technologists and researchers in undertaking future OSM research.

  4. Trend analysis of nutrient loadings in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Chun, K. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient loadings in river catchments have increased in the past years as a consequence of rapid expansion of agricultural areas, new urban developments and industries, and population growth. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies has intensified eutrophication conditions that degrade water quality and ecosystem health. In large-scale catchments, the assessment of temporal and spatial variability of nutrient loads imply challenges due to climate, land use and geology heterogeneity, and to anthropogenic changes. In this study we carried out a trend analysis of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads in the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) catchment. This catchment is located in the Canadian Prairie Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The eastern and central areas of the catchment consist mostly of croplands, pasture lands and livestock farms, whereas the western parts are located on the Rocky Mountains that are the source of most of the catchment's streamflows. The trend analysis was performed applying a novel approach to analyse nutrient time series recorded at long-term water quality stations along the main stems of the SSR river network. Since water quality is taken infrequently, in the proposed approach the time series were complemented using regression analysis methods based on streamflow data recorded at the nearest gauge stations. The time series were subsequently pre-whitened in order to remove the autocorrelation, and then subjected to non-parametric statistical test to detect trends. Seasonal analysis of trends at each of the water quality stations were performed in order to determine the relationships between annual flow regimes and nutrient loads in the catchment, in particular, the influence of the high spring runoff on nutrient export. Decadal analysis was also performed to determine the long-tern relationships of nutrients with anthropogenic changes in the catchment. In particular, the capacity of reservoirs to trap nutrients and the effects of the

  5. Proteomic analysis of Fusarium solani isolated from the Asian Longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Previous work demonstrated that larval guts collected from a variety of geographically di...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium solani associated with the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that a fungal species, Fusarium solani, is consistently associated with the larval stage of this insect. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for phylogene...

  7. Research trends on Big Data in Marketing: A text mining and topic modeling based literature analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Amado; Paulo Cortez; Paulo Rita; Sérgio Moro

    2018-01-01

    Given the research interest on Big Data in Marketing, we present a research literature analysis based on a text mining semi-automated approach with the goal of identifying the main trends in this domain. In particular, the analysis focuses on relevant terms and topics related with five dimensions: Big Data, Marketing, Geographic location of authors’ affiliation (countries and continents), Products, and Sectors. A total of 1560 articles published from 2010 to 2015 were scrutinized. The finding...

  8. The White Habitus and Hegemonic Masculinity at the Elite Southern University: Asian Americans and the Need for Intersectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind S. Chou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.

  9. A data portal for regional climatic trend analysis in a Peruvian High Andes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, M.; Acuña, D.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Salzmann, N.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of a Swiss-Peruvian climate change adaptation initiative (PACC), operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) are now accessible in a dedicated data portal. The data portal allows for example the comparison of data series or the interpolation of spatial fields as well as download of data in various data formats. It is thus a valuable tool supporting the process of data homogenisation and generation of a regional baseline climatology for a sound development of adequate climate change adaptation measures. The procedure to homogenize air-temperature and precipitation data series near Cusco city is outlined and followed by an exemplary trend analysis. Local air temperature trends are found to be in line with global mean trends.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelli Hoover; Ming Tien; Scully, Erin D.; Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco; Carlson, John E.; Geib, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic var...

  11. Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over India: Observed from long-term satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Sheshakumar; Pradhan, Rohit; Singh, Raghavendra P.; Singh, K. K.; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the lack of consistent spatial time series data on actual evapotranspiration ( ET), very few studies have been conducted on the long-term trend and variability in ET at a national scale over the Indian subcontinent. The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's advanced very high resolution radiometer to investigate the trends and variability in ET over India from 1983 to 2006. Trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test showed that the domain average ET decreased during the period at a rate of 0.22 mm year^{-1}. A strong decreasing trend (m = -1.75 mm year^{-1}, F = 17.41, P 0.01) was observed in forest regions. Seasonal analyses indicated a decreasing trend during southwest summer monsoon (m= -0.320 mm season^{-1} year^{-1}) and post-monsoon period (m= -0.188 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}). In contrast, an increasing trend was observed during northeast winter monsoon (m = 0.156 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) and pre-monsoon (m = 0.068 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) periods. Despite an overall net decline in the country, a considerable increase ( 4 mm year^{-1}) was observed over arid and semi-arid regions. Grid level correlation with various climatic parameters exhibited a strong positive correlation (r >0.5) of ET with soil moisture and precipitation over semi-arid and arid regions, whereas a negative correlation (r -0.5) occurred with temperature and insolation in dry regions of western India. The results of this analysis are useful for understanding regional ET dynamics and its relationship with various climatic parameters over India. Future studies on the effects of ET changes on the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, and energy partitioning are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  12. Why do lifespan variability trends for the young and old diverge? A perturbation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Engelman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation in lifespan has followed strikingly different trends for the young and old: while overall lifespan variability has decreased as life expectancy at birth has risen, the variability conditional on survival to older ages has increased. These diverging trends reflect changes in the underlying demographic parameters determining age-specific mortality. Objective: We ask why the variation in the adult ages at death has followed a different trend than the variation at younger ages, and aim to explain the diverging patterns in terms of historical changes in the age schedule of mortality. Methods: Using simulations, we show that the empirical trends in lifespan variation are well characterized using the Siler model, which describes the mortality hazard across the full lifespan using functions representing early-life, later-life, and background mortality. We then obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the Siler parameters over time. Finally, we express lifespan variation in terms of a Markov chain model, and apply matrix calculus perturbation analysis to compute the sensitivity of age-specific lifespan variance trends to the changing Siler model parameters. Results: Our analysis produces a detailed quantification of the impact of changing demographic parameters on the pattern of lifespan variability at all ages, highlighting the impact of declining childhood mortality on the reduction of lifespan variability and the impact of improved survival in adulthood on the rising variability of lifespans at older ages. Conclusions: These findings provide insight into the dynamic relationship between the age pattern of survival improvements and time trends in lifespan variability.

  13. Marchés gaziers du Sud-Est asiatique : évolutions et enseignements New Trends and Lessons from Southeast Asian Natural Gas Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delafosse E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contexte et les évolutions observés dans le Sud-Est asiatique constituent des objets d'analyse privilégiés pour l'identification des facteurs de développement des marchés du gaz naturel à l'échelle de la planète. Après avoir explicité la croissance des consommations nationales dans la région, tant dans les pays industrialisés que dans les Pays en Voie de Développement (PVD, nous verrons ce qui en découle du point de vue de la dynamique régionale des échanges de gaz naturel. Cette analyse nous conduira à détailler l'intérêt et les conditions d'un recours accru au gaz naturel dans les PVD. Au terme de cette démarche, l'obstacle fondamental aux développements gaziers dans ce groupe de pays sera mis en évidence. Within the current world context of the growth of reserves and consumption of natural gas, the Southeast Asia area is due for special analysis for several reasons. In particular, an effort must be made to understand the mutations taking place and the stakes in the growing interest producers and consumers are showing in this energy source. The economic performances of combined-cycle power plants make natural gas a competitive energy source for use in generating electricity. Many countries in the area have to cope with a very fast increase in the demand for electricity and have been led to introduce this type of equipment in their plans to expand their electric power plants. This policy enables them to make use of an energy source to which access is initially constrained by necessity, because of the presence of economies of scale, to consume large volumes. Consumption by the electric sector effectively markes it possible for all these countries to consume this energy in industrial and residential-tertiary sectors where its specific qualities are readily apparent. The introduction of natural gas is also a way of diversifying energy supplies. For the industrialized countries (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong

  14. Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Arvind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS, and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set. Methods Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl constituted the cases (n = 196, and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ≥ 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225. Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs from five genes namely- ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in RAGE and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in GFPT2 gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in GFPT2 was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378 suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor TGF-β1 (investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere and GFPT2 genotype was observed. Conclusions

  15. Cluster analysis reveals risk factors for repeated suicide attempts in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Carol; Diederich, Joachim; Song, Insu; Ho, Roger

    2014-04-01

    This study explores underlying patterns in suicide risk factors using data mining techniques. Medical records of suicide attempters who were admitted to a teaching hospital in January 2004 - December 2006 were studied. Cluster analysis revealed hidden patterns for repeated and single attempters (n=418). Repeated attempters had a more complex clinical picture. Symptoms of psychotic illness, borderline personality disorder, and psychosomatic complaints of insomnia and headaches, reports of adverse life events such as unemployment, divorce and quarrels, experience of negative feelings, and usage of alcohol were associated with risk of repeated overdoses with benzodiazepines and paracetamol. The findings have implications for suicide assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Hoover

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Associated with the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Scott M; Scully, Erin D; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria Del Mar; Carlson, John E; Tien, Ming; Hoover, Kelli

    2012-02-10

    Culture-independent analysis of the gut of a wood-boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), revealed a consistent association between members of the fungal Fusarium solani species complex and the larval stage of both colony-derived and wild A. glabripennis populations. Using the translation elongation factor 1-alpha region for culture-independent phylogenetic and operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses, only two OTUs were detected, suggesting that genetic variance at this locus was low among A. glabripennis-associated isolates. To better survey the genetic variation of F. solani associated with A. glabripennis, and establish its phylogenetic relationship with other members of the F. solani species complex, single spore isolates were created from different populations and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis was performed using a combination of the translation elongation factor alpha-1, internal transcribed spacer, and large subunit rDNA regions. These analyses revealed that colony-derived larvae reared in three different tree species or on artificial diet, as well as larvae from wild populations collected from three additional tree species in New York City and from a single tree species in Worcester, MA, consistently harbored F. solani within their guts. While there is some genetic variation in the F. solani carried between populations, within-population variation is low. We speculate that F. solani is able to fill a broad niche in the A. glabripennis gut, providing it with fungal lignocellulases to allow the larvae to grow and develop on woody tissue. However, it is likely that many F. solani genotypes could potentially fill this niche, so the relationship may not be limited to a single member of the F. solani species complex. While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their symbiotic associations with insects, this report suggests that larval A. glabripennis has developed an intimate relationship with F. solani

  18. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of atmospheric halotolerant bacterial communities at high altitude in an Asian dust (KOSA) arrival region, Suzu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Teruya, E-mail: makiteru@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Susuki, Shinzi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Kakikawa, Makiko [Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Tobo, Yutaka [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Maromu [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Science, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Higashi, Tomomi [Hygiene, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640 (Japan); Matsuki, Atsushi; Hong, Chunsang [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hiroshi [College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Iwasaka, Yasunobu [Frontier Science Organization, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    The microbial communities transported by Asian desert dust (KOSA) events have attracted much attention as bioaerosols because the transported microorganisms are thought to influence the downwind ecosystems in Korea and Japan. However, the atmospheric microbial community has not been investigated at high altitude in the KOSA arrival area. In this study, to estimate the viability and diversity of atmospheric halotolerant bacteria, which are expected to resist to various environmental stresses as well as high salinities, bioaerosol samples were collected at 10 and 600 m above the ground within the KOSA arrival area, Suzu City, Japan, during KOSA events. During the sampling period, the particle numbers at 600 m were higher than those at 10 m, suggesting that large particles of aerosol fall from the high altitude of 600 m to the ground surface. The microorganisms in bioaerosol samples grew in media containing up to 15% NaCl concentrations demonstrating the viability of the halotolerant bacteria in bioaerosol samples. The PCR-DGGE analysis using 16S rDNA revealed that the bacterial species in NaCl-amended cultures were similar to the bacteria detected from the genomic DNA directly extracted from the bioaerosol samples. The 16S rDNA sequences of bacterial communities in bioaerosol samples were classified into 4 phylotypes belonging to the Bacilluscereus or Bacillussubtilis group. The bioaerosol samples collected at 600 m included 2 phylotypes belonging to B. subtilis, and one phylotype among all 4 phylotypes was identical between the samples at 10 and 600 m. In the atmosphere at 600 m, the halotolerant bacterial community was expected to remain viable, and the species composition was expected to include a few species of the genus Bacillus. During this investigation period, these atmospheric bacteria may have been vertically transported to the ground surface, where the long-range KOSA particle transport from China is frequently observed.

  20. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sørensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30–55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952

  1. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  2. Analysis and prediction of rainfall trends over Bangladesh using Mann-Kendall, Spearman's rho tests and ARIMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Atiqur; Yunsheng, Lou; Sultana, Nahid

    2017-08-01

    In this study, 60-year monthly rainfall data of Bangladesh were analysed to detect trends. Modified Mann-Kendall, Spearman's rho tests and Sen's slope estimators were applied to find the long-term annual, dry season and monthly trends. Sequential Mann-Kendall analysis was applied to detect the potential trend turning points. Spatial variations of the trends were examined using inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation. AutoRegressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used for the country mean rainfall and for other two stations data which depicted the highest and the lowest trend in the Mann-Kendall and Spearman's rho tests. Results showed that there is no significant trend in annual rainfall pattern except increasing trends for Cox's Bazar, Khulna, Satkhira and decreasing trend for Srimagal areas. For the dry season, only Bogra area represented significant decreasing trend. Long-term monthly trends demonstrated a mixed pattern; both negative and positive changes were found from February to September. Comilla area showed a significant decreasing trend for consecutive 3 months while Rangpur and Khulna stations confirmed the significant rising trends for three different months in month-wise trends analysis. Rangpur station data gave a maximum increasing trend in April whereas a maximum decreasing trend was found in August for Comilla station. ARIMA models predict +3.26, +8.6 and -2.30 mm rainfall per year for the country, Cox's Bazar and Srimangal areas, respectively. However, all the test results and predictions revealed a good agreement among them in the study.

  3. Clinical analysis of 50 Eastern Asian patients with primary pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XK

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xin-ke Zhang,1,* Tao Qin,1,* Yin-duo Zeng,1,2,* Yuan-yuan Zhao,1 Xue Hou,1 Wen-feng Fang,1 Shao-dong Hong,1 Ting Zhou,1 Zhi-huang Hu,1 Yun-peng Yang,1 Yu-xiang Ma,1 Cong Xue,1 Yan Huang,1 Hong-yun Zhao,1 Li Zhang1 1Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: To understand the clinicopathological features of patients with primary pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC, including the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation, and to explore prognostic factors.Methods: We investigated a cohort of 50 individuals from our center database who were diagnosed with operable pulmonary LCNEC and treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Serum albumin (ALB and neuron-specific enolase (NSE were also collected. Survival curves were obtained with the Kaplan–Meier method, and the differences between groups in survival were tested by the log-rank test.Results: The median age was 59 years (range, 40–80 years. Fourteen patients underwent mutational analysis of EGFR; of these, 12 had wild-type EGFR and the remaining two had EGFR mutations in exons. The median disease-free survival (DFS of pulmonary LCNEC was 49.3 months and that of overall survival (OS was not reached. DFS and OS were shorter for patients with decreased serum ALB than for patients with normal serum ALB (P=0.003 and P=0.004, respectively. Meanwhile, a high level of NSE was also significantly associated with short DFS and OS (P=0.005 and P=0.000, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that decrease in serum ALB was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.046.Conclusion: The frequency of EGFR mutation in LCNEC patients is low. Serum ALB and NSE levels are

  4. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  5. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature ( T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours ( t sun), and wind speed ( U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  6. Time Trend Analysis of Oral Cancer in Iran from 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranfar, Khosro; Mokhayeri, Yaser; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    There is a considerable lack of understanding of oral cancer incidence, especially its time trend in Iran. In this study, the authors aimed to analyze time trend of oral cancer incidence with a focus on differences by gender in a period of six years - from 2005 to 2010. Both population-based cancer registry and national cancer registry (NCR) data based on pathologic reports from 2005 to 2010 were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME). Population data were also received from Statistical Centre of Iran. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) based on the World Standard Population were then calculated. Finally, Negative Binomial regression was run for time trend analysis. The maximum ASR for males was calculated as 2.5 per 100,000 person-years in 2008 and the minimum was observed as 1.9 per 100,000 person-years in 2005 and 2006. Meanwhile, the maximum ASR for females was estimated as 1.8 per 100,000 person-years in 2009 and the minimum was calculated as 1.6 per 100,000 person-years in 2005 and 2006. Additionally, in females, incidence risk ratio (IRR) did not show a clear decreasing or increasing trend during the six years. Nevertheless, in males an increasing trend was observed. The maximum IRR adjusted for age group and province, for females was reported in 2009 (IRR=1.05 95% CI: 0.90-1.23), and for males was estimated in 2010 (IRR=1/2 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.38). Our findings highlight disparities between oral cancer incidence trends in males and females over the six years from 2005 to 2010.

  7. Understanding coastal change using shoreline trend analysis supported by cluster-based segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Helene; French, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Shoreline change analysis is a well defined and widely adopted approach for the examination of trends in coastal position over different timescales. Conventional shoreline change metrics are best suited to resolving progressive quasi-linear trends. However, coastal change is often highly non-linear and may exhibit complex behaviour including trend-reversals. This paper advocates a secondary level of investigation based on a cluster analysis to resolve a more complete range of coastal behaviours. Cluster-based segmentation of shoreline behaviour is demonstrated with reference to a regional-scale case study of the Suffolk coast, eastern UK. An exceptionally comprehensive suite of shoreline datasets covering the period 1881 to 2015 is used to examine both centennial- and intra-decadal scale change in shoreline position. Analysis of shoreline position changes at a 100 m alongshore interval along 74 km of coastline reveals a number of distinct behaviours. The suite of behaviours varies with the timescale of analysis. There is little evidence of regionally coherent shoreline change. Rather, the analyses reveal a complex interaction between met-ocean forcing, inherited geological and geomorphological controls, and evolving anthropogenic intervention that drives changing foci of erosion and deposition.

  8. Examining Mobile Learning Trends 2003-2008: A Categorical Meta-Trend Analysis Using Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Long; Zhang, Ke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of academic articles in Mobile Learning (ML) using text mining techniques. One hundred and nineteen (119) refereed journal articles and proceedings papers from the SCI/SSCI database were retrieved and analyzed. The taxonomies of ML publications were grouped into twelve clusters (topics) and four…

  9. KCNQ1 rs2237892 C→T gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Asian population: a meta-analysis of 15,736 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-yan; Wang, Xiang-ming; Lu, Xin-zheng

    2014-02-01

    The KCNQ1 rs2237892 C→T gene polymorphism is reportedly associated with T2DM susceptibility, but various studies show conflicting results. To explore this association in the Asian population, a meta-analysis of 15,736 patients from 10 individual studies was performed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated using random-effect or fixed-effect models. A significant relationship between the KCNQ1 rs2237892 C→T gene polymorphism and T2DM was observed in the Asian population under the allelic (OR, 1.350; 95% CI, 1.240-1.480; P KCNQ1 rs2237892 C→T gene polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with increased T2DM risk in the Asian population, except Indian population. The C allele of the KCNQ1 rs2237892 C→T gene polymorphism may confer susceptibility to T2DM. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Educational Capital as a Catalyst for Upward Social Mobility amongst British Asians: A Three-Generational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on research that examined intergenerational dynamics amongst British South Asians regarding education and family life. The study investigated the perspectives of grandparents, parents and young people to establish how family attributes and education were perceived by these three groups. The methods used to gather data were…

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  12. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  14. Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Developing Creativity Education in Four Asian Chinese Societies: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Lau, Sing

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to compare and contrast educational policies on creativity education in four Asian Chinese societies, namely mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. It establishes five criteria on creativity education policy, including policies regarding legislation on creativity education, definitions of creativity, standard…

  15. Assignment of grouped exposure levels for trend estimation in a regression analysis of summarized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Tango, Toshiro

    2010-11-10

    For performing regression analysis of summarized response data containing grouped intervals of exposure, many researchers use pre-assigned doses such as the median values of each interval. However, the trend estimate is considerably sensitive to the choice of the assigned values. In this paper, we propose a method to assign the values to obtain a more accurate regression coefficient applying the likelihood approach. Numerical illustrations and comparisons through simulations showed that the proposed dose assignment can yield better estimates of trend in the regression analysis of two variants than that obtained by the conventional assignment methods such as those that use median values. In particular, for the data of a case-control study, the proposed dose improved the accuracy of the procedures such as that developed by Greenland and Longnecker (1992) compared with the conventional pre-assigned dose. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. STARS - Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System for the National Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Leroy J.; Doempke, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    The concept, implementation, and long-range goals of a Supportability Trend Analysis and Reporting System (STARS) for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) are discussed. The requirement was established as a direct result of the recommendations of the Rogers Commission investigation of the circumstances of the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. STARS outlines the requirements for the supportability-trend data collection, analysis, and reporting requirements that each of the project offices supporting the Space Shuttle are required to provide to the NSTS program office. STARS data give the historic and predictive logistics information necessary for all levels of NSTS management to make safe and cost-effective decisions concerning the smooth flow of Space Shuttle turnaround.

  17. Recent trends in the condition monitoring of transformers theory, implementation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji; Chatterjee, Biswendu

    2013-01-01

    Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers reflects the current interest in replacing traditional techniques used in power transformer condition monitoring with non-invasive measures such as polarization/depolarization current measurement, recovery voltage measurement, frequency domain spectroscopy and frequency response analysis. The book stresses the importance of scrutinizing the condition of transformer insulation which may fail under present day conditions of intensive use with the resulting degradation of dielectric properties causing functional failure of the transformer.

  18. Management of Electronic Documents in Public Sector: Analysis of Possibilities and Trends of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ožalienė, Audronė; Diana ŠAPARNIENĖ

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the process of modernization of Lithuanian public sector in the aspect of development of management of electronic documents. In order to ascertain the reasons why institutions of the Lithuanian public sector still hesitatingly move to means of management and administration of electronic documents and to identify the possibilities and trends of development of management of electronic documents in public sector, we carried out the analysis and structuring of scientific pu...

  19. Share price trend based on analysis of investor’s online activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dumitru SACALĂ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire of modeling the influence coming from behavioral economics, representing mostly qualitative variables, requires new approaches to quantify this influence. In this paper we present an analytical method for determining the direction of the share future return using an aggregate indicator calculated based exclusively on the trend of registered variables from investor’s online activity. This online activity refers to the number and content of messages posted by investors on shares analysis dedicated web blogs.

  20. Asian Economic Integration Monitor November 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    The Asian Economic Integration Monitor is a semiannual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes Special Chapter: Regional Financial Integration and Crisis in Asia and Europe—A Comparative Analysis

  1. Trends of Bacterial Keratitis Culture Isolates in Jerusalem; a 13- Years Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Michael; Wajnsztajn, Denise; Rosin, Boris; Block, Colin; Solomon, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected. A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%), which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5). There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature.

  2. Trends in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer incidence in Mumbai, India over a 30-year period, 1976-2005: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, P K; Yeole, B B; Dikshit, R; Kurkure, A P; Bray, F

    2011-08-23

    Demographic, socioeconomic and cultural changes in India have increased longevity, delayed childbearing, decreased parity and resulted in a more westernised lifestyle, contributing to the increasing burden of cancer, especially among women. We evaluated secular changes in the incidence of breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Mumbai women aged 30-64 between 1976 and 2005. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated and presented by site and calendar period. An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis quantified recent time trends and the significance of birth cohort and calendar period effects. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC) was obtained from the drift parameter, expressing the linear time trend common to both calendar period and birth cohort. Over the 30-year study period, the age-standardised rates significantly increased for breast cancer (EAPC: 1.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.3)), significantly decreased for cervical cancer (EAPC: -1.8% (95% CI: -2.0, -1.6)) and there was no statistically significant change for ovarian cancer (EAPC: 0.3% (95% CI: -0.1, 0.6)). For breast and cervical cancer, the best-fitting model was the APC model. The rates of breast, cervical and ovarian cancer remain low in comparison with western countries, and the divergent trends of breast (increasing) and cervical cancer (decreasing) in Mumbai were similar to those observed in several other Asian countries. The changing risk profile in successive generations - improved education, higher socioeconomic status, later age at marriage and at first child, and lower parity - may in combination partially explain the diverging generational changes in breast and cervical cancer in Mumbai in the last decades.

  3. Control region sequences for East Asian individuals in the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods forensic mtDNA data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Monson, Keith L; Budowle, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data set is used to infer the relative rarity of mtDNA profiles obtained from evidence samples and of profiles used to identify missing persons. In this study, the East Asian haplogroup patterns in the SWGDAM data sets were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to determine relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to describe haplogroup distributions for Asians (n = 753; with a breakdown of individuals from China n = 356, Korea n = 182, Japan n = 163, and Thailand n = 52). We focus on the patterns observed in the SWGDAM Chinese data set and refer to interesting differences in the smaller subgroup data sets for the other East Asian populations (Japanese, Korean, and Thai). A total of 218 SNPs were observed in the data set, including 37 observed positions not previously reported. In the largest of the East Asian SWGDAM data sets (Chinese), these SNPs ranged from having 1 to 29 changes in the phylogenetic tree, with site 16519 being the most variable. On average there were 4.5 changes for a character on the tree. The most variable sites (with 14 or more changes each listed from fastest to slowest) observed were 16519 (L = 29), 16311 (L = 27), 152 (L = 24), 146 (L = 21), 16172 (L = 17), 16189 (L = 17), 195 (L = 16), 16362 (L = 15), 16093 (L = 14), 16129 (L = 14) and 150 (L = 14). These rapidly changing sites are consistent with other published analyses. Only 28 SNPs are needed to identify all clusters containing 1% (n = 7) or more individuals in the East Asian data set. All 36 haplogroups previously observed in East Asian populations were also seen in the SWGDAM data sets and include: A, B, B4, B4a, B4b, B5a, B5b, C, D, D4, D4a, D4b, D5, D5a, F, F1, F1a, F1b, F1c, F2a, G2, G2a, M, M7a1, M7b, M7b1, M7b2, M7c, M8a, M9, M10, N9a, R, R9a, Y, and Z. Haplogroups A, B4a, D4, and F1a were the most commonly observed clusters in the Chinese data set (the largest of the data

  4. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Hispanic or Latino Population Health of Mexican American Population Health of White non-Hispanic Population More data Health, United States, trend tables with data for Asian or Pacific Islander population Tables of Summary Health Statistics from ...

  5. Seasonal Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor as Derived from SAGE II Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Marilee M.; Fu, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Published analysis of HALOE and Boulder balloon measurements of water vapor have shown conflicting trends in stratospheric water vapor for the periods of 1981 through 2005. Analysis of the SAGE II monthly mean water vapor data filtered for large aerosol events for time periods from 1985-1991, 1995-1999, and 2000-2005 have shown a globally decreasing water vapor trend at 17.5km. Seasonal analysis for these three time periods show a decreasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for the winter and spring seasons. The summer and autumn seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend from 1985-2005, however, there is a increasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for these seasons during 1995-2005. Latitude vs height seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere between 20S - 20N for the autumn season, while at the latitudes of 30-50S and 30-50N there is an increasing trend in water vapor at heights up to 15km for that season. Comparison with regions of monsoon activity (Asian and North American) show that the Asian monsoon region had some effect on the lower stratospheric moistening in 1995-1999, however, for the time period of 2000-2005, there was no change in the global trend analysis due to either monsoon region. This may be due to the limitations of the SAGE II data from 2000-2005.

  6. Changing Asian American Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Burris, Juanita

    1978-01-01

    Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)

  7. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  8. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  9. An improved method for Multipath Hemispherical Map (MHM) based on Trend Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Chen, Wen; Dong, Danan; Yu, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Among various approaches developed for detecting the multipath effect in high-accuracy GNSS positioning, Only MHM (Multipath Hemispherical Map) and SF (Sidereal Filtering) can be implemented to real-time GNSS data processing. SF is based on the time repeatability of satellites which just suitable for static environment, while the spatiotemporal repeatability-based MHM is applicable not only for static environment but also for dynamic carriers with static multipath environment such as ships and airplanes, and utilizes much smaller number of parameters than ASF. However, the MHM method also has certain defects. Since the MHM take the mean of residuals from the grid as the filter value, it is more suitable when the multipath regime is medium to low frequency. Now existing research data indicate that the newly advanced Sidereal Filtering (ASF) method perform better with high frequency multipath reduction than MHM by contrast. To solve the above problem and improve MHM's performance on high frequency multipath, we combined binary trend surface analysis method with original MHM model to effectively analyze particular spatial distribution and variation trends of multipath effect. We computed trend surfaces of the residuals within a grid by least-square procedures, and chose the best results through the moderate successive test. The enhanced MHM grid was constructed from a set of coefficients of the fitted equation instead of mean value. According to the analysis of the actual observation, the improved MHM model shows positive effect on high frequency multipath reduction, and significantly reduced the root mean square (RMS) value of the carrier residuals. Keywords: Trend Surface Analysis; Multipath Hemispherical Map; high frequency multipath effect

  10. Using Pareto Analysis with Trend Analysis: Statistical Techniques to Investigate Incident Reports within a Housing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trends and difficulties concerning student incident reports within the residence halls as they relate to the incident reporting system from the Department of Housing and Residential Life at a Southeastern Doctoral I Granting Institution. This study used the frequency distributions of each classified…

  11. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  12. Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: An analysis of ozonesonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer A.

    1994-12-01

    I present an analysis of trends in ozone since about 1970 and discuss the quality of the ozonesonde data and inconsistencies among data records. In the troposphere there are significant spatial variations in the trends, with largest increases found over Europe (˜2% yr-1 throughout the troposphere) and no long-term trend over Canada; there is a small (cause of the large increase in ozone over Europe is unclear. The increase over Europe has leveled off in recent years, and there is no increase since 1980 over the eastern United States. The lack of an ozone increase in the last decade over these two regions during a period of rapid growth of aircraft traffic argues against a significant influence from emissions of NOx from aircraft. The large interannual variability in ozone in the upper troposphere is similar to that in the lower stratosphere. Any short-term trend in ozone near the tropopause could be caused simply by dynamical factors. Stratospheric ozone decreases are found from about 24 km to near the tropopause. Ozone losses below 17 km appear to be responsible for the 20% difference between trends in column ozone derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS). Ozone changes in the troposphere make an important contribution to the column ozone change for some stations. The stratospheric decreases are larger in winter than in summer over Europe and the midlatitude stations of North America; they are larger in summer than in winter over the high latitude (>53°N) stations of North America. These seasonal losses are consistent with the patterns reported by Stolarski et al. (1992) using TOMS data. Losses are found year round over Syowa, Antarctica, although they are largest in spring.

  13. Asian Australian Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Deborah Lea

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the range of Asian-Australian writers, within the context of changing historical and political conditions, as well as the complexity of defining a single category of literature written by Australians of Asian heritage. Such a category is difficult to define in strictly nationalistic terms as ‘Asian Australian literature’: where Australian literature is the controlling noun and ‘Asian’ functions as an adjective. Some Asian Australian writers are Australian-bo...

  14. Analysis on the hot spot and trend of the foreign assembly building research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoqing; Luo, Yanbing

    2017-03-01

    First of all, the paper analyzes the research on the front of the assembly building in the past 15 years. This article mainly adopts the method of CO word analysis, construct the co word matrix, correlation matrix, and then into a dissimilarity matrix, and on this basis, using factor analysis, cluster analysis and multi scale analysis method to study the structure of prefabricated construction field display. Finally, the results of the analysis are discussed, and summarized the current research focus of foreign prefabricated construction mainly concentrated in 7 aspects: embankment construction, wood construction, bridge construction, crane layout, PCM wall and glass system, based on neural network test, energy saving and recycling, and forecast the future trend of development study.

  15. Sensitization to Asian dust and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Noma, Hidetaka; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Kondo, Aki; Matsubara, Masao

    2014-07-01

    Asian dust storms frequently occur in northeast Asia and the dust occasionally even spreads as far as North America during spring. Asian dust can be harmful to human health and the environment, and thus has become one of the most serious problems for Asian countries. In the present study, we evaluated sensitization to Asian dust in Japanese patients with rhinoconjunctivitis. In March 2011, a prospective, non-randomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (allergic group), 3 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (atopic group), and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with untreated Asian dust, Asian dust extract, heat-sterilized Asian dust, silicon dioxide (SiO2), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A panel of 14 allergen extracts was also tested, comprising extracts of pollens (cedar, orchard grass, ragweed, and mugwort), house dust (house dust mixture and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), animal dander (cat and dog), fungi (Alternaria tenuis, Candida, and Aspergillus), and foods (milk, egg, and wheat). Then the SPT-positive rate and the mean wheal diameter for each allergen were compared among the three groups. The SPT-positive rates for untreated Asian dust, Asian dust extract, and sterilized Asian dust were significantly higher in the allergic and atopic groups than in the control group (all pAsian dust (70%), Asian dust extract (50%), sterilized Asian dust (20%), SiO2 (20%), and PBS (0%) (p=0.0068). The SPT response to untreated Asian dust was correlated with the mean wheal diameters for four plant pollens (r=0.71, p=0.0104) and for three fungi (r=0.57, p=0.0426). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that significant predictors of the SPT reaction to untreated Asian dust were the mean wheal diameter for the four plant pollen (odds ratio=2.54, p=0.0138) and that for the three fungi (odds ratio=1.84, p=0.0273). Asian dust may act

  16. Genetic diversity trend in Indian rice varieties: an analysis using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nivedita; Choudhury, Debjani Roy; Tiwari, Gunjan; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Sharma, A D; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2016-09-05

    The knowledge of the extent and pattern of diversity in the crop species is a prerequisite for any crop improvement as it helps breeders in deciding suitable breeding strategies for their future improvement. Rice is the main staple crop in India with the large number of varieties released every year. Studies based on the small set of rice genotypes have reported a loss in genetic diversity especially after green revolution. However, a detailed study of the trend of diversity in Indian rice varieties is lacking. SSR markers have proven to be a marker of choice for studying the genetic diversity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to characterize and assess trends of genetic diversity in a large set of Indian rice varieties (released between 1940-2013), conserved in the National Gene Bank of India using SSR markers. A set of 729 Indian rice varieties were genotyped using 36 HvSSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and genetic relationship. A total of 112 alleles was amplified with an average of 3.11 alleles per locus with mean Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value of 0.29. Cluster analysis grouped these varieties into two clusters whereas the model based population structure divided them into three populations. AMOVA study based on hierarchical cluster and model based approach showed 3 % and 11 % variation between the populations, respectively. Decadal analysis for gene diversity and PIC showed increasing trend from 1940 to 2005, thereafter values for both the parameters showed decreasing trend between years 2006-2013. In contrast to this, allele number demonstrated increasing trend in these varieties released and notified between1940 to 1985, it remained nearly constant during 1986 to 2005 and again showed an increasing trend. Our results demonstrated that the Indian rice varieties harbors huge amount of genetic diversity. However, the trait based improvement program in the last decades forced breeders to rely on few parents, which

  17. NAEP 1999 Long-Term Trend Technical Analysis Report: Three Decades of Student Performance. NCES 2005-484

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nancy L.; McClellan, Catherine A.; Stoeckel, Joan J.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an update to the technical analysis procedures documenting the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as presented in "The NAEP 1996 Technical Report" (Allen, Carlson, and Zelenak, 1999). It describes how the 1999 long-term trend data were incorporated into the trend analyses. Since no national main…

  18. Trend analysis and forecast of precipitation, reference evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit in the Blackland Prairie of eastern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend analysis and estimation of monthly and annual precipitation, reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and rainfall deficit are essential for water resources management and cropping system design. Rainfall, ETo, and water deficit patterns and trends in eastern Mississippi USA for a 120-year period (1...

  19. Academia in the 21st century. An analysis of trends and perspectives in higher education and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harry F.; Huisman, Jeroen; Klemperer, A.M.; van der Meulen, Barend; Neave, Guy; Theisens, H.C.; van der Wende, Marijk

    2002-01-01

    What are world wide the main trends that will or should have an impact on the future of academia? What is expected from academia by different stakeholders in the years to come? These and related questions are addressed in CHEPS¿s report ¿Academia in the 21st century. An analysis of trends and

  20. Surgeon Reimbursement Relative to Hospital Payments for Spinal Fusion: Trends from 10-year Medicare Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nikhil; Phillips, Frank M; Shimer, Adam L; Khan, Safdar N

    2017-09-06

    Retrospective, economic analysis OBJECTIVE.: To analyze the trend in hospital charge and payment adjusted to corresponding surgeon charge and payment for cervical and lumbar fusions in a Medicare sample population from 2005-2014. Previous studies have reported trends and variation in hospital charges and payments for spinal fusion, but none have incorporated surgeon data in analysis. Knowledge of the fiscal relationship between hospitals and surgeons over time will be important for stakeholders as we move toward bundled payments. A 5% Medicare sample was used to capture hospital and surgeon charges and payments related to cervical and lumbar fusion for degenerative disease between 2005 and 2014. We defined hospital charge multiplier (CM) as the ratio of hospital/surgeon charge. Similarly, the hospital/surgeon payment ratio was defined as hospital payment multiplier (PM). The year-wise and regional trend in patient profile, length of stay, discharge disposition, CM and PM were studied for all fusion approaches separately. 40,965 patients, stratified as 15,854 cervical and 25,111 lumbar fusions were included. The hospital had successively higher charges and payments relative to the surgeon from 2005-2014 for all fusions with an inverse relation to hospital length of stay. Increasing complexity of fusion such as for anterior-posterior cervical fusion had higher hospital reimbursements per dollar earned by the surgeon. There was regional variation in how much the hospital charged and received per surgeon dollar. Hospital charge and payment relative to surgeon had an increasing trend despite a decreasing length of stay for all fusions. While the hospital can receive higher payments for higher-risk patients, this risk is not reflected proportionally in surgeon payments. The shift toward value-based care with shared responsibility for outcomes and cost will likely rely on better aligning incentives between hospital and providers. 3.

  1. China's forest products trade and its influencing factors: A structural analysis based on the Asian International Input-Output Table

    OpenAIRE

    加賀爪, 優; ウフル, ロシャングリ; 波多野, 佑美

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the major consumers of forest products, and its trade with developed countries has vastly expanded after it joined the WTO and abolished tariffs. The structure of China's import and export trade of forest products has also greatly changed alongside rapid economic growth. In this study, we focus on China's forest products trade with its main trading partners. By analyzing these trade patterns based on the Asian International Input-Output Table and the Japan-China International ...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Policies of Architectural Heritage Conservation in East Asian and European Countries (Legislation, Administration and Finance)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Architectural heritage, as an important form of the past, has been attracted increasing awareness. Nowadays there is a shared common view in the world that to protect architectural heritage reasonably and based on scientific methods is a necessity of our age. This dissertation intends to analyze and compare the policies for the protection of the architectural heritage in East Asian and European countries. Japan, China, Singapore, Italy, Britain and Germany are selected as representative count...

  3. Using principal component analysis and annual seasonal trend analysis to assess karst rocky desertification in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Xiao, Yi; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Weihua

    2017-06-01

    Increasing exploitation of karst resources is causing severe environmental degradation because of the fragility and vulnerability of karst areas. By integrating principal component analysis (PCA) with annual seasonal trend analysis (ASTA), this study assessed karst rocky desertification (KRD) within a spatial context. We first produced fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data from a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index using a dimidiate pixel model. Then, we generated three main components of the annual FVC data using PCA. Subsequently, we generated the slope image of the annual seasonal trends of FVC using median trend analysis. Finally, we combined the three PCA components and annual seasonal trends of FVC with the incidence of KRD for each type of carbonate rock to classify KRD into one of four categories based on K-means cluster analysis: high, moderate, low, and none. The results of accuracy assessments indicated that this combination approach produced greater accuracy and more reasonable KRD mapping than the average FVC based on the vegetation coverage standard. The KRD map for 2010 indicated that the total area of KRD was 78.76 × 103 km2, which constitutes about 4.06% of the eight southwest provinces of China. The largest KRD areas were found in Yunnan province. The combined PCA and ASTA approach was demonstrated to be an easily implemented, robust, and flexible method for the mapping and assessment of KRD, which can be used to enhance regional KRD management schemes or to address assessment of other environmental issues.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions in Europe: a retrospective trend analysis for the period 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgan, A.; Gugele, B.; Haider, S. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    This report presents a retrospective overview of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in Europe from 1990 to 2008, with a particular focus on the underpinning drivers and the influence of EU policies. The analysis is based on the combination of decomposition analyses to identify the respective influence of each identified driver and an overview of the main EU policies and their likely effects on these drivers. The period covered by the analysis stops in 2008. As a result, the analysis avoids the effects of the recent economic crisis on GHG emissions. This reinforces the conclusion on long-term emission drivers. The report covers the EU-27 and presents results for the other EEA member countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey) and Croatia (EU candidate country together with Turkey) as far as data is available. The results can be summarized as: 1) Overall GHG emission trends. EU GHG emissions were reduced between 1990 and 2008. Most of the reductions took place in the 1990s, but emissions have also been decreasing every year from 2003 until the last year considered in this report, 2008. 2) Predominant drivers. For the most part, the GHG emission trends observed in the EU between 1990 and 2008 resulted from economic factors. However, EU policies, some of which were not directly targeting GHG emissions, as well as national policies by some front runner countries, also played a role in these trends. 3) Impacts of EU policies. Between 2000 and 2008, emission trends were more directly targeted by a range of energy and climate policies, e.g. the implementation of the European Climate Change programme. However, the steady increase in energy demand during this period - particularly electricity - outweighed the considerable EU-wide savings generated by energy efficiency improvements and the development of renewable energy. 4) Co-benefits. Taking example from the positive benefits on GHG emissions that resulted from the implementation of non

  5. Trends in Women's Participation at the Meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis: 1975-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jennifer L; Morris, Edward K; Smith, Nathaniel G

    2007-01-01

    We examined women's participation, relative to men's, at the annual meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) between 1975 and 2005. Among our findings are upward trends in female presenters across formats (e.g., posters), types of authorship (e.g., first authors), and specialty areas (e.g., autism). Where women have attained parity, however, they are still often underrepresented, given their percentage of membership. Women also participate less than men as sole and invited authors and discussants and in the domains of basic research and conceptual analysis, but participate more than men in the applied domain. Data from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis show parallel but delayed trends toward parity in basic and applied research, whereas data from The Behavior Analyst show only modest gains in the conceptual domain. We discuss the gender disparities in ABA's more prestigious categories of participation (e.g., invited addresses) and across its content domains, as well as in science in general, and the role of social and cultural factors in producing the disparities and how behavior analysts might aid in correcting them.

  6. Characterization of Land Transitions Patterns from Multivariate Time Series Using Seasonal Trend Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Parmentier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing biophysical changes in land change areas over large regions with short and noisy multivariate time series and multiple temporal parameters remains a challenging task. Most studies focus on detection rather than the characterization, i.e., the manner by which surface state variables are altered by the process of changes. In this study, a procedure is presented to extract and characterize simultaneous temporal changes in MODIS multivariate times series from three surface state variables the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, land surface temperature (LST and albedo (ALB. The analysis involves conducting a seasonal trend analysis (STA to extract three seasonal shape parameters (Amplitude 0, Amplitude 1 and Amplitude 2 and using principal component analysis (PCA to contrast trends in change and no-change areas. We illustrate the method by characterizing trends in burned and unburned pixels in Alaska over the 2001–2009 time period. Findings show consistent and meaningful extraction of temporal patterns related to fire disturbances. The first principal component (PC1 is characterized by a decrease in mean NDVI (Amplitude 0 with a concurrent increase in albedo (the mean and the annual amplitude and an increase in LST annual variability (Amplitude 1. These results provide systematic empirical evidence of surface changes associated with one type of land change, fire disturbances, and suggest that STA with PCA may be used to characterize many other types of land transitions over large landscape areas using multivariate Earth observation time series.

  7. Smoking and Genetic Risk Variation across Populations of European, Asian, and African-American Ancestry - A Meta-analysis of Chromosome 15q25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Bracci, Paige M.; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z.; Przybeck, Thomas R.; Sanders, Alan R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sung, Yun Ju; Wenzlaff, Angie S.; Wu, Chen; Yoon, Dankyu; Chen, Ying-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Yoon Shin; David, Sean P.; Duan, Jubao; Eaton, Charles B.; Furberg, Helena; Goate, Alison M.; Gu, Dongfeng; Hansen, Helen M.; Hartz, Sarah; Hu, Zhibin; Kim, Young Jin; Kittner, Steven J.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Payne, Thomas J.; Rao, DC; Rice, John P.; Rice, Treva K.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Shete, Sanjay S.; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sun, Yan V.; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Jen C.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Xian, Hong; Gejman, Pablo V.; He, Jiang; Hunt, Steven C.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Li, Ming D.; Lin, Dongxin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Park, Taesung; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shen, Hongbing; Wiencke, John K.; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yokota, Jun; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N=14,786), Asian (N=6,889), and African American (N=10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (p < 0.01) in each of these three populations (OR=1.33, 95%C.I.=1.25–1.42, p=1.1×10−17 in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments. PMID:22539395

  8. Smoking and genetic risk variation across populations of European, Asian, and African American ancestry--a meta-analysis of chromosome 15q25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert C; Bracci, Paige M; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z; Przybeck, Thomas R; Sanders, Alan R; Smith, Jennifer A; Sung, Yun Ju; Wenzlaff, Angie S; Wu, Chen; Yoon, Dankyu; Chen, Ying-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Yoon Shin; David, Sean P; Duan, Jubao; Eaton, Charles B; Furberg, Helena; Goate, Alison M; Gu, Dongfeng; Hansen, Helen M; Hartz, Sarah; Hu, Zhibin; Kim, Young Jin; Kittner, Steven J; Levinson, Douglas F; Mosley, Thomas H; Payne, Thomas J; Rao, D C; Rice, John P; Rice, Treva K; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Shete, Sanjay S; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret R; Sun, Yan V; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Jen C; Wrensch, Margaret R; Xian, Hong; Gejman, Pablo V; He, Jiang; Hunt, Steven C; Kardia, Sharon L; Li, Ming D; Lin, Dongxin; Mitchell, Braxton D; Park, Taesung; Schwartz, Ann G; Shen, Hongbing; Wiencke, John K; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yokota, Jun; Amos, Christopher I; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-05-01

    Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N = 14,786), Asian (N = 6,889), and African American (N = 10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (P < 0.01) in each of these three populations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.25-1.42, P = 1.1 × 10(-17) in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Importance of ICPMS for speciation analysis is changing: future trends for targeted and non-targeted element speciation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M

    2018-01-01

    This article is aimed at researchers interested in organic molecules which contain a heteroatom but who have never considered using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) or who have used ICPMS for years and developed numerous methods for analysis of target elemental species. We try to illustrate (1) that ICPMS has been very useful for speciation analysis of metal(loid) target species and that there is now a trend to replace the costly detector with cheaper detection systems for routine target analysis, and (2) that ICPMS has been used and will be used even more in the future for non-targeted analysis of elements which are not normally associated with ICPMS analysis, such as non-metals such as sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine and fluorine. Graphical Abstract Starting with HPLC-ICPMS for non-targeted analysis of heteroatom containing molecules, once target molecule is identified alternative detectors can be used for routine measurements.

  10. A verification study and trend analysis of simulated boundary layer wind fields over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberg, Janna

    2011-07-01

    Simulated wind fields from regional climate models (RCMs) are increasingly used as a surrogate for observations which are costly and prone to homogeneity deficiencies. Compounding the problem, a lack of reliable observations makes the validation of the simulated wind fields a non trivial exercise. Whilst the literature shows that RCMs tend to underestimate strong winds over land these investigations mainly relied on comparisons with near surface measurements and extrapolated model wind fields. In this study a new approach is proposed using measurements from high towers and a robust validation process. Tower height wind data are smoother and thus more representative of regional winds. As benefit this approach circumvents the need to extrapolate simulated wind fields. The performance of two models using different downscaling techniques is evaluated. The influence of the boundary conditions on the simulation of wind statistics is investigated. Both models demonstrate a reasonable performance over flat homogeneous terrain and deficiencies over complex terrain, such as the Upper Rhine Valley, due to a too coarse spatial resolution ({proportional_to}50 km). When the spatial resolution is increased to 10 and 20 km respectively a benefit is found for the simulation of the wind direction only. A sensitivity analysis shows major deviations of international land cover data. A time series analysis of dynamically downscaled simulations is conducted. While the annual cycle and the interannual variability are well simulated, the models are less effective at simulating small scale fluctuations and the diurnal cycle. The hypothesis that strong winds are underestimated by RCMs is supported by means of a storm analysis. Only two-thirds of the observed storms are simulated by the model using a spectral nudging approach. In addition ''False Alarms'' are simulated, which are not detected in the observations. A trend analysis over the period 1961 - 2000 is conducted

  11. Macroeconomic effects on mortality revealed by panel analysis with nonlinear trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionides, Edward L; Wang, Zhen; Tapia Granados, José A

    2013-10-03

    Many investigations have used panel methods to study the relationships between fluctuations in economic activity and mortality. A broad consensus has emerged on the overall procyclical nature of mortality: perhaps counter-intuitively, mortality typically rises above its trend during expansions. This consensus has been tarnished by inconsistent reports on the specific age groups and mortality causes involved. We show that these inconsistencies result, in part, from the trend specifications used in previous panel models. Standard econometric panel analysis involves fitting regression models using ordinary least squares, employing standard errors which are robust to temporal autocorrelation. The model specifications include a fixed effect, and possibly a linear trend, for each time series in the panel. We propose alternative methodology based on nonlinear detrending. Applying our methodology on data for the 50 US states from 1980 to 2006, we obtain more precise and consistent results than previous studies. We find procyclical mortality in all age groups. We find clear procyclical mortality due to respiratory disease and traffic injuries. Predominantly procyclical cardiovascular disease mortality and countercyclical suicide are subject to substantial state-to-state variation. Neither cancer nor homicide have significant macroeconomic association.

  12. An analysis of heat wave trends using heat index in East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Yatim, A. N. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the heat wave trends in East Malaysia based on the National Weather Services (NWS) Heat Index. The heat index was calculated by using mean temperature and mean relative humidity on monthly basis for 5 meteorological stations in East Malaysia during the period 2008 to 2010. The trends for heat wave were estimated from Heat Index based on the least square regression analysis at each station level. Results showed that the heat wave trends are increasing at all stations. The highest heat index was occurred in Sandakan on July 2010 with heat index 35°C while the lowest heat index happened at Kuching in January 2009 with 27.3°C. From the heat wave observed, East Malaysia is still in caution categories or normal condition (27°C-32°C) and the extreme caution (32°C-41°C) was observed during southwest monsoon (May-July). The safety condition of heat waves in East Malaysia is possibly due to weak to moderate El Nino occurred during the period of observation.

  13. Direct oral anticoagulants: analysis of worldwide use and popularity using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-08-01

    Four direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been approved for clinical use by many medicines regulatory agencies around the world. Due to increasing use of these drugs in routine practice, we planned an original study to investigate their worldwide diffusion using a popular Web-search engine. Two electronic searches were performed using Google Trends, the former using the keywords "warfarin" AND "heparin" AND "fondaparinux", and the latter using the keywords "warfarin" AND "dabigatran" AND "rivaroxaban" AND "apixaban" AND "edoxaban", both using the search criterion "prescription drug". No language restriction was applied, and the searches were carried out from the first date available in Google Trends (January 1 st , 2004) to present time (June 1 st , 2017). The median Google Trends score of warfarin (i.e., 86) was consistently higher than that of heparin (54; PGoogle searches for DOACs were performed in North America, central-eastern Europe and Australia. The results of our analysis suggest that the popularity of DOACs is constantly increasing around the world, whereas that of warfarin has exhibited a constant and inexorable decline.

  14. A Categorical Content Analysis of Highly Cited Literature Related to Trends and Issues in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Sarah V; Pentimonti, Jill M; Cooray, Rochana; Jackson, Stephanie

    2017-07-01

    This investigation employs categorical content analysis processes as a mechanism to examine trends and issues in a sampling of highly cited (100+) literature in special education journals. The authors had two goals: (a) broadly identifying trends across publication type, content area, and methodology and (b) specifically identifying articles with disaggregated outcomes for students with learning disabilities (LD). Content analyses were conducted across highly cited (100+) articles published during a 20-year period (1992-2013) in a sample ( n = 3) of journals focused primarily on LD, and in one broad, cross-categorical journal recognized for its impact in the field. Results indicated trends in the article type (i.e., commentary and position papers), content (i.e., reading and behavior), and methodology (i.e., small proportions of experimental and quasi-experimental designs). Results also revealed stability in the proportion of intervention research studies when compared to previous analyses and a decline in the proportion of those that disaggregated data specifically for students with LD.

  15. Trend analysis of a tropical urban river water quality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Faridah; M E, Alaa Eldin; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as

  16. Global cocaine intoxication research trends during 1975–2015: a bibliometric analysis of Web of Science publications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Waring, W. Stephen; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of publication related to cocaine intoxication an insight of the research trends at a global level to enable recommendations...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  18. Current Trends in Task Analysis: The Integration of Task Analysis and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two ways in which task analysis can be integrated with instructional design--substantive integration, where the type of task analysis is determined by design type, and temporal integration, where analysis activities are interspersed with design activities. Flowcharts, examples of and procedures for instructional analysis, and references…

  19. Evolution of life history traits in Asian freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) based on multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowor, Daisy; Muthu, Victor; Meier, Rudolf; Balke, Michael; Cai, Yixiong; Ng, Peter K L

    2009-08-01

    Freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium are free-living decapod crustaceans that are commonly encountered in tropical streams and lakes. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the diverse Southeast and East Asian fauna based on >3 kb sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial markers for almost 50% of the described fauna. We reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and track the evolution of key life history traits. Our tree suggests that the last common ancestor of the Asian Macrobrachium laid numerous small eggs and had prolonged larval development ("PLD") in saline coastal waters after which the adults matured in freshwater habitats. We also argue for five independent losses of the marine larval phase to yield five clades of species that develop entirely in freshwater and have fewer and larger eggs than the species with PLD. These species have either semi-abbreviated (two origins) with at least one free-swimming stage or abbreviated larval development ("ALD": three origins) which lack free-swimming larvae. A Shimodaira-Hasegawa test rejects all trees that would imply a single loss of the marine larval phase, but alternative and equally parsimonious optimizations exist that imply a smaller number of losses. However, these scenarios would require the re-acquisition of free-swimming larvae. A concentrated-change test supports Pereira and Garcia's [Pereira, G.A., Garcia, J.V., 1995. Larval development of Macrobrachium reyesi Pereira (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), with a discussion on the origin of abbreviated development in palaemonids. J. Crust. Biol. 15, 117-133] hypothesis of a significant correlation between living in freshwater and the origin of semi-abbreviated and abbreviated larval development. Our phylogenetic tree also reveals that Asian Macrobrachium have independently become cavernicolous at least twice, and invaded the highly acidic waters of freshwater and peat swamps two or three times.

  20. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control study technique Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent diagnosed with tuberculosis during the past 10 years and two Asian control groups (community and outpatient clinic controls) from the Indian subcontinent were investigated. Cases and community controls were approached by letter. A structured questionnaire concerning a range of demographic, migration, socioeconomic, dietary, and health topics was administered by a single trained interviewer to subjects (56 cases and 100 controls) who agreed to participate. RESULTS--The results confirmed earlier findings that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. However, further analysis revealed that religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians). Unadjusted odds ratios for tuberculosis among vegetarians were 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) using community controls, and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4) using clinic controls. There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lactovegetarians had an 8.5 fold risk (95% CI 1.6 to 45.4) compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Adjustment for a range of other socioeconomic, migration, and lifestyle variables made little difference to the relative risks derived using either community or clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that a vegetarian diet is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant Asians. The mechanism is unexplained. However

  1. Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Delbiso, Tefera D; Robinson, Courtland W

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food

  2. Trends in Technology Education in Asia and Their Implications for New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    Technology and education are both rapidly being internationalized. In order to promote exchanges and cooperation in technology education between Asian countries and New Zealand, it is necessary to study the trends in Asian countries. The following trends were found in five Asian countries or economies (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and…

  3. The burden of liver cancer in Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Keegan, Theresa H M; Gomez, Scarlett L; Le, Gem M; Clarke, Christina A; So, Samuel K S; Glaser, Sally L

    2007-05-15

    To the authors' knowledge, no previous U.S. study has examined time trends in the incidence rate of liver cancer in the high-risk Asian/Pacific Islander population. In this study, liver cancer incidence trends were evaluated in Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese men and women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area of California between 1990 and 2004. Populations at risk were estimated by using the cohort-component demographic method. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in age-adjusted incidence rates of primary liver cancer among Asians/Pacific Islanders in the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were calculated by using joinpoint regression analysis. The incidence rate of liver cancer between 1990 and 2004 did not change significantly in Asian/Pacific Islander men or women overall. However, the incidence rate declined, although the decline was not statistically significant, among Chinese men (APC, -1.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.4-0.3%), Japanese men (APC, -4.9%; 95% CI, -10.7-1.2%), and Japanese women (APC, -3.6%; 95% CI, -8.9-2%). Incidence rates remained consistently high for Vietnamese, Korean, and Filipino men and women. Trends in the incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma were comparable to those for liver cancer. Although disparities in liver cancer incidence between Asians/Pacific Islanders and other racial/ethnic groups diminished between the period from 1990 through 1994 and the period from 2000 through 2004, the disparities among Asian subgroups increased. Liver cancer continues to affect Asian/Pacific Islander Americans disproportionately, with consistently high incidence rates in most subgroups. Culturally targeted prevention methods are needed to reduce the high rates of liver cancer in this growing population in the U.S. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society

  4. [Analysis on regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Shi, Ting-Ting; Yang, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Through the collection and collation of the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2014,the regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry in the past ten years were analyzed by using the descriptive statistical analysis method in statistics.The results showed that the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in Jilin, Shandong, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Guangdong accounted for the largest proportion of the country, while Ningxia accounted for only 0.04% of the whole country. Anhui Province had the largest fluctuations in data, and its coefficient of variation was as high as 102.03%.The average annual growth rate of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines was lowest in Ningxia, only -1.09%.Based on the statistical analysis of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines in four major economic regions, the data concentration trend was as follows: east> west> central> northeast; the data fluctuation trend was northeast> central> west> east, and the average annual growth rate from large to small was northeast> central> west> east.This study was conducive to understand the differencesin the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines among various provinces and economic regions,and to lay the foundation for the correct understanding and in-depth exploration of the factors that may affect the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines.This study has reference value for the management and economic research of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. A Bibliometric and Trend Analysis on the Water-Related Risk Assessment Studies for Cryptosporidium Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza MESDAGHINIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The bibliometric methods have been used in many disciplines of sciences to study the scientific production and research trends. In this study, they were used to investigate research trends related to the risk assessment of Cryptosporid­ium pathogen in water field.Methods: Data were obtained on the Scopus database from 1993 to 2013. Re­search tendency was investigated by analyzing the distribution of languages, coun­tries, journals, author keywords, authorship pattern and co-authorship relations.Results: The English language was dominant language of all publications (96.36%. Number of articles in this field increased from 2 in 1993 to 29 papers in 2007 and then received to 19 at the end of 2013. United States produced 35.41% of all perti­nent articles followed by United Kingdom with 10.76% and Australia with 9.92%. Water Research Journal published the most papers in this field, taking 11.62% of all, followed by Journal of Water and Health (10.92% and Water Science and Technology (10.21%. The most productive authors were Ashbolt NJ form Canada that accounts about 1.51% of the total publications followed by Rose JB and Haas CN from United States. Authorship pattern analysis results show that literature does follow Lotka’s law (P=0.627.Conclusion: A downward trend in the number of publications is likely to occur in future. The results of this bibliometric analysis may help relevant researchers realize the scope of the microbial risk assessment research of Cryptosporidium, and establish the further research direction. 

  6. Trends in major cancer mortality in Korea, 1983-2012, with a joinpoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daroh; Ha, Mina; Song, Inmyung

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Korea. This study aims to examine changes in temporal trends in major cancer mortality. Mortality data for 1993-2012 were obtained from the Korean Statistics Information Service(KOSIS) database and age-standardized to the 2000 Korean population. Joinpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in trends over time. The annual percentage rate change (APC) was computed for each segment of the trends. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASR) for all cancer sites combined decreased by 9.1% and 1.1% in men and women, respectively, from 1983 to 2012. ASRs from cancers of esophagus, stomach, and liver decreased substantially, whereas ASRs from cancer for all other sites increased markedly. ASRs for all cancer sites combined increased until 1994 and thereafter decreased significantly in both genders except for the period of 1998-2002 (APC: -5.5% for men [pliver cancers increased until the early 1990s and thereafter declined, leading to significant decreases [pcancer (APC: -1.85% for men and -3.82% for women) and liver cancer (APC: -1.55% for men and -0.56% for women) in 1983-2012. ASRs for stomach cancer declined (APC: -4.06% for men and -4.07% for women) except for 1990-1994. ASRs for uterine cancer peaked in 2003 and then declined (APC: 2.85%). ASRs increased significantly until 2002 for colorectal cancer in men (APC: 7.52%) and lung cancer in both genders. The most consistently upward trend was observed for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (APC: 3.55% for men and 5.29% for women; number of joinpoints=0). The greatest ASR increase was seen for prostate cancer for which mortality increased until 2002 at an APC of 12.56%. While mortality decreased significantly for esophagus, stomach and liver cancers in recent decades in Korea, challenges still remain for many other cancers, especially pancreatic, breast, and prostate cancers and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Surveillance of cancer mortality trends can lend valuable insights as to the

  7. Trend Analysis of Worldwide FDI Flows in the Context of Promoting Sustainable Development and National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.

  8. Analysis of cerebrovascular disease mortality trends in Andalusia (1980-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, A; Cayuela, L; Rodríguez-Domínguez, S; González, A; Moniche, F

    2017-03-15

    In recent decades, mortality rates for cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have decreased significantly in many countries. This study analyses recent tendencies in CVD mortality rates in Andalusia (1980-2014) to identify any changes in previously observed sex and age trends. CVD mortality and population data were obtained from Spain's National Statistics Institute database. We calculated age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates using the direct method (European standard population). Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate the annual percentage change in rates and identify significant changes in mortality trends. We also estimated rate ratios between Andalusia and Spain. Standardised rates for both males and females showed 3 periods in joinpoint regression analysis: an initial period of significant decline (1980-1997), a period of rate stabilisation (1997-2003), and another period of significant decline (2003-2014). Between 1997 and 2003, age-standardised rates stabilised in Andalusia but continued to decrease in Spain as a whole. This increased in the gap between CVD mortality rates in Andalusia and Spain for both sexes and most age groups. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. An enhanced trend surface analysis equation for regional-residual separation of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, A. I.; Onwuemesi, A. G.; Romanus, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Trend surface analysis is a geological term for a mathematical technique which separates a given map set into a regional component and a local component. This work has extended the steps for the derivation of the constants in the trend surface analysis equation from the popularly known matrix and simultaneous form to a more simplified and easily achievable format. To achieve this, matrix inversion was applied to the existing equations and the outcome was tested for suitability using a large volume of gravity data set acquired from the Anambra Basin, south-eastern Nigeria. Tabulation of the field data set was done using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet, while gravity maps were generated from the data set using Oasis Montaj software. A comparison of the residual gravity map produced using the new equations with its software derived counterpart has shown that the former has a higher enhancing capacity than the latter. This equation has shown strong suitability for application in the separation of gravity data sets into their regional and residual components.

  10. Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Santos e Silva, C. M.; Lima, K. C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper aims of computing climatology and trend analysis of occurrence and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (NEB). We used daily rainfall data of 148 rain gauges collected from the hydrometeorological network managed by the National Water Agency during 1972 to 2002 and used quantiles technique in order to select rainfall events. Defining heavy rainfall events as those when at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above the 95th percentile, normal rainfall was between the 45th and 55th percentiles, and weak rainfall events were under the 5th percentile. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was used to calculate the linear trend of the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. The NEB was divided in five subregions using the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method: Northern coast, Northern semiarid, Northwest, Southern semiarid, and Southern coast. The results suggest that the subregions are less influenced by El Niño and La Niña, and dry areas have higher variability, with the greatest number of intense events.

  11. Asian dust and daily emergency ambulance calls among elderly people in Japan: an analysis of its double role as a direct cause and as an effect modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the direct health effects of Asian dust on ambulance calls and its role as an effect modifier on the effects of anthropogenic air pollution in Japan. The subjects were 51,945 elderly residents who visited hospital emergency departments from 2006 to 2010. We evaluated the impact of Asian dust by time-series analyses and the excess risk from suspended particulate matter (SPM) stratified by Asian-dust exposure. Asian dust was associated with daily ambulance calls due to all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease independently of SPM, for example, the relative risk per interquartile increase in Asian dust (3-day lag) was 1.021 (1.002 to 1.039) for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, Asian dust modified the effects of SPM on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Asian dust had adverse effects and modified the effect of SPM.

  12. 1996-2004 Trends in the Single-Family Housing Market: Spatial Analysis of the Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dave M.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2006-09-05

    This report provides a detailed geographic analysis of two specific topics affecting the residential sector. First, we performed an analysis of new construction market trends using annual building permit data. We report summarized tables and national maps to help illustrate market conditions. Second, we performed a detailed geographic analysis of the housing finance market. We analyzed mortgage application data to provide citable statistics and detailed geographic summarization of the residential housing picture in the US for each year in the 1996-2004 period. The databases were linked to geographic information system tools to provide various map series detailing the results geographically. Looking at these results geographically may suggest potential new markets for TD programs addressing the residential sector that have not been considered previously. For example, we show which lenders affect which regions and which income or mortgage product classes. These results also highlight the issue of housing affordability. Energy efficiency R&D programs focused on developing new technology for the residential sector must be conscious of the costs of products resulting from research that will eventually impact the home owner or new home buyer. Results indicate that home values as a proportion of median family income in Building America communities are closely aligned with the national average of home value as a proportion of median income. Other key findings: • The share of home building and home buying activity continues to rise steadily in the Hot-Dry and Hot-Humid climate zones, while the Mixed-Humid and Cold climate zone shares continue to decline. Other zones remain relatively stable in terms of share of housing activity. • The proportion of home buyers having three times the median family income for their geography has been steadily increasing during the study period. • Growth in the Hispanic/Latino population and to a lesser degree in the Asian population has

  13. Analysis and Comparison of Trends in Extreme Temperature Indices in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1985–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Alghamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed the time series of thirteen extreme temperature indices over the period 1985–2010 to analyze and compare temporal trends at two weather stations in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The trend analysis showed warming of the local air for the city. Significant increasing trends were found in annual average maximum and minimum temperatures, maximum of minimum temperature, warm nights, and warm days for an urban and a rural station. Significant decreasing trends were detected in the number of cool nights and cool days at both stations. Comparison of the trends suggests that, in general, the station closer to the city center warmed at a slower rate than the rural station. Significant differences were found in a lot of the extreme temperature indices, suggesting that urbanization and other factors may have had negative effects on the rate of warming at the urban station.

  14. Evolution of Asian Interior Arid-Zone Biota: Evidence from the Diversification of Asian Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Dan; Lin, Li; Li, Hong-Lei; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Jing; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Asian interior arid zone is the largest desert landform system in the Northern Hemisphere, and has high biodiversity. Little is currently known about the evolutionary history of its biota. In this study, we used Zygophyllum, an important and characteristic component of the Asian interior arid zone, to provide new insights into the evolution of this biota. By greatly enlarged taxon sampling, we present the phylogenetic analysis of Asian Zygophyllum based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Asian Zygophyllum and Sarcozygium form a clade and Sarcozygium is further embedded within the shrub subclade. An integration of phylogenetic, biogeographic, and molecular dating methods indicates that Zygophyllum successfully colonized the Asian interior from Africa in the early Oligocene, and Asian Zygophyllum became differentiated in the early Miocene and underwent a burst of diversification in the late Miocene associated with the expansion of Asian interior arid lands due to orogenetic and climatic changes. Combining diversification patterns of other important components of the Asian interior arid zone, we propose a multi-stage evolution model for this biota: the late Eocene-early Oligocene origin, the early Miocene expansion, and the middle-late Miocene rapid expansion to the whole Asian interior arid zone. This study also demonstrates that, for Zygophyllum and perhaps other arid-adapted organisms, arid biomes are evolutionary cradles of diversity.

  15. [International research trends of pharmacognosy on molecular level --based on analysis of SCI literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Xiao-Li

    2016-02-01

    The techniques and methods of molecular biology have been widely applied in pharmacognosy fields. International development trends of pharmacognosy studies on molecular level were analyzed by bibliometric methods using the SCIE database on Web of Science, the literature distribution, national distribution, agency distribution, periodicals distribution, and hot research topics were described using multivariate statistical analysis and multidimensional scaling analysis method,etc. The number of international pharmacognosy literature on molecular level is increasing year by year. USA, China and Japan have close cooperation, and focus on molecular identification and genetic diversity. Chinese scientists issued high-impact factor journals papers and high citations amount in the international forefront. The international pharmacognosy research on molecular level has developed rapidly. Chinese research has a significant influence.The molecular mechanism of the formation of Dao-di Herbs may become the next hotspot. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Text Stream Trend Analysis using Multiscale Visual Analytics with Applications to Social Media Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new visual analytics system, called Matisse, that allows exploration of global trends in textual information streams with specific application to social media platforms. Despite the potential for real-time situational awareness using these services, interactive analysis of such semi-structured textual information is a challenge due to the high-throughput and high-velocity properties. Matisse addresses these challenges through the following contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sen- timent/emotion analytics, (3) inferential temporal, geospatial, and term-frequency visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that progresses from macroscale to microscale views. In addition to describing these contributions, our work-in-progress paper concludes with a practical case study focused on the analysis of Twitter 1% sample stream information captured during the week of the Boston Marathon bombings.

  17. Research trends on Big Data in Marketing: A text mining and topic modeling based literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the research interest on Big Data in Marketing, we present a research literature analysis based on a text mining semi-automated approach with the goal of identifying the main trends in this domain. In particular, the analysis focuses on relevant terms and topics related with five dimensions: Big Data, Marketing, Geographic location of authors’ affiliation (countries and continents, Products, and Sectors. A total of 1560 articles published from 2010 to 2015 were scrutinized. The findings revealed that research is bipartite between technological and research domains, with Big Data publications not clearly aligning cutting edge techniques toward Marketing benefits. Also, few inter-continental co-authored publications were found. Moreover, findings show that research in Big Data applications to Marketing is still in an embryonic stage, thus making it essential to develop more direct efforts toward business for Big Data to thrive in the Marketing arena.

  18. Sequential change detection and monitoring of temporal trends in random-effects meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Samson Henry; Clark, Allan; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Temporal changes in magnitude of effect sizes reported in many areas of research are a threat to the credibility of the results and conclusions of meta-analysis. Numerous sequential methods for meta-analysis have been proposed to detect changes and monitor trends in effect sizes so that meta-analysis can be updated when necessary and interpreted based on the time it was conducted. The difficulties of sequential meta-analysis under the random-effects model are caused by dependencies in increments introduced by the estimation of the heterogeneity parameter τ2 . In this paper, we propose the use of a retrospective cumulative sum (CUSUM)-type test with bootstrap critical values. This method allows retrospective analysis of the past trajectory of cumulative effects in random-effects meta-analysis and its visualization on a chart similar to CUSUM chart. Simulation results show that the new method demonstrates good control of Type I error regardless of the number or size of the studies and the amount of heterogeneity. Application of the new method is illustrated on two examples of medical meta-analyses. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Investigating the usefulness of a cluster-based trend analysis to detect visual field progression in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichiro; Murata, Hiroshi; Fujino, Yuri; Matsuura, Masato; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the Octopus (Haag-Streit) EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis in glaucoma. Ten visual fields (VFs) with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec), spanning 7.7 years on average were obtained from 728 eyes of 475 primary open angle glaucoma patients. Mean total deviation (mTD) trend analysis and EyeSuite's cluster trend analysis were performed on various series of VFs (from 1st to 10th: VF1-10 to 6th to 10th: VF6-10). The results of the cluster-based trend analysis, based on different lengths of VF series, were compared against mTD trend analysis. Cluster-based trend analysis and mTD trend analysis results were significantly associated in all clusters and with all lengths of VF series. Between 21.2% and 45.9% (depending on VF series length and location) of clusters were deemed to progress when the mTD trend analysis suggested no progression. On the other hand, 4.8% of eyes were observed to progress using the mTD trend analysis when cluster trend analysis suggested no progression in any two (or more) clusters. Whole field trend analysis can miss local VF progression. Cluster trend analysis appears as robust as mTD trend analysis and useful to assess both sectorial and whole field progression. Cluster-based trend analyses, in particular the definition of two or more progressing cluster, may help clinicians to detect glaucomatous progression in a timelier manner than using a whole field trend analysis, without significantly compromising specificity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The workforce trends of nurses in Lebanon (2009-2014): A registration database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Chamoun, Nariman; Btaiche, Rachel; El Arnaout, Nour; Richa, Nathalie; Samaha-Nuwayhid, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the nursing registration databases is a highly informative approach that provides accurate and reliable information supporting evidence based decisions relevant to the nursing workforce planning, management and development. This study presents the first systematic analysis of the nursing registration database in Lebanon. It Reports on the workforce distribution and trends using an updated version of the Order of Nurses in Lebanon (ONL) databases. This study presents a secondary data analysis of a de-identified subset of the updated ONL registration database. The workforce participation status of ONL registered nurses was categorized as active and eligible. For active nurses sectors and sub-sectors of employment were defined. Eligible nurses were categorized as unemployed, working outside nursing and working abroad. SPSS was used to conduct descriptive analysis to present workforce trends of Lebanese nurses for year 2009-2014 as frequencies, percentages and percentage changes. Increases in the size of the Active (35%) and Eligible (86%) nurses were observed over the past six years. The majority of nurses fell in the below 35 years age group (60% in 2014). The hospital sector remained the principle employer, with 87% of Lebanese nurses working in hospitals in 2014. A 173% increases was reported for nurses working abroad. Despite the growth of the Active nursing workforce, the skewed distribution of nurses in the below 35 age group and the growth in the Eligible category, especially for nurses living abroad, raise concerns on the longevity of nurses in the profession and the reasons for their attrition from the workforce. There is a need to investigate the push and pull factors that are affecting nurses and the design of policies and interventions that would encourage nurses to remain active in Lebanon. Furthermore, policies and interventions that would create employment opportunities outside hospitals, especially in the Community sector, are recommended.

  1. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Indian Salmon, Eleutheronema tetradactylum from South Asian Countries Based on Mitochondrial COI Gene Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan THIRUMARAISELVI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleutheronema tetradactylum is an important commercial fish species exposed to intense exploitation both in Southeast Asian countries and Northern parts of Australia. Research on the population structure of E. tetradactylum in these coastal waters is substantial in order to ensure sustainable use and appropriate resource management. In this study, genetic variation, diversity and population structure of E. tetradactylum among four FAO fishing areas, along South Asian countries, were evaluated using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. Totally 30 sequences of COI gene were collected from four FAO fishing areas. Among these 30 individuals, 18 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity (hd = 0.952 ± 0.096 and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.01536 ± 0.00312 were observed in the population within the Bay of Bengal. No haplotype and nucleotide diversity were observed in South China Sea population. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that 0.81% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, while 7.09% variation occurred among populations. Significant genealogical branches were recognized in North Australian populations (one clade, South China Sea populations (one clade, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal populations (one clade on the neighbor-joining tree. These results suggested that E. tetradactylum populations in FAO fishing areas 51, 57 and 61 have developed different genetic structures. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that a population growth of E. tetradactylum may take place in these fishing areas.

  2. Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Blumenthal, Scott A; Dittus, Wolfgang; Wedage, Oshan; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N), and oxygen (δ18 O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ13 C and δ18 O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ15 N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ13 C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ13 C and δ18 O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-07-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), aerosol scattering coefficient ({sigma}{sub sp}), aerosol number concentration (NC{sub asl}), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on

  4. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  5. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lan Chang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone’s global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April–September 2000–2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM. Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that

  6. Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: an analysis of death certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Anderson, William F; Best, Ana F; Haozous, Emily A; Hartge, Patricia; Rosenberg, Philip S; Thomas, David; Freedman, Neal D; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2017-03-11

    Reduction of premature mortality is a UN Sustainable Development Goal. Unlike other high-income countries, age-adjusted mortality in the USA plateaued in 2010 and increased slightly in 2015, possibly because of rising premature mortality. We aimed to analyse trends in mortality in the USA between 1999 and 2014 in people aged 25-64 years by age group, sex, and race and ethnicity, and to identify specific causes of death underlying the temporal trends. For this analysis, we used cause-of-death and demographic data from death certificates from the US National Center for Health Statistics, and population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We estimated annual percentage changes in mortality using age-period-cohort models. Age-standardised excess deaths were estimated for 2000 to 2014 as observed deaths minus expected deaths (estimated from 1999 mortality rates). Between 1999 and 2014, premature mortality increased in white individuals and in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Increases were highest in women and those aged 25-30 years. Among 30-year-olds, annual mortality increases were 2·3% (95% CI 2·1-2·4) for white women, 0·6% (0·5-0·7) for white men, and 4·3% (3·5-5·0) and 1·9% (1·3-2·5), respectively, for American Indian and Alaska Native women and men. These increases were mainly attributable to accidental deaths (primarily drug poisonings), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and suicide. Among individuals aged 25-49 years, an estimated 111 000 excess premature deaths occurred in white individuals and 6600 in American Indians and Alaska Natives during 2000-14. By contrast, premature mortality decreased substantially across all age groups in Hispanic individuals (up to 3·2% per year), black individuals (up to 3·9% per year), and Asians and Pacific Islanders (up to 2·6% per year), mainly because of declines in HIV, cancer, and heart disease deaths, resulting in an estimated 112 000 fewer deaths in Hispanic individuals, 311 000 fewer deaths

  7. Public Interest in Breast Augmentation: Analysis and Implications of Google Trends Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stelios C; Daar, David A; Sinno, Sammy; Levine, Steven M

    2017-12-21

    Breast augmentation is the most common aesthetic surgery performed in the United States (US) annually. Analysis of Google Trends (GT) data may give plastic surgeons useful information regarding worldwide, national, and regional interest for breast augmentation and other commonly performed aesthetic surgeries. Data were collected using GT for breast augmentation and associated search terms from January 2004 to May 2017. Case volume was obtained from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) annual reports for the calendar year 2005-2016. Trend analysis showed that total search term volume for breast augmentation and breast implants gradually decreased worldwide and in the US over the study period while the search term boob job slowly increased. Univariate linear regression demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation between average annual Google search volume of "breast augmentation" and the annual volume of breast augmentations performed in the US according to ASPS data (R 2  = 0.44, p = 0.018). There was no significant correlation between national volume of breast augmentations performed and search volume using the terms "breast implants" or "boob job" over time (p = 0.84 and p = 0.07, respectively). In addition, there appears to be country specific variation in interest based on time of year and peaks in interest following specific policies. To our knowledge, this is the first and only analysis of GT data in the plastic surgery literature to date. To that end, this study highlights this large and potentially powerful data set for plastic surgeons both in the US and around the world. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Emerging trends and new developments in monoclonal antibodies: A scientometric analysis (1980-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yunfeng; Wang, Ruibing; Chen, Xin; Tang, Daisheng; Hu, Yuanjia; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Qingwen; Hu, Hao

    2017-06-03

    This article aims to explore the intellectual landscape of the study of monoclonal antibody (mAb), mainly to identify thematic trends, landmark articles and emerging trends involving mAb. This work is based on 4 sets of bibliographic records retrieved from the Web of Science. The final data set, consisting of 7,385 bibliographic records, was combined from the 4 individual data sets. This study explores the document co-citation clusters of 7,385 bibliographic records to identify the origin of mAb and the hot research specialty of this domain by applying CiteSpace software. We examined the mAb evolution from 4 perspectives: (1) Clusters of cited references regarding mAb; (2) Cited authors as contributors to mAb research; (3) Institutions participating in mAb research; and (4) Cited journals regarding mAb. The technical development, drug development and clinical applications of mAbs were analyzed. Through data analysis, we have identified the new directions for the exploration of mAbs, interactions between mAb technologies and diseases, and evolving global collaboration among institutions.

  9. Precipitation Trend Analysis over Eastern Region of India Using Cmip5 Based Climatic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, A.; Dwivedi, S.; Chandra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science is a complex field as climate is governed by processes that interact and operate on a vast array of time and space scales. The processes involving radiative transfer, chemistry and phase changes of water are most easily described at atomic and molecular scales; the influence of ice sheets, continents and planetary scale circulations controlling the basic energy balance of the planet operate at continental scales; even planetary orbital and solar variations operating at millennial time scales cannot be ignored. Global as well as regional climate has changed due to human activities like land use changes, production of industrial effluents and other activities due to the development of the society. The consequences of these changes have a massive impact on atmospheric events like precipitation, temperature etc. So, present and future information of precipitation is required to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies at national and international levels. Precipitation is one of the major phenomena of the atmosphere. So, its prediction and the trend are very necessary to realize the change of climate. The study attempted some model based analysis to assess prediction of rainfall trend using MK test and the Sen's slope estimator.

  10. An Analysis of Global Research Trends in Cardiology Over the Last two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rohit; Sachdeva, Soumya; Zacks, Jerome S

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease today is a major cause of morbidity and mortality plaguing mankind worldwide. The present research was undertaken to ascertain global research trends in clinical trials in Cardiology involving human subjects over the last two decades. Cross-sectional study. A detailed search strategy was employed in December 2013, using the PubMed database. All papers published in 1993-2013 were evaluated. The research trends of various cardiologic subspecialties in the United States and worldwide have been analysed and detailed statistical analysis was done. United States had maximum number of researches. Clinical trials involving infarction were maximum followed by coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty in that order. The year 2013 had the most researches. The United States was the top country and Boston was the top city. Author Christodoulos Stefanadis had the greatest number of researches in this field. American Journal of Cardiology was the most favored journal and Circulation was the journal with the highest impact factor. This effort may help funding agencies, prospective job seekers, fellowship applicants, policymakers and patients Conclusion: The research output in cardiology has increased and improved significantly over past decade. The publication per diplomat is more in transplant cardiology, Also more clinical trials involving coronary restenosis have to be done to know in depth to add to current knowledge and database.

  11. Secular trends on traditional ecological knowledge: An analysis of different domains of knowledge among Tsimane’ men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Luz, Ana C.; Gueze, Maximilien; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research provides contradictory evidence of the loss of traditional ecological knowledge across societies. Researchers have argued that culture, methodological differences, and site-specific conditions are responsible for such contradictory evidences. We advance and test a third explanation: the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge systems. Specifically, we test whether different domains of traditional ecological knowledge experience different secular changes and analyze trends in the context of other changes in livelihoods. We use data collected among 651 Tsimane’ men (Bolivian Amazon). Our findings indicate that different domains of knowledge follow different secular trends. Among the domains of knowledge analyzed, medicinal and wild edible knowledge appear as the most vulnerable; canoe building and firewood knowledge seem to remain constant across generations; whereas house building knowledge seems to experience a slight secular increase. Our analysis reflects on the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge, highlighting how changes in this knowledge system respond to the particular needs of a society in a given point of time. PMID:24518817

  12. Secular trends on traditional ecological knowledge: An analysis of different domains of knowledge among Tsimane' men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Luz, Ana C; Gueze, Maximilien; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research provides contradictory evidence of the loss of traditional ecological knowledge across societies. Researchers have argued that culture, methodological differences, and site-specific conditions are responsible for such contradictory evidences. We advance and test a third explanation: the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge systems. Specifically, we test whether different domains of traditional ecological knowledge experience different secular changes and analyze trends in the context of other changes in livelihoods. We use data collected among 651 Tsimane' men (Bolivian Amazon). Our findings indicate that different domains of knowledge follow different secular trends. Among the domains of knowledge analyzed, medicinal and wild edible knowledge appear as the most vulnerable; canoe building and firewood knowledge seem to remain constant across generations; whereas house building knowledge seems to experience a slight secular increase. Our analysis reflects on the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge, highlighting how changes in this knowledge system respond to the particular needs of a society in a given point of time.

  13. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  14. Dementia incidence trend over 1992-2014 in the Netherlands: Analysis of primary care data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Emma F; Richard, Edo; Arts, Derk L; Nooyens, Astrid C J; Coloma, Preciosa M; de Waal, Margot W M; van den Akker, Marjan; Biermans, Marion C J; Nielen, Markus M J; van Boven, Kees; Smeets, Hugo; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Busschers, Wim B; van Gool, Willem A; Moll van Charante, Eric P

    2017-03-01

    Recent reports have suggested declining age-specific incidence rates of dementia in high-income countries over time. Improved education and cardiovascular health in early age have been suggested to be bringing about this effect. The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific dementia incidence trend in primary care records from a large population in the Netherlands. A dynamic cohort representative of the Dutch population was composed using primary care records from general practice registration networks (GPRNs) across the country. Data regarding dementia incidence were obtained using general-practitioner-recorded diagnosis of dementia within the electronic health records. Age-specific dementia incidence rates were calculated for all persons aged 60 y and over; negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the time trend. Nine out of eleven GPRNs provided data on more than 800,000 older people for the years 1992 to 2014, corresponding to over 4 million person-years and 23,186 incident dementia cases. The annual growth in dementia incidence rate was estimated to be 2.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.8%), and incidence rates were 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.13) times higher for women compared to men. Despite their relatively low numbers of person-years, the highest age groups contributed most to the increasing trend. There was no significant overall change in incidence rates since the start of a national dementia program in 2003 (-0.025; 95% CI -0.062 to 0.011). Increased awareness of dementia by patients and doctors in more recent years may have influenced dementia diagnosis by general practitioners in electronic health records, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the data. Within the clinical records of a large, representative sample of the Dutch population, we found no evidence for a declining incidence trend of dementia in the Netherlands. This could indicate true stability in incidence rates, or a balance between increased detection and a

  15. Caesarean Section in Peru: Analysis of Trends Using the Robson Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tapia

    Full Text Available Cesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide while the reasons appear to be multiple, complex and, in many cases, country specific. Over the last decades, several classification systems for caesarean section have been created and proposed to monitor and compare caesarean section rates in a standardized, reliable, consistent and action-oriented manner with the aim to understand the drivers and contributors of this trend. The aims of the present study were to conduct an analysis in the three Peruvian geographical regions to assess levels and trends of delivery by caesarean section using the Robson classification for caesarean section, identify the groups of women with highest caesarean section rates and assess variation of maternal and perinatal outcomes according to caesarean section levels in each group over time.Data from 549,681 pregnant women included in the Peruvian Perinatal Information System database from 43 maternal facilities in three Peruvian geographical regions from 2000 and 2010 were studied. The data were analyzed using the Robson classification and women were studied in the ten groups in the classification. Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate time trends in the rates of caesarean section rates and; logistic regression was used to evaluate risk for each classification.The caesarean section rate was 27% and a yearly increase in the overall caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2010 from 23.5% to 30% (time trend p<0.001 was observed. Robson groups 1, 3 (nulliparous and multiparas, respectively, with a single cephalic term pregnancy in spontaneous labour, 5 (multiparas with a previous uterine scar with a single, cephalic, term pregnancy and 7 (multiparas with a single breech pregnancy with or without previous scars showed an increase in the caesarean section rates over time. Robson groups 1 and 3 were significantly associated with stillbirths (OR 1.43, CI95% 1.17-1.72; OR 3.53, CI95% 2.95-4.2 and maternal mortality (OR

  16. Dementia incidence trend over 1992-2014 in the Netherlands: Analysis of primary care data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F van Bussel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested declining age-specific incidence rates of dementia in high-income countries over time. Improved education and cardiovascular health in early age have been suggested to be bringing about this effect. The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific dementia incidence trend in primary care records from a large population in the Netherlands.A dynamic cohort representative of the Dutch population was composed using primary care records from general practice registration networks (GPRNs across the country. Data regarding dementia incidence were obtained using general-practitioner-recorded diagnosis of dementia within the electronic health records. Age-specific dementia incidence rates were calculated for all persons aged 60 y and over; negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the time trend. Nine out of eleven GPRNs provided data on more than 800,000 older people for the years 1992 to 2014, corresponding to over 4 million person-years and 23,186 incident dementia cases. The annual growth in dementia incidence rate was estimated to be 2.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.8%, and incidence rates were 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.13 times higher for women compared to men. Despite their relatively low numbers of person-years, the highest age groups contributed most to the increasing trend. There was no significant overall change in incidence rates since the start of a national dementia program in 2003 (-0.025; 95% CI -0.062 to 0.011. Increased awareness of dementia by patients and doctors in more recent years may have influenced dementia diagnosis by general practitioners in electronic health records, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the data.Within the clinical records of a large, representative sample of the Dutch population, we found no evidence for a declining incidence trend of dementia in the Netherlands. This could indicate true stability in incidence rates, or a balance between increased

  17. Trends in gastrointestinal cancer incidence in Iran, 2001-2010: a joinpoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mehdi; Asadi Lari, Mohsen; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Motlagh, Ali; Arsang-Jang, Shahram; Karimi Jaberi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the time trends of stomach, colorectal, and esophageal cancer during the past decade in Iran. Cancer incidence data for the years 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the cancer registration of the Ministry of Health. All incidence rates were directly age-standardized to the world standard population. In order to identified significant changes in time trends, we performed a joinpoint analysis. The annual percent change (APC) for each segment of the trends was then calculated. The incidence of stomach cancer increased from 4.18 and 2.41 per 100,000 population in men and women, respectively, in 2001 to 17.06 (APC, 16.7%) and 8.85 (APC, 16.2%) per 100,000 population in 2010 for men and women, respectively. The corresponding values for colorectal cancer were 2.12 and 2.00 per 100,000 population for men and women, respectively, in 2001 and 11.28 (APC, 20.0%) and 10.33 (APC, 20.0%) per 100,000 in 2010. For esophageal cancer, the corresponding increase was from 3.25 and 2.10 per 100,000 population in 2001 to 5.57 (APC, 12.0%) and 5.62 (APC, 11.2%) per 100,000 population among men and women, respectively. The incidence increased most rapidly for stomach cancer in men and women aged 80 years and older (APC, 23.7% for men; APC, 18.6% for women), for colorectal cancer in men aged 60 to 69 years (APC, 24.2%) and in women aged 50 to 59 years (APC, 25.1%), and for esophageal cancer in men and women aged 80 years and older (APC, 17.5% for men; APC,15.3% for women) over the period of the study. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancer significantly increased during the past decade. Therefore, monitoring the trends of cancer incidence can assist efforts for cancer prevention and control.

  18. Investigating the impact of the English health inequalities strategy: time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ben; Higgerson, James; Whitehead, Margaret

    2017-07-26

    Objective To investigate whether the English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical health inequalities, compared with trends before and after the strategy.Design Time trend analysis.Setting Two groups of lower tier local authorities in England. The most deprived, bottom fifth and the rest of England.Intervention The English health inequalities strategy-a cross government strategy implemented between 1997 and 2010 to reduce health inequalities in England. Trends in geographical health inequalities were assessed before (1983-2003), during (2004-12), and after (2013-15) the strategy using segmented linear regression.Main outcome measure Geographical health inequalities measured as the relative and absolute differences in male and female life expectancy at birth between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country.Results Before the strategy the gap in male and female life expectancy between the most deprived local authorities in England and the rest of the country increased at a rate of 0.57 months each year (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.74 months) and 0.30 months each year (0.12 to 0.48 months). During the strategy period this trend reversed and the gap in life expectancy for men reduced by 0.91 months each year (0.54 to 1.27 months) and for women by 0.50 months each year (0.15 to 0.86 months). Since the end of the strategy period the inequality gap has increased again at a rate of 0.68 months each year (-0.20 to 1.56 months) for men and 0.31 months each year (-0.26 to 0.88) for women. By 2012 the gap in male life expectancy was 1.2 years smaller (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 1.5 years smaller) and the gap in female life expectancy was 0.6 years smaller (0.3 to 1.0 years smaller) than it would have been if the trends in inequalities before the strategy had continued.Conclusion The English health inequalities strategy was associated with a decline in geographical inequalities in life

  19. URABN LEGIBILITY AND SHAPING THE IMAGE OF DOHA: Visual Analysis of the Environmental Graphics of the 15th. Asian Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Hasanin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores urban legibility and the associated elements that contribute to the image of the city. It investigates the graphics of the 15th. Asian Games that took place in Doha, December 2006, while placing emphasis on environmental graphics as a vehicle for shaping our indoor and outdoor visual environment. Utilizing the concept of environmental quality and its underlying notion of legibility, the paper analytically describes the environmental graphics of the games event and preliminarily measures Doha residents’ reactions to graphics-based urban settings within the city. The results of performing these procedures reveal that environmental graphics can contribute in shaping the memory of city images and can help establish associations between people past, present and future experience of urban scenes. such results call for including environmental graphics in the work of architects and urban designers toward shaping better memorable images of cities.

  20. Trends of tuberculosis case notification and treatment outcomes in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia: ten-year retrospective trend analysis in urban-rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services. A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003-2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes. The smear positive (PTB+) case notification rate (CNR) increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5-58.4) to 111 (95% CI 107.4-114.4) per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB-) (X2trend, P<0.001) and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2trend, P<0.001). The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03-1.2), less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80-0.92) and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02-1.19) compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06-1.24) and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03-1.25). More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44-1.90) and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94-5.10). Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%). Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes.

  1. Trends of tuberculosis case notification and treatment outcomes in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia: ten-year retrospective trend analysis in urban-rural settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services.A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003-2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes.The smear positive (PTB+ case notification rate (CNR increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5-58.4 to 111 (95% CI 107.4-114.4 per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB- (X2trend, P<0.001 and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2trend, P<0.001. The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03-1.2, less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80-0.92 and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02-1.19 compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06-1.24 and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03-1.25. More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44-1.90 and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94-5.10. Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%.Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes.

  2. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  3. Analysis of Thermal Environment over a Small-Scale Landscape in a Densely Built-Up Asian Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younha Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that larger parks might be needed to counteract the Urban Heat Island effects typical in densely populated Asian megacities. However, it is not easy to establish large parks to serve as urban cool islands in Asian megacities, where little space exists for large urban neighborhood parks. Officials in these cities would rather use small areas by replacing heat-absorbing artificial land cover with natural cover. The main objective of this study was to understand the cooling effect of changes in land cover on surface and air temperatures in urban micro-scale environments for supporting sustainable green-space planning and policy in densely built-up areas. This was achieved using measurements at different heights (ground surface, 0.1 m, and 1.5 m for five land cover types (LCTs and modeling with the micro-scale climate model ENVI-met. At all vertical measuring points, the average temperature over the entire measurement period had the same hot-to-cold order: asphalt > soil > grass > water > forest. However, the value dramatically decreased as the measuring points became higher. The intensity of hot and cool spots showed the highest value at surface by 18.2 °C, and declined with the height, showing 4.1 °C at 0.1 m and 3.1 °C at 1.5 m. The modeling results indicated that the well-known diurnal variation in surface insolation also occurred in our small domain, among the various LCTs. Based on these findings, providing small-scale green infrastructure in densely built-up areas could be an effective way to improve urban micro-scale thermal conditions.

  4. Treatment of Facial Acne Scarring With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Asians, a Retrospective Analysis of Efficacy and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Harumi; Tan, Lixian; Tan, Wee Ping; Goh, Chee Leok

    2017-09-01

    Fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing unites the idea of fractional photothermolysis with an ablative 10,600-nm wavelength. This technology permits effective treatment of acne scarring, with shorter recovery and a decreased side effect profile as compared to traditional CO2 laser resurfacing. The aims of this study were to study the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser for acne scars in Asian patients. This was a retrospective study of all patients treated with the fractional CO2 laser for facial acne scarring between January 2, 2008, and December 31, 2010, at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. Data reviewed included sex, age, and severity of acne, type of scarring, previous treatment history, frequency of treatments, adverse events, and efficacy. Two hundred and ten fractional CO2 laser treatments for facial acne scars were performed on 107 patients (65 men and 42 women, Fitzpatrick skin Types II to V) during the study period. Sixteen of 107 patients experienced (15.0%) adverse events. The adverse events include hyperpigmentation (6.4%), blistering (4.0%), crusting (2.9%), aggravation of inflammatory acne lesions (1.7%), and scarring (0.6%). There were no reported side effects of hypopigmentation, bacterial or viral infection. Follow-up results after final laser treatment showed that 66.4% of patients reported Grade 1 skin texture improvement, that is, 75% improvement (n = 1). The study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of a fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of acne scars in Asian. Future studies are required to establish optimum treatment parameters and achieve better clinical results.

  5. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10° to 20°N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East

  6. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  7. Analysis of Water and Energy Budgets and Trends Using the NLDAS Monthly Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Bruce E.; Rui, Hualan; Mocko, David M.; Teng, William L.; Lei, Guang-Dih

    2012-01-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaborative project between NASA GSFC, NOAA, Princeton University, and the University of Washington. NLDAS has created surface meteorological forcing data sets using the best-available observations and reanalyses. The forcing data sets are used to drive four separate land-surface models (LSMs), Mosaic, Noah, VIC, and SAC, to produce data sets of soil moisture, snow, runoff, and surface fluxes. NLDAS hourly data, accessible from the NASA GES DISC Hydrology Data Holdings Portal, http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings, are widely used by various user communities in modeling, research, and applications, such as drought and flood monitoring, watershed and water quality management, and case studies of extreme events. More information is available at http://ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov/. To further facilitate analysis of water and energy budgets and trends, NLDAS monthly data sets have been recently released by NASA GES DISC.

  8. Regional Science trends through the analysis of the main facts of the 51st ERSA Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Royuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51st ERSA Conference held in Barcelona in 2011 was one of the largest ever. By examining the characteristics of the conference, this paper identifies the main trends in Regional Science and draws on a broad array of sources of information: the delegates’ demographic details, the conference program itself, a satisfaction survey conducted among delegates, a quality survey addressed to those chairing the sessions and, finally, a bibliometric database including each author signing a paper presented at the conference. We finally run a regression analysis from which we show that for ERSA delegates what matters most is quality, and this must be the direction that future conferences should move toward. Ultimately, ERSA conferences are comprehensive, all-embracing occasions, representing an ideal opportunity for regional scientists to present their work to each other and to network.

  9. Review of research trend in international construction projects: a bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi P Utama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latest research development in international construction project (ICP domain from 1995 to 2014 as revealed in the construction management related journals. A systematic document retrieval method was employed to collect relevant articles. The identified papers were analyzed by using bibliometric analysis comprising the investigation of the number of publication, the main originators of the research contributions, their affiliations, the most cited papers, and the sources of research funding as well as the research methods used. Ninety-eight relevant articles obtained from 12 major journals associated with construction management studies were successfully assessed. The results show an upward trend with some fluctuations during the period and the bibliometric information of ICP studies was successfully presented.

  10. Improved confidence interval for average annual percent change in trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyune-Ju; Luo, Jun; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Green, Don; Buckman, Dennis; Byrne, Jeffrey; Feuer, Eric J

    2017-08-30

    This paper considers an improved confidence interval for the average annual percent change in trend analysis, which is based on a weighted average of the regression slopes in the segmented line regression model with unknown change points. The performance of the improved confidence interval proposed by Muggeo is examined for various distribution settings, and two new methods are proposed for further improvement. The first method is practically equivalent to the one proposed by Muggeo, but its construction is simpler, and it is modified to use the t-distribution instead of the standard normal distribution. The second method is based on the empirical distribution of the residuals and the resampling using a uniform random sample, and its satisfactory performance is indicated by a simulation study. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  12. Trends in CT colonography: bibliometric analysis of the 100 most-cited articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Fahim; Chahal, Tejbir; Gong, Bo; Bhulani, Nizar; O'Keefe, Michael; O'Connell, Timothy; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2017-12-01

    Our purpose was to identify the top 100 cited articles, which focused on CT colonography (CTC). This list could then be analysed to establish trends in CTC research while also identifying common characteristics of highly cited works. Web of Science search was used to create a database of scientific journals using our search terms. A total of 10,597 articles were returned from this search. Articles were included if they focused on diagnostic imaging, imaging technique, cost-effectiveness analysis, clinical use, patient preference or trends in CTC. Articles were ranked by citation count and screened by two attending radiologists. The following information was collected from each article: database citations, citations per year, year published, journal, authors, department affiliation, study type and design, statistical analysis, sample size, modality and topic. Citations for the top 100 articles ranged from 73 to 1179, and citations per year ranged from 4.5 to 84.21. Articles were published across 22 journals, most commonly Radiology (n = 37) and American Journal of Roentgenology (n = 19). Authors contributed from 1 to 20 articles. 19% of first authors were affiliated with a department other than radiology. Of the 100 articles, the most common topics were imaging technique (n = 40), diagnostic utility of imaging (n = 28) and clinical uses (n = 18). Our study provides intellectual milestones in CTC research, reflecting on the characteristics and quality of published literature. This work also provides the most influential references related to CTC and serves as a guide to the features of a citable paper in this field.

  13. Marine N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in Asians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies in relation to the associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D were inconsistent. Differences in tissue n-3 PUFA compositions in subjects with and without T2D were also inconsistent in both cohort and case-control studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the associations of fish and n-3 PUFA intake with T2D risk. The differences in tissue n-3 PUFA compositions in subjects with and without T2D were investigated based on cohort and case-control studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Chinese VIP database up to January 2012 was used to identify relevant studies, and reference lists from retrieved studies were reviewed. Two authors independently extracted the data. Random-effects models were used to pool the summary relative risk (RR. Twenty-four studies including 24,509 T2D patients and 545,275 participants were identified. For cohort studies, the summary RR of T2D for the highest vs lowest categories of total fish, marine n-3 PUFA and alpha-linolenic acid intake was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.25, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.20 and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.07, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that summary RR (highest vs lowest category of T2D for fish and marine n-3 PUFA intake was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.98 and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96 for Asian populations, and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.44 and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28 for Western populations. Asian subjects with T2D had significantly lower tissue compositions of C22:6n-3 (SMD: -1.43; 95% CI: -1.75, -1.12 and total n-3 PUFA (SMD: -1.41; 95% CI: -2.23, -0.59 compared with those without T2D. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that marine n-3 PUFA have beneficial effects on the prevention of T2D in Asian populations.

  14. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  15. Trends and Patterns in Massive Open Online Courses: Review and Content Analysis of Research on MOOCs (2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Akgün-Özbek, Ela; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    To fully understand the phenomenon of massive open online courses (MOOCs), it is important to identify and map trends and patterns in research on MOOCs. This study does so by reviewing 362 empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2015. For the purpose of this study, content analysis and discourse analysis were employed…

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambos Tsardanidis; Christina Christodoulidou

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike ...

  17. Comparative analysis of web search trends between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Jang, Yunji; Seong, BoSeok; Kim, Chul

    2015-12-24

    The information and knowledge about ethno-medicinal herbs are getting stronger interest in Global and Korea after the agreement of the Nagoya Protocol. However, it is known that there is a serious asymmetry of ethno-medicinal information between experts and public, thus this study aimed to analyze the similarities and differences in interest between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea through big data analysis. The medicinal herbs selected in this study were the top 10 herbs in terms of the amounts purchased by TKM centers. And two representative web search engines were selected to collect the web search logs, i.e. big data, of experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea. Comparative analysis was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and time-series graph analysis. The web search traffic logs were collected for the past three years (2012-2014) from OASIS and NAVER, which are the representative web search engines of experts and public respectively in Korea. First, regarding OASIS, the most searched medicinal herb was Angelicae Gigantis Radix while the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma; for NAVER, the most searched medicinal herb was Paeoniae Radix, unlike OASIS, and the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma, as with OASIS. The coefficient between rank of herbs and OASIS was -0.401, and that between rank of herbs and NAVER was -0.387, and the correlational coefficient for web search trends of OASIS and NAVER during the past three years was 0.438. Also the correlation of interest between experts and public for each herb on monthly web trends basis was similar with regard to Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Angelicae Gigantis Radix, but different with regard to the other 8 medicinal herbs. Finally, significant outcomes or suggestions were figured out through time-series graph analysis. This study presents meaningful results concerning the similarities and differences in interest between experts and

  18. Spatio-temporal trend analysis of precipitation, temperature, and river discharge in the northeast of Iran in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Masoud; Irannezhad, Masoud

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses spatio-temporal trends in precipitation, temperature, and river discharge in the northeast of Iran during recent decades (1953-2013). The Pettitt, SNHT, Buishand, Box-Pierce, Ljung-Box, and McLeod-Li methods were applied to examine homogeneity in time series studied. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope estimator tests were used to detect possible significant ( p method was used to determine significant trends. To explore spatial distributions of trends, their magnitudes were interpolated by the inverse distance whitening (IDW) method. Trend analysis shows that for daily, monthly, and annual precipitation time series, 12.5, 19, and 12.5 % of the stations revealed significant increasing trends, respectively. For mean temperature, warming trends were found at 38, 23, and 31 % of the stations on daily, monthly, and annual timescales, in turn. Daily and monthly river discharge decreased at 80 and 40 % of the stations. Overall, these results indicate significant increases in precipitation and temperature but decreases in river discharge during recent decades. Hence, it can be concluded that decreasing trends in river discharge time series over the northeast of Iran during 1953-2013 are in response to warming temperatures, which increase the rate of evapotranspiration. Differences between the results of our comprehensive large-scale study and those of previous researches confirm the necessity for more model-based local studies on climatic and environmental changes across the northeast of Iran.

  19. Research Status and Development Trend of Remote Sensing in China Using Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Niu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing was introduced into China in 1970s and then began to flourish. At present, China has developed into a big remote sensing country, and remote sensing is increasingly playing an important role in various fields of national economic construction and social development. Based on China Academic Journals Full-text Database and China Citation Database published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, this paper analyzed academic characteristics of 963 highly cited papers published by 16 professional and academic journals in the field of surveying and mapping from January 2010 to December 2014 in China, which include hot topics, literature authors, research institutions, and fundations. At the same time, it studied a total of 51,149 keywords published by these 16 journals during the same period. Firstly by keyword selection, keyword normalization, keyword consistency and keyword incorporation, and then by analysis of high frequency keywords, the progress and prospect of China's remote sensing technology in data acquisition, data processing and applications during the past five years were further explored and revealed. It can be seen that: highly cited paper analysis and word frequency analysis is complementary on subject progress analysis; in data acquisition phase, research focus is new civilian remote sensing satellite systems and UAV remote sensing system; research focus of data processing and analysis is multi-source information extraction and classification, laser point cloud data processing, objectoriented high resolution image analysis, SAR data and hyper-spectral image processing, etc.; development trend of remote sensing data processing is quantitative, intelligent, automated, and real-time, and the breadth and depth of remote sensing application is gradually increased; parallel computing, cloud computing and geographic conditions monitoring and census are the new research focuses to be paid attention to.

  20. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice ver...

  1. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chuanyin; Zhao, Na; Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.

  2. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  3. Longitudinal Trends in Internationalisation, Collaboration Types, and Citation Impact: A Bibliometric Analysis of Seven LIS Journals (1980-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-Ching Joanna Sin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Journal publication is a core avenue for sharing research in the LIS field. Effective scholarly communication is beneficial to the growth of a discipline. Bibliometrics research shows that articles in prestigious international journals are predominantly those of authors based in a few nations, however. Papers from authors outside the established nations are likely to be cited less often. This study analysed the longitudinal changes in geographical patterns of authorship, collaboration types, and factors affecting the citation impact of seven top LIS journals over a period of 29 years. In addition to data from all nations, this paper includes specific findings relating to Asian countries. Analysis of 8,140 papers shows that the internationalisation level in the sample set has increased in terms of number of nations represented and in a decreasing Gini coefficient. The presence of Asian nations such as Taiwan and Singapore as top contributing countries is particularly notable in the past 10 years. Domestic collaboration is found to be the dominant type of authorship pattern. In terms of citation impact as measured by citation counts, logistic regression was used to test the effects of author continent, country income level, collaboration type, publication year, and number of authors. Papers from lower-income countries or from Asian or European authors are found less likely to be ‘more cited.’ International and domestic collaboration had a positive relation with citation counts. A practical implication is that authors may consider international collaboration as a way to increase the visibility and impact of their research. Nevertheless, the reasons behind such differential citation impact require more exploration. Invisible colleges, the strengths of weak ties, and the geographic scope of a paper are some factors to be further examined. It is hoped that more research can help identify and overcome barriers in scholarly communication so as to

  4. A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

  5. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  6. Scientometric analysis in special education: importance and trends over the last 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Canavarro Benite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Special education in Brazil is defined in law as “the type of education offered preferentially in the regular classes for students with special needs education”. However, this proposal of special education has not always been defined in this way, and a factor that contributed greatly to the consolidation of special education as a specific field of study was the research and theis resulting publications. Thus, this study aimed to make a scientometric analysis in the field of special education in order to determine which are and were the main trends of research over the years, and to review literature on the history of special education. It was felt that the issue of special education has undergone major advances, with consequent recovery of the subject with special needs. The scientometric analysis in special education to suggest that there has been a great evolution in the area, including a fact explained by the large number of papers published over time and the different aspects of his publications. Reflections on scientometrics in special education characterize the global production of special education and provide input for further research are made in this area. Thus, the construction and analysis of these indicators have provided input to view the state of the art in special education.

  7. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  8. [Breast cancer in México: a 10-year trend analysis on incidence and age at diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Juárez-Ruiz, Abigail; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Guzmán-De la Garza, Francisco Javier; Santos-Lartigue, Adriana; Escobar-Moreno, César

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem. Some countries have achieved a downward trend while in others, continues ascending. In México, information on incidence and age at diagnosis is isolated in time, and knowledge on trend analysis is lacking. To examine the 2003-2012 trend of the incidence rate and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in the northeast of México. We also analyze the trend of positivity to nodes, hormone receptors and HER2; and its association with age at diagnosis. This is an epidemiological study of breast cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in Monterrey, México (n = 3,488). Only new cases with a histology report were included; if this was not available, the cytology result was considered. Trend analysis was performed using the JoinPoint regression program Version 3.5. The breast cancer incidence rate increased from 26.7 to 49.8 per 100,000 between 2003 and 2011 (p trend. This study represents a first effort in our country, for determining patterns on incidence and age at diagnosis of breast cancer, as well as that of biomarkers.

  9. Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson; Mendiola, Jaime; Weksler-Derri, Dan; Mindlis, Irina; Pinotti, Rachel; Swan, Shanna H

    2017-11-01

    Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for English language studies of human SC published in 1981-2013. Following a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years of sample collection and covariates [fertility group ('Unselected by fertility' versus 'Fertile'), geographic group ('Western', including North America, Europe Australia and New Zealand versus 'Other', including South America, Asia and Africa), age, ejaculation abstinence time, semen collection method, method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P meta-regression models = -0.64; -1.06 to -0.22; P = 0.003). The slopes in the meta-regression model were modified by fertility (P for interaction = 0.064) and geographic group (P for interaction = 0.027). There was a significant decline in SC

  10. Trend Analysis for the Choice and Cost of Lung Cancer Treatment in South Korea, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun; Kim, So Young; Suh, Beomseok; Park, Jong Hyock

    2017-09-04

    Our study aimed to report the annual changes in lung cancer statistics and analyze trends in sociodemographic, medical, and financial factors from 2003 to 2013 in the national database from the Korean National Health Insurance (KNHI). Among 7,489 patients with code C34 in KNHI database, only lung cancer patients newly diagnosed after 2003 were included in the study population, for a total of 4,582 patients. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize treatment patterns and medical costs according to sociodemographic factors. Approximately 70% of subjects were male, and the mean age was 67 years. Around 46% of patients were over 70 years old, and 12% were over 80 years old. The medical costs were highest for patients younger than 60 and lowest for those over 80 years old. Surgery was more common in younger patients, while 'no treatment' increased greatly with age. In trend analysis, the proportions of aging (P-for-trend trend = 0.003), metropolitan/urban (P-for-trend = 0.041) and lowest or highest-income patients (P-for-trend = 0.004) increased over time, along with the prevalence of surgery as the primary treatment (P-for-trend trend with regard to change in medical costs (P-for-trend < 0.001), in that those of surgery and radiotherapy increased. Surgery as a curative treatment has increased over the past decade. However, the elderly, suburban/rural residents, and low-income patients were more likely to be untreated. Therefore, active measures are required for these increasingly vulnerable groups.

  11. Major single nucleotide polymorphisms in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a comparative analysis between Thai and other Asian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaren P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patchima Chantaren1, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk1, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol2, Montip Tiensuwan3, Somying Promso41Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the association in a Thai population between the major age-related macular degeneration (AMD susceptibility loci, Y402H and I62V in the complement factor H (CFH and A69S in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2 genes, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV.Methods: A case-control study included 97 PCV cases and 102 age- and gender-matched controls without any retinopathy. The genotypic profiles of the three polymorphisms were obtained using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The allelic and genotypic association between the polymorphisms and PCV were compared with those from the compiled data of other Asian populations reported previously.Results: Strong associations between the Y402H, I62V, and A69S polymorphisms and PCV were observed in the present study (P = 0.002, 0.003, and 0.0008 respectively and in the compiled data (P < 0.0001 for all three polymorphisms. The risk allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in PCVs and in controls from the present study (15.0% and 5.4% for Y402H, 71.7% and 57.4% for I62V, and 54.1% and 37.3% for A69S respectively were also comparable with the frequencies from the compiled data (10.3% and 6.4% for Y402H, 75.2% and 58.3% for I62V, and 56.8% and 36.8% for A69S respectively. The genotype distribution for each polymorphism was also comparable in both datasets.Conclusion: The findings of this study support a significant genetic association between the major AMD susceptibility genes and PCV across Asian

  12. Final Report on the Proposal to Provide Asian Science and Technology Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahaner, David K. [Asian Technology Information Program

    2003-07-23

    The Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP) conducted a seven-month Asian science and technology information program for the Office:of Energy Research (ER), U.S: Department of Energy (DOE.) The seven-month program consists of 1) monitoring, analyzing, and dissemiuating science and technology trends and developments associated with Asian high performance computing and communications (HPC), networking, and associated topics, 2) access to ATIP's annual series of Asian S&T reports for ER and HPC related personnel and, 3) supporting DOE and ER designated visits to Asia to study and assess Asian HPC.

  13. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  14. Modeling of rainfall events and trends through multifractal analysis on the Ebro River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jose Luis; María Tarquis, Ana; Saá-Requejo, Antonio; Villeta, María; María Gascó, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Water supplies in the Ebro River Basin present high seasonal fluctuations, with extreme rainfall events during autumn and spring, and demands are increasingly stressed during summer. At the same time, repeated anomalous annual fluctuations in recent decades have become a serious concern for regional hydrology, agriculture and several related industries in the region. In fact, it has had a devastating impact, both socially and economically. In addition it has resulted in debate over the changing seasonal patterns of rainfall and the increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events. The aim of this work is to evaluate these challenges on the Ebro River Basin.For this purpose, 132 complete and regular spatial rainfall daily datasets (from 1931 to 2009) were analyzed. Each dataset corresponds to a grid of 25 km x 25 km and belongs to the area studied. First, classical statistical tests were applied to the series at annual scale to check the randomness and trends. No trends where found. Then, we analyzed the change in the rainfall variability pattern in the Ebro River Basin. We have used universal multifractal (UM) analysis, which estimates the concentration of the data around the precipitation average (C1, codimension average), the degree of multiscaling behavior in time (α index) and the maximum probable singularity in the rainfall distribution (γs). Daily rainfall series were subdivided (1931-1975 and 1965-2009) to study the difference between the two periods in these three UM parameters, in an attempt to relate them to geographical coordinates and relative positions in the river basin. The variations observed in C1 and α in some areas of the Ebro River Basin indicate that a precipitation regime change has begun in the last few decades, and therefore, this change should be considered in terms of its potential effects on the social and economical development of the region. This confirms some postulates drawn by conservative scientists who reject a catastrophic

  15. A study on clinical nursing research trends and hotspots based on bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Fan Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to understand the trends and research hotspots of clinical nursing in China and abroad, thereby to provide guidance for nursing practice and studies. Methods: We retrieved clinical nursing literature (excluding literature related to psychological nursing and traditional Chinese medicine nursing cited in Wanfang Data (www.wanfangdata.com.cn and PubMed between 2007 and 2015 and subsequently performed bibliometric analyses on article volume, journal, clustering of high-frequency keywords, and co-occurrence of keywords. Results: A total of 10374 publications, excluding those related to psychological nursing, were retrieved via a PubMed search. The literature displayed a rising trend in terms of annual publication volume. The journal distribution of clinical nursing publications overall was consistent with Bradford's Law. The main contents of clinical nursing literature between 2007 and 2009 included: (1 studies on effects of the midwife and midwifery methods for natural childbirth; (2 studies on emergency nursing care; (3 studies on dementia care; (4 studies on bandage dressing in trauma nursing; and (5 studies on quality of life in cancer patients nursing. The main contents of clinical nursing literature between 2010 and 2012 included: (1 studies on obstetric nurse–patient relationships; (2 studies on patients' medical team in stroke nursing; (3 studies on cancer nursing methods; (4 studies on nursing patients with trauma related to urinary incontinence; and (5 studies on the quality of life of caregivers of dementia patients. The main contents of clinical nursing literature between 2013 and 2015 included (1 studies on skin care and bandaging in trauma nursing; (2 studies on evidence-based nursing in AIDS care; (3 studies on nurses' role in obstetric nurse–patient relationships; studies on cancer nursing methods; (4 studies on nursing for Alzheimer's disease and dementia; and (5 studies on caregivers

  16. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  17. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  18. Homogenization of Monthly Temperaure Data and Climate Trend Analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Anslow, F. S.; Zwiers, F. W.; Atkinson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Non-climatic variations (such as changes of instrument, station relocation, changes in observing time and procedure, etc.) in climate data can lead to discontinuities, causing the inaccurate analysis of the climatic characteristics for a given location. Thus, data quality control and homogenization is the crucial first step before properly analyzing climate trend and extremes. In Canada, the most recent Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data (AHCCD) from Environment and Climate Change Canada have been produced for four climate variables at various temporal resolution, such as adjusted surface air temperature for 338 locations (Vincent et al., 2012), adjusted precipitation dataset for over 450 locations (Mekis and Vincent, 2011). In British Columbia (B.C.), thousands of stations from non-ECCC networks are available for quality control and homogenization. In this project, homogenization of monthly temperature data for 79 stations (more stations will be included) from three networks (BCHydro, Ministry of Forests Lands and Natural Resource Operations Wildfire Management Branch and the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure) is based on a penalized maximum t-test with Quantile-Matching (QM) algorithm to detect inhomogeneities and make adjustments to the data (Wang et al. 2007, Wang 2008a, Wang 2008b). The homogenized product from the project will be made available to climate researchers through the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium's (PCIC) data portal. Climate trends in the studied region (Northwest of B.C. and Vancouver Island) will be presented from the homogenized dataset and will be compared to those calculated from datasets without homogenization and the AHCCD data. After such evaluation, the results are expected to suggest an improvement in the ability of characterizing climate change with the homogenized datasets.

  19. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global cardiovascular research output, citations, and collaborations: a time-trend, bibliometric analysis (1999-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    Full Text Available Health research is one mechanism to improve population-level health and should generally match the health needs of populations. However, there have been limited data to assess the trends in national-level cardiovascular research output, even as cardiovascular disease [CVD] has become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.We performed a time trends analysis of cardiovascular research publications (1999-2008 downloaded from Web of Knowledge using a iteratively-tested cardiovascular bibliometric filter with >90% precision and recall. We evaluated cardiovascular research publications, five-year running actual citation indices [ACIs], and degree of international collaboration measured through the ratio of the fractional count of addresses from one country against all addresses for each publication.Global cardiovascular publication volume increased from 40 661 publications in 1999 to 55 284 publications in 2008, which represents a 36% increase. The proportion of cardiovascular publications from high-income, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] countries declined from 93% to 84% of the total share over the study period. High-income, OECD countries generally had higher fractional counts, which suggest less international collaboration, than lower income countries from 1999-2008. There was an inverse relationship between cardiovascular publications and age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality rates, but a direct, curvilinear relationship between cardiovascular publications and Human Development Index from 1999-2008.Cardiovascular health research output has increased substantially in the past decade, with a greater share of citations being published from low- and middle-income countries. However, low- and middle-income countries with the higher burdens of cardiovascular disease continue to have lower research output than high-income countries, and thus require targeted research investments to improve

  1. Analysis of trend in incidence of trichinellosis in pigs before and after systematic deratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirilović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the territory of Serbia, the occurrence of trichinellosis in domestic pigs has been present for a long number of years. In a ten-year period, a total of 1,224 pigs were registered in one populated area with the diagnosis of a larval form of the parasite T.spiralis. In the middle of the period of examination, a systematic deratization of the complete settlement was carried out, the neighboring garbage dumps, and a pit grave. The systematic deratization was performed using the preparation Brodisan. This preparation is a liquid concentrate for the preparation of bait with 0.25% bromadiolone (3-(3-/-bromobiphenyl-4- il/-3-hydroxy-1-phenylpropyl-4-hydroxycoumarin. The total used quantity of bait for one systematic deratization in this populated area was 4,840 kg. Analyzing the tendency of the incidence of positive pigs in the period before the systematic deratization, we established that the average annual increase was around 70 pigs (b=69.30. The best adapted line of movement of the number of positive pigs was a third degree polynomial (Ŷ=185.20- 304.10x + 147.10x2-16.75x3, because its correlation coefficient is the biggest (rxy=0.96. The analysis of the trend in the number of infected pigs after the systematic deratization was performed in the examined area, it was established on the grounds of the negative parameter b of the straight line trend, that the average annual reduction in the number of infected pigs was 39.80. The tendency of a reduction of the number of infected pigs following the systematic deratization is best described by a second degree polynomial (Ŷ=307.2- 109.23x + 11.57x2 because its correlation coefficient is rxy=0.98.

  2. Global Cardiovascular Research Output, Citations, and Collaborations: A Time-Trend, Bibliometric Analysis (1999–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D.; Baldridge, Abigail; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Suh, Sarah; Lewison, Grant; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health research is one mechanism to improve population-level health and should generally match the health needs of populations. However, there have been limited data to assess the trends in national-level cardiovascular research output, even as cardiovascular disease [CVD] has become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Materials and Methods We performed a time trends analysis of cardiovascular research publications (1999–2008) downloaded from Web of Knowledge using a iteratively-tested cardiovascular bibliometric filter with >90% precision and recall. We evaluated cardiovascular research publications, five-year running actual citation indices [ACIs], and degree of international collaboration measured through the ratio of the fractional count of addresses from one country against all addresses for each publication. Results and Discussion Global cardiovascular publication volume increased from 40 661 publications in 1999 to 55 284 publications in 2008, which represents a 36% increase. The proportion of cardiovascular publications from high-income, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] countries declined from 93% to 84% of the total share over the study period. High-income, OECD countries generally had higher fractional counts, which suggest less international collaboration, than lower income countries from 1999–2008. There was an inverse relationship between cardiovascular publications and age-standardized CVD morbidity and mortality rates, but a direct, curvilinear relationship between cardiovascular publications and Human Development Index from 1999–2008. Conclusions Cardiovascular health research output has increased substantially in the past decade, with a greater share of citations being published from low- and middle-income countries. However, low- and middle-income countries with the higher burdens of cardiovascular disease continue to have lower research output than high-income countries, and thus

  3. Genetic diversity analysis of Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in the Hongze Lake based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Li, Jin; Xie, Songguang; Ding, Huaiyu; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang

    2017-03-24

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is a small bivalve with high nutritional and medical values. However, natural resources of C. fluminea have declined in many areas of China including the Hongze Lake. In this study, 119 individuals from 10 sites of this lake and 2 outgroups were analyzed using a 456 bp mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene segment. Totally, 19 polymorphic sites were detected, which defined 16 haplotypes. Polymorphism varied among the 10 populations with those at the water inlet being more polymorphic. Most F ST values among these populations were below 0.15 with the overall value of 0.060 (p < .05), meanwhile, the overall gene flow was 7.67, both of which indicated the low level of population differentiation in this lake. Neutrality test and mismatch analyses indicated that population explosion may have occurred in this lake. The results obtained in this study will provide useful information for artificial breeding and resource protection of this species in the Hongze Lake.

  4. Facial Shape Analysis Identifies Valid Cues to Aspects of Physiological Health in Caucasian, Asian, and African Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D; Hiew, Vivian; Coetzee, Vinet; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Perrett, David I

    2017-01-01

    Facial cues contribute to attractiveness, including shape cues such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism. These cues may represent cues to objective aspects of physiological health, thereby conferring an evolutionary advantage to individuals who find them attractive. The link between facial cues and aspects of physiological health is therefore central to evolutionary explanations of attractiveness. Previously, studies linking facial cues to aspects of physiological health have been infrequent, have had mixed results, and have tended to focus on individual facial cues in isolation. Geometric morphometric methodology (GMM) allows a bottom-up approach to identifying shape correlates of aspects of physiological health. Here, we apply GMM to facial shape data, producing models that successfully predict aspects of physiological health in 272 Asian, African, and Caucasian faces - percentage body fat (21.0% of variance explained), body mass index (BMI; 31.9%) and blood pressure (BP; 21.3%). Models successfully predict percentage body fat and blood pressure even when controlling for BMI, suggesting that they are not simply measuring body size. Predicted values of BMI and BP, but not percentage body fat, correlate with health ratings. When asked to manipulate the shape of faces along the physiological health variable axes (as determined by the models), participants reduced predicted BMI, body fat and (marginally) BP, suggesting that facial shape provides a valid cue to aspects of physiological health.

  5. Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jia Nee; Tan, Louis C; Liany, Herty; Koh, Tat Hung; Irwan, Ishak D; Ng, Yen Yek; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Au, Wing-Lok; Aung, Tin; Chan, Anne Y Y; Chong, Siow-Ann; Chung, Sun Ju; Jung, Yusun; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Juyeon; Lee, Jimmy; Lim, Shen-Yang; Mok, Vincent; Prakash, Kumar-M; Song, Kyuyoung; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tan, Eng-King; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare non-synonymous-coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 non-synonymous-coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.93; P = 8.05 × 10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss of function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  7. Analysis of the eight-year trend in ozone depletion from empirical models of solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Hudson, R. D.; Serafino, G.

    1990-01-01

    Arguments are presented showing that the basic empirical model of the solar backscatter UV (SBUV) instrument degradation used by Cebula et al. (1988) in their analysis of the SBUV data is likely to lead to an incorrect estimate of the ozone trend. A correction factor is given as a function of time and altitude that brings the SBUV data into approximate agreement with the SAGE, SME, and Dobson network ozone trends. It is suggested that the currently archived SBUV ozone data should be used with caution for periods of analysis exceeding 1 yr, since it is likely that the yearly decreases contained in the archived data are too large.

  8. A sensitivity analysis of secular trends in risk factors and mortality based on cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Andersen, P K; Osler, M

    1999-01-01

    Because of a "healthy responder effect," secular trends in mortality based on cohort studies may be biased if based on responders only. Because responders are selected on the basis of their health at study entry, subjects just entering a study are not comparable with subjects who have been...... this solution with data on trends in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality based on a large Danish cohort study with 19 years of complete follow-up on responders and nonresponders. Secular trends in mortality based on the whole sample vs responders only illustrated that results based on responders were...... secular trend in mortality. By applying different assumptions regarding smoking habits among nonresponders, we explored the effect of the assumptions on the adjusted secular trend in mortality. We conclude that secular trends in mortality based on responders in a cohort study are likely to be biased...

  9. Global trends in research related to social media in psychology: mapping and bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2018-01-01

    Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication

  10. Trends analysis of rainfall and rainfall extremes in Sarawak, Malaysia using modified Mann-Kendall test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adi, Zulfaqar; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Ismail, Tarmizi; Chung, Eun-Sung; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses the spatial pattern of changes in rainfall extremes of Sarawak in recent years (1980-2014). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test along with modified Mann-Kendall (m-MK) test, which can discriminate multi-scale variability of unidirectional trend, was used to analyze the changes at 31 stations. Taking account of the scaling effect through eliminating the effect of autocorrelation, m-MK was employed to discriminate multi-scale variability of the unidirectional trends of the annual rainfall in Sarawak. It can confirm the significance of the MK test. The annual rainfall trend from MK test showed significant changes at 95% confidence level at five stations. The seasonal trends from MK test indicate an increasing rate of rainfall during the Northeast monsoon and a decreasing trend during the Southwest monsoon in some region of Sarawak. However, the m-MK test detected an increasing trend in annual rainfall only at one station and no significant trend in seasonal rainfall at any stations. The significant increasing trends of the 1-h maximum rainfall from the MK test are detected mainly at the stations located in the urban area giving concern to the occurrence of the flash flood. On the other hand, the m-MK test detected no significant trend in 1- and 3-h maximum rainfalls at any location. On the contrary, it detected significant trends in 6- and 72-h maximum rainfalls at a station located in the Lower Rajang basin area which is an extensive low-lying agricultural area and prone to stagnant flood. These results indicate that the trends in rainfall and rainfall extremes reported in Malaysia and surrounding region should be verified with m-MK test as most of the trends may result from scaling effect.

  11. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Konopka, P.; Liu, Y.; Chen, H.; Müller, R.; F. Plöger; Riese, M.; Cai, Z.; D. Lü

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3) during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photoche...

  12. Not Out of Control: Analysis of the Federal Disaster Spending Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and policy and inertia influences are described. This study found an upward trend of federal disaster spending, yet one that is far from out of...illustrate budgeting, spending, and declaration trends, and policy and inertia influences are described. This study found an upward trend of...without putting readers to sleep . Cohort 1405/1406 was and remains an energizing group of leaders dedicated to improving homeland security through public

  13. Time trend analysis of primary tumor resection for stage IV colorectal cancer: less surgery, improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Skibber, John M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Feig, Barry W; Chang, George J

    2015-03-01

    With the advent of effective modern chemotherapeutic and biologic agents, primary tumor resection for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) may not be routinely necessary. To evaluate the secular patterns of primary tumor resection use in stage IV CRC in the United States. A retrospective cohort study using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results CRC registry. Demographic and clinical factors were compared for 64,157 patients diagnosed with stage IV colon or rectal cancer from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2010, who had undergone primary tumor resection and those who had not. Rates of primary tumor resection and median relative survival were calculated for each year. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to determine when a significant change in trend in the primary tumor resection rate had occurred. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with primary tumor resection. Difference in primary tumor resection rates over time. Of the 64,157 patients with stage IV CRC, 43,273 (67.4%) had undergone primary tumor resection. The annual rate of primary tumor resection decreased from 74.5% in 1988 to 57.4% in 2010 (Ptrend toward fewer primary tumor resections was seen. Despite the decreasing primary tumor resection rate, patient survival rates improved. However, primary tumor resection may still be overused, and current treatment practices lag behind evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  14. Recent trends in the analysis of bioactive peptides in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Food-derived constituents represent important sources of several classes of bioactive compounds. Among them peptides have gained great attention in the last two decades thanks to the scientific evidence of their beneficial effects on health in addition to their established nutritional value. Several functionalities for bioactive peptides have been described, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activity. They are now considered as novel and potential dietary ingredients to promote human health, though in some cases they may also have detrimental effects on health. Bioactive peptides can be naturally occurring, produced in vitro by enzymatic hydrolysis, and formed in vivo during gastrointestinal digestion of proteins. Thus, the need to gain a better understanding of the positive health effects of food peptides has prompted the development of analytical strategies for their isolation, separation, and identification in complex food matrices. Dairy products and milk are potential sources of bioactive peptides: several of them possess extra-nutritional physiological functions that qualify them to be classified under the functional food label. In this trends article we briefly describe the state-of-the-art of peptidomics methods for the identification and discovery of bioactive peptides, also considering recent progress in their analysis and highlighting the difficulty in the analysis of short amino acid sequences and endogenous peptides.

  15. The Chloroplast Genome of Euglena mutabilis-Cluster Arrangement, Intron Analysis, and Intrageneric Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nadja; Preisfeld, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of Euglena mutabilis underlined a high diversity in the evolution of plastids in euglenids. Gene clusters in more derived Euglenales increased in complexity with only a few, but remarkable changes in the genus Euglena. Euglena mutabilis differed from other Euglena species in a mirror-inverted arrangement of 12 from 15 identified clusters, making it very likely that the emergence at the base of the genus Euglena, which has been considered a long branch artifact, is truly a probable position. This was corroborated by many similarities in gene arrangement and orientation with Strombomonas and Monomorphina, rendering the genome organization of E. mutabilis in certain clusters as plesiomorphic feature. By RNA analysis exact exon-intron boundaries and the type of the 77 introns identified were mostly determined unambiguously. A detailed intron study of psbC pointed at two important issues: First, the number of introns varied even between species, and no trend from few to many introns could be observed. Second, mat1 was localized in Eutreptiales exclusively in intron 1, and mat2 was not identified. With the emergence of Euglenaceae in most species, a new intron containing mat2 inserted in front of the previous intron 1 and thereby became intron 2 with mat1. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Integrating text mining, data mining, and network analysis for identifying genetic breast cancer trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurca, Gabriela; Addam, Omar; Aksac, Alper; Gao, Shang; Özyer, Tansel; Demetrick, Douglas; Alhajj, Reda

    2016-04-26

    Breast cancer is a serious disease which affects many women and may lead to death. It has received considerable attention from the research community. Thus, biomedical researchers aim to find genetic biomarkers indicative of the disease. Novel biomarkers can be elucidated from the existing literature. However, the vast amount of scientific publications on breast cancer make this a daunting task. This paper presents a framework which investigates existing literature data for informative discoveries. It integrates text mining and social network analysis in order to identify new potential biomarkers for breast cancer. We utilized PubMed for the testing. We investigated gene-gene interactions, as well as novel interactions such as gene-year, gene-country, and abstract-country to find out how the discoveries varied over time and how overlapping/diverse are the discoveries and the interest of various research groups in different countries. Interesting trends have been identified and discussed, e.g., different genes are highlighted in relationship to different countries though the various genes were found to share functionality. Some text analysis based results have been validated against results from other tools that predict gene-gene relations and gene functions.

  17. Assessing pollution trends in the Guadalquivir River estuary using N-way analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López J. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have contributed to a deployment of environmental quality. In the last decades the problem of water preservation has gained increasing attention, and new policies have been developed for water resources remediation. Statistical techniques for data treatment are based on the organization of data in a bi-dimensional array; thus, some shades on the trend of the distribution tend to be ignored. Multiway techniques, where data are gathered in n directions, allow the analysis of the results through different directions at the same time. In particular, for 3MPCA a principal components analysis is conducted using three modes and a “core” matrix that allows assessing their interactions. The Guadalquivir River estuary has been used as a model system for the application of 3MPCA in the study of long term evolution of pollutants. Nutrients and heavy metals ultra-traces level have been used to characterize the estuary. The 3MPCA was used to assess the relationships within chemical variables, sampling stations and sampling campaigns.

  18. An exploratory analysis of long-term trends in atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovsky, M.Ya. (International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (AT)); Buchstaber, V.M. (All-Union Research Inst. of Physiotechnical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Moscow (SU))

    1991-01-01

    A new methodological approach for the analysis of monitoring data is discussed. The main ideas are illustrated for the example of the CO{sub 2} problem. The analysis of CO{sub 2} concentrations obtained from a global network of monitoring stations permitted us to construct a nonparametric evaluation of the spatial-temporal distribution of this field. We propose a parabolic parameterization of the long-term tendency of this field as a function of time (in one-year time steps). A function of the predictive ability of a model is defined on a basis of the technique of 'supervised training'. This function is computed for a parabolic model and it is shown that this model constructed for the first 15 years of observations evaluated the tendency for the next 15 years quite well. The main problem that we solve in this paper is how to correlate the projections of different models for the carbon cycle and different scenarios of the annual release of carbon into the atmosphere with the projections that reflect parameterization of the trends of CO{sub 2}-monitoring data. (orig.) (24 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.).

  19. An exploratory analysis of long-term trends in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovsky, M.Y.; Buchstaber, V.M.

    1991-07-01

    A new methodological approach for the analysis of monitoring data is discussed. The main ideas are illustrated for the example of the CO[sub 2] problem. The analysis of CO[sub 2] concentrations obtained from a global network of monitoring stations permitted construction of a nonparametric evaluation of the spatial-temporal distribution of this field. Proposes a parabolic parameterization of the long-term tendency of this field as a function of time (in one-year time steps). A function of the predictive ability of a model is defined on the basis of the technique of 'supervised training'. This function is computed for a parabolic model and it is shown that this model constructed for the first 15 years of observations evaluates the tendency for the next 15 years quite well. The main problem solved in this paper is how to correlate the projections of different models for the carbon cycle and different scenarios of the annual release of carbon into the atmosphere with the projections that reflect parameterization of the trends of CO[sub 2]-monitoring data. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A comprehensive analysis of clinical outcomes in lung cancer patients harboring a MET exon 14 skipping mutation compared to other driver mutations in an East Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Min-Shu; Wu, Shang-Gin; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent somatic splice-site alterations at MET exon 14 (MET(Δ14)), which result in exon skipping and MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) activation, have been characterised. However, their demographic features and clinical outcomes in East Asian lung cancer patients have yet to be determined. A one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using RNA samples from 850 East Asian lung cancer patients, was performed in order to detect MET(Δ14) and five other major driver mutations, including those in the EGFR, KRAS, ALK, HER2, and ROS1 genes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm the overexpression of MET in patients harbouring the MET(Δ14) mutation. We analysed the demographic data and clinical outcomes of MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients and compared them to those of MET(Δ14) mutation negative lung cancer patients. In total, 27 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients and 1 squamous cell carcinoma patient with the MET(Δ14) mutation were identified. The overall incidence was 3.3% for lung cancer and 4.0% for lung ADC. IHC demonstrated that the majority of lung cancer patients harboring a MET(Δ14) mutation exhibited a strong cytoplasmic expression of MET. MET(Δ14) mutation positive patients were generally quite elderly individuals. Stage IV MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients receiving no specific anti-MET therapy were observed to have a similar overall survival (OS) compared to patients in the all negative group (P>0.05). In the multivariate analysis, mutation status was found not to be a major risk factor for OS in lung cancer patients without appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. The OS of MET(Δ14) mutation positive lung cancer patients is comparable to that of the major driver gene mutation negative lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.