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Sample records for asian populations levels

  1. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

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    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

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    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, 65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration ( p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  3. Population-level impact of active tuberculosis case finding in an Asian megacity.

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    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area. We fit the model using field and literature data, assuming that TB incidence equaled the estimated nationwide incidence in Pakistan (primary analysis, or 1.5 times greater (high-incidence scenario. We modeled the intervention as an increase in the rate of formal-sector TB diagnosis and evaluated the potential impact of sustaining this rate for five years. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the five-year intervention averted 24% (95% uncertainty range, UR: 18-30% of five-year cumulative TB cases and 52% (95% UR: 45-57% of cumulative TB deaths. Corresponding reductions in the high-incidence scenario were 12% (95% UR: 8-17% and 27% (95% UR: 21-34%, although the absolute number of lives saved was higher. At the end of five years, TB notification rates in the primary analysis were below their 2010 baseline, incidence had dropped by 45%, and annual mortality had fallen by 72%. About half of the cumulative impact on incidence and mortality could be achieved with a one-year intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained, multifaceted, and innovative approaches to TB case-finding in Asian megacities can have substantial community-wide epidemiological impact.

  4. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

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    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  5. Are C-reactive protein associated genetic variants associated with serum levels and retinal markers of microvascular pathology in Asian populations from Singapore?

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    Rajkumar Dorajoo

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations.Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434 and Malays (N = 2,542 and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538 from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry.Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10(-8 after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10 (p-values ≤0.009, in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250 were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036 but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058.Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with CRP levels in East-Asian and South-Asian

  6. Are C-Reactive Protein Associated Genetic Variants Associated with Serum Levels and Retinal Markers of Microvascular Pathology in Asian Populations from Singapore?

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    Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Liu, Jianjun; Froguel, Philippe; Lee, Jeannette; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan Ting; Peng, Chen; Young, Terri L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Aung, Tin; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Klein, Ronald; Siscovick, David S.; Jensen, Richard A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Smith, Albert Vernon; Teo, Yik Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations. Methods Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434) and Malays (N = 2,542) and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538) from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD) difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE)] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry. Results Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10−8) after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10) (p-values ≤0.009), in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250) were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036) but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058). Conclusions Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with

  7. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

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    2014-01-01

    populations, while not being currently employed, having a regular medical doctor, and inactive physical activity level were associated with greater risk for South Asian Canadian-born populations. Conclusions Mental health outreach programs need to be cognizant of the differences in prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant and Canadian-born populations to better tailor mental health services to be responsive to the unique mental health needs of South Asian populations in Canada. PMID:24884792

  8. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

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    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  9. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

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    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  10. Genomic copy number variations in three Southeast Asian populations.

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    Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus

    2010-07-01

    Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

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    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  12. Natural selection on HFE in Asian populations contributes to enhanced non-heme iron absorption.

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    Ye, Kaixiong; Cao, Chang; Lin, Xu; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-06-10

    HFE, a major regulator of iron (Fe) homeostasis, has been suggested to be under positive selection in both European and Asian populations. While the genetic variant under selection in Europeans (a non-synonymous mutation, C282Y) has been relatively well-studied, the adaptive variant in Asians and its functional consequences are still unknown. Identifying the adaptive HFE variants in Asians will not only elucidate the evolutionary history and the genetic basis of population difference in Fe status, but also assist the future practice of genome-informed dietary recommendation. Using data from the International HapMap Project, we confirmed the signatures of positive selection on HFE in Asian populations and identified a candidate adaptive haplotype that is common in Asians (52.35-54.71%) but rare in Europeans (5.98%) and Africans (4.35%). The T allele at tag SNP rs9366637 (C/T) captured 95.8% of this Asian-common haplotype. A significantly reduced HFE expression was observed in individuals carrying T/T at rs9366637 compared to C/C and C/T, indicating a possible role of gene regulation in adaptation. We recruited 57 women of Asian descent and measured Fe absorption using stable isotopes in those homozygous at rs9366637. We observed a 22% higher absorption in women homozygous for the Asian-common haplotype (T/T) compared to the control genotype (C/C). Additionally, compared with a group of age-matched Caucasian women, Asian women exhibited significantly elevated Fe absorption. Our results indicate parallel adaptation of HFE gene in Europeans and Asians with different genetic variants. Moreover, natural selection on HFE may have contributed to elevated Fe absorption in Asians. This study regarding population differences in Fe homeostasis has significant medical impact as high Fe level has been linked to an increased disease risk of metabolic syndromes.

  13. Dimensions of Assertiveness in an Asian-American Student Population.

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    Fukuyama, Mary A.; Greenfield, Tom K.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed components of assertiveness, assessed by the College Self-Expression Scale, for Asian-American (N=105) and Caucasian (N=135) students. Results showed a significant difference in full-scale assertion scores indicating lower levels of overall assertion in Asian Americans, interpreted as consistent with value differences between…

  14. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

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    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  15. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

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    S. Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet – Macau, EMBEV–Macau, this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other

  16. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

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    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  17. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

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    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  18. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

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    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  19. 12th meeting of Asian Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the 12th annual Asian Parliamentarians Meeting on Population and Development, co-sponsored by the Asian Population and Development Association (APDA) of Japan and the Philippine Legislative Committee on Population and Development (PLCPD), the adverse effect of population growth on economic development and the importance of improvements in women's status were central themes. Fukusaburo Maeda, President of APDA Japan, noted that an understanding of women's issues is key to solving global population problems. Numerous participants urged rapid implementation of plans outlined at recent conferences in Cairo and Beijing to empower women and involve them in all stages of the development process. Even issues of food security are linked to women's issues, since women are generally responsible for feeding their families. Participants voted to adopt the "Manila Resolution on Women, Gender, Population, and Development"--a call for social and economic empowerment of women and resources for gender-related programs. Dr. Patricia Licuanan, Chair of the UN Committee on the Status of Women, noted that men should not feel threatened by women holding positions of power; rather, they should welcome an equal partnership between men and women. In her closing address, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani, Chair of PLCPD, stressed the importance of placing women's empowerment on various parliamentary agendas and commended APDA for its research and population-based surveys in Asia.

  20. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Tekke; Faiz Bin Adam Ghani

    2013-01-01

    The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, ...

  1. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

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    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  2. Evaluation of European Schizophrenia GWAS Loci in Asian Populations via Comprehensive Meta-Analyses.

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    Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Chang, Hong; Liu, Zichao; Li, Ming

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. Recent genetic analyses including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia among European populations. However, many of these risk variants were not largely validated in other populations of different ancestry such as Asians. To validate whether these European GWAS significant loci are associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations, we conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analyses on 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Asian populations by combining all available case-control and family-based samples, including up to 30,000 individuals. We employed classical fixed (or random) effects inverse variance weighted methods to calculate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Among the 19 GWAS loci, we replicated the risk associations of nine markers (e.g., SNPs at VRK2, ITIH3/4, NDST3, NOTCH4) surpassing significance level (two-tailed P Asian replication samples and initial European GWAS findings, and the successful replications of these GWAS loci in a different ethnic group provide stronger evidence for their clinical associations with schizophrenia. Further studies, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of these GWAS significant loci, will become increasingly important for understanding of the pathogenesis to schizophrenia.

  3. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  4. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population.

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    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly.

  5. In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture. PMID:20823912

  6. Gender differences in smoking behaviors in an Asian population.

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    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N

    2008-01-01

    Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.

  7. Usual populations, unusual individuals: insights into the behavior and management of Asian elephants in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant M Srinivasaiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC, unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km(2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals

  8. Comparison of exposure response relationship of atrasentan between North American and Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence...... change in albuminuria. Bodyweight change, a proxy of fluid retention, was used as a safety endpoint. Pharmacodynamics were determined in Asians (N = 77) and North Americans (N = 134). Atrasentan plasma concentration was measured in 161 atrasentan-treated patients. RESULTS: Mean albuminuria reduction...... in Asian, compared to North American, patients was, respectively, -34.4% vs -26.3% for 0.75 mg/d ( P  = .44) and -48.0% vs -28.9% for 1.25 mg/d ( P  = .035). Bodyweight gain did not differ between North American and Asian populations. Atrasentan plasma concentrations were higher in Asians compared to North...

  9. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  10. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  11. Comparison of exposure response relationship of atrasentan between North American and Asian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Coll, Blai; Davis, Justin W.; Idler, Ken; Kohan, Donald E.; Liu, Mohan; Perkovic, Vlado; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Aims: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of

  12. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -11 compared to 4.6 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. (author)

  13. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  14. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.

  15. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. EvoSNP-DB: A database of genetic diversity in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kiejung

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become popular as an approach for the identification of large numbers of phenotype-associated variants. However, differences in genetic architecture and environmental factors mean that the effect of variants can vary across populations. Understanding population genetic diversity is valuable for the investigation of possible population specific and independent effects of variants. EvoSNP-DB aims to provide information regarding genetic diversity among East Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Non-redundant SNPs (1.6 million) were genotyped in 54 Korean trios (162 samples) and were compared with 4 million SNPs from HapMap phase II populations. EvoSNP-DB provides two user interfaces for data query and visualization, and integrates scores of genetic diversity (Fst and VarLD) at the level of SNPs, genes, and chromosome regions. EvoSNP-DB is a web-based application that allows users to navigate and visualize measurements of population genetic differences in an interactive manner, and is available online at [http://biomi.cdc.go.kr/EvoSNP/].

  17. Body mass index and retinopathy in Asian populations with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, David; Lye, Weng Kit; Tan, Gavin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Kumari, Neelam; Zheng, Ying Feng; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor for diabetes. However, the association between BMI and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been inconclusive. We aimed to assess the association between BMI and DR in a large population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults in Singapore. We examined 2,278 adults aged ≥40 years with diabetes who participated in three population-based studies conducted from 2004 to 2011: the Singapore Malay Eye Study, the Singapore Indian Eye Study, and the Singapore Chinese Eye Study. Retinal photographs taken from both eyes were graded for any and vision-threatening (VTDR) using the modified Airlie House Classification. BMI (kg/m(2)) was categorized into normal/underweight (<25), overweight (25-29.9), and obese (≥30). The prevalence rates of any and VTDR in the study population were 35.1 % and 9.1 %, respectively. The prevalence of any and VTDR decreased with increasing categories of BMI (P trend <0.001 and 0.005). In multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders, compared to those with normal weight, the odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of any DR was 0.71 (0.57-0.88) for overweight and 0.70 (0.53-0.92) for obese. Corresponding estimates for VTDR were 0.84 (0.59-1.21) for overweight and 0.58 (0.35-0.94) for obese. The inverse association between BMI and any DR was consistently present when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable and in analyses stratified by ethnicity and age. In a population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults, BMI levels were inversely associated with any DR and VTDR.

  18. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  19. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  20. RECORD-4 multicenter phase 2 trial of second-line everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Asian versus non-Asian population subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Alyasova, Anna; Ye, Dingwei; Ridolfi, Antonia; Dezzani, Luca; Motzer, Robert J

    2018-02-17

    RECORD-4 assessed everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed after 1 prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or cytokine and reinforced the clinical benefit of second-line everolimus. Because of the high percentage of patients from China enrolled in RECORD-4 (41%) and some reported differences in responses to certain targeted agents between Chinese and Western patients, this subanalysis evaluated outcomes in Asian versus non-Asian patients. RECORD-4 enrolled patients with clear cell mRCC into 3 cohorts based on prior first-line therapy: sunitinib, other anti-VEGF (sorafenib, bevacizumab, pazopanib, other), or cytokines. Patients received everolimus 10 mg/d until progression of disease (RECIST, v1.0) or intolerance. Primary end point was progression-free survival per investigator review. Data cutoff was Sept 1, 2014. Among Asian (n = 55) versus non-Asian (n = 79) patients, 98% versus 84% had good/intermediate MSKCC prognosis; 73% versus 65% were men, and 85% versus 73% were < 65 years of age. All (100%) Asian patients were of Chinese ethnicity. Median duration of exposure was 5.5 mo for Asian and 6.0 mo for non-Asian patients. Among Asian versus non-Asian patients, median progression-free survival (months) was 7.4 versus 7.8 overall, 7.4 versus 4.0 with prior sunitinib, and 5.7 versus 9.2 with prior other anti-VEGFs. Clinical benefit rate was similar between populations: 74.5% (95% CI 61.0-85.3) for Asian patients and 74.7% (95% CI 63.6-83.8) for non-Asian patients. Most patients achieved stable disease as best overall response (Asian, 63.6%; non-Asian, 69.6%). Overall rate of grade 3/4 adverse events appeared similar for Asian (58%) and non-Asian patients (54%). This RECORD-4 subanalysis demonstrated comparable efficacy and adverse event profiles of second-line everolimus in Asian and non-Asian patients. Efficacy and safety outcomes by prior therapy should be interpreted with caution because of small

  1. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  3. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  4. Population education in the school curriculum: a comparative analysis of the American and Asian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okobiah, O S

    1981-02-01

    The content, strategies, and objectives of population education curriculum materials developed for use in school systems in a developed country (US) and in a developing country (Thailand) were compared. It was assumed that the objectives and strategies of population education developed in a specific country would reflect the way in which population matters were viewed by that country's policy makers and planners. In developed countries, population education is primarily an outgrowth of environmental concerns. In less developed countries population education is pursued mainly because of concerns about rapid population growth. The specific curriculum materials which were analyzed were the Population, Environmental-Ecological Education Project developed by the Missouri State Department of Education and the Population and Family Education Project developed in Bangkok. A conceptual framework for analyzing the content of the materials was developed. The framework included 5 major parameters. These parameters were 1) a description of the human population, 2) basic population concepts and processes, 3) population dynamics, 4) the causes and consequences of population change, and 5) population issues. Content analysis of the materials revealed that the content focus was similar for both of the curriculum materials. 74% of the Asian curricula and 73% of the US curricula focused on population issues and on the causes and consequences of population growth; however, the US materials emphasized environmental consequences and policies while the Asian materials emphasized family planning policies and the effects of population growth on family, community, sociocultural, and personal factors. Marked differences were revealed when the instructional strategies and course objectives of the materials were judged in reference to established educational standards of objectivity. All of the sampled instructional strategies in the US materials were judged as suitable for use in the formal

  5. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  6. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  7. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  8. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure

  9. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  10. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  13. Asian longhorned beetle, over the river and through the woods: habitat-dependent population spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan J. Sawyer; William S. Panagakos; Audra E. Horner; Kevin J. Freeman

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an introduced pest of hardwood trees in North America. This paper addresses population spread in open landscapes and wooded areas, with emphasis on recent findings from Staten Island, NY, and Worcester, MA.

  14. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...

  15. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  16. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  17. Is the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) sarcoma nomogram useful in an Asian population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Deanna Wan Jie; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Lim, Cindy Xindi; Chee, Soo Khee; Quek, Richard Hong Hui; Farid, Mohamad; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2017-10-01

    A nomogram for prediction of 12-year sarcoma-specific survival has been developed based on patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated in Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC). We aim to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the MSKCC sarcoma nomogram in a cohort of patients treated at an Asian institution. This has not been validated in an Asian population and thus its universal applicability remains unproven. Between 1990 and 2013, 840 adult patients underwent treatment for primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS) at the National Cancer Centre Singapore. Patients who presented with locally recurrent or metastatic disease were excluded from the analysis. The variables included in the MSKCC nomogram included age at diagnosis, tumor size, histologic grade, histologic subtype, depth and site. A total of 399 patients were left for analysis. The nomogram was validated by assessing its extent of discrimination and level of calibration. All patients had deep tumors. Disease occurred most commonly in the lower extremity (n = 149 [37.3%]), the most common histologic subtype was "Others" (angiosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, sarcoma NOS [not otherwise specified] and rhabdomyosarcoma). Sixty-four percent of all patients had high-grade tumors while 36% had low-grade tumors. The median patient age at diagnosis was 54 years (range: 17-88 years). The median follow up time for all patients and surviving patients were 29 (range: 1-174) and 33 (range: 1-157) months, respectively. The observed 5- and 10-year sarcoma-specific survival were 55% and 33%, respectively. The concordance index was 0.71. For level of calibration, the observed correspondence between predicted and actual outcomes suggest that the MSKCC nomogram generally predicts well for patients with higher survival probability, but consistently overpredicts survival for the other groups, in our cohort of patients. The MSKCC sarcoma nomogram was found to be accurate in terms of extent of discrimination

  18. Prevalence, Correlates, and Impact of Uncorrected Presbyopia in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd Man, Ryan Eyn; Fenwick, Eva Katie; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Li, Ling-Jun; Gupta, Preeti; Tham, Yih-Chung; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. We included 7890 presbyopic subjects (3909 female; age range, 40-86 years) of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study. Presbyopia was classified as corrected and uncorrected based on self-reported near correction use. VF was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of sociodemographic and clinical parameters with uncorrected presbyopia, and its impact on VF, respectively. As myopia may mitigate the impact of noncorrection, we performed a subgroup analysis on myopic subjects only (n = 2742). In total, 2678 of 7890 subjects (33.9%) had uncorrected presbyopia. In multivariable models, younger age, male sex, Malay and Indian ethnicities, presenting distance visual impairment (any eye), and lower education and income levels were associated with higher odds of uncorrected presbyopia (all P Malay and Indian ethnicities are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  20. Distinct genetic alteration profiles of acute myeloid leukemia between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chunlin; Lin, Dong; Liu, Bingcheng; Liu, Kaiqi; Qiu, Shaowei; Gong, Benfa; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guangji; Wei, Shuning; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Yuntao; Zhao, Xingli; Gu, Runxia; Mi, Yingchang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2018-02-10

    Racial and ethnic disparities in malignancies attract extensive attention. To investigate whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population, data from several prospective AML trials were retrospectively analyzed in this study. We found that there were more patients with core binding factor (CBF) leukemia in Eastern Asian cohorts and there were different CBF leukemia constitutions between them. The ratios of CBF leukemia are 27.7, 22.1, 21.1, and 23.4%, respectively, in our (ChiCTR-TRC-10001202), another Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Eastern Asian cohorts, which are significantly higher than those in ECOG1900, MRC AML15, UK NCRI AML17, HOVON/SAKK AML-42, and German AML2003 (15.5, 12.5, 9.3, 10.2, and 12%, respectively). And CBFbeta-MYH11 occurred more prevalently in HOVON/SAKK AML- 42 and ECOG1900 trials (50.0 and 54.3% of CBF leukemia, respectively) than in Chinese and Japanese trials (20.1 and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of FLT3-ITD mutation is 11.2% in our cohort, which is lower than that in MRC AML15 and UK NCRI AML17 (24.6 and 17.9%, respectively). Even after excluding the age bias, there are still different incidence rates of mutation between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population. These data suggest that there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

  1. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory Y H; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-04-25

    Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%). 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1%) (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean). Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD) 0.18), median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.848 to 1) and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18), median 1 (IQR 1 to 1). Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  2. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  3. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  4. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia

    2017-07-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients

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    Dipanjan Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a levels, and the association of Lp(a with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ≥18 y in Northern California in whom Lp(a levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%. Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a levels. Significance was assessed at the P<.0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD (265 events, stroke (122, or peripheral vascular disease (PVD (87. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36 nmol/L and NHW (29 nmol/L had higher median Lp(a levels than Chinese (22 nmol/L, P≤.0001 and P=.0032. When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P=.001, NHW v CH: P=.0018 but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P=.0402, NHW v CH: P=.0761. Asian Indians (OR=2.0 and Chinese (OR=4.8 exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a levels than NHW (OR=1.4, but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did

  6. Predictors and Barriers to Hepatitis B Screening in a Midwest Suburban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanna; Li, Elton; Lok, Anna S

    2017-06-01

    Despite guidelines recommending hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among the Asian population, not all Asians are screened. We assessed barriers to and factors predicting HBV screening in Michigan. Adults residing in Southeast Michigan self-identifying as Asian were surveyed at Asian grocery stores, restaurants, churches, and community events. 404 persons participated in the survey, 54 % were women, median age was 51 years, 63 % were Chinese, and 93.8 % were born outside the U.S. 181 (44.8 %) had not or could not recall having been screened for HBV. Of these, 89 % said their primary care physicians (PCP) had never brought up screening. Unscreened participants were more likely to think HBV is genetically inherited and cannot be treated than those who had been screened. They were also more likely to think they should avoid close contact with others, would bring shame to their families, and lose their job, if found to be infected with HBV. Among 223 (55.2 %) who had been screened, 48 % said their PCP had the greatest influence in their decision to be screened and 70.9 % said they were screened at a doctor's visit. Screened participants were more likely to know someone with HBV, have a PCP, and have health insurance. Logistic regression analysis showed knowing someone with HBV was the only predictor for screening. Despite guidelines for HBV screening, only half of the Asian Americans surveyed had been screened. Increasing awareness among PCPs is needed to increase HBV screening in this population.

  7. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  9. Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Natsu; Mahbub, MH; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi- Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Takasu, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. Methods We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association wit...

  10. Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Analysis in European and Asian Populations Identified Novel Genes for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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    Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations.Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects. For the newly identified RA-associated genes, gene set enrichment analyses and protein-protein interactions analyses were carried out with DAVID and STRING version 10.0, respectively. Differential expression verification was conducted using 4 GEO datasets. The expression levels of three selected 'highly verified' genes were measured by ELISA among our in-house RA cases and controls.A total of 221 RA-associated genes were newly identified by gene-based association study, including 71'overlapped', 76 'European-specific' and 74 'Asian-specific' genes. Among them, 105 genes had significant differential expressions between RA patients and health controls at least in one dataset, especially for 20 genes including 11 'overlapped' (ABCF1, FLOT1, HLA-F, IER3, TUBB, ZKSCAN4, BTN3A3, HSP90AB1, CUTA, BRD2, HLA-DMA, 5 'European-specific' (PHTF1, RPS18, BAK1, TNFRSF14, SUOX and 4 'Asian-specific' (RNASET2, HFE, BTN2A2, MAPK13 genes whose differential expressions were significant at least in three datasets. The protein expressions of two selected genes FLOT1 (P value = 1.70E-02 and HLA-DMA (P value = 4.70E-02 in plasma were significantly different in our in-house samples.Our study identified 221 novel RA-associated genes and especially highlighted the importance of 20 candidate genes on RA. The results addressed ethnic genetic background differences for RA susceptibility between European and Asian populations and detected a long list of overlapped or ethnic specific RA

  11. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  12. Simultaneous determination of seven informative Y chromosome SNPs to differentiate East Asian, European, and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Tomonori; Iida, Reiko; Fujihara, Junko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yukina; Imamura, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Yuasa, Isao; Toga, Tomoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-05-01

    Identification of the population origin of an individual is very useful for crime investigators who need to narrow down a suspect based on specimens left at a crime scene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are a class of markers of interest to forensic investigators because many of the markers indicate regional specificity, thus providing useful information about the geographic origin of a subject. We selected seven informative Y-SNPs (M168, M130, JST021355, M96, P126, P196, and P234) to differentiate the three major population groups (East Asian, European, and African) and used them to develop forensic application. SNP genotyping was carried out by multiplex PCR reaction and multiplex single base extension (MSBE) reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis of extension products. This method can be used to assign a haplogroup from both degraded male DNA samples and DNA samples containing a mixture of female and male DNA through PCR primers that generate small amplicons (less than about 150 bp) and are highly specific for targets on the Y chromosome. The allelic state of each marker was definitively determined from a total of 791 males from the three major population groups. As expected, samples from the three major population groups showed Y-haplogroups common in the region of provenance: Y haplogroups C, D, and O for East Asians; IJ and R1 for Europeans; and AB and E for Africans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. A Clinical Prediction Model for Postcardiac Surgery Atrial Fibrillation in an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Weiling; Chew, Sophia T H; Shen, Liang; Ti, Lian Kah

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. Current prediction models for postoperative AF are based primarily on Western populations. In this study, we sought to develop a clinical prediction rule for postcardiac surgery AF for a multiethnic Asian population. Two thousand one hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft or valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were prospectively enrolled in this observational study between August 2008 and July 2012 at Singapore's 2 national heart centers. Postoperative AF was defined as an irregularly irregular electrocardiogram rhythm without identifiable P wave after surgery and before hospital discharge that lasted more than an hour, or affected hemodynamics (ie, systolic blood pressure 120 minutes (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.47-2.52, P Chinese ethnicity (Chinese versus Indian OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.28-3.41, P = 0.003) or Malay (Malay versus Indian OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.36-4.05, P = 0.002) to be independently associated with postoperative AF. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of the model was 0.704 (95% CI, 0.674-0.734). Internal validation produced an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.756 (95% CI, 0.690-0.821). Clinical risk factors for AF after cardiac surgery in an Asian population are similar to that reported from primarily Western populations, but specific ethnicity influences susceptibility.

  14. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR patients with GFR protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  15. Omalizumab therapy for treatment of recalcitrant chronic spontaneous urticaria in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Tuchinda, Papapit; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Likitwattananurak, Chayanee; Ungaksornpairote, Chanida

    2017-03-01

    There are limited data regarding omalizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in Asian populations. This study evaluated the effectiveness and the proper dosage of omalizumab for Asian CSU patients in a real-life setting. We retrospectively reviewed recalcitrant CSU patients seeking treatment at the Skin Allergy Clinic, Siriraj Hospital during the 3-year period. All patients were treated with omalizumab as an add-on therapy. Standard seven-day urticaria activity score (UAS7) and medication score were used to assess omalizumab response. Of 13 patients, 9 patients (70%) responded well to 150 mg omalizumab injection every month, whereas 4 patients requiring updosing to 300 mg. In the 150 mg group, one patient achieved complete symptom control without antihistamine intake. Most of them required antihistamines without prednisolone and ciclosporin. Onset of omalizumab was fast, usually within the first week. Though only two patients in the 300 mg group achieved complete absence of symptoms, ciclosporin and oral corticosteroids could be discontinued. No patients reported adverse effects. Omalizumab at an initial dosage of 150 mg was effective in the treatment of recalcitrant CSU among Asians. Updosing to 300 mg was required to achieve satisfactory outcomes.

  16. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Positive Predictive Value of BI-RADS Categorization in an Asian Population

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    Yah-Yuen Tan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS categorization of mammograms is useful in estimating the risk of malignancy, thereby guiding management decisions. However, in Asian women, in whom breast density is increased, the sensitivity of mammography is correspondingly lower. We sought to determine the positive predictive value of BI-RADS categorization for malignancy in our Asian population and, hence, its value in helping us to choose between the various modalities for breast biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occult breast lesions detected on mammography or ultrasound who underwent needle-localization open breast biopsy (NLOB in our institution over a 6-year period. There were 470 biopsies in 427 patients; 16% of lesions were malignant. The positive predictive value of BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions for cancer was 0.27 and 0.84, respectively. While most BI-RADS 5 mass lesions were invasive cancers, the majority of calcifications in this category were in situ carcinomas. We conclude that BI-RADS remains useful in aiding decision-making for biopsy in our Asian population. Based on positive predictive values, we recommend percutaneous breast biopsy for initial evaluation of lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4 or less. For BI-RADS 5 lesions with microcalcifications, open surgical biopsy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure may be more appropriate. In the case of a BI-RADS 5 lesion associated with a mass, initial percutaneous biopsy may be useful for diagnosis, followed by a planned single-stage surgical procedure as necessary.

  18. Hemoglobin Constant Spring among Southeast Asian Populations: Haplotypic Heterogeneities and Phylogenetic Analysis.

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    Wittaya Jomoui

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations.A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15-49 year-old and 40 Laotian (aged 18-39 year-old subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5'Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3', were determined using PCR-RFLP assay.Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+-S + + -, most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+-M + + -, both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS.Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region.

  19. Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorajoo, R; Blakemore, A I F; Sim, X; Ong, R T-H; Ng, D P K; Seielstad, M; Wong, T-Y; Saw, S-M; Froguel, P; Liu, J; Tai, E-S

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from Chinese (three cohorts, including one with type 2 diabetes and another one of children), Malay and Indian ethnic groups from Singapore. Data sets were analysed individually and subsequently in combined meta-analysis for Z-score body-mass index (BMI) associations. Variants at the FTO locus showed the strongest associations with BMI Z-score after meta-analysis (P-values 1.16 × 10(-7)-7.95 × 10(-7)). We further detected associations with nine other index obesity variants close to the MC4R, GNPDA2, TMEM18, QPCTL/GIPR, BDNF, ETV5, MAP2K5/SKOR1, SEC16B and TNKS/MSRA loci (meta-analysis P-values ranging from 3.58 × 10(-4)-1.44 × 10(-2)). Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CADM2, PTBP2 and FAIM2 were associated with BMI (P-value ≤ 0.0418) in at least one dataset. The neurotrophin/TRK pathway (P-value=0.029) was highlighted by pathway-based analysis of loci that had statistically significant associations among Singaporean populations. Our data confirm the role of FTO in obesity predisposition among Chinese, Malays and Indians, the three major Asian ethnic groups. We additionally detected associations for 12 obesity-associated SNPs among Singaporeans. Thus, it is likely that Europeans and Asians share some of the genetic predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the neurotrophin/TRK signalling may have a central role for common obesity among Asians.

  20. Periodontal disease in a remote Asian population: association between clinical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnvik, Christine; Söljegård, Emelie; Charalampakis, Georgios; Suksu-Art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to clinically and microbiologically describe the periodontal conditions in a remote adult Asian population with poor oral hygiene. The subjects were 30-60-year-old adults of Karen Hill tribes with no access to dental care. Eighty-six subjects were selected randomly. Clinical registrations included number of remaining teeth, plaque index (PlI), bleeding on probing (BoP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and probing pocket depth (PPD). Subgingival plaque samples were collected and analyzed with the checkerboard method. Subjects of the study group had mean number of remaining teeth of 26.5 despite the abundant plaque and a high bleeding score. Severe periodontitis (CAL ≥ 7 mm) was recorded in 12.9% of the youngest age group (30-39 years) while it was significantly higher (52%) in the middle group (40-49 years) and (60%) in the eldest age group (50-60 years). Pathological pocketing (PPD ≥ 7 mm) was significantly lower in all age groups. Age, betel chewing, and a microbiological cluster including at least one of Prevotella tannerae, Filifactor alocis and Porphyromonas endodontalis significantly correlated with the severity of periodontal disease. Age, betel chewing, and a new bacterial complex other than the "red complex" correlated to periodontal breakdown in this remote adult Asian population. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, PAsian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Increase in density of genetically diverse invasive Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) populations in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Joshua P; Williams, Larissa M

    2017-04-01

    Hemigrapsus sanguineus , the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas , the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus , populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species.

  3. Vitamin D status and vascular dementia due to cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Supriya, Manjunath; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D plays vital roles in human health and recent studies have shown its beneficial effect on brain functioning. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of vitamin D with vascular dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in Asian Indian population. 140 VaD patients aged ≥ 60 years with neuroimaging evidence of SVD, and 132 age and gender-matched controls, were investigated. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Logistic regression model revealed that deficient levels of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml), the odds were increased to 31.6-fold and 14.4-fold, respectively. However, in hypertensives with vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/ml), the odds of VaD were increased by 3.8-fold only. Pearson correlation showed that serum vitamin D was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.401 and -0.411, pvitamin D-deficient subjects. Since the combined presence of hypertension and vitamin D deficiency increases the probability of developing VaD, screening for vitamin D status in addition to regular monitoring of blood pressure, could reduce the risk of VaD associated with cerebral SVD in the elderly Asian Indian subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recalibration of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score in a multiethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark Y; Shah, Bimal R; Gao, Fei; Sim, Ling Ling; Chua, Terrance; Tan, Huay Cheem; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Ong, Hean Yee; Foo, David; Goh, Ping Ping; Surrun, Soondal K; Pieper, Karen S; Granger, Christopher B; Koh, Tian Hai; Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong

    2011-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality in Asia. However, quantitative risk scores to predict mortality after AMI were developed without the participation of Asian countries. We evaluated the performance of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) in-hospital mortality risk score, directly and after recalibration, in a large Singaporean cohort representing 3 major Asian ethnicities. The GRACE cohort included 11,389 patients, predominantly of European descent, hospitalized for AMI or unstable angina from 2002 to 2003. The Singapore cohort included 10,100 Chinese, 3,005 Malay, and 2,046 Indian patients hospitalized for AMI from 2002 to 2005.Using the original GRACE score, predicted in-hospital mortality was 2.4% (Chinese), 2.0% (Malay), and 1.6% (Indian). However, observed in-hospital mortality was much greater at 9.8% (Chinese), 7.6% (Malay), and 6.4% (Indian). The c statistic for Chinese, Malays, and Indians was 0.86, 0.86, and 0.84, respectively, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 250, 56, and 41, respectively. Recalibration of the GRACE score, using the mean-centered constants derived from the Singapore cohort, did not change the c statistic but substantially improved the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic to 90, 24, and 18, respectively. The recalibrated GRACE score predicted in-hospital mortality as follows: 7.7% (Chinese), 6.0% (Malay), and 5.2% (Indian). In this large cohort of 3 major Asian ethnicities, the original GRACE score, derived from populations outside Asia, underestimated in-hospital mortality after AMI. Recalibration improved risk estimation substantially and may help adapt externally developed risk scores for local practice. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Asian and European Populations

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    Ute Hamann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA have markedly increased risks of developing breast and ovarian cancers during their lifetime. It has been estimated that their breast and ovarian cancer risks are in the range of 46-87% and 15-68%, respectively. Therefore it is of utmost clinical importance to identify BRCA mutation carriers in order to target unaffected women for prevention and/or close surveillance and to help affected women choose the best chemotherapy regimen. Genetic testing for BRCA germline mutations is expanding in clinical oncology centers worldwide. Given the high costs of complete BRCA gene screens, a lot of effort has been expended on deciding upon whom to test. Relevant issues involved in decision making include the prior probability of a woman having a BRCA mutation, which is a function of her age and her disease status, her ethnic group, and her family history of breast or ovarian cancer. The frequency and spectrum of mutations in these genes show considerable variation by ethnic groups and by geographic regions. Most studies have been conducted in European and North American populations, while studies in Asian, Hispanic, and African populations are fewer. In most populations, many BRCA mutations were identified, which were distributed all over the genes. However, in some populations, a relatively small number of specific BRCA mutations are recurrent and account for the majority of all mutations in that population. Many of the recurrent mutations are founder mutations, which were derived from a common ancestor. Founder mutations are present in Ashkenazi Jewish, European, and Islander (Faroe, Easter, and Pitcairn populations. Such mutations have also been identified in patients from several Asian, South American, and African countries. Population-specific genetic risk assessment and genetic mutation screening have been facilitated at low costs. Given that mutations

  6. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eMinard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the 21st century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects.

  7. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population

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    Manal Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%, Chinese (27%, and Myanmarese (27% subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67% and Malay (33% subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS. In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements (P<0.05 between the ethnic groups. On the other hand, the morphometry of coracoid process from CT scans data is bigger in Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex (P<0.05. Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males (P<0.05. Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  8. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Manal; Cheah, Pike-See; Ahmad, Umar; Nasir, M Nizlan; San, Aye Aye; Abdul Rahim, Ezamin; Hussin, Paisal; Mahmud, Rozi; Othman, Fauziah

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS). In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements ( P Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex ( P < 0.05). Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males ( P < 0.05). Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  9. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  10. Inter-Population Variability of Endosymbiont Densities in the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.

  11. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Luo, Xun; Lin, Tseng-Hsi

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer in an Asian population. Nationwide population-based case-control study. All healthcare facilities in Taiwan. A total of 103 466 women (mean age 53.3 years) were enrolled. 51 733 adult women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer without a previous cancer history between 2006 and 2011 were identified and included in our study. 51 733 women with no cancer diagnosis prior to the index date were age matched as controls. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer or the same index date was identified, age, histories of thyroid disease treatment, oestrogen use and radioactive iodine treatment were adjusted. To identify risk differences in developing breast cancer among patients with a medical history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. There was a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism under the age of 55 years (age hypothyroidism also showed an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.19, P=0.029) without statistical significance after stratification by age group (age 55 years). Treatment for thyroid disorders did not alter the association in subgroup analyses (P=0.857; 0.262, respectively). Asian women under 55 years of age with history of hyperthyroidism have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer regardless of treatment. Women with history of hypothyroidism may also have an increased risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Establishing multiple omics baselines for three Southeast Asian populations in the Singapore Integrative Omics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Tantoso, Erwin; Begum, Husna; Zhou, Lihan; Zou, Ruiyang; He, Cheng; Chan, Sze Ling; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Wong, Lai-Ping; Xu, Wenting; Moong, Don Kyin Nwe; Lim, Yenly; Li, Bowen; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Tomasz; Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lim, Wei-Yen; Luo, Ma; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Brunham, Liam R; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Too, Heng Phon; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus R; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2017-09-21

    The Singapore Integrative Omics Study provides valuable insights on establishing population reference measurement in 364 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals. These measurements include > 2.5 millions genetic variants, 21,649 transcripts expression, 282 lipid species quantification, and 284 clinical, lifestyle, and dietary variables. This concept paper introduces the depth of the data resource, and investigates the extent of ethnic variation at these omics and non-omics biomarkers. It is evident that there are specific biomarkers in each of these platforms to differentiate between the ethnicities, and intra-population analyses suggest that Chinese and Indians are the most biologically homogeneous and heterogeneous, respectively, of the three groups. Consistent patterns of correlations between lipid species also suggest the possibility of lipid tagging to simplify future lipidomics assays. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study is expected to allow the characterization of intra-omic and inter-omic correlations within and across all three ethnic groups through a systems biology approach.The Singapore Genome Variation projects characterized the genetics of Singapore's Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study introduced here goes further in providing multi-omic measurements in individuals from these populations, including genetic, transcriptome, lipidome, and lifestyle data, and will facilitate the study of common diseases in Asian communities.

  13. Suboptimal vitamin D status in a population-based study of Asian children: prevalence and relation to allergic diseases and atopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New evidence shows high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in many countries and some studies suggest a possible link between vitamin D status and allergic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in a population sample of Asian children and to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status with allergic diseases and atopy. METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315 in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese CHildren (PATCH study were evaluated using questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE. RESULTS: The mean concentration of serum 25(OHD was 20.4 ng/mL (SD: 7.1 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OHD0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OHD levels are remarkably common in this population sample of Asian children, suggesting that millions of children living in Taiwan may have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which should be a matter of public health concern. Our results provides epidemiological evidence against the association of vitamin D status with various allergic diseases and atopy in Asian children.

  14. Comparative efficacy of Rubini, Jeryl-Lynn and Urabe mumps vaccine in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Gary; Goh, Kee Tai; Ma, Stefan; Chew, Suok Kai

    2005-11-01

    The comparative efficacy of the three mumps vaccine strains (Jeryl-Lynn, Urabe and Rubini) was conducted in an Asian population from data arising from an epidemiological investigation of seven institutional outbreaks of mumps in Singapore. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnic group), clinical presentation and vaccination history (date and place of mumps vaccination, type of mumps vaccine received) of all children who attended the six childcare centres and one primary school where outbreaks of 20 or more cases of mumps occurred in 1999 were collected. The attack rate of the unvaccinated group and the attack rates of the vaccine groups (for each vaccine strain) were determined and the vaccine efficacy of the three vaccines calculated. The vaccine efficacy of the Jeryl-Lynn strain, Urabe strain and Rubini strain mumps vaccine were 80.7, 54.4 and -55.3%, respectively. Rubini strain mumps vaccine conferred no protection and has since been deregistered in Singapore.

  15. Shovel-shaped incisors and associated invagination in some Asian and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, D U; Saini, T S; Mokeem, S

    1990-08-01

    Shovelling of the incisors is considered to be a polygenic inheritable trait. Shovelling differs considerably between groups of racial populations but is relatively stable within each group. Presence or absence of shovelling helps in racial identification and in exploration of ancestry. Periapical radiographs of patients of several nationalities from Asian and African continents were obtained. Shovelling and invaginations associated with the shovel-shaped incisors was studied according to nationality. Results indicated that the incidence of shovelling in Syrians, Jordanians, Palestinians and Filipinos was 5-6 per cent. In Saudi Arabians, Pakistanis and Indians, the incidence of shovelling was 10-12 per cent. Among Yemenis, Sudanese and Egyptians, the incidence of shovelling was 20-25 percent. The occurrence of invaginations in shovel-shaped incisors was 11 per cent.

  16. Utilizing a diabetic registry to manage diabetes in a low-income Asian American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Winnie; Turner, Barbara S; Champagne, Mary T; Liu, Lynn

    2012-08-01

    Racial and income disparities persist in diabetes management in America. One third of African and Hispanic Americans with diabetes receive the recommended diabetes services (hemoglobin A1c [A1c] testing, retinal and foot examinations) shown to reduce diabetes complications and mortality, compared to half of whites with diabetes. National data for Asian Americans are limited, but studies suggest that those with language and cultural barriers have difficulty accessing health services. A diabetic registry has been shown to improve process and clinical outcomes in a population with diabetes. This study examined whether a community center that serves primarily low-income Asian American immigrants in Santa Clara County, California, could improve diabetes care and outcomes by implementing a diabetic registry. The registry was built using the Access 2007 software program. A total of 580 patients with diabetes were identified by reviewing charts, the appointment database, and reimbursement records from Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance companies. Utilizing the registry, medical assistants contacted patients for follow-up appointments, and medical providers checked and tracked the patients' A1c results. Among the 431 patients who returned for treatment, the mean A1c was reduced from 7.27% to 6.97% over 8 months (P<0.001). Although 10.8% of the patients changed from controlled to uncontrolled diabetes post intervention, 32.6% of patients with uncontrolled diabetes converted to controlled diabetes (P<0.001). The diabetes control rate improved from 47% to 59% at the end of the study. This study demonstrated that a diabetic registry is an effective tool to manage an underserved population with diabetes, thereby reducing disparities in diabetes management.

  17. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Alves, Joel M; Palmer, William J; Day, Jonathan P; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Black, William C; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-02-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans. To understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants. We conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for disease transmission.

  19. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    BackgroundThe mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.ResultsTo understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants.ConclusionsWe conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for

  20. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  1. Association of a polymorphism of BTN2A1 with dyslipidemia in East Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIMAKI, TETSUO; KATO, KIMIHIKO; OGURI, MITSUTOSHI; YOHIDA, TETSURO; HORIBE, HIDEKI; YOKOI, KIYOSHI; WATANABE, SACHIRO; SATOH, KEI; AOYAGI, YUKITOSHI; TANAKA, MASASHI; YOSHIDA, HIROTO; SHINKAI, SHOJI; NOZAWA, YOSHINORI; SHIN, DONG-JIK; LEE, JONG HO; JANG, YANGSOO; YAMADA, YOSHIJI

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified rs6929846 of the butyrophilin, subfamily 2, member A1 gene (BTN2A1) as a susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction in Japanese individuals by a genome-wide association study. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to dyslipidemia in Japanese and Korean populations, given that dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for myocardial infarction. A total of 10,953 individuals from three independent subject panels were examined. The relations of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to serum concentrations of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were examined in each subject panel. The C→T polymorphism (rs6929846) of BTN2A1 was significantly associated with serum concentrations of triglycerides in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0004) and B (P=0.0010), and in the Korean population (P=0.0095), with the minor T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of triglycerides. The rs6929846 was associated with serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0047) and B (P=0.0015), with the T allele being related to a decreased serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol, but not in the Korean population. This polymorphism was associated with the serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol only in Japanese subject panel B (P=0.0059), with the T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol. The results suggest that BTN2A1 may be a susceptibility gene for hypertriglyceridemia in East Asian populations and for low serum HDL-cholesterol in the Japanese population. PMID:22977569

  2. Glycaemic responses in Asian and non-Asian people with type 2 diabetes initiating insulin glargine 100 units/mL: A patient-level pooled analysis of 16 randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chan, Siew P; Tan, Iris T I; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Gao, Ling; Landgraf, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    To compare outcomes between Asian and non-Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) initiating insulin glargine 100 units (U)/mL (Gla-100) in randomised controlled clinical trials. Post hoc analysis of patient-level data (Asian n = 235; non-Asian n = 3351) from 16 trials. At baseline, Asian patients were younger with lower body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) than non-Asian patients (all P Asian patients had a higher mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at Week 24 and less reduction in HbA1c from baseline (7.4% vs. 7.2%; -1.3% vs. -1.6%, respectively; P = .0001), and were less likely to achieve HbA1c Asian patients. Reductions in FPG and rates of hypoglycaemia were similar between Asian and non-Asian patients. Asian patients had less weight gain than non-Asian patients (+1.3 vs. +1.9 kg, respectively, P = .013). In our post hoc meta-analysis, Gla-100 effectively lowers HbA1c and FPG in Asian patients with T2D uncontrolled on OADs with similar incidence of hypoglycaemia and less absolute weight gain compared with non-Asian patients. At a similar FPG reduction, fewer Asian patients achieved HbA1c target <7.0%, suggesting that prandial glucose needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire and the Singapore prospective study program physical activity questionnaire in a multiethnic urban Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai E Shyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity patterns of a population remain mostly assessed by the questionnaires. However, few physical activity questionnaires have been validated in Asian populations. We previously utilized a combination of different questionnaires to assess leisure time, transportation, occupational and household physical activity in the Singapore Prospective Study Program (SP2. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ has been developed for a similar purpose. In this study, we compared estimates from these two questionnaires with an objective measure of physical activity in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Physical activity was measured in 152 Chinese, Malay and Asian Indian adults using an accelerometer over five consecutive days, including a weekend. Participants completed both the physical activity questionnaire in SP2 (SP2PAQ and IPAQ long form. 43subjects underwent a second set of measurements on average 6 months later to assess reproducibility of the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements. Spearman correlations were used to evaluate validity and reproducibility and correlations for validity were corrected for within-person variation of accelerometer measurements. Agreement between the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements was also evaluated using Bland Altman plots. Results The corrected correlation with accelerometer estimates of energy expenditure from physical activity was better for the SP2PAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.73; moderate activity: r = 0.27 than for the IPAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.31; moderate activity: r = 0.15. For moderate activity, the corrected correlation between SP2PAQ and the accelerometer was higher for Chinese (r = 0.38 and Malays (r = 0.57 than for Indians (r = -0.09. Both questionnaires overestimated energy expenditure from physical activity to a greater extent at higher levels of physical activity than at lower levels of physical activity. The

  4. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Population genetics of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325

  6. Elevated plasma procalcitonin level predicts poor prognosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Asian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junru; Xia, Bangbo; Wu, Xiaomiao

    Previous studies have focused on relationship between plasma procalcitonin level and myocardial infarction risk, but this relationship in Asian elderly has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of peripheral procalcitonin concentration (both immediate and average levels) with myocardial infarction prognosis in Asian elderly. A total of 400 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, 400 unstable angina patients and 400 controls were included. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were measured using commercially available kits. Each myocardial infarction patient received a standard therapy and a 12-month follow-up unless major adverse cardiac events occurred. On admission, plasma procalcitonin level was higher in myocardial infarction patients than in unstable angina patients and controls (p < .001). In the follow-up period, 142 myocardial infarction patients suffered from major adverse cardiac events, and other 258 myocardial infarction patients did not. Higher admission, peak and average plasma levels of procalcitonin in the first week after chest pain onset were associated with elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.18-1.99; HR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.99-3.52; HR: 2.36, 95%CI: 1.81-3.00). Plasma procalcitonin level had a positive linear correlation with plasma level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein on admission (r = 0.650, p < .001). In conclusion, peripheral concentration of procalcitonin (both immediate and average levels) might be an independent predictor for prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Prognostic significance of procalcitonin might be implicated in inflammation.

  7. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  8. Acculturation levels and personalizing orthognathic surgery for the Asian American patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, A A; Kim, W S; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Tao, C; Lee, J S

    2016-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the level of acculturation among Asians living in the USA plays a significant role in their opinion of facial profiles. One hundred and ninety-eight Asian American subjects were asked to complete a pre-validated survey to measure their level of acculturation and to evaluate four sets of pictures that displayed a class II male, class II female, class III male, and class III female. Each set consisted of three lateral profile pictures: an initial unaltered photo, a picture simulating a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage in class II; mandibular setback in class III), and a picture simulating a fuller profile (mandibular advancement in class II; maxillary advancement in class III). For the class II male, subjects who were more acculturated indicated that a flatter profile (orthodontic camouflage) was less attractive. For the class II female, higher acculturated subjects chose expansive treatment (mandibular advancement) as more aesthetic compared to the less acculturated subjects. Each of these scenarios had statistically significant odds ratios. In general, highly acculturated subjects preferred a fuller facial profile, while low acculturated subjects preferred a flatter facial profile appearance, except for the class III female profile, which did not follow this trend. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. E-selectin gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Asian population: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojun Cai

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T may be associated with essential hypertension (EH, but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH.We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893-2.748, P<0.001 in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679-10.420, P<0.001 in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981-2.808, P = 0.001 in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627-0.983, P = 0.035 in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336-4.652, P = 0.739 in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649-0.999, P = 0.049 in allelic model.The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk.

  10. Risk of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis in a Multi-Racial Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Loke Meng; Ch'ng, Chin Chin; Wee, Hong Chin; Supramaniam, Premaa; Zainal, Hadzlinda; Goh, Bak Leong; Bavanandan, Sunita; Mushahar, Lily; Hooi, Lai Seong; Ahmad, Ghazali

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  11. Lifelong Learning Experience and Level of Social Exclusion or Inclusion of Asian Communities Living in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio......-economic positions of this target group and entrepreneurship activities taking place. Global trends influence disadvantaged learners level of participation in learning within Europe. The Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom, despite the differences in migration period, have made the decision to live......, including Asian communities, have been negatively affected in the recent years due to the increased political restrictions and media coverage. In comparison, despite the recent immigration policies in the UK, many members of the Asian communities have embraced the opportunities LifeLong Learning has...

  12. Population effect model identifies gene expression predictors of survival outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma for both Caucasian and Asian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshuai Cai

    Full Text Available We analyzed and integrated transcriptome data from two large studies of lung adenocarcinomas on distinct populations. Our goal was to investigate the variable gene expression alterations between paired tumor-normal tissues and prospectively identify those alterations that can reliably predict lung disease related outcomes across populations.We developed a mixed model that combined the paired tumor-normal RNA-seq from two populations. Alterations in gene expression common to both populations were detected and validated in two independent DNA microarray datasets. A 10-gene prognosis signature was developed through a l1 penalized regression approach and its prognostic value was evaluated in a third independent microarray cohort.Deregulation of apoptosis pathways and increased expression of cell cycle pathways were identified in tumors of both Caucasian and Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that a 10-gene biomarker panel can predict prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in both Caucasians and Asians. Compared to low risk groups, high risk groups showed significantly shorter overall survival time (Caucasian patients data: HR = 3.63, p-value = 0.007; Asian patients data: HR = 3.25, p-value = 0.001.This study uses a statistical framework to detect DEGs between paired tumor and normal tissues that considers variances among patients and ethnicities, which will aid in understanding the common genes and signalling pathways with the largest effect sizes in ethnically diverse cohorts. We propose multifunctional markers for distinguishing tumor from normal tissue and prognosis for both populations studied.

  13. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232 Th and 238 U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232 Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238 U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232 Th and 12.7 mBq for 238 U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 μg) 232 Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 μg) 238 U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232 Th and 15.6 mBq 238 U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232 Th and 238 U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 μSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 μSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR

  14. Type 2 diabetes: identifying high risk Asian American subgroups in a clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Elsie J; Wong, Eric C; Dixit, Anjali A; Fortmann, Stephen P; Linde, Randolph B; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system. A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared. Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% (women) and 8.1 to 25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men). Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  16. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  17. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  18. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  19. The effectiveness of structured exercise in the south Asian population with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Hani; Coulter, Elaine; Ghouri, Nazim; Paul, Lorna

    2017-11-01

    The impact of exercise interventions on south Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), who have a higher T2DM incidence rate compared to other ethnic groups, is inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of exercise interventions in south Asians with T2DM. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the impact of exercise interventions on south Asian adults with T2DM. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Eighteen trials examining the effect of aerobic, resistance, balance or combined exercise programs met the eligibility criteria. All types of exercise were associated with improvements in glycemic control, blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, muscle strength, functional mobility, quality of life or neuropathy progression. The majority of included studies were of poor methodological quality. Few studies compared different types or dose of exercise. In conclusion, this review supports the benefits of exercise for south Asians with T2DM, although it was not possible to identify the most effective exercise prescription. Further studies of good methodological quality are required to determine the most effective dosage and type of exercise to manage T2DM in this population.

  20. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  1. A diversity of cancer incidence and mortality in West Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Boreiri, Majid; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    -quality data for some West Asian countries was the major limitation of this study. Therefore, as the first step of cancer control programs, it is recommended that well-structured population-based cancer registries be established in all of these countries. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  3. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Central Obesity and H. pylori Infection Influence Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in an Asian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI, metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE.A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4 from check-up center in same hospital. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference (female>80cm; male>90cm, metabolic syndrome by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Taiwan. Independent risk factors for BE were identified by multiple logistic regression analyses.The mean age for BE was 53.8±13.7 years and 75.8% was male. H. pylori infection status was detected by the rapid urease test with the prevalence of 28.4% and 44.4% in the BE patients and controls, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analyses showed the risk was associated with higher waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.60, metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38-2.96 and negative H. pylori infection (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BE associated with higher waist circumference (adjusted OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.89-4.12 and negative H. pylori infection (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70.Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of BE whereas H. pylori infection with a lower risk in an ethnic Chinese population.

  5. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  6. Determinants of Breastfeeding Practices and Success in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2016-03-01

    Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characteristics and Risk Factors for Type 2 Endoleak in an East Asian Population From a Japanese Multicenter Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Naoki; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Watada, Susumu; Shibutani, Shintaro; Akiyoshi, Takurin; Harada, Hirohisa; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Clinically distinct differences exist between East Asian and Caucasian subjects, but data for type 2 endoleak (T2EL) are limited in the East Asian population. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of East Asian T2EL using a Japanese multicenter database. Retrospective analysis of 832 endovascular aneurysm repairs performed from 2008 to 2014 were conducted. T2EL was observed in 234 cases (28.1%), and in 32 cases (3.8%) it led to sac expansion >5 mm caused by isolated T2EL (median follow-up, 35.6 months). On univariate and multivariate analysis, non-smoker status (odds ratio [OR], 2.216; P<0.001), Excluder stent graft (OR, 2.027; P<0.001), and T2EL at final angiogram (OR, 2.080; P<0.001) were risk factors for T2EL. On multivariate analysis for isolated T2EL with sac expansion, only non-smoker status remained (OR, 2.671; P<0.001). Other than T1EL, isolated T2EL was the most significant risk factor for sac expansion (OR, 18.486; P<0.001). Furthermore, out of 11 transarterial embolization procedures initiated, 4 led to rupture during follow-up. East Asian T2EL had a strong relationship with non-smoker status. Also, T2EL was a significant risk factor for sac expansion, which sometimes led to rupture even after intervention. Along with the high prevalence of T2EL observed, East Asian T2EL may not always be benign.

  8. Obesity, hypertension, and migration: a meta-analysis of populations of the South Asian diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Lorena; Brady, Jeffrey; Raxter, Michelle; Ruiz, Ernesto; Otarola, Flory; Blell, Mwenza

    2011-02-01

    The effects of migration on human health have been a topic of interest for demographers and human biologists. Even if migrants to a new region achieve a higher standard of living in their new place of residence, their improved living conditions may not be associated with better health. Part of the difficulty of understanding the health consequences of migration is the complications in trying to control for variables that may affect health, such as gender, age, and urban or rural environment of migrants and nonmigrants. In this paper we report results of a meta-analysis of the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) of people of South Asian descent, by comparing nonmigrants who inhabit the subcontinent, with migrants who moved to various places around the globe. Our results indicate that BMI almost always increases to a significant level upon migration and that an increase in BMI is most pronounced in female migrants. Our results also show that BP does not always increase in migrant communities and that it is actually lower in some migrant samples than it is in comparable nonmigrant groups. Therefore, our results show that BP and the BMI do not behave in the same manner following a migration event. We propose that the BMI changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect different activity levels and diet in the new homeland. However, the BP changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect stress broadly defined. Such stress may be increased or decreased, depending on the specific migration experience. We propose that the BMI and BP measure two different dimensions of the migration experience.

  9. Assessment of condylar morphology and position using MSCT in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Wei, Xiaoer; Guan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ran; Zou, Derong; Yu, Lvfeng

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the volume, surface, morphometric index (MI), and position of the condyle in a normal population by applying Mimics 17.0 software. Then, the difference between left and right sides, sex, and age can be explored, which will contribute to establish the reference value of condylar morphology and position in normal individuals, and help us to study characteristics of condylar morphology and position in abnormal individuals. Three-hundred subjects were enrolled in our study from the radiology department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. They were divided into three groups according to the age: group 1 (18-24 years old), group 2 (25-34 years old), and group 3 (35-44 years old). Each group included 100 subjects (with 50 males and 50 females). They were examined using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after that. All images of condyle were reconstructed by Mimics 17.0 software, so as to measure the volume, surface, and MI of condyle, and to analyze the position of condyle in the articular fossa by means of joint spaces. The differences of condylar volume, surface, and MI between left and right sides were not obvious (P > 0.05). The condylar volume and surface were greater in males than females (P  0.05). No statistical differences were found in volume and surface among three age groups. However, the MI of group 1 was statistically lower than that of group 3 (P position (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, there were significant differences of condylar position regarding the gender and age (P position between left and right sides, but factors of gender and age were proven to have a certain influence on the morphology and position of the condyle. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar morphology and position in the normal Asian population. Examination of condylar morphology and position is important for evaluating the

  10. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  11. Determinants of eating at local and western fast-food venues in an urban Asian population: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Nasheen; van Dam, Rob M; Ng, Sheryl; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chen, Shiqi; Lim, Jia Yi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; Rebello, Salome A

    2017-05-25

    Like several Southeast Asian countries, Singapore has a complex eating-out environment and a rising eating-out prevalence. However the determinants and drivers of eating-out in urban Asian environments are poorly understood. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics of persons who frequently ate away from home in local eateries called hawker centres and Western fast-food restaurants, using data from 1647 Singaporean adults participating in the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2010. We also assessed the underlying drivers of eating out and evaluated if these were different for eating at local eateries compared to Western fast-food restaurants using 18 focus group discussions of women (130 women). Participants reported a high eating-out frequency with 77.3% usually eating either breakfast, lunch or dinner at eateries. Main venues for eating-out included hawker centres (61.1% usually ate at least 1 of 3 daily meals at this venue) and school/workplace canteens (20.4%). A minority of participants (1.9%) reported usually eating at Western fast-food restaurants. Younger participants and those of Chinese and Malay ethnicity compared to Indians were more likely to eat at Western fast-food restaurants. Chinese and employed persons were more likely to eat at hawker centres. The ready availability of a large variety of affordable and appealing foods appeared to be a primary driver of eating out, particularly at hawker centres. Our findings highlight the growing importance of eating-out in an urban Asian population where local eating venues play a more dominant role compared with Western fast-food chains. Interventions focusing on improving the food quality at venues for eating out are important to improve the diet of urban Asian populations.

  12. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte A; Mawani, Shefina; King, Kathryn M; Allu, Selina Omar; Smith, Megan; Mohan, Sailesh; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-11

    Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13) and Punjabi (N = 15) translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  13. Dietary acculturation among the South-Asian Surinamese population in the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-08-01

    To test Koctürk's model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968). Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies. Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.

  14. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2 in 156 (80.5% and low (Z score ≤ -2 in 38 (19.5% patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study.

  15. Cancer-specific mortality of Asian Americans diagnosed with cancer: a nationwide population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L; Leow, Jeffrey J; Dalela, Deepansh; Chao, Grace F; Mahal, Brandon A; Nayak, Manan; Schmid, Marianne; Choueiri, Toni K; Aizer, Ayal A

    2015-06-01

    Racial disparities in cancer survival outcomes have been primarily attributed to underlying biologic mechanisms and the quality of cancer care received. Because prior literature shows little difference exists in the socioeconomic status of non-Hispanic whites and Asian Americans, any difference in cancer survival is less likely to be attributable to inequalities of care. We sought to examine differences in cancer-specific survival between whites and Asian Americans. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify patients with lung (n = 130 852 [16.9%]), breast (n = 313 977 [40.4%]), prostate (n = 166 529 [21.4%]), or colorectal (n = 165 140 [21.3%]) cancer (the three leading causes of cancer-related mortality within each sex) diagnosed between 1991 and 2007. Fine and Gray's competing risks regression compared the cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of eight Asian American groups (Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Japanese, Korean, other Asian, South Asian [Indian/Pakistani], and Vietnamese) to non-Hispanic white patients. All P values were two-sided. In competing risks regression, the receipt of definitive treatment was an independent predictor of CSM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.40; HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.58; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.62; and HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.29) for prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers respectively, all P < .001). In adjusted analyses, most Asian subgroups (except Hawaiians and Koreans) had lower CSM relative to white patients, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.54 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.78) to 0.88 (95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93) for Japanese patients with prostate and Chinese patients with lung cancer, respectively. Despite adjustment for potential confounders, including the receipt of definitive treatment and tumor characteristics, most Asian subgroups had better CSM than non-Hispanic white patients. These findings suggest that underlying genetic

  16. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  17. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G.V. E-mail: v.iyengar@iaea.org; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S

    2004-07-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of {sup 232}Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of {sup 238}U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for {sup 232}Th and 12.7 mBq for {sup 238}U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 {mu}g) {sup 232}Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 {mu}g) {sup 238}U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq {sup 232}Th and 15.6 mBq {sup 238}U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 {mu}Sv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 {mu}Sv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR.

  18. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  19. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  20. Unidimensional versus Multidimensional Approaches to the Assessment of Acculturation for Asian American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…

  1. Medical care of hepatitis B among Asian American populations: perspectives from three provider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jessica P; Roundtree, Aimee K; Engebretson, Joan C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2010-03-01

    Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer. Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities. We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach. We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test. We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts. Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers. More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.

  2. Worlds apart 2: Thailand and the Philippines. Heroes and villains in an Asian population drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, G D

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."

  3. Scaling the consequences of interactions between invaders from the individual to the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2016-03-01

    The impact of human-induced stressors, such as invasive species, is often measured at the organismal level, but is much less commonly scaled up to the population level. Interactions with invasive species represent an increasingly common source of stressor in many habitats. However, due to the increasing abundance of invasive species around the globe, invasive species now commonly cause stresses not only for native species in invaded areas, but also for other invasive species. I examine the European green crab Carcinus maenas, an invasive species along the northeast coast of North America, which is known to be negatively impacted in this invaded region by interactions with the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Asian shore crabs are known to negatively impact green crabs via two mechanisms: by directly preying on green crab juveniles and by indirectly reducing green crab fecundity via interference (and potentially exploitative) competition that alters green crab diets. I used life-table analyses to scale these two mechanistic stressors up to the population level in order to examine their relative impacts on green crab populations. I demonstrate that lost fecundity has larger impacts on per capita population growth rates, but that both predation and lost fecundity are capable of reducing population growth sufficiently to produce the declines in green crab populations that have been observed in areas where these two species overlap. By scaling up the impacts of one invader on a second invader, I have demonstrated that multiple documented interactions between these species are capable of having population-level impacts and that both may be contributing to the decline of European green crabs in their invaded range on the east coast of North America.

  4. Smile characterization by U.S. white, U.S. Asian Indian, and Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Mike

    2012-05-01

    With growing demand for high esthetic standards, dentists must understand patient perception and incorporate their preferences into treatment. However, little is known about how cultural and ethnic differences influence esthetic perception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in ethnic background, including the possibility of assimilation, affected a layperson's perception of esthetic and smile characteristics. A survey was developed containing images that were digitally manipulated into a series of barely perceptible steps, changing 1 smile parameter to form a strip of images that displayed that parameter over a wide range. Data were collected with a customized program which randomly displayed a single image and allowed the subject to use the mouse to adjust an on-screen slider according to displayed instructions, that is, "Please move the slider to select the image you find to be most ideal"; or "Please move the slider to select the first image that you find unattractive." A convenience sample (n=288) comprised of U.S. whites, U.S. Asian Indians, and Indians living in India was surveyed. This sample provided a power of .86 to detect a difference of ±1.5 mm. Subjects evaluated images showing the smile arc, buccal corridor, gingival display, vertical overlap, lateral incisal step, maxillary midline to midface, and maxillary to mandibular midline. Rater reliability was assessed with the Fleiss-Cohen weighted Kappa (Kw) statistic and corresponding 95% confidence interval after each question was repeated in a random sequence. Choice differences due to ethnicity were assessed with a multiple randomization test and the adjusted P value with the step-down Bonferrroni method of Holm (α=.05). The Kw for the 17 variables in all 3 groups ranged from 0.11 for ideal vertical overlap to 0.64 for ideal buccal corridor space. Overall reliability was fair to moderate. Differences attributed to ethnicity were demonstrated between the Asian Indians and U

  5. Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality: A prospective cohort study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia C; Teo, Boon Wee; Ong, Peng Guan; Cheung, Carol Y; Lim, Su Chi; Chow, Khuan Yew; Meng, Chan Choon; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950). CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%). In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  6. Trends in Stroke Incidence and 28-Day Case Fatality in a Nationwide Stroke Registry of a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuen Seng; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Tan, Pei Zheng; Chan, Bernard P L; Tang, Kok-Foo; Ahmad, Aftab; Kong, Keng He; Chang, Hui Meng; Chow, Khuan Yew; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated trends in stroke incidence and case fatality overall and according to sex, age, ethnicity, and stroke subtype in a multiethnic Asian population. The Singapore Stroke Registry identifies all stroke cases in all public hospitals using medical claims, hospital discharge summaries, and death registry data. Age-standardized incidence rates and 28-day case-fatality rates were calculated for individuals aged ≥15 years between 2006 and 2012. To estimate the annual percentage change of the rates, a linear regression model was fitted to the log rates, and a Wald test was performed to test for trend. P values Chinese (-2.64; 95% CI, -3.15 to -2.13), Indians (-3.78; 95% CI, -5.93 to -1.58), and others (-12.73; 95% CI, -18.93 to -6.06) compared with Malays (2.58; 95% CI, 1.17 to 4.02); and in ischemic stroke subtype (ischemic: -2.43; 95% CI, -3.13 to -1.73; hemorrhagic: -1.02; 95% CI, -2.04 to 0.01). Subgroup-specific findings for case fatality were similar. This is the first countrywide hospital-based registry study in a multiethnic Asian population, and it revealed marked overall reductions in stroke incidence and case fatality. However, it also identified important population groups with less favorable trends, especially younger adults and those of Malay ethnicity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  8. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.

  9. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  10. Historic and current hepatitis B viral DNA and quantitative HBsAg level are not associated with cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Arends, J. E.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; Whelan, J.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Boland, G. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Some studies done in Asian patients have shown that serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA predict the development of cirrhosis. However, it is unclear whether this also applies for non-Asian patients. This study investigated historic and current HBV DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface

  11. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  12. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Elderly: Real World Outcomes of Immunochemotherapy in Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ja Min; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kang, Beodeul; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the real-life treatment outcomes of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from a homogenous Asian population and defined the cutoff age for "elderly." The medical records of 192 DLBCL patients aged > 60 years who had received first-line immunochemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. The treatment schedule, adverse events, and survival outcomes were analyzed overall and stratified by 4 age groups (> 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and ≥ 75 years). Patient age of ≥ 75 years was associated with a significantly lower complete remission rate (86.5% vs. 81.4% vs. 82.0% vs. 51%; P population, 75 years seems to be a judicious cutoff for predicting treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of physical activity in different domains and implications for intervention in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai E Shyong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of regular physical activity for quality of life and disease prevention have been well documented. Identification of low activity groups would facilitate interventional programs. Many studies have focussed on leisure time activity, which may not capture the spectrum of physical activity relevant to disease prevention. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted in urban Asian settings. Methods We evaluated physical activity in different domains (leisure time, occupational, household and transportation and its sociodemographic determinants in 4750 adult Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian Singaporeans. Physical activity was assessed using locally validated questionnaires. Results Occupational and household activity contributed substantially more to total physical activity than leisure time or transportation activity. However, when only activity of at least moderate intensity was considered leisure time activity contributed most to total physical activity. Higher socio-economic status was associated with more leisure time activity, but less total physical activity due to reduced activity in the other domains. Chinese ethnicity was also associated with less total physical activity as a result of less activity in non-leisure time domains. Conclusions In assessing levels of physical activity and recommending changes, it is important to consider physical activity in different domains. Focus on leisure-time physical activity alone could identify the wrong groups for intervention and miss opportunities for increasing physical activity in populations.

  14. Time trends in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection in a multiracial Asian population--a 20-year experience over three time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A H-R; Lim, Y-Y; Liew, W-C; Goh, K-L

    2016-04-01

    Marked epidemiological changes in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection have taken place in the Asian Pacific region. In particular, differences with respect to race in the multiracial Asian population in Malaysia have been important and interesting. A time trend study of upper gastrointestinal disease and H. pylori infection in three time periods: 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 spanning a period of 20 years was carried out. Consecutive first time gastroscopies carried out on patients attending the University of Malaya Medical Center were studied. Diagnoses and H. pylori infection status were carefully recorded. A steady decline in prevalence of duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) from 21.1% to 9.5% to 5.0% and from 11.9% to 9.4% to 9.9% while an increase in erosive oesophagitis (EO) from 2.0% to 8.4% to 9.5% (chi-square for trend; P Chinese and Indians but the difference over time was most marked in Malays. There was a steady decline in the proportion of patients with gastric and oesophageal cancers. Peptic ulcers have declined significantly over a 20-year period together with a decline in H. pylori infection. In contrast, a steady increase in erosive oesophagitis was observed. Gastric and oesophageal squamous cell cancers have declined to low levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of serum celiac antibodies in a multiracial Asian population--a first study in the young Asian adult population of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18-30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3-60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1-65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought.

  16. Prevalence of Serum Celiac Antibodies in a Multiracial Asian Population-A First Study in the Young Asian Adult Population of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18–30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. Results 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3–60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1–65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. Conclusions The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought. PMID:25799401

  17. Impacts of urbanisation on the lifestyle and on the prevalence of diabetes in native Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A; Snehalatha, C; Latha, E; Manoharan, M; Vijay, V

    1999-06-01

    Recent studies from the Asian subcontinent show an increasing prevalence of diabetes. This increase has been attributed to factors related to lifestyle changes related to modernisation. A periurban rural population resembling the rural in their occupation, but with access to certain urban facilities was chosen for this study. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of modernisation on the rising prevalence of diabetes in the native Indians. A total of 1637 adults aged 20 years and above (749 men and 888 women) were tested for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by 2 h post-glucose challenge. Demographic, anthropometric, dietary and occupational details, were recorded. Dietary habits were similar in all categories of socio-economic strata. In the present study group, the age standardised prevalence of Type 2 diabetes was 5.9%, which was intermediate to that in the urban (11.6%) and rural (2.4%) populations. The prevalence data of the latter two population were available from previous surveys. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was high (6.9%) and similar in all three population samples. In the periurban population, a large percentage of subjects were doing only routine household work and had a sedentary life-style. After correcting for the age and BMI, sedentary work and occupation had a significant association with diabetes, suggesting that sedentary lifestyle may be an important determinant for the higher prevalence of diabetes in an urbanising population.

  18. Association of DSM-5 Betel-Quid Use Disorder With Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder in 6 Betel-Quid Endemic Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yang, Frances M; Hung, Chung-Chieh; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2018-03-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) is the fourth most popular psychoactive agent worldwide. An emerging trend across Asia is the addictive consumption of BQ, which is associated with oral cancer and other health consequences. To investigate the validity and pattern of DSM-5-defined BQ use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) among Asian populations. In-person interviews were conducted from January 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010, among a random sample of 8922 noninstitutionalized adults from the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study, an Asian representative survey of 6 BQ-endemic populations. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Participants were evaluated for BUD using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder and for OPMD using a clinical oral examination. Current users of BQ with 0 to 1 symptoms were classified as having no BUD, those with 2 to 3 symptoms as having mild BUD, those with 4 to 5 symptoms as having moderate BUD, and those with 6 or more symptoms as having severe BUD. Among the 8922 participants (4564 women and 4358 men; mean [SD] age, 44.2 [0.2] years), DSM-5 symptoms showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD. The 12-month prevalence of DSM-5-defined BUD in the 6 study populations was 18.0% (mild BUD, 3.2%; moderate BUD, 4.3%; and severe BUD, 10.5%). The 12-month proportion of DSM-5-defined BUD among current users of BQ was 86.0% (mild BUD, 15.5%; moderate BUD, 20.6%; and severe BUD, 50.0%). Sex, age, low educational level, smoking, and drinking were significantly associated with BUD. Among individuals who used BQ, family use, high frequency of use, and amount of BQ used were significantly linked to moderate to severe BUD. Compared with individuals who did not use BQ, those who used BQ and had no BUD showed a 22.0-fold (95% CI, 4.3-112.4) risk of OPMD (P < .001), whereas those with mild BUD showed a 9.6-fold (95% CI, 1.8-56.8) risk (P = .01), those

  19. The distribution of urban population and income: explorations using six Asian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, S

    1993-02-01

    "Urban concentration (or primacy) and inequality (in size distribution of income) are expected to follow bell shaped curves through the development process. Spatial convergence (through investments in transportation etc.) is expected to precede income convergence. Using longitudinal data from six Asian countries (Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India) this paper shows that (i) the bell shapes for urban concentration and income inequality generally hold, and (ii) the temporal relationship between the curve peaks is determined by geographical factors (for urban concentration); income inequality is seen to be more policy amenable." excerpt

  20. Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Cheung, Carol Y; Li, Xiang; Tian, Dechao; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Y

    2016-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This population-based study of 10,033 participants (75.7% response rate) included Chinese, Indian and Malay persons aged 40 years and older. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standardized interviews and laboratory blood tests were performed. Digital fundus photographs were assessed for presence of RVO following the definitions used in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Regression analysis models were constructed to study the relationship between ocular and systemic factors and RVO. Age-specific prevalence rates of RVO were applied to project the number of people affected in Asia from 2013 to 2040. The overall crude prevalence of RVO was 0.72% (n = 71; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.87%). The crude prevalence of RVO was similar in Chinese, Indian and Malay participants (p = 0.865). In multivariable regression models, significant risk factors of RVO included increased age (odds ratio, OR, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), hypertension (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.61-8.31), increased serum creatinine (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, per 10 mmol/L increase), history of heart attack (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.54) and increased total cholesterol (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59, per 1 mmol/L increase). None of the ocular parameters were associated with RVO. RVO is estimated to affect up to 16 and 21 million people in Asia by 2020 and 2040, respectively. RVO was detected in 0.72% of a multi-ethnic Asian population aged 40-80 years in Singapore. The significant systemic risk factors of RVO are consistent with studies in white populations.

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Surface Soils across Five Asian Countries: Levels, Spatial Distribution, and Source Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Ma, Wan-Li; Jia, Hong-Liang; Hong, Wen-Jun; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar; Chi, Kai Hsien; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sverko, Ed; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-12-06

    A total of 23 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in soil samples collected in areas with no known point source [urban/rural/background (U/R/B) sites] and in areas with known point source [brominated flame retardant (BFR)-related industrial sites (F sites) and e-waste recycling sites (E sites)] across five Asian countries. The highest PBDE concentrations were found in BFR-related industrial and e-waste recycling sites. The concentrations of PBDEs in U/R/B sites decreased in the following order: urban > rural > background sites. Total PBDE concentrations were dominated by BDE-209, while BDE-17, -85, -138, -191, -204, and -205 were the least abundant compounds. In both urban sites and rural sites, the mean concentrations of total PBDEs (∑ 23 BDEs) in soils decreased in the following order: Japan > China > South Korea > India > Vietnam. The concentrations of PBDEs in soils were comparable with those reported in other studies. Among the three commercial PBDE mixtures, relatively large contributions of commercial penta-BDE were observed in Vietnam, whereas deca-BDE was the dominant form in mixtures contributing from 55.8 ± 2.5 to 100.0 ± 1.2% of the total PBDEs in soils collected from other four countries. Regression analysis suggested that local population density (PD) is a good indicator of PBDEs in soils of each country. Significant and positive correlation between soil organic content and PBDE level was observed in Chinese soil for most nondeca-BDE homologues with their usage stopped 10 years ago, indicating its important role in controlling the revolatilization of PBDEs from soil and changing the spatial trend of PBDE in soil from the primary distribution pattern to the secondary distribution pattern, especially when primary emission is ceased.

  2. Economic injury levels for Asian citrus psyllid control in process oranges from mature trees with high incidence of huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Monzo

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the key pest of citrus wherever it occurs due to its role as vector of huanglongbing (HLB also known as citrus greening disease. Insecticidal vector control is considered to be the primary strategy for HLB management and is typically intense owing to the severity of this disease. While this approach slows spread and also decreases severity of HLB once the disease is established, economic viability of increasingly frequent sprays is uncertain. Lacking until now were studies evaluating the optimum frequency of insecticide applications to mature trees during the growing season under conditions of high HLB incidence. We related different degrees of insecticide control with ACP abundance and ultimately, with HLB-associated yield losses in two four-year replicated experiments conducted in commercial groves of mature orange trees under high HLB incidence. Decisions on insecticide applications directed at ACP were made by project managers and confined to designated plots according to experimental design. All operational costs as well as production benefits were taken into account for economic analysis. The relationship between management costs, ACP abundance and HLB-associated economic losses based on current prices for process oranges was used to determine the optimum frequency and timing for insecticide applications during the growing season. Trees under the most intensive insecticidal control harbored fewest ACP resulting in greatest yields. The relationship between vector densities and yield loss was significant but differed between the two test orchards, possibly due to varying initial HLB infection levels, ACP populations or cultivar response. Based on these relationships, treatment thresholds during the growing season were obtained as a function of application costs, juice market prices and ACP densities. A conservative threshold for mature trees with high incidence of HLB would help

  3. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  4. Different level of population differentiation among human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-14

    During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  5. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  6. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Chin A.; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Kwon, O. Jung; Shin, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  7. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chin A. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Health Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O. Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  8. Seizing the Moment: California’s Opportunity to Prevent Nutrition-Related Health Disparities in Low-Income Asian American Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gail G.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foerster, Susan B.; Lee, Henry; Kim, Loan Pham; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Fernandez-Ami, Allyn; Quinn, Valerie; Bal, Dileep G.

    2005-01-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. We conducted focus groups and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese,...

  9. Chaunocephalosis in a wild population of Asian open-billed storks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonswad, P; Chatikavanij, P; Thamavit, W

    1992-07-01

    The most common trematode collected from Asian open-billed storks (Anastomus oscitans) was Chaunocephalus ferox (80% prevalence). The trematode was paired in granulomas in the intestinal wall. Based on histological examination of these capsules, there was degeneration and necrosis of muscle cells in the tunica muscularis. Granulation tissue with hetrophil and lymphocyte infiltration appeared in the granulomas. Intestinal villi were shorter and wider in infected areas than in non-infected areas. Some intestinal glands were dilated. Storks with high intensity of C. ferox appeared ill. The death of storks infected with C. ferox may result from malnutrition due to the loss of absorptive function of the intestine and from the effect of granuloma formation which might interfere with the intestinal peristalsis.

  10. A facial expression image database and norm for Asian population: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Cho, Shu-ling; Horszowska, Katarzyna; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2009-01-01

    We collected 6604 images of 30 models in eight types of facial expression: happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, contempt and neutral. Among them, 406 most representative images from 12 models were rated by more than 200 human raters for perceived emotion category and intensity. Such large number of emotion categories, models and raters is sufficient for most serious expression recognition research both in psychology and in computer science. All the models and raters are of Asian background. Hence, this database can also be used when the culture background is a concern. In addition, 43 landmarks each of the 291 rated frontal view images were identified and recorded. This information should facilitate feature based research of facial expression. Overall, the diversity in images and richness in information should make our database and norm useful for a wide range of research.

  11. The profile of adult onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Adeline Mei-Yen; Lee, Shan-Xian; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is less common in adults and has been linked with a more severe clinical syndrome as well as a higher frequency of renal disease and internal malignancy. Renal involvement in adult HSP has been significantly associated with antecedent infections, pyrexia at time of first presentation, and purpura above the waist. We aim to evaluate the frequency of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features and identify the predictive factors for renal involvement in Asian adults with HSP. We performed a retrospective study of 48 adult Asian patients diagnosed with HSP based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria at a tertiary hospital in Singapore between January 2000 and December 2011. The most common cutaneous manifestations were palpable purpura (73%), papules (31%), and petechiae (27%). Forty-percent had cutaneous lesions extending above the waist. Fifteen patients (31%) had gastrointestinal symptoms, 21 (44%) had joint involvement, and 27 (56%) had renal disease. Seventy-percent of patients with pyrexia at presentation experienced renal disease, whereas only 30% without pyrexia had renal involvement (P = 0.018). Sixty-six percent of patients with purpura had renal involvement as compared to 31% in those without purpura (P = 0.049). The frequency of renal involvement in patients with purpura above the waist (52%) was similar to those with purpura below the waist (55%). Our study confirms that HSP in adults tends to be more severe with a high incidence of extracutaneous manifestations, especially renal disease. Pyrexia at presentation and the presence of purpura were significant predictive factors for renal involvement. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian American students using Asian specific criteria to determine weight classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals of Asian descent have been found to be at greater risk of developing conditions associated with obesity at lower BMI levels compared to other ethnic groups. As a result, new criteria have been developed to identify overweight and obesity in Asian populations. The purpose of the current s...

  15. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  16. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  17. Towards a population information network for the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN POPIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, G D

    1982-04-01

    ASEAN POPIN was inspired by the work of various international organizations in developing or strengthening capabilities of countries to share population information, and nurtured by the recognition by ASEAN heads of population programs that population information is essential to policy making and program development. Population information has been made a focal point of ASEAN country population programs in various ways, and there has been some attempt to coordinate a sharing of information. Some form of informal network exists in each country among producers, channellers and users of population information. With a view toward strengthening these within and later among the countries, an ASEAN POPIN project was agreed upon in 1979 and a draft proposal developed. The proposal was approved after a series of meetings with ASEAN population program heads. Objectives and expectations of the program, plan of work, strategy of implementation, and past and current activities of the project are briefly summarized and areas of concern and needs discussed.

  18. Perceptions of community participation and health gain in a community project for the South Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandesha, G; Litva, A

    2005-09-01

    The new public health rejects old individualist attempts at improving health and embraces community-based approaches in reducing health inequalities. Primary Care Trusts in England face the challenge of converting community participation in health into reality. This study explores differences in perception of participation between lay and professional stakeholders of a community health project for a South Asian population in Greater Manchester. In-depth interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of professional and lay stakeholders. All data were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes using a qualitative framework. Professionals talked of working in partnership with the community but lay stakeholders did not feel that they had control over the project. There were problems in engaging the community and local health professionals in the project. Lack of cultural awareness hampered participation in the project. There was agreement that the project improved the self-confidence of participants and created a more informed population. However, there was little support for claims of improvements in social cohesion and changes in lifestyle directly as a result of the project. Converting the rhetoric of community participation in health into reality is a greater challenge than was envisaged by policy makers. Marginalized communities may not be willing participants and issues of language and cultural sensitivity are important. Project outcomes need to be agreed to ensure projects are evaluated appropriately. Projects with South Asian communities should not be seen to be dealing with all 'ethnic health' issues without addressing changes in statutory organizations and other wider social determinants of health.

  19. The association between two common polymorphisms in MicroRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs participate in human carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the miRNAs may influence the function of mature miRNAs and then affect the processing of carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that two common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs3746444 in miR-499 are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, published results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To acquire a more precise effect of the association between these polymorphisms and HCC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of SNPs rs2910164 and/or rs3746444 with susceptibility to HCC in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for the period up to Sep 10th, 2012. A total of 6 studies were identified with 2071 cases and 2350 controls for miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, 667 cases and 1006 controls for miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism. It was found that neither allele frequency nor genotype distribution of the two polymorphisms was associated with risk of HCC in all genetic models. Similarly, subgroup analysis in Asian population showed no associations between the two SNPs and the susceptibility to HCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This meta-analysis suggests that miR-146a rs2910164 and miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphisms may not be associated with the risk of HCC, especially for Asian population. However, well-designed studies with larger sample size and more detailed data are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  20. Predictive Factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in an Asian Clinic-Based Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Y Wong

    Full Text Available The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN has proposed guidelines for the genetic testing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, based on studies in western populations. This current study assessed potential predictive factors for BRCA mutation probability, in an Asian population.A total of 359 breast cancer patients, who presented with either a family history (FH of breast and/or ovarian cancer or early onset breast cancer, were accrued at the National Cancer Center Singapore (NCCS. The relationships between clinico-pathological features and mutational status were calculated using the Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis.Of 359 patients, 45 (12.5% had deleterious or damaging missense mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. BRCA1 mutations were more likely to be found in ER-negative than ER-positive breast cancer patients (P=0.01. Moreover, ER-negative patients with BRCA mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (40 vs. 48 years, P=0.008. Similarly, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patients were more likely to have BRCA1 mutations (P=0.001 and that these patients were diagnosed at a relatively younger age than non-TNBC patients (38 vs. 46 years, P=0.028. Our analysis has confirmed that ER-negative status, TNBC status and a FH of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC are strong factors predicting the likelihood of having BRCA mutations.Our study provides evidence that TNBC or ER-negative patients may benefit from BRCA genetic testing, particularly younger patients (<40 years or those with a strong FH of HBOC, in Asian patients.

  1. Diverse Array of New Viral Sequences Identified in Worldwide Populations of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Using Viral Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-12-16

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of postoperative endophthalmitis in an Asian population: 11-year incidence and effect of intracameral antibiotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin S H; Wong, Hon Kiat; Yang, Francine P

    2012-03-01

    To describe the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in a multiethnic Asian population over an 11-year period, compare the endophthalmitis rates before and after the use of intracameral antibiotic agents, and identify potential risk factors for endophthalmitis. Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Cohort study. The incidence and risk factors for postoperative endophthalmitis in patients who had cataract surgery over 11 years were reviewed. Subconjunctival antibiotic agents only were administered over 7 years; in the subsequent 4 years, intracameral cefazolin (1.0 mg/0.1 mL) was used. The overall incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis in 50,177 was 0.042%. Over the 7 years without intracameral antibiotics, the endophthalmitis rate was 0.064% (19/29,539). With the use of intracameral cefazolin, the incidence decreased to 0.01% (2/20,638) (multivariate odds ratio [OR], 13.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.15-58.58; P<.001). The independent risk factors for endophthalmitis were age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P=.025) and male sex (0.06% versus 0.02%; OR, 2.96; 95% CI; 1.15-7.65; P=.025). There was a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative endophthalmitis in a multiethnic Asian population with the use of intracameral cefazolin. Men and older patients were at a higher risk for endophthalmitis. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury levels in defined population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Hair samples from subjects living in the areas of Bagnara Calabra, Fiumicino and Ravenna, having a fish consumption above the national average, have been analyzed. A new location close to the Lagoon of Grado and Marano, located near the border with Slovenia, has been Selected because of the high natural levels of mercury in this lagoon due to the discharge of the Isonzo river, a tributary of which crosses the mercury rich area of Idria in Slovenia. During the last year, a group of pregnant women were selected in Rome, Bagnara Calabra, Ravenna and the area of the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. Samples of hair, pubic hair and placenta were collected from each of the subjects. A sample of the newborn hair was also collected whenever possible. The preliminary results indicate higher mercury levels in the subjects living in the area around the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. (author)

  4. Performance of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Revised Race and Ethnicity Categories in Asian Populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Joan L; Press, Nancy; Vollmer, William M; Harris, Emily L; Vogt, Thomas M; Chen, Chuhe

    2007-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity information recently divided the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category into "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander". The OMB's decision to disaggregate the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category was the first step toward providing these communities with information to better serve their needs. However, whether individuals who formerly made up the combined group categorize themselves as the new guidelines intend is a question analyzed in this report. METHODS: A subset of adults participating in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study completed both the OMB-minimum and the expanded race and ethnicity measure used in the National Health Interview Survey. We compared responses on the expanded measure contained within the OMB "Asian" definition (Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Chinese, and/or Other Asian) to "Asian" responses on the OMB-minimum measure. RESULTS: Mixed heritage Asians less often marked "Asian". Among mixed heritage Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos, 27%, 49%, and 52% did not mark "Asian" on the OMB measure, respectively. Eleven percent of single-heritage Filipinos did not mark "Asian." CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals formerly making up the combined "Asian or Pacific Islander" group do not categorize themselves as the revised OMB guidelines intend. This is particularly evident among Filipinos and among Asians of mixed heritage. This research illuminates the reliability and utility of the broad "Asian" category and points to possible consequences of collapsing groups into a single category, i.e., missed information and/or erroneous generalization.

  5. Prevalence and Associations of Retinal Emboli With Ethnicity, Stroke, and Renal Disease in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Teo, Kelvin; Zhao, Wanting; Wang, Jie Jin; Neelam, Kumari; Tan, Nicholas Y Q; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-10-01

    To our knowledge, population-based data on retinal emboli are limited in Asia. Besides its associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stroke, associations between retinal emboli and renal disease and function remain unclear. To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for retinal emboli in a large, contemporary, multiethnic Asian population. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 2004 to 2011 and included a total of 10 033 Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons aged 40 to 80 years residing in the general communities of Singapore. Analyses were performed from November 2016 to February 2017. Retinal emboli were ascertained from retinal photographs obtained from both eyes of all participants according to a standardized protocol. Age-standardized prevalence of retinal emboli was calculated using the 2010 Singapore adult population. Risk factors were assessed from comprehensive systemic and ophthalmic examinations, interviews, and laboratory investigations. Retinal emboli. Of the 10 033 participants, 9978 (99.5%) had gradable retinal photographs. Of these, 5057 (50.7%) were female, and 3375 (33.8%) were Indian. We identified 88 individuals (0.9%) with retinal emboli; the overall person-specific, age-standardized prevalence of retinal emboli was 0.75% (95% CI, 0.60-0.95), with the highest prevalence seen in the Indian cohort (0.98%), followed by the Chinese (0.73%) and Malay (0.44%) cohorts (P = .03). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, factors associated with prevalent retinal emboli included older age (per 5-year increase; odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41), Indian ethnicity (compared with Malay ethnicity; OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.95-6.60), hypertension (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03-3.70), chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.15-3.64), creatinine level (per SD increase; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21), glomerular filtration rate (per SD increase; OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86), and history of stroke (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1

  6. Critical shoulder angle in an East Asian population: correlation to the incidence of rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun; Shiota, Yuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-05-03

    Focus has recently been on the critical shoulder angle (CSA) as a factor related to rotator cuff tear and osteoarthritis (OA) in the European population. However, whether this relationship is observed in the Asian population is unclear. The correlation between the CSAs measured on anteroposterior radiographs and the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears or OA changes was assessed in 295 patients. Rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. OA findings were classified using the Samilson-Prieto classification. The CSAs among the patients with rotator cuff tears, OA changes, and those without pathologies were compared. Multivariable analyses were used to clarify the potential risks for these pathologies. The mean CSA with rotator cuff tear (33.9° ± 4.1°) was significantly greater than that without a rotator cuff tear (32.3° ± 4.5°; P = .002). Multivariable analysis also showed that a greater CSA had a significantly increased risk of rotator cuff tears, with the odds ratio of 1.08 per degree. OA findings showed no significant correlation to the CSAs. Our study demonstrates that the CSA is greater in those with a rotator cuff tear than in those without a tear or OA changes, which may be an independent risk factor for the incidence of rotator cuff tears in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of polymorphisms associated with early tooth eruption in dental and occlusal traits in East Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Kim, Yong-Il; Haga, Shugo; Katayama, Koshu; Ishida, Hajime; Park, Soo-Byung; Maki, Koutaro; Kimura, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent study suggested that rs6504340, a polymorphism within the homeobox B (HOXB) gene cluster, is associated with the susceptibility for malocclusions in Europeans. The resulting malocclusions require orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs6504340 and other dentition-implicated polymorphisms with dental and occlusal traits in Korean and Japanese populations. Methods The study participants included 223 unrelated Koreans from the Busan area and 256 unrelated Japanese individuals from the Tokyo metropolitan area. DNA samples were extracted from saliva specimens. Genotyping for rs6504340 and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been shown to be associated with the timing of first tooth eruption and the number of teeth at 1 year of age (rs10506525, rs1956529, rs9674544, and rs8079702) was performed using TaqMan assays. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), overjet, overbite, arch length discrepancy, crown sizes, and length and width of the dental arches were measured. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationships between rs6504340 and these dental/occlusal traits. Results We evaluated the aesthetic components and dental health components of the IOTN in the Korean and Japanese populations and found that neither rs6504340 nor the other four SNPs showed any association with dental and occlusal traits in these East Asian populations. Conclusions These negative results suggest that further research is needed to identify the genetic determinants of malocclusions in order to reach a consensus. PMID:24696826

  8. Using Population Dose to Evaluate Community-level Health Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Lisa T; Kuo, Elena S; Cheadle, Allen; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Parnell, Barbara; Kelly, Cheryl; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    Successful community-level health initiatives require implementing an effective portfolio of strategies and understanding their impact on population health. These factors are complicated by the heterogeneity of overlapping multicomponent strategies and availability of population-level data that align with the initiatives. To address these complexities, the population dose methodology was developed for planning and evaluating multicomponent community initiatives. Building on the population dose methodology previously developed, this paper operationalizes dose estimates of one initiative targeting youth physical activity as part of the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative, a multicomponent community-level obesity prevention initiative. The technical details needed to operationalize the population dose method are explained, and the use of population dose as an interim proxy for population-level survey data is introduced. The alignment of the estimated impact from strategy-level data analysis using the dose methodology and the data from the population-level survey suggest that dose is useful for conducting real-time evaluation of multiple heterogeneous strategies, and as a viable proxy for existing population-level surveys when robust strategy-level evaluation data are collected. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  10. CMPK1 and RBP3 are associated with corneal curvature in Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Miyake, Masahiro; Fan, Qiao; Liao, Jiemin; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ikram, Mohammad K; Chew, Merywn; Vithana, Eranga N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Saw, Seang-Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-11-15

    Corneal curvature (CC) measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of CC, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis in 12 660 Asian individuals. Our Stage 1 was done in multiethnic cohorts comprising 7440 individuals, followed by a Stage 2 replication in 2473 Chinese and Stage 3 in 2747 Japanese. The SNP array genotype data were imputed up to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 cosmopolitan panel. The SNP association with the radii of CC was investigated in the linear regression model with the adjustment of age, gender and principal components. In addition to the known genes, MTOR (also known as FRAP1) and PDGFRA, we discovered two novel genes associated with CC: CMPK1 (rs17103186, P = 3.3 × 10(-12)) and RBP3 (rs11204213 [Val884Met], P = 1.1 × 10(-13)). The missense RBP3 SNP, rs11204213, was also associated with axial length (AL) (P = 4.2 × 10(-6)) and had larger effects on both CC and AL compared with other SNPs. The index SNPs at the four indicated loci explained 1.9% of CC variance across the Stages 1 and 2 cohorts, while 33.8% of CC variance was explained by the genome-wide imputation data. We identified two novel genes influencing CC, which are related to either corneal shape or eye size. This study provides additional insights into genetic architecture of corneal shape. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Utility of Serum IgG4 Levels in a Multiethnic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ruyu; Chen, Luke Y C; Park, Sujin; Irvine, Robert; Seidman, Michael A; Kelsall, John T; Collins, David; Yin, Vivian; Slack, Graham W; Mattman, Andre; Lam, Eric; Carruthers, Mollie N

    2018-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized condition defined by characteristic histopathologic findings in affected organs. Serum IgG4 concentration is often but not always elevated. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IgG4 vary greatly across studies and has been anecdotally associated to ethnicity. Our study was conducted to investigate the difference in serum IgG4 levels between Asian and non-Asian patients with IgG4-RD. This is a single-center retrospective study of 26 Asian and 10 non-Asian patients with histologically confirmed IgG4-RD. Serum IgG4 levels, clinical features and other laboratory findings were compared between the 2 groups, 31 Asian and 11 non-Asian patients with non-IgG4-RD rheumatic diseases were randomly identified to evaluate test characteristics of serum IgG4 measurement. Median serum IgG4 at time of diagnosis was significantly higher in Asian (median = 11.2g/L, interquartile range: 4.6-19.7) than non-Asian patients (median = 2.9g/L, interquartile range: 0.7-5.4, P = 0.0094), as well as the median serum IgG and total protein. Asian patients had more eosinophilia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia than non-Asian patients (P = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively). Test sensitivity was higher in Asian (96%) than non-Asian patients (67%), whereas test specificity was higher in non-Asian patients (91% versus 71%). Asian patients with IgG4-RD have more exuberant serum IgG4, IgG and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia than non-Asian patients; the mechanism of this difference requires further study. These findings have significant clinical importance and must be accounted for in the diagnostic workup of patients in multiethnic settings. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Major single nucleotide polymorphisms in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a comparative analysis between Thai and other Asian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaren P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patchima Chantaren1, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk1, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol2, Montip Tiensuwan3, Somying Promso41Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the association in a Thai population between the major age-related macular degeneration (AMD susceptibility loci, Y402H and I62V in the complement factor H (CFH and A69S in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2 genes, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV.Methods: A case-control study included 97 PCV cases and 102 age- and gender-matched controls without any retinopathy. The genotypic profiles of the three polymorphisms were obtained using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The allelic and genotypic association between the polymorphisms and PCV were compared with those from the compiled data of other Asian populations reported previously.Results: Strong associations between the Y402H, I62V, and A69S polymorphisms and PCV were observed in the present study (P = 0.002, 0.003, and 0.0008 respectively and in the compiled data (P < 0.0001 for all three polymorphisms. The risk allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in PCVs and in controls from the present study (15.0% and 5.4% for Y402H, 71.7% and 57.4% for I62V, and 54.1% and 37.3% for A69S respectively were also comparable with the frequencies from the compiled data (10.3% and 6.4% for Y402H, 75.2% and 58.3% for I62V, and 56.8% and 36.8% for A69S respectively. The genotype distribution for each polymorphism was also comparable in both datasets.Conclusion: The findings of this study support a significant genetic association between the major AMD susceptibility genes and PCV across Asian

  13. Evaluation of the URIT-2900 automated hematology analyzer for screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Pansuwan, Anupong; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of the URIT-2900 Hematology Analyzer for screening of hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asian populations was examined. Appropriate cut-off values of MCV and MCH for screening of α(0) and β thalassemias were derived from the receiver operator characteristic curve conducted initially on 279 subjects with various thalassemia genotypes. Validation was performed additionally in a cohort of another unrelated 313 subjects. The best cut off values of MCV and MCH were found to be 78fL and 27pg, respectively. Using these cut off values in combination with the dichlorophenolindophenol test in screening of α(0) thalassemia, β thalassemia and Hb E in a cohort study revealed 100% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. The combined blood cell counting using the URIT-2900 Automated Hematology Analyzer and dichlorophenolindophenol test is suitable for population screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.

  15. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  16. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  17. Placement Work Experience May Mitigate Lower Achievement Levels of Black and Asian vs. White Students at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Moores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority groups have been shown to obtain poorer final year degree outcomes than their majority group counterparts in countries including the United States, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Obtaining a lower degree classification may limit future employment prospects of graduates as well as opportunities for higher level study. To further investigate this achievement gap, we analyzed performance levels across three academic years of study of 3,051 Black, Asian and White students from a United Kingdom University. Analyses of covariance investigated effects of ethnicity and work placement experience (internships on first, second and final year marks, whilst statistically controlling for a number of factors thought to influence achievement, including prior academic performance. Results demonstrated superior achievement of White students consistently across all years of study. Placement experience reduced, but did not eliminate, the size of the achievement gap exhibited by final year students. Sex, parental education and socioeconomic status had no significant main effects. Female students showed a more complex pattern of results than males, with Black females not showing the same final year uplift in marks as their Asian and White counterparts. Implications and possible explanations are discussed.

  18. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan. Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984 polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. METHODS: A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76 and 3.86 (2.96-5.03 for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13. Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07. CONCLUSION: Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled

  19. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohong; Mai, Ruiqin; Huang, Bo

    2010-10-27

    Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984) polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR) being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76) and 3.86 (2.96-5.03) for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13). Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07). Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled with alcohol drinking or the ALDH2*504Lys allele.

  20. Evaluation of common type 2 diabetes risk variants in a South Asian population of Sri Lankan descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Hassanali

    Full Text Available Most studies seeking common variant associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D have focused on individuals of European ancestry. These discoveries need to be evaluated in other major ancestral groups, to understand ethnic differences in predisposition, and establish whether these contribute to variation in T2D prevalence and presentation. This study aims to establish whether common variants conferring T2D-risk in Europeans contribute to T2D-susceptibility in the South Asian population of Sri Lanka.Lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs at 37 T2D-risk loci attaining genome-wide significance in Europeans were genotyped in 878 T2D cases and 1523 normoglycaemic controls from Sri Lanka. Association testing was performed by logistic regression adjusting for age and sex and by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test after stratifying according to self-identified ethnolinguistic subgroup. A weighted genetic risk score was generated to examine the combined effect of these SNPs on T2D-risk in the Sri Lankan population.Of the 36 SNPs passing quality control, sixteen showed nominal (p<0.05 association in Sri Lankan samples, fifteen of those directionally-consistent with the original signal. Overall, these association findings were robust to analyses that accounted for membership of ethnolinguistic subgroups. Overall, the odds ratios for 31 of the 36 SNPs were directionally-consistent with those observed in Europeans (p = 3.2×10(-6. Allelic odds ratios and risk allele frequencies in Sri Lankan subjects were not systematically different to those reported in Europeans. Genetic risk score and risk of T2D were strongly related in Sri Lankans (per allele OR 1.10 [95%CI 1.08-1.13], p = 1.2×10(-17.Our data indicate that most T2D-risk variants identified in Europeans have similar effects in South Asians from Sri Lanka, and that systematic difference in common variant associations are unlikely to explain inter-ethnic differences in prevalence or presentation of T2D.

  1. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  2. Happy@Work: protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial to improve mental well-being among an Asian working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Liu, Su; Tang, Szehang; Zhang, Dexing

    2014-07-04

    Mental health issues pose a serious concern in the workplace for the huge productivity loss and financial burden associated with it. Unlike the traditional 'fixing-what-is-wrong' approach, positive psychology offers a less-stigmatized way to promote mental health. Psychological capital, a concept originated from positive psychology, has been proven effective in improving mental well-being and work performance. However, little evidence exists for its implementation among Asian working population or its cost-benefit for organizations adopting such promotion strategy. The current study is designed to assess the protective effects of a web-based psychology capital intervention among Hong Kong working population on individuals' mental health and work performance, as well as organizations' return-on-investment. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design will be adopted. Eligible working adults will be randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the waiting-list control group, with 177 participants in each arm. The intervention, which consists of four web-based training sessions, each targeting one of the psychological capital components (hope, efficacy, optimism and resilience), will be implemented over a 4-week period. On-line surveys will assess the participants in each group at baseline, intervention completion, 1 and 3 months after the completion. The primary outcome is individuals' psychological capital level; secondary outcomes include individuals' well-being, depressive symptoms, work engagement and productivity. Return-on-investment will be calculated from the employers' perspective based on productivity gain, savings in medical expenditure, as well as operation and time costs. Analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. This is the first experimental study that explores the applicability of psychological capital development among Asian population. Through investigating changes in individuals' work productivity from absenteeism and

  3. Genetic variation and potential coinfection of Wolbachia among widespread Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Hoffmann, Mark; Braswell, W Evan; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2017-12-29

    Wolbachia can profoundly influence the survival, reproduction, and defenses of insect hosts. These interactions could potentially be harnessed for managing pests or insect-transmitted diseases. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a phloem-feeding pest capable of transmitting the putative causal agent of citrus greening, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Like many insects, D. citri is also infected with Wolbachia (wDi). Recent studies indicate that the relative abundance of wDi could be associated with the abundance of CLas, and that wDi may contribute to regulating expression of phage lytic cycle genes in CLas, suggesting the need for better understanding of wDi biology in general. This study investigated the genetic diversity of wDi among D. citri in populations spanning eleven countries and two U.S. territories. Six Wolbachia genes, wsp, coxA, fbpA, ftsZ, gatB, and hcpA, were sequenced and compared across samples. Two prevalent wDi strains were identified across the samples, and screening of clone libraries revealed possible coinfection of wDi strains in specific populations. D. citri mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) were more divergent between D. citri populations that were infected with different wDi strains or had different infection statuses (single infection vs. coinfection). While we could not eliminate the possibility that maternal transmission may contribute to such patterns, it is also possible that wDi may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in their host. These findings should contribute to the understanding of wDi population ecology, which may facilitate manipulation of this endosymbiont for management of citrus greening disease worldwide. © 2017 The Authors. Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Multiplexed SNP Typing of Ancient DNA Clarifies the Origin of Andaman mtDNA Haplogroups amongst South Asian Tribal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endicott, Phillip; Metspalu, Mait; Stringer, Chris; Macaulay, Vincent; Cooper, Alan; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of errors in genetic data sets is of growing concern, particularly in population genetics where whole genome mtDNA sequence data is coming under increased scrutiny. Multiplexed PCR reactions, combined with SNP typing, are currently under-exploited in this context, but have the potential to genotype whole populations rapidly and accurately, significantly reducing the amount of errors appearing in published data sets. To show the sensitivity of this technique for screening mtDNA genomic sequence data, 20 historic samples of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders and 12 modern samples from three Indian tribal populations (Chenchu, Lambadi and Lodha) were genotyped for 20 coding region sites after provisional haplogroup assignment with control region sequences. The genotype data from the historic samples significantly revise the topologies for the Andaman M31 and M32 mtDNA lineages by rectifying conflicts in published data sets. The new Indian data extend the distribution of the M31a lineage to South Asia, challenging previous interpretations of mtDNA phylogeography. This genetic connection between the ancestors of the Andamanese and South Asian tribal groups ∼30 kya has important implications for the debate concerning migration routes and settlement patterns of humans leaving Africa during the late Pleistocene, and indicates the need for more detailed genotyping strategies. The methodology serves as a low-cost, high-throughput model for the production and authentication of data from modern or ancient DNA, and demonstrates the value of museum collections as important records of human genetic diversity. PMID:17218991

  5. Conceptual parameters of acculturation within the Asian and Pacific Islander American populations: applications for nursing practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (A&PIAs) are experiencing health inequities. For example, A&PIA is the only racial/ethnic group in America to experience cancer as their leading cause of death. Several studies within the A&PIA population have pointed to acculturation as a significant variable to explain their health and health-seeking behaviors. Acculturation is a key construct in understanding the health of the A&PIA population. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide a current conceptual understanding of the relationship between acculturation and health, especially within the A&PIA populations, which will serve as a pragmatic guideline for nursing practice and research. Understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the conceptual application of acculturation will aid in the development of appropriate programs to reduce health inequities. Acculturation was explored using the Morse method of concept analysis. An iterative historical and contemporary literature review across the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, and nursing was completed. Analytical questions asked of the resultant data provided the theoretical definition, antecedents, key attributes, outcomes, and implications. The concept analysis resulted in a new theoretical definition that includes multidimensional concepts of acculturation. Dilemmas in the measurement of key attributes of acculturation include unidirectional and bidirectional analysis, psychometric issues, and the appropriateness of proxy measurements. Outcomes of acculturation on health can be positive or negative and depend on an individual's or group's ability to navigate freely with necessary supports. Results of the conceptual analysis resulted in recommendations for nursing practice and future acculturation research. While debate continues about the appropriate use and definition of acculturation, researchers agree that it is an important construct in understanding the health of migrating

  6. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.

  7. Migratory connectivity magnifies the consequences of habitat loss from sea-level rise for shorebird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Takuya; Possingham, Hugh P; Chadès, Iadine; Minton, Clive; Murray, Nicholas J; Rogers, Danny I; Treml, Eric A; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-06-22

    Sea-level rise (SLR) will greatly alter littoral ecosystems, causing habitat change and loss for coastal species. Habitat loss is widely used as a measurement of the risk of extinction, but because many coastal species are migratory, the impact of habitat loss will depend not only on its extent, but also on where it occurs. Here, we develop a novel graph-theoretic approach to measure the vulnerability of a migratory network to the impact of habitat loss from SLR based on population flow through the network. We show that reductions in population flow far exceed the proportion of habitat lost for 10 long-distance migrant shorebirds using the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. We estimate that SLR will inundate 23-40% of intertidal habitat area along their migration routes, but cause a reduction in population flow of up to 72 per cent across the taxa. This magnifying effect was particularly strong for taxa whose migration routes contain bottlenecks-sites through which a large fraction of the population travels. We develop the bottleneck index, a new network metric that positively correlates with the predicted impacts of habitat loss on overall population flow. Our results indicate that migratory species are at greater risk than previously realized.

  8. Serum calcium changes and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Jee, Jae Hwan; Park, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Duk Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the association between changes in serum calcium levels with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in apparently healthy South Korean subjects. A retrospective longitudinal analysis was conducted with subjects who had participated in comprehensive health check-ups at least four times over a 7-year period (between 2006 and 2012). In total, 23,121 subjects were categorized into tertiles based on changes in their albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels. Multivariate Cox regression models were fitted to assess the association between changes in serum calcium levels during follow-up and the relative risk of diabetes incidence. After a median follow-up of 57.4months, 1,929 (8.3%) new cases of T2DM occurred. Simple linear regression analysis showed serum calcium level changes correlated positively with changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels (B=5.72, pcalcium levels during follow-up was related to an increased risk of T2DM. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of T2DM was 1.6 times greater for subjects whose albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels were in the highest change tertile during follow-up than for subjects whose levels were in the lowest tertile (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.44-1.88, Pcalcium levels was associated with an increased risk of T2DM, independent of baseline glycemic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between energy intensity and income levels: Forecasting long term energy demand in Asian emerging countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, R.; Univ. della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes long-term trends in energy intensity for ten Asian emerging countries to test for a non-monotonic relationship between energy intensity and income in the author's sample. Energy demand functions are estimated during 1973--1990 using a quadratic function of log income. The long-run coefficient on squared income is found to be negative and significant, indicating a change in trend of energy intensity. The estimates are then used to evaluate a medium-term forecast of energy demand in the Asian countries, using both a log-linear and a quadratic model. It is found that in medium to high income countries the quadratic model performs better than the log-linear, with an average error of 9% against 43% in 1995. For the region as a whole, the quadratic model appears more adequate with a forecast error of 16% against 28% in 1995. These results are consistent with a process of dematerialization, which occurs as a result of a reduction of resource use per unit of GDP once an economy passes some threshold level of GDP per capita

  10. Similar levels of diversity and population Structure in superflock and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    superflock cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, Africa. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... We use DNA microsatellite loci to estimate neutral genetic diversity and the level of gene flow among populations of two cichlid species from southern Lake Victoria, ...

  11. The STOP-BANG questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apneainduced hypertension in Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanut Pavarangkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm.

  12. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  13. Early Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation after penetrating keratoplasty leads to better outcomes in an Asian population with preexisting glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Tai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs, graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1 and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2. Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98, but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049 and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA (p21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation.

  14. Early Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation after Penetrating Keratoplasty Leads to Better Outcomes in an Asian Population with Preexisting Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Hao; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Liang, Chang-Min; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Chen, Ching-Long; Lu, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs), graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1) and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2). Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98), but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049) and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA) (pglaucoma, a history of previous PKP, and a preoperative IOP that was >21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. Conclusions/Significance Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation. PMID:22629464

  15. Fetal growth trajectories in pregnancies of European and South Asian mothers with and without gestational diabetes, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nakstad, Britt; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd Harald; Birkeland, Kåre I; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the impact of gestational diabetes (GDM), from before the GDM-diagnosis is made, on fetal growth trajectories, and to compare it in Europeans and South Asians; two ethnic groups with dissimilar fetal growth patterns. We studied European (n = 349) and South Asian (n = 184) pregnant women, from the population-based STORK-Groruddalen cohort in Oslo, Norway. Mothers were enrolled in early pregnancy, screened for GDM in gestational week 28 ±2, and classified as "non-GDM", "mild GDM" or "moderate/severe GDM". We measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length by ultrasound, and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, and performed corresponding measurements at birth. In non-GDM pregnancies, South Asian fetuses (n = 156) had a slower growth from gestational week 24, compared with Europeans (n = 310). More than two thirds of the European mothers later diagnosed with GDM were overweight or obese in early pregnancy, while this was not observed in South Asians. Fetuses of GDM mothers tended to be smaller than fetuses of non-GDM mothers in week 24, but thereafter grew faster until birth. This pattern was especially pronounced in fetuses of South Asian mothers with moderate/severe GDM. In week 24 these fetuses had a -0.95 SD (95% CI: -1.53, -0.36) lower estimated fetal weight than their non-GDM counterparts. In contrast, at birth they were 0.45 SD (0.09, 0.81) larger. Offspring of GDM mothers were smaller in mid pregnancy, but subsequently grew faster until birth, compared with offspring of non-GDM mothers. This pattern was most prominent in South Asian mothers with moderate to severe GDM. However, the most remarkable characteristic of these fetuses was not a large size at birth, but the small size in mid pregnancy, before the GDM diagnosis was set.

  16. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in African, Asian and European populations and its relationship with different malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Alarcón, Jose Antonio; Kuroe, Kazuto

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that midline basicranial orientation and posterior cranial base length are discriminating factors between adults of different populations and its potential maxillo/mandibular disharmonies. Twenty-nine 2D landmarks of the midline cranial base, the face and the mandible of dry skull X-rays from three major populations (45 Asians, 34 Africans, 64 Europeans) were digitized and analysed by geometric morphometrics. We used, first, MANOVA to test for mean shape differences between populations; then, principal components analysis (PCA) to assess the overall variation in the sample and finally, canonical variate analysis (CVA) with jack-knife validations (N=1000) to analyse the anatomical features that best distinguished among populations. Significant mean shapes differences were shown between populations (P<0.001). CVA revealed two significant axes of discrimination (P<0.001). Jack-knife validation correctly identified 92% of 15,000 unknowns. In Africans the whole cranial base is rotated into a forward-downward position, while in Asians it is rotated in the opposite way. The Europeans occupied an intermediate position. African and Asian samples showed a maxillo/mandibular prognathism. African prognathism was produced by an anterior positioned maxilla, Asian prognathism by retruded anterior cranial base and increase of the posterior cranial base length. Europeans showed a trend towards retracted mandibles with relatively shorter posterior cranial bases. The results supported the hypothesis that basicranial orientation and posterior cranial base length are valid factors to distinguish between geographic groups. The whole craniofacial configuration underlying a particular maxillo-facial disharmony must be considered in diagnosis, growth predictions and resulting treatment planning.

  17. Population-based intervention for cardiovascular diseases related knowledge and behaviours in Asian Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and vitamin D deficiency in an Asian resident population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Mohammed K; Badsha, Humeira

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a UAE population. Forty-five consecutive subjects were prospectively recruited during the early summer with their clinical examination and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) being recorded at a clinic appointment, along with their blood sample being taken for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) total test. Thirty-five (76%) patients claimed to be exposed to sunlight for Disease Activity Score (DAS28) or HAQ scores. A direct relationship was observed between HAQ scores and DAS28 scores (P culture. No association was observed between vitamin D and disease activity. However, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency may negatively impact on bone health of these patients in the future. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Management of Complex Knee Deformities in Asian Population: Our Experience of 11 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Noor

    2015-01-01

    Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA is a life changing procedure for such patients. Great improvements in quality of life and outcome measure scores have been observed in patients undergone TKA. Our patients are challenging further as compared to western population because they present late for consultation when the disease and deformity is advanced. Their expectations are high, as they wish to resume their ground base activities such as kneeling for prayers. Furthermore with financial constraints present with most of the patients, one has to be careful in choosing the type of implant and keep in consideration other alternative available options. This case series encompasses our experience of TKA on patients with variety of challenging deformities, their short term outcome and a review of the literature.

  20. Populous, Precarious – Protected? The Paradox of Social Security for South Asian Agricultural Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Social security is firmly rising on the international agenda. Discourses that depart from the assumption that societies can only afford a certain level of social expenditure give way to a recognition that social security is an important investment in development. New

  1. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  2. Are symbols useful and culturally acceptable in health-state valuation studies? An exploratory study in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hwee-Lin, Wee1, Shu-Chuen Li2, Xu-Hao Zhang1, Feng Xie3, David Feeny4, Nan Luo5, Yin-Bun Cheung6, David Machin7, Kok-Yong Fong8, Julian Thumboo81Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore (NUS, Singapore; 2Discipline of Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 3McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Kaiser Permanente Northwest Center for Health Research, Portland, OR, USA; 5Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS, Singapore; 6Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Research Unit, Singapore; 7School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 8Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Symbols have been used in health state valuation studies to help subjects distinguish the severity of various characteristics of a given health state. Symbols used in such studies need to be evaluated for their cross-cultural appropriateness because a given symbol may have different meanings or acceptability in different cultures, which may affect results of such studies.Objectives: To evaluate if using symbols to differentiate health states of different severity is useful and culturally acceptable in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population.Methods: Using in-depth interviews with adult Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporeans conducted in English/mother-tongue, subjects were shown a health state with 6 levels (Health Utilities Index 3 vision, each displayed with a symbol, and asked (1a if symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level (measured using dichotomous and 0–10 visual analog scale [VAS] scales or (1b offensive and (2 to assess 7 alternative sets of symbols.Results: Of 63 subjects (91% response rate, 18 (29% felt symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level. Reported usefulness

  3. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Optimizing Glycemic Control Through Titration of Insulin Glargine 100 U/mL: A Review of Current and Future Approaches with a Focus on Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Bajpai, Shailendra; Dwipayana, I Made Pande; Hussein, Zanariah; Mabunay, Maria Aileen; Rosales, Reynaldo; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tsang, Man Wo

    2017-12-01

    Various data have demonstrated inadequate glycemic control amongst Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly on account of suboptimal titration of basal insulin-an issue which needs to be further examined. Here we review the available global and Asia-specific data on titration of basal insulin, with a focus on the use of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). We also discuss clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of titrating Gla-100, different approaches to titration, including some of the latest technological advancements, and guidance on the titration of basal insulin from international and local Asian guidelines. The authors also provide their recommendations for the initiation and titration of basal insulin for Asian populations. Discussion of the data included in this review and in relation to the authors' clinical experience with treating T2DM in Asian patients is also included. Briefly, clinical studies demonstrate the achievement of adequate glycemic control in adults with T2DM through titration of Gla-100. However, studies investigating approaches to titration, specifically in Asian populations, are lacking and need to be conducted. Given that the management of insulin therapy is a multidisciplinary team effort involving endocrinologists, primary care physicians, nurse educators, and patients, greater resources and education targeted at these groups are needed regarding the optimal titration of basal insulin. Technological advancements in the form of mobile or web-based applications for automated dose adjustment can aid different stakeholders in optimizing the dose of basal insulin, enabling a larger number of patients in Asia to reach their target glycemic goals with improved outcomes.

  5. Association of "Elevated Blood Pressure" and "Stage 1 Hypertension" With Cardiovascular Mortality Among an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Naeimeh; Koh, Angela S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-04-10

    The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure (BP) guidelines in the United States have lowered definition of hypertension by defining normal as systolic/diastolic BP hypertension as systolic between 130 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic between 80 and 89 mm Hg. We investigated the association between the new hypertension definition and cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from 30 636 participants of a population-based cohort, the SCHS (Singapore Chinese Health Study), who had BPs measured using a standard protocol at ages 46 to 85 years between 1994 and 2005. Information on lifestyle factors was collected at recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 interviews (1999 and 2004). Mortality was identified via nationwide registry linkage up to December 31, 2016. Neither elevated BP (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.07) nor stage 1 hypertension (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.11) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normal BP in the whole cohort. Stage 1 hypertension was associated with increased cardiovascular risk only in those hypertension may not be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality across all ages among Chinese in Singapore, but that the at-risk subpopulation is limited to those <65 years of age and without a prior cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.; Alves, Joel M.; Palmer, William J.; Day, Jonathan P.; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.; Black, William C., IV; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2017-01-01

    this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri

  7. Masculine Norms, Avoidant Coping, Asian Values and Depression among Asian American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liao, Liang; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, growing research indicates that the rates of mental health problems among Asian Americans may be higher than initially assumed. This study seeks to add to the scant knowledge regarding the mental health of Asian American men by examining the role of masculine norms, coping and cultural values in predicting depression among this population (N=149). Results reveal that Asian American men who used avoidant coping strategies and endorsed the masculine norm Dominance reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, endorsing Winning masculine norms was associated to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that adherence to masculine norms and avoidant coping strategies play a salient role in the mental health of Asian American men.

  8. Masculine Norms, Avoidant Coping, Asian Values and Depression among Asian American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liao, Liang; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the “model minority” myth, growing research indicates that the rates of mental health problems among Asian Americans may be higher than initially assumed. This study seeks to add to the scant knowledge regarding the mental health of Asian American men by examining the role of masculine norms, coping and cultural values in predicting depression among this population (N=149). Results reveal that Asian American men who used avoidant coping strategies and endorsed the masculine norm Dominance reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, endorsing Winning masculine norms was associated to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that adherence to masculine norms and avoidant coping strategies play a salient role in the mental health of Asian American men. PMID:20657794

  9. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  10. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  11. Comparison of Muscle Recovery Following Bi-cruciate Substituting versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Akihito; Ryu, Keinosuke; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle recovery in the lower extremities following the newly developed bi-cruciate substituting (BCS) to posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the Asian population. Forty-one knees in 41 patients undergoing BCS-TKA (41 female, average age: 71 ± 8.8) and 34 knees in 34 patients undergoing PS-TKA (33 female, average age: 73 ± 7.2) were included in this study. The maximum isometric power of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery using a handheld dynamometer. Postoperative muscle recovery was calculated regarding preoperative muscle power as 100%. Pre- and postoperative range of knee motion, femorotibial angle, and clinical scores (Knee Society score and function score) were also compared. No significant difference in sex, age, preoperative quadriceps, or preoperative hamstring power was observed between the BCS and PS-TKA groups. When regarding the preoperative muscle power as 100%, quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 61.2 ± 22%, 86.3 ± 28.3%, 97 ± 27.4%, and 112.4 ± 30.8%, respectively. Quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 72.4 ± 20.8%, 84 ± 16.9%, 95 ± 20.7%, and 110.8 ± 27%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 96.3 ± 30%, 111.4 ± 35%, 120 ± 37%, and 125 ± 31%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 95 ± 25%, 112.4 ± 27%, 117 ± 38.5%, and 120.4 ± 18.5%, respectively. No significant difference in muscle power recovery was observed at 3 ( p  = 0.995), 6 ( p  = 0.944), and 12 ( p  = 0.917) months after surgery between the two groups. No significant difference of the clinical score was observed between the groups (Knee Society score: p  = 0.479, function score: p  = 0.342). No significant

  12. Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit C, Dr Brijesh

    2007-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing economic and policy factors impinging upon population stabilization measures at the district (sub-state level) in India. It reflects upon popularly debated notions, namely, that development is the best contraceptive or whether contraceptive is the best development. In order to reflect upon this notion, we hypothesize that the factors determining the success of population stabilization measures are likely to be different across rich and poor states. It is more likel...

  13. Observation of inverted population levels in the FM-1 Spherator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Okabayashi, M.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1976-04-01

    Inversions in the populations of excited levels in hydrogen and HeII were observed in the FM-1 Spherator. The inversion increases strongly as the ratio of the decay time of the electron temperature to the decay time of the electron density was decreased. Time dependent numerical calculations of the populations were in good agreement with the experimental measurements. More general calculations for high Z hydrogen-like ions are discussed

  14. Asian patients with dyslipidemia in an urban population: Effect of ethnicity on their LDL-cholesterol treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Koh, Kim Hwee; Goh, Chin Chin; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Goh, Soo Chye Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for arthrosclerosis. It is the most common chronic disease among the multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Local national health survey has shown ethnic variability in achieving control of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients in primary care, who achieved their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol treatment goals, stratified by the local major ethnic groups. It also evaluated the factors that affected their dyslipidemia control, including diet, exercise and medication usage. Research assistants administered questionnaires on adult patients with physician-diagnosed dyslipidemia to determine their views on diet, exercise, and medications in this cross-sectional study in 2 local primary care clinics. Their lipid profiles were retrieved from their laboratory reports in their electronic health records. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for the categorical demographics and questionnaire variables, (P < .05: statistically significant). Logistic regression was performed using these significant variables to determine the adjusted odds of the ethnic groups. A total of 1093 eligible patients completed the questionnaires. The proportion of Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients who achieved LDL-cholesterol goals was 78.3%, 67.9%, and 68.5%, respectively. Among those who self-reported taking their favorite cholesterol-rich food occasionally when their cholesterol became controlled, 35.8% Indians failed to achieve treatment goals, compared to 20.1% Chinese and 30.9% Malay patients. Regular medication adherence was associated with 81.8% Chinese, 69.0% Malay, and 69.7% Indian reaching treatment goals. More Chinese met LDL-cholesterol treatment goals compared to Malays and Indians. Lipid-lowering medications enabled but smoking hindered their achievement of these treatment goals. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  16. The demography of disability and the effects of immigrant history: older Asians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Prakash, Archana; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2007-05-01

    Using data from the 2000 U.S. census, we compare the older Asian population with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites with respect to three indicators of disability. Insofar as any Asian "advantage" in health vis-a-vis whites exists among the population aged 65 and over, our evidence suggests that it occurs primarily among the U.S.-born segments of this population. We also investigate how differences in disability levels among Asian immigrant groups are influenced by country of birth and by the combined effects of duration of residence in the United States and life cycle stage at entry. These results highlight the diversity of the older Asian population with respect to the ways in which immigration and origin history are linked to disability outcomes. We conclude that in later life, immigrant status confers few disability advantages among the Asian population in the United States.

  17. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  18. Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival Among Asian Women by Ethnicity and Immigrant Status: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival. Methods. We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007. Results. US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics. Conclusions. Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control. PMID:20299648

  19. Acculturation and education level in relation to quality of the diet: a study of Surinamese South Asian and Afro-Caribbean residents of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaou, M.; van Dam, R. M.; Stronks, K.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To consider the changes in overall diet quality following migration we examined the associations of acculturation variables and education level with diet in Surinamese South Asian and Surinamese Afro-Caribbean origin on the one hand, and ethnic Dutch residents of the Netherlands on the

  20. Is cardiovascular risk reduction therapy effective in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes? A population-based cohort study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Calvin H; Morgan, Steve; Smolina, Kate; Gasevic, Danijela; Qian, Hong; Khan, Nadia A

    2017-08-31

    Guidelines recommend ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics in all patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the effectiveness of these agents in South Asian and Chinese populations is unknown. We sought to determine whether ACEi, ARB, CCB and diuretics are associated with reduced mortality in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes. Population-based cohort study using administrative health databases. Province of British Columbia, Canada (2006-2013). Patients aged ≥35 years with incident diabetes. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality for each medication class compared with untreated patients within each ethnicity. Treatment effect was assessed using inverse probability of treatment weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Medication adherence effect on mortality was also evaluated. 208 870 patients (13 755 South Asian, 22 871 Chinese, 172 244 other Canadian) were included. ACEi reduced mortality in other patients (HR=0.88, 0.84-0.91), but power was insufficient to evaluate for benefit in Chinese and South Asian patients. ARB and diuretics reduced mortality in Chinese (ARB HR=0.64, 0.50-0.82; diuretics HR=0.77, 0.62-0.96) and other patients (ARB HR=0.69, 0.64-0.74; diuretics HR=0.66, 0.63-0.69) compared with untreated patients. No mortality benefit was observed among South Asians for any drug class or for CCB among all ethnicities. Higher medication adherence was associated with lower mortality for other patients only (HR=0.79, 0.72-0.86). Effectiveness of cardiovascular risk reduction therapy on mortality varies considerably by ethnicity. Further study is needed to evaluate the mortality benefit of antihypertensive agents in South Asians. Inclusion of these ethnic groups in future clinical trials is essential to examine for differential responses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  1. Genetic diversity of the captive Asian tapir population in Thailand, based on mitochondrial control region sequence data and the comparison of its nucleotide structure with Brazilian tapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Amano, Akira; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Thongtip, Nikorn; Kaolim, Nongnid; Sukmak, Manakorn; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Maikaew, Umaporn; Thomas, Warisara; Polsrila, Kanda; Dongsaard, Kwanreaun; Sanannu, Saowaphang; Wattananorrasate, Anuwat

    2017-07-01

    The Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2008). Genetic diversity data provide important information for the management of captive breeding and conservation of this species. We analyzed mitochondrial control region (CR) sequences from 37 captive Asian tapirs in Thailand. Multiple alignments of the full-length CR sequences sized 1268 bp comprised three domains as described in other mammal species. Analysis of 16 parsimony-informative variable sites revealed 11 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis using median-joining network clearly showed three clades correlated with our earlier cytochrome b gene study in this endangered species. The repetitive motif is located between first and second conserved sequence blocks, similar to the Brazilian tapir. The highest polymorphic site was located in the extended termination associated sequences domain. The results could be applied for future genetic management based in captivity and wild that shows stable populations.

  2. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  3. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T L; Chan, Henry H; Ho, Wilson W S; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H L; Rogers, John D

    2016-04-01

    Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to develop consensus statements on concepts of facial beauty, key esthetic concerns, facial anatomy, and aging in Southeastern and Eastern Asians, as a prelude to developing consensus opinions on the cosmetic facial use of botulinum toxin and HA fillers in these populations. Beautiful and esthetically attractive people of all races share similarities in appearance while retaining distinct ethnic features. Asians between the third and sixth decades age well compared with age-matched Caucasians. Younger Asians' increasing requests for injectable treatments to improve facial shape and three-dimensionality often reflect a desire to correct underlying facial structural deficiencies or weaknesses that detract from ideals of facial beauty. Facial esthetic treatments in Asians are not aimed at Westernization, but rather the optimization of intrinsic Asian ethnic features, or correction of specific underlying structural features that are perceived as deficiencies. Thus, overall facial attractiveness is enhanced while retaining esthetic characteristics of Asian ethnicity. Because Asian patients age differently than Western patients, different management and treatment planning strategies are utilized. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  4. Mid-term study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in an Asian population with severe aortic stenosis: two-year Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Nicholas; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt; Yip, Wei Luen James; Chan, Siew Pang; Poh, Kian-Keong; Kong, William Kok-Fai; Teoh, Kristine Leok Kheng; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Tan, Huay Cheem; Tay, Edgar Lik Wui

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an effective treatment for high-risk or inoperative patients with severe aortic stenosis. Given the unique characteristics of Asian populations, questions regarding mid-term outcomes in Asians undergoing TAVI have yet to be addressed. We evaluated the two-year clinical outcomes of TAVI in an Asian population using Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. This prospective study recruited 59 patients from a major academic medical centre in Singapore. The main outcomes were two-year survival rates, peri-procedural complications, symptom improvement, valvular function and assessment of learning curve. Mean age was 76.8 years (61.0% male), mean body surface area 1.6 m 2 and mean logistic EuroSCORE 18.7%. Survival was 93.2%, 86.0% and 79.1% at 30 days, one year and two years, respectively. At 30 days post TAVI, the rate of stroke was 1.7%, life-threatening bleeding 5.1%, acute kidney injury 25.0%, major vascular complication 5.1%, and new permanent pacemaker implantation 6.8%. 29.3% of TAVI patients were rehospitalised (47.1% cardiovascular-related) within one year. These composite outcomes were measured: device success (93.2%); early safety (79.7%); clinical efficacy (66.1%); and time-related valve safety (84.7%). Univariate analysis found these predictors of two-year all-cause mortality: logistic EuroSCORE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07; p < 0.001); baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR 0.97; p = 0.048); and acute kidney injury (HR 5.33; p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis identified non-transfemoral TAVI as a predictor of cardiovascular-related two-year mortality (HR 14.64; p = 0.008). Despite the unique clinical differences in Asian populations, this registry demonstrated favourable mid-term clinical and safety outcomes in Asians undergoing TAVI. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  5. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

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    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  6. The effect of tranexamic acid in unilateral and bilateral total knee arthroplasty in the South Asian population: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrih, Syed Hamza; Malik, Azeem Tariq; Qureshi, Nada Qaisar; Lakdawala, Riaz Hussain; Rabbani, Muhammad Umar; Ali, Arif; Noordin, Shahryar

    2018-04-01

    Together with evidence of higher bleeding tendencies, the vulnerability of the South-Asian population to anemia secondary to a higher prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and micronutrient deficiencies merits further exploration of the effects of tranexamic acid on this population. Additionally, limited access to self-care facilities and certain sociocultural beliefs and practices may not be conducive to a speedy recovery from surgical complications. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intraoperative administration of tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty when considering the South-Asian population. Medical record files of 355 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (2007-2015) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient characteristics, surgical variables and post-operative complications. Unilateral and Bilateral total knee arthroplasty were studied separately. Analysis was done using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact square where appropriate. The threshold for significance was p tranexamic acid caused a significant reduction in estimated blood loss (p-value=0.011), total operative time, calculated blood loss, and hemoglobin change (p-valuetranexamic acid only caused a significant reduction in calculated blood loss (p-value tranexamic acid vs. those who did not, there was a significant increase in length of hospital stay (ptranexamic acid effectively reduces intraoperative blood loss, it does not have an effect on the need for post-operative blood transfusions. The increased length of stay and special care unit admissions associated with tranexamic acid use should be explored further to reveal the complete safety profile of tranexamic acid administration in the South-Asian population during total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  8. Diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs for gastric cancer in Asian populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiutang; Liu, Jianchao

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) accounts for one of the highest mortality worldwide and particularly in East Asia. Many studies have reported on the potential value of microRNAs (miRNAs) detection for diagnosing GC, but their results have proven inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of circulating miRNAs for GC diagnosis. A literature search was carried out in databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and CNKI) and other sources using combinations of keywords relating to GC, miRNAs, and diagnosis. The values of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) reported in individual studies were pooled using random-effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were assessed with subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess the diagnosis accuracy of miRNAs. This meta-analysis included 1,279 patients with GC and 954 healthy controls from 20 publications. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.73-0.81), 0.80 (95 % CI: 0.76-0.84), 4.0 (95 % CI: 3.1-6.0), 0.28 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.34), 14 (95 % CI: 10-21), and 0.86 (95 % CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that early stages (I and II) GC were more easily detected than later stages and that multiple miRNAs assays were more accurate than single miRNA assays. Our meta-analysis suggests that miRNAs have a high diagnostic value for GC, especially in its early stages (I and II). In addition, multiple miRNAs assays have a better diagnosis value than single miRNA assays. In conclusion, circulating miRNAs might be used as noninvasive biomarkers for the confirmation of GC detection in Asian populations.

  9. High rates of pneumonia in children under two years of age in a South East Asian refugee population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Turner

    Full Text Available There are an estimated 150 million episodes of childhood pneumonia per year, with 11-20 million hospital admissions and 1.575 million deaths. Refugee children are particularly vulnerable, with poorly defined pneumonia epidemiology.We followed a birth cohort of 955 refugee infants, born over a one-year period, until two years of age. Clinical and radiographic pneumonia were diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Detailed characteristics were collected to determine risk factors for clinical, radiological and multiple episodes of pneumonia. Investigations were taken during a pneumonia episode to help determine or to infer an aetiological diagnosis.The incidence of clinical pneumonia was 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.75 episodes per child year (/CY and of radiological primary endpoint pneumonia (PEP was 0.22/CY (95% CI 0.20-0.24. The incidence of pneumonia without severe signs was 0.50/CY (95% CI 0.48-0.53, severe pneumonia 0.15/CY (95% CI 0.13-0.17 and very severe pneumonia 0.06/CY (0.05-0.07. Virus was detected, from a nasopharyngeal aspirate, in 61.3% of episodes. A reduced volume of living space per person (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.0, p = 0.003 and young maternal age (IRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12-2.27, p = 0.01 were risk factors for developing pneumonia. The risk of a child having >1 episode of pneumonia was increased by having a shorter distance to the next house (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00, p = 0.04. Infants were at risk of having an episode of PEP if there was a shorter distance from stove to bed (IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03. Raised CRP and neutrophil values were associated with PEP.There was a high incidence of pneumonia in young children in this SE Asian refugee population. Viral infections were important, however CXR and non-specific marker findings suggested that bacteria may be involved in up to a third of cases.

  10. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Dongwook; Lim, Sora; Kim, Kyung Sang; Jheong, Weonhwa; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Eung-Roh; Chung, Hyun-Mi; Choe, Joonho; Kim, Myung Kyum; Seo, Taegun

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10), is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples collected during November-December 2014. The dust samples were collected using the impinger method, and the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using PCR followed by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the sequencing data were performed using Mothur software. The data showed that the number of operational taxonomic units and diversity index during Asian dust events were higher than those during non-Asian dust events. At the phylum level, the proportions of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were different between Asian dust and non-Asian dust samples. At the genus level, the proportions of the genus Bacillus (6.9%), Arthrobacter (3.6%), Blastocatella (2%), Planomicrobium (1.4%) were increased during Asian dust compared to those in non-Asian dust samples. This study showed that the significant relationship between bacterial populations of Asian dust samples and non-Asian dust samples in Korea, which could significantly affect the microbial population in the environment.

  13. Historic and current hepatitis B viral DNA and quantitative HBsAg level are not associated with cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkisoen, S; Arends, J E; van den Hoek, J A R; Whelan, J; van Erpecum, K J; Boland, G J; Hoepelman, A I M

    2014-12-01

    Some studies done in Asian patients have shown that serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA predict the development of cirrhosis. However, it is unclear whether this also applies for non-Asian patients. This study investigated historic and current HBV DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels as predictors of cirrhosis in non-Asian women with chronic HBV. A retrospective cohort study of non-Asian women with chronic HBV was performed. Among other variables, HBV DNA and quantitative HBsAg levels were measured in stored historic serum samples obtained during pregnancy (period 1990-2004) and current serum samples (period 2011-2012) to determine any association with liver cirrhosis by liver stiffness measurement (LSM). One hundred and nineteen asymptomatic, treatment-naïve non-Asian women were included; the median number of years between the historic sample and the current sample was 17 (interquartile range (IQR) 13-20). The median historic log HBV DNA and quantitative log HBsAg levels were 2.5 (IQR 1.9-3.4) IU/ml and 4.2 (IQR 3.6-4.5) IU/ml, respectively. LSM diagnosed 14 patients (12%) with F3-F4 fibrosis, i.e. stiffness >8.1kPa. No association of cirrhosis was found with historic HBV DNA (relative risk (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-2.44) or with the quantitative HBsAg level (HBsAg level >1000 IU/ml, RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.11-1.11). Multivariable analysis identified alcohol consumption (odds ratio (OR) 6.4, 95% CI 1.3-30.1), aspartate aminotransferase >0.5 times the upper limit of normal (OR 15.4, 95% CI 1.9-122.6), and prothrombin time (OR 12.0, 95% CI 1.2-120.4), but not HBV DNA or quantitative HBsAg level, to be independent predictors of the presence of cirrhosis. Neither historic nor current HBV DNA or the quantitative HBsAg level is associated with the development of HBV-related cirrhosis in non-Asian women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Is International or Asian Criteria-based Body Mass Index Associated with Maternal Anaemia, Low Birthweight, and Preterm Births among Thai Population?—An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An observational study was conducted in the four southernmost provinces of Thailand aiming at determining the effect of international or Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) in predicting maternal anaemia, low birthweight (LBW), and preterm births among pregnant Thai women and the change in haemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Maternal anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level of Anaemia was detected in 27.4% and 26.9% of 1,192 pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and the third trimester respectively. The proportions of overweight and obese women according to the Asian criteria-based pre-pregnancy BMI were higher than the international criteria-based BMI (22.4% and 10.1% vs 15.5% and 3.4% respectively). No significant difference between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy BMI at the first prenatal visit was demonstrated (mean±standard deviation=21.8±4.0 vs 22.8±4.1). Underweight women had a significantly higher prevalence of maternal anaemia, LBW, and preterm birth compared to women with normal weight. Overweight and obese women at pre-pregnancy by the Asian criteria-based BMI had a lower prevalence of anaemia. The Hb levels did not change significantly over time. In addition to BMI, maternal age, parity, and late prenatal visit were independently associated with maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. Underweight pregnant women classified by international or Asian criteria-based BMI increased the risk of maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. PMID:21766557

  15. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  16. The Prostate Health Index in predicting initial prostate biopsy outcomes in Asian men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C F; Chiu, Peter K F; Lam, N Y; Lam, H C; Lee, Kim W M; Hou, Simon S M

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of the Prostate Health Index (phi) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4-10 ng/mL receiving their first prostatic biopsy in an Asian population. This was a retrospective study of archived serum samples from patients enlisted in our tissue bank. Patients over 50 years old, with PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL, a negative digital rectal examination, and received their first prostatic biopsy between April 2008 and April 2013, were recruited. The serum sample collected before biopsy was retrieved for the measurement of various PSA derivatives and the phi value was calculated for each patient. The performance of these parameters in predicting the prostatic biopsy results was assessed. Two hundred and thirty consecutive patients, with 21 (9.13 %) diagnosed with PCa, were recruited for this study. Statistically significant differences between PCa patients and non-PCa patients were found for total PSA, PSA density, [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and phi. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, PSA density, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and phi were 0.547, 0.634, 0.654, 0.768, and 0.781, respectively. The phi was the best predictor of the prostatic biopsies results. At a sensitivity of 90 %, the use of the phi could have avoided unnecessary biopsies in 104 (45.2 %) patients. Use of the phi could improve the accuracy of PCa detection in patients with an elevated PSA level and thus avoid unnecessary prostatic biopsies.

  17. Studying the Genetics of Complex Disease With Ancestry-Specific Human Phenotype Networks: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes in East Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Some consequences of the geodynamics of sea level on the biosphere. The SE Asian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Laurent; Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Sepulchre, Pierre; Pedoja, Kevin; Elliot, Mary; Hantoro, Wahyoe; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Mantle flow and subducting slabs dynamically deflect the surface of the Earth. These deflections occasionally suffice to alternatively inundate or emerge vast expanses of landmasses. This is the case in SE Asia, where geomorphological indicators attest for widespread uplift in the East, in "Wallacea" and subsidence in the West, in the very shallow Sunda platform. These movements attest for transient subduction dynamics of the Indo-Australian subduction zone. We conducted fieldwork in key areas : Sulawesi in the East, Belitung in the West. Geomorphological observations and modeling, geophysical measurements and age determinations have enable us to determine Quaternary rates of subsidence (Sunda shelf) and uplift (in Wallacea), of a few tenths of millimeters per year, faster than over longer time scales. We hypothesize that such rates of vertical ground motion triggered by the subducting slabs, though modest, are sufficient to very efficiently impact the external spheres of the Earth. More specifically, because it is associated with modifications of the relative sea level, we propose that they critically altered diverse aspects of the biosphere. We propose that such geodynamics ultimately modulate the dynamics of the biosphere in ways as diverse as boosting reef productivity by an order of magnitude, fostering the development of the "Coral Triangle" center of biodiversity and, in a rather provocative way, even helping Homo erectus reach Java and large faunas cross Sundaland even during interglacial periods.

  19. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  20. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution. PMID:28989786

  1. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Wilder, Bryan; Fortunato, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution.

  2. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.spann@web.de [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Aldridge, David C., E-mail: da113@cam.ac.uk [Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Griffin, Julian L., E-mail: jlg40@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: o.jones@gmail.com [Sanger Building, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC-MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc-cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size class makes

  3. Size-dependent effects of low level cadmium and zinc exposure on the metabolome of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, Nicole; Aldridge, David C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Jones, Oliver A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Small and large Corbicula fluminea were exposed to cadmium and zinc spiked sediment. Metabolomic changes in the freshwater clams were determined by NMR and GC–MS. Metabolic perturbations were related to amino acid and energy related metabolism. Small and large clams were differentiated by their metabolic composition. Size classes showed opposite responses to metal stress. - Abstract: The toxic effects of low level metal contamination in sediments are currently poorly understood. We exposed different sized Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of either zinc, cadmium or a zinc–cadmium mixture for one week. This freshwater bivalve is well suited for sediment toxicity tests as it lives partly buried in the sediment and utilises sediment particles as a food resource. After one week, the whole tissue composition of low molecular weight metabolites was analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The condition index (ratio of tissue dry weight to volume inside the shell valves) was also measured. Small and large clams were clearly differentiated by their metabolic composition and the two size classes showed opposite responses to the mixture spiked sediment. No effects of zinc alone on the metabolome were found and cadmium only influenced the smaller size class. The main perturbations were seen in amino acid and energy metabolism, with small clams using amino acids as an energy resource and larger clams primarily drawing on their larger storage reserves of carbohydrates. Our study demonstrates that metabolomics is a useful technique to test for low level toxicity which does not manifest in mortality or condition index changes. The differing effects between the two size classes stress that it is important to consider age/size when conducting metabolomic and ecotoxicology assessments, since testing for the effects on only one size

  4. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  5. Association of mRNA expression of TP53 and the TP53 codon 72 Arg/Pro gene polymorphism with colorectal cancer risk in Asian population: a bioinformatics analysis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Longzhi; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Cunchuan

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between TP53 codon 72 Pro/Arg gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Asians is still controversial, and this bioinformatics analysis and meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and eligible reports were included. RevMan 5.3.1 software, Oncolnc, cBioPortal, and Oncomine online tools were used for statistical analysis. A random/fixed effects model was used in meta-analysis. The data were reported as risk ratios or mean differences with corresponding 95% CI. We confirmed that TP53 was associated with colorectal cancer, the alteration frequency of TP53 was 53% mutation and 7% deep deletion, and TP53 mRNA expression was different in different types of colorectal cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then, 18 studies were included that examine the association of TP53 codon 72 gene polymorphism with colorectal cancer risk in Asians. The meta-analysis indicated that TP53 Pro allele and Pro/Pro genotype were associated with colorectal cancer risk in Asian population, but Arg/Arg genotype was not (Pro allele: odds ratios [OR]=1.20, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.35, P =0.003; Pro/Pro genotype: OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.69, P =0.0007; Arg/Arg genotype: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.00, P =0.05). Interestingly, in the meta-analysis of the controls from the population-based studies, we found that TP53 codon 72 Pro/Arg gene polymorphism was associated with colorectal cancer risk (Pro allele: OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.55, P =0.0002; Pro/Pro genotype: OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.02, P colorectal cancer, but the different value levels of mRNA expression were not associated with survival rate of colon and rectal cancer. TP53 Pro allele and Pro/Pro genotype were associated with colorectal cancer risk in Asians.

  6. Validity and reliability of the semi-quantitative self-report Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist (HFAI-C) in White and South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; LeCroy, Madison; Sahota, Pinki; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2016-05-04

    Despite interest in the importance of the home food environment and its potential influence on children's diets and social norms, there remain few self-report checklist methods that have been validated against the gold standard of researcher-conducted inventories. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of the 'Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist' (HFAI-C), a 39-item checklist including categories of fruit, vegetables, snacks and drinks. The HFAI-C was completed by 97 participants of White and Pakistani origin in the UK. Validity was determined by comparing participant-reported HFAI-C responses to data from researcher observations of home food availability using PABAK and weighted kappa statistics. The validity of measuring the amount of items (in addition to presence/absence) available was also determined. Test-retest reliability compared repeated administrations of the HFAI-C using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity and reliability was fair to moderate overall. For validity, the average category-level PABAK ranged from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.37) for vegetables to 0.44 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) for fruits. Assessment of the presence/absence of items demonstrated higher validity compared to quantity measurements. Reliability was increased when the HFAI-C was repeated close to the time of the first administration. For example, ICCs for reliability of the measurement of fruits were 0.52 (95%CI: 0.47, 0.56) if re-administered within 5 months, 0.58 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.64) within 30 days and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00) if re-administered on the same day. Overall, the HFAI-C demonstrated fair to moderate validity and reliability in a population of White and South Asian participants. This evaluation is consistent with previous work on other checklists in less diverse, more affluent populations. Our research supports the use of the HFAI-C as a useful, albeit imperfect, representation of researcher-conducted inventories. The feasibility of

  7. [Meta-analysis on relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 in ABCG2 gene and gout in East Asian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Zhang, Di

    2015-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout in East Asian population. The literature retrieval was conducted by using English databases (Medline, EMbase), Chinese databases (CNKI, Vip, Wanfang, SinaMed) and others to collect the published papers on the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout by the end of December 2014. Meta-analysis was performed with software Stata 12.0. Nine studies were included. There were significant associations between increased risk of gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142, the combined OR was 2.04 (95%CI: 1.82-2.28) for A allele and C allele, 1.97 (95%CI: 1.57-2.48) for CA and CC, 3.71 (95%CI: 3.07-4.47) for AA and CC. Sex and region specific subgroup analysis showed less heterogeneity. There is significant association between gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 in East Asian population, and A allele is a high risk gene for gout.

  8. Lupus, still a mystery: A comparison of clinical features of Pakistani population living in suburbs of Karachi with other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, M.; Nazir, L.; Riaz, A.; Kidwai, S.S.; Haroon, W.; Siddiq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presenting features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at a private hospital in Karachi, and to compare the features with those of other Asian populations. Methods: The retrospective study comprised records of all lupus cases meeting the revised American Rheumatism Association criteria at the time of presentation at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, from May 2008 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Of the 105 cases in the study, there were 6 (5.7%) males and 99 (94.3%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:16 and a mean age of 31.6+-10.5 years. Clinical manifestations included: constitutional symptoms in (n=69; 65.7%), arthropathy (n=81; 77%), cutaneous involvement (n=39; 37%), lupus nephritis (n=24; 22.8%), pleurisy (n=9; 8.6%), Raynaud's phenomenon (n=24; 22.8%), and vasculitis (n=18; 17%). One (0.95%) patient presented with mononeuritis multiplex, and 1 (0.95%) with acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: The diversity in clinical presentation appeared to be a reflection of the great variability that exists among Asian countries with regards to their genetic, environmental and socio-demographic backgrounds. The differences also existed in our own population, suggesting some unknown etiology. (author)

  9. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  10. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Stochastic Model for Population Exposed to Low Level Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the stochastic model for population size, i.e. calculation of the number of deaths due to lethal stochastic health effects caused by the exposure to low level ionising radiation is presented. The model is defined for subpopulation with parameter (a, b) being fixed. Using the corresponding density function, it is possible to find all the quantities of interest by averaging over whole possible values for (a, l). All processes ar at first defined for one radionuclide, exposure pathway and the health effect under consideration. The results obtained in this paper are the basic quantities in the risk assessment, loss of life expectancy etc. The results presented in this paper are also applicable to the other sources of low level risk, not only the radiation risk

  12. Self-reported domain-specific and accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to psychological distress among an urban Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; van Dam, R M; Biddle, S J H; Tan, C S; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2018-04-05

    The interpretation of previous studies on the association of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with psychological health is limited by the use of mostly self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and a focus on Western populations. We aimed to explore the association of self-reported and devise-based measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour domains on psychological distress in an urban multi-ethnic Asian population. From a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-79 years, data were used from an overall sample (n = 2653) with complete self-reported total physical activity/sedentary behaviour and domain-specific physical activity data, and a subsample (n = 703) with self-reported domain-specific sedentary behaviour and accelerometry data. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour data were collected using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), a domain-specific sedentary behaviour questionnaire and accelerometers. The Kessler Screening Scale (K6) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to assess psychological distress. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The sample comprised 45.0% men (median age = 45.0 years). The prevalence of psychological distress based on the K6 and GHQ-12 was 8.4% and 21.7%, respectively. In the adjusted model, higher levels of self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were associated with significantly higher odds for K6 (OR = 1.47 [1.03-2.10]; p-trend = 0.03) but not GHQ-12 (OR = 0.97 [0.77-1.23]; p-trend = 0.79), when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile. Accelerometry-assessed MVPA was not significantly associated with K6 (p-trend = 0.50) nor GHQ-12 (p-trend = 0.74). The highest tertile of leisure-time physical activity, but not work- or transport-domain activity, was associated

  13. The level of health education in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed factors influencing awareness of Poles concerning lifestyle factors that affect development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A questionnaire survey covering awareness of lifestyle factors performed by general practitioners in 37,557 unselected patients. 96.1% of respondents believed that lifestyle has an impact on the occurrence of CVDs, especially: tobacco smoking (91.4%), excessive intake of fat (81.3%), alcohol (67.5%), salt (64.9%), and stress (64.9%). 79.0% respondents believed the smoking cessation, 77.5% weight loss and 66.8% healthy diet are most important to prevent diseases. Additionally, the belief in the need for an early weight reduction decreased with increasing BMI (82.9% with normal weight vs. 77.5% overweight and 70.4% obese). The most common source of health education was a physician (75.8%), the mass media, such as television and the press (62.0% and 64.8%, respectively), less often were educational materials (37.8%) and books (20.3 %), the Internet (3.8%) and radio (0.8%). Younger respondents presented a higher level of awareness about all analysed aspects of healthy lifestyle. The multiple regression analysis revealed that low education level and rural residence are the most important factors decreasing awareness of the lifestyle effect on health. 1. The level of knowledge about non-pharmacological methods of preventing lifestyle diseases in the Polish population is high except of the role of physical activity and daily vegetables consumption. This, however, has no impact on reducing the percentage of overweight and obese people and on increasing the tendency to pursue lifestyle changes. 2. Frustrating is the fact that more than one fifth of the study population is unaware that excessive weight reduction prevents development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the convince to early weight decreases with increasing BMI. 3. The highest level of the knowledge among younger subjects reflect

  14. Differential distribution and association of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism with obesity: A cross-sectional study among two tribal populations of India with East-Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Somorjit Singh; Chhungi, Varhlun; Newmei, Masan Kambo; Rajkumari, Sunanda; Devi, Naorem Kiranmala; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava

    2018-03-20

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene polymorphism is most widely studied in terms of obesity in various populations. Recently, the prevalence of obesity has been reported to be very high among the North-Eastern State of India. The major aim of the present study is to understand the extent of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and its association with obesity among the two North-East Indian tribal populations with similar East Asian ancestry. Somatometric data and fasting blood sample were collected from 521 tribal individuals (258 Liangmai and 263 Mizo) of Manipur after obtaining written informed consent. Genotyping of FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism method for PCR-amplified fragments. Both the presently studied populations were not following Hardy-Weinberg law. The prevalence of obesity and minor allele frequency of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was found to be significantly higher among the Mizo tribe compared to that of Liangmai. The selected polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with obesity (BMI) only among the Liangmai tribe (Odds ratio-3.0; 95% CI-1.4, 6.4; p-0.003), after adjusting for age and occupation. Age-cohort wise distribution and absolute fitness analysis indicated the lower fitness of minor allele in the higher age group among the Liangmai tribe. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first study, associating FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and obesity in the North-eastern Indian tribal populations with East-Asian ancestry. This study revealed the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is observed to be associated with obesity only among the Liangmai tribe not among the Mizo tribe. The differential distribution and association observed in the two selected tribes, inhabited in a similar geographical region, could be attributed to differences in their migratory histories in terms of both route and time of settlement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  15. The linear relationship between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 score and mortality in an Asian population of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jye; Lin, Wender; Chang, Ling-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) has been used as a screening tool to identify vulnerable community-dwelling older persons for more in-depth assessment and targeted interventions. Although many studies supported its use in different populations, few have addressed Asian populations. The optimal scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting health outcomes also has not been adequately tested. This study (1) assesses the applicability of the VES-13 to predict the mortality of community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan, (2) identifies the best scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting mortality using generalized additive models (GAMs), and (3) determines whether including covariates, such as socio-demographic factors and common geriatric syndromes, improves model fitting. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study analyzed the data of 2184 community-dwelling persons 65 years old or older from the 2003 wave of the national-wide Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used. The VES-13 significantly predicted the mortality of Taiwan's community-dwelling elders. A one-point increase in the VES-13 score raised the risk of death by 26% (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). The hazard ratio of death increased linearly with each additional VES-13 score point, suggesting that using a continuous scale is appropriate. Inclusion of socio-demographic factors and geriatric syndromes improved the model-fitting. The VES-13 is appropriate for an Asian population. VES-13 scores linearly predict the mortality of this population. Adjusting the weighting of the physical activity items may improve the performance of the VES-13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First Level of Education in the Asian Region. Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia: June 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Information on Asian primary education is presented for enrollment, teaching staff, and financial factors for Asia in general and for the following countries in particular: Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Primary education reform in the Union…

  17. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…

  18. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  19. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  20. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  1. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  2. Population levels of wellbeing and the association with social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A W; Kelly, G; Dal Grande, E; Kelly, D; Marin, T; Hey, N; Burke, K J; Licinio, J

    2017-07-03

    This research investigates wellbeing at the population level across demographic, social and health indicators and assesses the association between wellbeing and social capital. Data from a South Australian monthly chronic disease/risk factor surveillance system of randomly selected adults (mean age 48.7 years; range 16-99) from 2014/5 (n = 5551) were used. Univariable analyses compared wellbeing/social capital indicators, socio-demographic, risk factors and chronic conditions. Multi-nominal logistic regression modelling, adjusting for multiple covariates was used to simultaneously estimate odds ratios for good wellbeing (reference category) versus neither good nor poor, and good wellbeing versus poor wellbeing. 48.6% were male, mean age 48.7 (sd 18.3), 54.3% scored well on all four of the wellbeing indicators, and positive social capital indicators ranged from 93.1% for safety to 50.8% for control over decisions. The higher level of social capital corresponded with the good wellbeing category. Modeling showed higher odds ratios for all social capital variables for the lowest level of wellbeing. These higher odds ratios remained after adjusting for confounders. The relationship between wellbeing, resilience and social capital highlights areas for increased policy focus.

  3. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  4. Clustering of cardiac risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and associations with psychosocial distress in a young Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchday, Sonia; Bellehsen, Mayer; Friedberg, Jennifer P; Almeida, Maureen; Kaplan, Erica

    2014-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a precursor for coronary heart disease. However, its pathophysiology is not clear, its phenotypic expression may vary by region; also, the phenotypic manifestation may be exacerbated by psychosocial distress and family history. The purpose of the current study was to assess the factor structure of the metabolic syndrome in young urban Asian Indians. Asian Indian youth (N = 112) were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic: SBP; diastolic: DBP), blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, psychosocial distress and family health history. Factor analyses were computed on components of the metabolic syndrome. Three factors were identified for the entire sample: hemodynamic-obesity (SBP, DBP, waist-hip ratio), Lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride), and insulin-obesity (blood sugar, BMI, insulin). Similar to previous research with this population, three distinct factors with no overlap were identified. Factors did not correlate with psychosocial distress or family history. Lack of correlation with family history and psychosocial distress may be a function of the young age and demographics of the sample.

  5. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging-assessed stress perfusion defect severity is associated with mortality independent of ethnicity in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Tang; Gao, Fei; Keng, Felix Y J; Shah, Bimal R; Koh, Angela S; Tan, Ru San; Chua, Terrance S J

    2014-12-01

    Ischemic heart disease is growing by epidemic proportions in Asia. Among patients in Western populations with similar myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) ischemia severity, ethnicity is independently associated with mortality. We aimed to determine the differential prognostic value of MPI abnormality severity among three major Asian ethnic groups. From 16,921 consecutive patients, we used summed stress score to define increasing abnormal scan severity groups (minimal, mild, moderate, and severe) among Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. We determined mortality from the national death registry. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined the association between ethnicity and mortality. Chinese patients were older than Indians or Malays. Annual all-cause death rates increased with increasing abnormal scan severity in all three ethnicities. After adjustment, ethnicity was not associated with mortality. With Chinese as the reference group, adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI for Malays and Indians were 1.29 (0.95-1.77) and 1.06 (0.74-1.50) in the minimally abnormal scan group, and 1.20 (0.75-1.91) and 0.82 (0.47-1.45) in the severely abnormal scan group, respectively. Mortality risk is related to the severity of scan abnormality and is independent of ethnicity in Asians. Our findings emphasize the continued utility of MPI in guiding risk stratification in Asia.

  6. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi-level

  7. Population-level differences in revascularization treatment and outcomes among various United States subpopulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garth Graham; Yang-Yu Karen Xiao; Dan Rappoport; Saima Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent general improvements in health care, significant disparities persist in the cardiovascular care of women and racial/ethnic minorities. This is true even when income, education level, and site of care are taken into consideration. Possible explanations for these disparities include socioeconomic considerations, elements of discrimination and racism that affect socioeconomic status, and access to adequate medical care. Coronary revascularization has become the accepted and recommended treatment for myocardial infarction(MI) today and is one of the most common major medical interventions in the United States, with more than 1 million procedures each year. This review discusses recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms, care and access to medical resources, and outcomes in revascularization as treatment for acute coronary syndrome, looking especially at women and minority populations in the United States. The data show that revascularization is used less in both female and minority patients. We summarize recent data on disparities in co-morbidities and presentation symptoms related to MI; access to care, medical resources, and treatments; and outcomes in women, blacks, and Hispanics. The picture is complicated among the last group by the many Hispanic/Latino subgroups in the United States. Some differences in outcomes are partially explained by presentation symptoms and co-morbidities and external conditions such as local hospital capacity. Of particular note is the striking differential in both presentation co-morbidities and mortality rates seen in women, compared to men, especially in women ≤ 55 years of age. Surveillance data on other groups in the United States such as American Indians/Alaska Natives and the many Asian subpopulations show disparities in risk factors and co-morbidities, but revascularization as treatment for MI in these populations has not been adequately studied. Significant research is required to

  8. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  9. Recommended vitamin D levels in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Becerra Fernández, Antonio; Luque Fernández, Inés; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Ávila Rubio, Verónica; García Martín, Antonia; Cortés Berdonces, María; Naf Cortés, Silvia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Muñoz Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations based on evidence on the management of vitaminD deficiency in the general population. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. Recommendations were formulated using the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the term VitaminD and the name of each issue. Papers in English and Spanish with publication date before 17 March 2016 were included. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. This document summarizes the data about vitaminD deficiency in terms of prevalence, etiology, screening indications, adequate levels and effects of supplementation on bone and non-skeletal health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A case-control study of the association between ulcerative colitis and hyperthyroidism in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2017-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease with significant clinical diversity. However, the aetiology, pathogenesis and optimal treatment of UC remain unclear. The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the association between previously diagnosed hyperthyroidism and UC using a large population-based data set in Taiwan. The data for this population-based case-control study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We included 2709 patients with UC as cases and 8127 sex- and age-matched patients without UC as controls. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between UC and prior hyperthyroidism. We found that, in total, 327 of the 10 836 sampled patients (3.02%) had previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. There was a higher proportion of prior hyperthyroidism among cases than controls (4.10% vs 2.66%, Phyperthyroidism was 1.57 (95% CI=1.24-1.98) compared to controls. Similarly, after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location and urbanization level, cases were still more likely to have previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.27-2.05). Furthermore, we analysed the ORs of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls according to age group. We found that of the youngest group of sampled patients (18-39 years), cases had the greatest adjusted OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.04-3.79). This study demonstrated an association between UC and hyperthyroidism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  12. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  13. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    . Important decisions, such as participation in clinical trials, are likely to be made by those family members who are fluent in English and younger. Social class appears to be more important than ethnicity, and older South Asian people and those from working class backgrounds appear to be more mistrustful. Approachable patients (of the same gender, social class and fluent in English) tend to be 'cherry picked' to clinical trials. This practice was justified because of a lack of time and resources and inadequate support. South Asian patients might be systematically excluded from trials owing to the increased cost and time associated with their inclusion, particularly in relation to the language barrier. Under-representation might also be due to passive exclusion associated with cultural stereotypes. Other characteristics such as gender, age, educational level and social class can also affect trial inclusion. Effective strategies for South Asian recruitment to clinical trials include: using multi-recruitment strategies; defining the demographic and social profiles of the population to be included; using focus groups to identify any potential barriers; consulting representative community members to provide assistance in the study; ensuring eligibility criteria are set as wide as possible; developing educational and recruitment approaches to attract ethnic minority health professionals; ensuring health professionals are adequately trained in culturally and ethnically orientated service provision; determining the most effective mass media to use in study promotion and recruitment; and targeting inner-city, single-handed practices likely to have high ethnic minority populations. Future research should consider: responses when invited to participate; the role of methodological and organisational barriers to recruitment; the complexities of recruitment from a health professional perspective; developing culturally sensitive research methods; the magnitude of the problem of under

  14. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Minami; Takahashi, Harumi; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wen, Ming-Shien; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Luo, Chen-Hui; Arima, Aki; Onozuka, Akiko; Nagai, Rui; Shiomi, Mari; Mihara, Kiyoshi; Morita, Takashi; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S), and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR) responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S) to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S), and that between Cp(S) and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT) as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S), NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S), that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S) and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively). Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S), ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S), might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  15. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Ohara

    Full Text Available To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S, and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S, and that between Cp(S and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S, NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S, that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively. Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S, ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S, might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  16. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  17. The Role of PAI-1 4G/5G Promoter Polymorphism and Its Levels in the Development of Ischemic Stroke in Young Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mohammad Suhail; Biswas, Arijit; Abdullah, Saleh Mohammed; Behari, Madhuri; Saxena, Renu

    2017-11-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of vascular diseases including stroke. A 4G/5G, PAI-1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the plasma PAI-1 levels in different ethnic populations but results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma PAI-1 levels in the development of ischemic stroke (IS) in young Asian Indians. One hundred patients with IS and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were studied. The 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped in the study population through allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Plasma PAI-1 levels were evaluated using a commercial kit. The PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in patients when compared to the controls ( P = .03). The variant 4G allele for the PAI-I 4G/5G polymorphism showed both genotypic ( P = .0013, χ 2 = 10.303; odds ratio [OR] = 3.75) as well as allelic association ( P = .0004, χ 2 = 12.273; OR = 1.99) with IS. The homozygous variant 4G/4G also was found to be associated with the higher PAI-1 levels (0.005). The variant allele 4G of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and higher plasma PAI-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with IS in young Asian Indians.

  18. Asian population frequencies and haplotype distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes among Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Chuan; Chan, Soh Ha; Ren, Ee Chee

    2008-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.

  19. Association of TNF polymorphisms with sarcoidosis, its prognosis and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in Asian Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Ghosh, B; Sharma, S K

    2008-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, an important proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a multi-systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Here, we report for the first time the association of TNF haplotypes and genotypes with sarcoidosis and its prognosis in the Indian population. Five potentially functional promoter polymorphisms in the TNFA gene and a LTA_NcoI polymorphism (+252 position) of the LTA gene were genotyped in a clinically well-defined cohort of North-Indian patients with sarcoidosis (n = 96) and their regional controls (n = 155). Serum TNF-α (sTNF-α) and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) levels were measured and correlated with genotypes and haplotypes. The TNFA_-1031 and TNFA_-863 polymorphisms were identified as markers for disease onset (FET P = 0·006 and 0·042 for TNFA_-1031 and TNFA_-863, respectively). Additionally, the allele A of LTA_NcoI polymorphism was shown to be prevalent in the ‘no treatment’ group (FET P = 0·005), while the G allele was associated with frequent relapses on drug withdrawal (P = 0·057). Furthermore, the TNFA-308G>A and the TNFA-238G>A polymorphisms were found to influence sTNF-α (P = 0·054 and 0·0005, respectively) and SACE levels (P = 0·0017 and 0·056, respectively). The haplotype frequencies were significantly different in the patients and the controls (P = 0·0067). The haplotype GTCCGG was identified as the major risk/susceptibility haplotype (P = 0·003) and was associated with increased SACE levels in the patient population. In conclusion, our study suggests an association of TNF polymorphisms with sarcoidosis. PMID:18062795

  20. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Gray, Russell D; Drummond, Alexei J

    2008-02-01

    The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remain unknown. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity carries a legacy of our population history. Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. However, recent work has challenged the validity of using mtDNA diversity to infer species population sizes. Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global data set of 357 human mtDNA coding-region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across 8 major geographic regions. Our estimates of relative population sizes show remarkable concordance with the contemporary regional distribution of humans across Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, indicating that mtDNA diversity is a good predictor of population size in humans. Plots of population size through time show slow growth in sub-Saharan Africa beginning 143-193 kya, followed by a rapid expansion into Eurasia after the emergence of the first non-African mtDNA lineages 50-70 kya. Outside Africa, the earliest and fastest growth is inferred in Southern Asia approximately 52 kya, followed by a succession of growth phases in Northern and Central Asia (approximately 49 kya), Australia (approximately 48 kya), Europe (approximately 42 kya), the Middle East and North Africa (approximately 40 kya), New Guinea (approximately 39 kya), the Americas (approximately 18 kya), and a second expansion in Europe (approximately 10-15 kya). Comparisons of relative regional population sizes through time suggest that between approximately 45 and 20 kya most of humanity lived in Southern Asia. These findings not only support the use of mtDNA data for estimating human population size but also provide a unique picture of human prehistory and demonstrate the importance of Southern Asia to our recent evolutionary past.

  1. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  2. Does tranexamic acid increase the risk of thromboembolism after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasties in Asian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Seo, Dong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    To ascertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and transfusion rate and volumes; increase the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT); and investigate factors associated with DVT in patients undergoing primary bilateral total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) without use of chemical thromboprophylaxis. There were 874 patients (1748 knees) in the control group who did not receive tranexamic acid and 871 patients (1742 knees) in the study group who received tranexamic acid. Mechanical compression device was applied without any chemical thromboprophylaxis. Transfusion rates and volumes were recorded. DVT was diagnosed using both sonogram and venogram at 7 or 8 day post-operatively. Intra- and post-operative blood loss and transfusion volumes were significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group. The prevalence of DVT was 14% (245 of 1748 knees) in the control group and 18% (314 of 1742 knees) in the tranexamic acid group. Pre- and post-operative perfusion lung scans revealed no evidence of PE in any patients in either group. Coagulation or thrombophilic data or molecular genetic testing was not significantly different between the two groups. The use of tranexamic acid reduces the volume of blood transfusion and does not increase the prevalence of DVT or PE in the patients who did not receive routine chemical thromboprophylaxis after primary bilateral simultaneous sequential TKAs in Asian patients.

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations: a case for examining disaggregated data in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, H; De, P

    2017-12-01

    Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040). Asian Indians had high income, education, and health insurance coverage, all positive predictors of preventative health engagement and vaccine uptake. However, we find that Asian Indians had comparatively lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval = 0.207-0.832), and foreign-born Asian Indians had the lowest rate HPV vaccination of all subpopulations (2.3%). Findings substantiate the need for research on disaggregated data rather than evaluating vaccination behaviors solely across standard racial and ethnic categories. We identified two populations that were initiating HPV vaccine at abysmal levels: foreign-born persons and Asian Indians. Development of culturally appropriate messaging has the potential to improve these initiation rates and improve population health. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaingankar Janhavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT. The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96. A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69, suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The

  5. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy

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    R. M. Eime

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended

  6. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  7. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  8. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Vagotomy and Decreased Risk of Subsequent Ischemic Stroke in Complicated Peptic Ulcer Patients: an Asian Population Study.

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    Fang, Chu-Wen; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2017-12-01

    The primary management of peptic ulcers is medical treatment. Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to complications (perforation and/or bleeding). There has been a trend toward the use of a less invasive surgical simple suture, simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiography) hemostasis rather than acid-reducing vagotomy (i.e., vagus nerve severance) for treating complicated peptic ulcers. Other studies have shown the relationship between high vagus nerve activity and survival in cancer patients via reduced levels of inflammation, indicating the essential role of the vagus nerve. We were interested in the role of the vagus nerve and attempted to assess the long-term systemic effects after vagus nerve severance. Complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent truncal vagotomy may represent an appropriate study population for investigating the association between vagus nerve severance and long-term effects. Therefore, we assessed the risks of subsequent ischemic stroke using different treatment methods in complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent simple suture/hemostasis or truncal vagotomy/pyloroplasty. We selected 299,742 peptic ulcer patients without a history of stroke and Helicobacter pylori infection and an additional 299,742 matched controls without ulcer, stroke, and Helicobacter pylori infection from the National Health Insurance database. The controls were frequency matched for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, hypertension, hyperlipidemia history, and index year. Then, we measured the incidence of overall ischemic stroke in the two cohorts. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression. Compared to the controls, peptic ulcer patients had a 1.86-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke. There were similar results in gender, age, CCI, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia stratified analyses. In complicated peptic ulcer patients, those who received

  10. Socio-cultural influences on the behaviour of South Asian women with diabetes in pregnancy: qualitative study using a multi-level theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Clinch, Megan; Afsar, Nur; Choudhury, Yasmin; Sudra, Rita; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Claydon, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hanson, Philippa; Finer, Sarah

    2015-05-21

    Diabetes in pregnancy is common in South Asians, especially those from low-income backgrounds, and leads to short-term morbidity and longer-term metabolic programming in mother and offspring. We sought to understand the multiple influences on behaviour (hence risks to metabolic health) of South Asian mothers and their unborn child, theorise how these influences interact and build over time, and inform the design of culturally congruent, multi-level interventions. Our sample for this qualitative study was 45 women of Bangladeshi, Indian, Sri Lankan, or Pakistani origin aged 21-45 years with a history of diabetes in pregnancy, recruited from diabetes and antenatal services in two deprived London boroughs. Overall, 17 women shared their experiences of diabetes, pregnancy, and health services in group discussions and 28 women gave individual narrative interviews, facilitated by multilingual researchers, audiotaped, translated, and transcribed. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method, drawing on sociological and narrative theories. Key storylines (over-arching narratives) recurred across all ethnic groups studied. Short-term storylines depicted the experience of diabetic pregnancy as stressful, difficult to control, and associated with negative symptoms, especially tiredness. Taking exercise and restricting diet often worsened these symptoms and conflicted with advice from relatives and peers. Many women believed that exercise in pregnancy would damage the fetus and drain the mother's strength, and that eating would be strength-giving for mother and fetus. These short-term storylines were nested within medium-term storylines about family life, especially the cultural, practical, and material constraints of the traditional South Asian wife and mother role and past experiences of illness and healthcare, and within longer-term storylines about genetic, cultural, and material heritage - including migration, acculturation, and family memories of food

  11. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  12. Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Chan, Xue Wei; Xu, Hui; Li, Jia Liang; Lee, Evan Jc

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend objective nutritional assessments in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients but were developed while referencing to a North-American population. Specific recommendations for assessing muscle mass were suggested (mid-arm circumference, MAC; corrected mid-arm muscle area, cAMA; mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC). This study aimed to assess correlation and association of these assessments with dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of healthy and CKD patients. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections of selected participants to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). Ideal body weight (IDW; kg) was calculated and muscle assessments conducted. Analyses involved correlation and linear regression, taking significance at ppatients and 103 healthy participants comprising of 51.0% male, 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malay, 23.6% Indian, and 8.4% others. The mean TPI was 58.9 ± 18.4 g/day in healthy participants and 53.6 ± 19.4 g/day in CKD patients. When normalized to ideal body weight, TPI-IDW (g/kg/day) was similar in healthy and CKD participants. Overall, TPI was associated with MAC (r=0.372, ppatients. Total protein intake was associated with muscle assessments in all participants. TPI normalized to IDW should only be used in CKD patients.

  13. Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.

  14. The neuromuscular effects of rocuronium under sevoflurane-remifentanil or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia: a randomized clinical comparative study in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangseok; Ro, Young Jin; Koh, Won Uk; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-08-22

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the differences in the blocking effect of different doses of rocuronium between sevoflurane- or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in an Asian population. A total of 368 ASA I-II patients was enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (TIVA) or 5.0 vol.% sevoflurane with 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (SEVO). Tracheal intubation was facilitated at 180 s after the administration of rocuronium at 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 mg/kg and then intubation condition was evaluated. The time to maximum block and recovery profile were monitored by TOF stimulation of the ulnar nerve and by recording the adductor pollicis response using acceleromyography. The numbers of patients with clinically acceptable intubation conditions were 41, 82, and 97 % (TIVA) and 34, 85, and 90 % (SEVO) at each dose of rocuronium, respectively. There were no significant differences in the time to maximum block between groups at each rocuronium dose. There were significant differences in the recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 90 % between the groups: 42.7 (19.5), 74.8 (29.9), and 118.4 (35.1) min (TIVA) and 66.5 (39.3), 110.2 (43.5), and 144.4 (57.5) min (SEVO) at 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively (P rocuronium. The type of anesthetic does not significantly influence the time to maximum block by rocuronium. Rocuronium at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg should be used for better intubation conditions with both anesthesia regimens in an Asian population. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ; UMIN#000007289 ; date of registration 14(th) February 2012).

  15. Genome-wide association study in Asian populations identifies variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Wanling Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex and potentially fatal autoimmune disease, characterized by autoantibody production and multi-organ damage. By a genome-wide association study (320 patients and 1,500 controls and subsequent replication altogether involving a total of 3,300 Asian SLE patients from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Thailand, as well as 4,200 ethnically and geographically matched controls, genetic variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 were found to be associated with SLE (ETS1: rs1128334, P = 2.33x10(-11, OR = 1.29; WDFY4: rs7097397, P = 8.15x10(-12, OR = 1.30. ETS1 encodes for a transcription factor known to be involved in a wide range of immune functions, including Th17 cell development and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes. SNP rs1128334 is located in the 3'-UTR of ETS1, and allelic expression analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower expression level from the risk allele. WDFY4 is a conserved protein with unknown function, but is predominantly expressed in primary and secondary immune tissues, and rs7097397 in WDFY4 changes an arginine residue to glutamine (R1816Q in this protein. Our study also confirmed association of the HLA locus, STAT4, TNFSF4, BLK, BANK1, IRF5, and TNFAIP3 with SLE in Asians. These new genetic findings may help us to gain a better understanding of the disease and the functions of the genes involved.

  16. Asian Americans and Cancer Clinical Trials: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Awareness and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Debora A.; Chen, Moon S.; Chiechi, Christine; Beckett, Laurel A.; Horan, Nora; Turrell, Corinne; Smith, Ligaya; Morain, Claudia; Montell, Lisa; Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Davis, Sharon; Lara, Primo N.

    2006-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials have been based on low accrual rates. Barriers to recruitment of minority populations affect the generalizability and impact of trial findings for those populations. The authors undertook a mixed-methods approach to understanding levels of awareness and experiences with cancer clinical trials. A survey was administered to new cancer patients and their caretakers (family, close friends, or other social support) at outpatient oncology clinics. Field observations of the trial accrual process also were conducted by employing the grounded theory approach in qualitative methods. Comparison of survey results for Asian-American respondents and non-Asian respondents indicated that Asians were less likely to have heard the term “clinical trial” and were more likely to define a clinical trial as “an experiment” or “a test procedure in a clinic” than non-Asians. Asians were more likely to have employer-based insurance and to report understanding issues related to cost reimbursement. Asians were less likely to have been involved in or to know someone in a trial and reported less willingness than white respondents to consider trial participation. Qualitative observations suggested that Asians who presented for a potential trial were interested in the availability of a novel cancer therapy but were not eligible for available trials. Multiple strategies will be necessary to enhance awareness of and experience with accrual to cancer clinical trials for Asians, including richer understanding and increased involvement of Asians in cancer clinical trials and greater attention to the location and diversity of the Asian population in structuring study centers and evaluating trial results. PMID:16247795

  17. A Cross-National Comparative Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension Between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-Origin Populations: The Role of National Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body

  18. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  19. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differentials of C-reactive protein levels: a systematic review of population-based studies

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    Victora Cesar G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors strongly influence cardiovascular disease outcomes and risk factors. C-reactive protein (CRP, a non-specific marker of inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular risk, and knowledge about its distribution in the population may help direct preventive efforts. A systematic review was undertaken to critically assess CRP levels according to socioeconomic and racial/ethnic factors. Methods Medline was searched through December 2006 for population-based studies examining CRP levels among adults with respect to indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP and/or race/ethnicity. Bibliographies from located studies were scanned and 26 experts in the field were contacted for unpublished work. Results Thirty-two relevant articles were located. Cross-sectional (n = 20 and cohort studies (n = 11 were included, as was the control group of one trial. CRP levels were examined with respect to SEP and race/ethnicity in 25 and 15 analyses, respectively. Of 20 studies that were unadjusted or adjusted for demographic variables, 19 found inverse associations between CRP levels and SEP. Of 15 similar studies, 14 found differences between racial/ethnic groups such that whites had the lowest while blacks, Hispanics and South Asians had the highest CRP levels. Most studies also included adjustment for potential mediating variables in the causal chain between SEP or race/ethnicity and CRP. Most of these studies showed attenuated but still significant associations. Conclusion Increasing poverty and non-white race was associated with elevated CRP levels among adults. Most analyses in the literature are underestimating the true effects of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors due to adjustment for mediating factors.

  20. Replication analysis of genetic association of the NCAN-CILP2 region with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian and Pacific ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonvisut, Supichaya; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Saho; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Lkhagvasuren, Munkhtulga; Kagawa, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2016-01-13

    The Neurocan-cartilage intermediate layer protein 2 (NCAN-CILP2) region forms a tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and is associated with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals of European descent but not in the Malay and Japanese ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide resequence studies identified a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs58542926) of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene in the NCAN-CILP2 region related to hepatic triglyceride content. This study aims to analyze the influences of SNPs in this region on NAFLD and plasma lipid levels in the Asian and Pacific ethnic groups and to reveal the reasons behind positive and negative genetic associations dependent on ethnicity. Samples and characteristic data were collected from 3,013 Japanese, 119 Palauan, 947 Mongolian, 212 Thai and 401 Chinese people. Hepatic sonography data was obtained from the Japanese individuals. Genotyping data of five SNPs, rs58542926, rs735273, rs1009136, rs1858999, and rs16996148, were used to verify the effect on serum lipid levels by multiple linear regression, and the association with NAFLD in the Japanese population was examined by logistic regression analysis. rs58542926 showed significant association with the plasma triglyceride (TG) level in Japanese (P = 0.0009, effect size = 9.5 (± 3.25) mg/dl/allele) and Thai (P = 0.0008, effect size = 31.6 (± 11.7) mg/dl/allele) study subjects. In Mongolian individuals, there was a significant association of rs58542926 with total cholesterol level (P = 0.0003, 11.7 (± 3.2) mg/dl/allele) but not with TG level. In multiple comparisons in Chinese individuals, rs58542926 was weakly (P = 0.022) associated with TG levels, although the threshold for statistical significance was not reached. In Palauan individuals, there was no significant association with the studied SNPs. rs58542926 also showed significant association with Japanese NAFLD. The minor allele (t) increased

  1. Asian College Students’ Perceived Peer Group Cohesion, Cultural Identity, and College Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase in Asian college student population, this group remains one of the most understudied, due to the myth of “model minority.” Many Asian students adjust well academically but often experience high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression due to factors such as acculturation to Western culture, pressure from parents to succeed, ethnic identity issues, intergenerational conflict, immigration status, racism, and discrimination. This study examined the role of five dimensions of...

  2. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

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    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  3. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, A.Y-F; Chow, P.K.H.; Yu, W-K.; Ho, J.M.S.; Chan, H-S.; Wong, W-K.; Soo, K-C.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  5. Impact of Body Mass Index on the relationship of epicardial adipose tissue to metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in an Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Myeong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, measured by echocardiography, was increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD. Several studies on obese patients, however, failed to demonstrate any relationship between EAT and CAD. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI affected the link between EAT and MS and CAD. Methods We consecutively enrolled 643 patients (302 males, 341 females; 59 ± 11 years, who underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography. The EAT thickness was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle at the end of diastole. All patients were divided into two groups: high BMI group, ≥27 kg/m2 (n = 165, and non-high BMI group, 2 (n = 478. Results The median and mean EAT thickness of 643 patients were 3.0 mm and 3.1 ± 2.4 mm, respectively. In the non-high BMI group, the median EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS compared to those without MS (3.5 vs. 1.9 mm, p Conclusions While EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS and CAD, the power of EAT thickness to predict MS and CAD was stronger in patients with BMI 2. These findings showed that the measurement of EAT thickness by echocardiography might be especially useful in an Asian population with a non-high BMI, less than 27 kg/m2.

  6. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Havens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lead recycling activities are a known risk factor for elevated blood levels in South East Asia, little is known regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLL among the general pediatric population in Vietnam. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of 311 children from Children’s Hospital #2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Capillary blood lead testing was performed using the LeadCare II. Mean BLLs were 4.97 μg/dL (Standard Deviation (SD 5.50, with 7% of the participants having levels greater than 10 μg/dL. Living in Bing Duong province (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.6.1 or the Dong Nai province (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1 and having an age greater than 12 months (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.1–11.8 were associated with higher BLLs. The prevalence of elevated BLLs in Vietnam is consistent with other SE Asian countries. Mean BLLs in Ho Chi Minh City are markedly less than those seen in a separate study of children living near lead recycling activities. Additional evaluation is necessary to better detail potential risk factors if screening is to be implemented within Vietnam.

  7. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  8. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  9. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  10. Incidence and predictors of target lesion failure in a multiethnic Asian population receiving the SYNERGY coronary stent: A prospective all-comers registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Kristanto, William; Liu, Li; Chan, Siew-Pang; Loh, Poay Huan; Tay, Edgar L; Chan, Koo Hui; Chan, Mark Y; Lee, Chi-Hang; Low, Adrian F; Tan, Huay Cheem; Loh, Joshua P

    2018-03-07

    To evaluate the target lesion failure (TLF) rate of the SYNERGY stent in all-comers, multiethnic Asian population. Currently, most drug eluting stents deliver anti-proliferative drugs from a durable polymer which is associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. The novel everolimus-eluting, platinum chromium SYNERGY stent is coated with a bioabsorbable abluminal polymer that resolves within 4 months. This was a prospective, single center registry of consecutive patients treated with the SYNERGY stent between December 2012 and April 2015. The primary outcome was the incidence of TLF, defined as the combination of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1 year. A total of 807 patients received the SYNERGY stent during the study period. One-year clinical outcome data was available for 765 patients (94.8%) and were considered for statistical analysis. The mean age was 60.7 ± 10.8 years, and 83.4% were males. Patients with acute myocardial infarction consisted of 50.3% (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 23.0%, Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 27.3%) of the study population. The treated lesions were complex (ACC/AHA type B2/C: 72.7%). The primary end point of TLF at 1 year was 5.8%. Rates of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, and TLR were 4.2, 1.0, and 1.3%, respectively, at 1 year. Predictors of the incidence and time to early TLF were female gender, Malay ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction at presentation, a prior history of coronary artery bypass surgery and the presence of lesion calcification. The incidence of definite stent thrombosis was 0.4% at 1 year. In this registry, the use of the SYNERGY stent was associated with low rates of TLF at 1 year. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  12. Understanding Obesity and the Influence of Acculturation on Metabolic Responses in East Asian Populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    concentrations. Increasing blood glucose leads to progressively increasing 15 compensatory insulin production in the pancreas , and chronic...When mice were fed a high-fat diet, the activity of the enzyme GnT-4a, which enables !-cells in the pancreas to sense blood glucose levels and...Shock, Guilt , and nonspecific items. The AS was used to examine additional stress related to feelings of being a “foreigner” in the U.S. regardless

  13. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality

  14. Nonadiabatic population transfer in a driven four-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prants, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of a four-level quantum system with an arbitrary level configuration is described analytically in the modulated polychromatic laser field. The method of dynamical symmetries is invoked to develop the formalism for explicit calculation of the evolution matrix of the system in the resonance fields. The method is free of the usual adiabatic-passage, weak-field approximations, and approximation of the slowly varying amplitudes. The conditions for occurrence of the coherent effects of the total inversion and the total depletion of the initial level of a system driven simultaneously driven simultaneously at several transitions by the laser pulses of arbitrary shape are derived analytically. The obtained results can be applied to problems of the control of quantum processes in multilevel atoms and molecules. 14 refs

  15. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  16. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (562.11 and 562.13), and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06) and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008) in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86) for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively. The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  17. Demography and clinical course of ulcerative colitis in a multiracial Asian population: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, I; Singh, R; Ganesananthan, S; Yatim, I; Radzi, M; Chua, A B S; Tan, H J; Huang, S; Chin, K S; Menon, J; Goh, K L

    2009-02-01

    To establish the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Malaysian population, comparing the three major ethnic groups: Malay, Chinese and Indian. Patients who were diagnosed with UC from seven major medical referral centers in Malaysia were recruited. Their baseline characteristics, and the extent of the disease, its clinical course and complications were recorded. A total of 118 patients was included. The extent of disease was as follows: proctitis alone in 22 (18.6%), sigmoid colon in 23 (19.5%), descending colon in 16 (13.6%), transverse colon in 11 (9.3%), ascending colon and pancolitis 46 (39%). Most patients had chronic intermittent disease. Extra-intestinal complications were seen in 27 (22.9%) patients and fulminant colitis was seen in four (3.4%). None developed colorectal cancer. The overall cumulative colectomy rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 3.4% (CI: 0.9-8.5), 5.9% (CI: 1.9-13.2) and 15.6% (CI: 6.5-29.4), respectively. There was a higher prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations and a trend towards more extensive disease among Indian patients. However, no significant differences were seen in the age of onset, the severity of disease (fulminant colitis, refractory disease) and the colectomy rate. As in developed countries, most of our patients have a remitting and relapsing pattern of disease but the clinical course appears to be milder, with lower rates of colectomies. There are differences in clinical presentation among the three major ethnic groups, with Indians having a higher prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations and a trend towards more extensive disease.

  18. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Shong Chang

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis.We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes (562.11 and 562.13, and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression.Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06 and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008 in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86 for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively.The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  19. Natural radiation level and doses to population in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air 1 m above the ground from natural radiation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Anhui Province were surveyed. One measurement was made in every area of 90 km 2 . The absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation range from 54 to 90 nGy.h -1 with an average of 70 nGy.h -1 . The ratios of indoors-to-outdoors and of roads-to-outdoors are 1.5 and 0.9 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from external radiation is 0.68-1.05 mSv. The population-weighted average values for mountain area, plain, hilly land, and the Changjiang River basin as well as the annual collective effective dose equivalent were calculated

  20. Integrodifference equations in patchy landscapes : II: population level consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2014-09-01

    We analyze integrodifference equations (IDEs) in patchy landscapes. Movement is described by a dispersal kernel that arises from a random walk model with patch dependent diffusion, settling, and mortality rates, and it incorporates individual behavior at an interface between two patch types. Growth follows a simple Beverton-Holt growth or linear decay. We obtain explicit formulae for the critical domain-size problem, and we illustrate how different individual behavior at the boundary between two patch types affects this quantity. We also study persistence conditions on an infinite, periodic, patchy landscape. We observe that if the population can persist on the landscape, the spatial profile of the invasion evolves into a discontinuous traveling periodic wave that moves with constant speed. Assuming linear determinacy, we calculate the dispersion relation and illustrate how movement behavior affects invasion speed. Numerical simulations justify our approach by showing a close correspondence between the spread rate obtained from the dispersion relation and from numerical simulations.

  1. Foreign Language Education Levels in the Dutch Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud-de Glas, Maria; Peels, Fons

    1991-01-01

    Reports on levels of foreign language education and foreign language competence among Dutch students, discussing the sharp decline in the teaching of French and German, a lack of foreign language training in technical education, where it is most needed, and the limitations of the data collected regarding foreign language attainment in the…

  2. The Productivity Burden of Diabetes at a Population Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Dianna J; Martin, Valencia J; Owen, Alice J; Zomer, Ella; Liew, Danny

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that diabetes may impact work productivity. In the current study, we sought to estimate the lifetime and population impact of diabetes on productivity using the novel measure of "productivity-adjusted life years" (PALYs). Using age-specific mortality rates and a productivity index attributable to diabetes (akin to the quality of life index, but which adjusts for reduction in productivity) and life table modeling, we estimated years of life and PALYs lost to diabetes among Australians with diabetes currently aged 20-65 years, with follow-up until 69 years. Life tables were first constructed for the cohort with diabetes and then repeated for the same cohort but with the assumption that they no longer had diabetes. The "nondiabetic" cohort had lower mortality rates and improved productivity. The differences in total years of life lived and PALYs lived between the two cohorts reflected the impact of diabetes. Overall, diabetes reduced total years of life lived by the cohort by 190,219 years or almost 3%. Diabetes reduced PALYs by 11.6% and 10.5% among men and women, respectively. For both sexes, the impact of diabetes on productivity was lowest in those aged 65-69 years and highest in those 20-24 years. Among the latter, PALYs were reduced by 12.2% and 11.0% for men and women, respectively. Elimination of diabetes can prolong life years lived by the whole population and increase the amount of productive years lived. Employers and government should be aware that having diabetes affects work force productivity and implement prevention programs to reduce the impact of diabetes on the workforce. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yook Chin; Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-05-19

    This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78. Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil, E-mail: hwang1963@korea.kr; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun, E-mail: inghwang@korea.kr

    2016-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume industrial chemical used in the global production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in food and drink containers, such as tableware (plates and mugs). Due to its broad applications, BPA has been detected in human blood, urine and breast milk as well as environmental substances, including water, indoor and outdoor air, and dust. Indeed, exposure to high concentrations of BPA can result in a variety of harmful effects, including reproductive toxicity, through a mechanism of endocrine disruption. Our comparison of reported BPA urinary concentrations among different countries revealed that exposures in Korea may be higher than those in other Asian countries and North America, but lower than or similar to those in European countries. The current study included a total of 2044 eligible subjects of all ages. The subjects were evenly divided between males and females (48.58% and 51.42%, respectively). The geometric mean (GM) of pre-adjusted (adjusted) urinary BPA concentrations was 1.83 μg/L (2.01 μg/g creatinine) for subjects of all ages, and there was no statistically difference in BPA concentrations between males (1.90 μg/L, 1.87 μg/g creatinine) and females (1.76 μg/L, 2.16 μg/g creatinine). Multiple regression analysis revealed only one positive association between creatinine pre-adjusted urinary BPA concentration and age (β=−0.0868, p<0.001). The 95th percentile levels of 24-hour recall (HR), food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI) through urinary BPA concentrations were 0.14, 0.13, and 0.22 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. According to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), a tolerable daily intake (tDI) of 20 μg/kg bw/day was established for BPA from the available toxicological data. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) established a temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day based on current toxicological data. By comparing these TDIs with subjects

  5. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume industrial chemical used in the global production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in food and drink containers, such as tableware (plates and mugs). Due to its broad applications, BPA has been detected in human blood, urine and breast milk as well as environmental substances, including water, indoor and outdoor air, and dust. Indeed, exposure to high concentrations of BPA can result in a variety of harmful effects, including reproductive toxicity, through a mechanism of endocrine disruption. Our comparison of reported BPA urinary concentrations among different countries revealed that exposures in Korea may be higher than those in other Asian countries and North America, but lower than or similar to those in European countries. The current study included a total of 2044 eligible subjects of all ages. The subjects were evenly divided between males and females (48.58% and 51.42%, respectively). The geometric mean (GM) of pre-adjusted (adjusted) urinary BPA concentrations was 1.83 μg/L (2.01 μg/g creatinine) for subjects of all ages, and there was no statistically difference in BPA concentrations between males (1.90 μg/L, 1.87 μg/g creatinine) and females (1.76 μg/L, 2.16 μg/g creatinine). Multiple regression analysis revealed only one positive association between creatinine pre-adjusted urinary BPA concentration and age (β=−0.0868, p<0.001). The 95th percentile levels of 24-hour recall (HR), food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI) through urinary BPA concentrations were 0.14, 0.13, and 0.22 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. According to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), a tolerable daily intake (tDI) of 20 μg/kg bw/day was established for BPA from the available toxicological data. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) established a temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day based on current toxicological data. By comparing these TDIs with subjects

  6. Correlation of Estradiol Serum Levels with Classification of Osteoporosis Risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in Menopause Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In postmenopausal women, decreasing estrogen levels is a marker of ovarian dysfunction. Hypoestrogenic state has known increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the correlation between estradiol serum levels with classification of osteoporosis risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in menopausal women. Methods: This study was case series study which examined estradiol serum in menopausal women by ELISA and assess the osteoporosis risk using osteoporosis risk classification OSTA. Total 47 samples was collected at Dr. H.Adam malik, dr. Pirngadi, and RSU Networking in Medan. This research was conducted from May to December 2016. Data were statistically analyzed, and presented with Spearman test. Results: In this study, we found the mean levels of estradiol in menopausal women was 18.62 ± 16.85 ng / ml with OSTA osteoporosis risk score of 2.09 ± 2.45. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and risk of osteoporosis OSTA with correlation coefficient r = 0.825 and p <0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong positive correlation between serum levels of estradiol with OSTA osteoporosis risk assessment in menopausal women.

  7. Does breast density measured through population-based screening independently increase breast cancer risk in Asian females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park B

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boyoung Park,1,2 Hye Mi Cho,2 Eun Hye Lee,3 Seunghoon Song,2 Mina Suh,2 Kui Son Choi,1,2 Bong Joo Kang,4 Kyungran Ko,5 Ann Yi,6 Hae Kyoung Jung,7 Joo Hee Cha,8 Jae Kwan Jun,1,2 1National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 2National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Radiology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; 8Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. Patients and methods: We conducted a nested case–control study for a randomly selected population of 1,561 breast cancer patients and 6,002 matched controls from the National Cancer Screening Program. Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS. Associations between BI-RADS density and breast cancer risk were evaluated according to screening results, time elapsed since receiving non-recall results, age, and menopausal status after adjusting for possible covariates. Results: Breast cancer risk for women with extremely dense breasts was five times higher (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] =3

  8. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

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    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  9. Population-level impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Benedikt, Clemens; Langhaug, Lisa; Copas, Andrew; Mundida, Oscar; Mugurungi, Owen; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Tambashe, Basile O; Chidiya, Samson; Woelk, Godfrey; Cowan, Frances M

    2014-12-15

    To assess the impact of Zimbabwe's National Behavioural Change Programme (NBCP) on biological and behavioral outcomes. Representative household biobehavioral surveys of 18- to 44-year-olds were conducted in randomly selected enumeration areas in 2007 and 2011 to 2012. We examined program impact on HIV prevalence among young women, nonregular partnerships, condom use with nonregular partners, and HIV testing, distinguishing between highly exposed and low-exposed communities and individuals. We conducted (1) difference-in-differences analyses with communities as unit of analysis and (2) analyses of key outcomes by individual-level program exposure. Four thousand seven hundred seventy-six people were recruited in 2007 and 10,059 in 2011 to 2012. We found high exposure to NBCP in 2011. Prevalence of HIV and reported risky behaviors declined between 2007 and 2011. Community-level analyses showed a smaller decline in HIV prevalence among young women in highly exposed areas (11.0%-10.1%) than low-exposed areas (16.9%-10.3%, P = 0.078). Among young men, uptake of nonregular partners declined more in highly exposed areas (25%-16.8%) than low-exposed areas (21.9%-20.7%, P = 0.055) and HIV testing increased (27.2%-46.1% vs. 31.0%-34.4%, P = 0.004). Individual-level analyses showed higher reported condom use with nonregular partners among highly exposed young women (53% vs. 21% of unexposed counterparts, P = 0.037). We conducted the first impact evaluation of a NBCP and found positive effects of program exposure on key behaviors among certain gender and age groups. HIV prevalence among young women declined but could not be attributed to program exposure. These findings suggest substantial program effects regarding demand creation and justify program expansion.

  10. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Sétamou

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C, nitrogen:sulfur (N:S and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves.

  11. Quality Matters: Influences of Citrus Flush Physicochemical Characteristics on Population Dynamics of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R.; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Nelson, Shad D.; Telagamsetty, Srilakshmi; Jifon, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C), nitrogen:sulfur (N:S) and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca) ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves. PMID:28030637

  12. Comparing characteristics and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in low-flow vs normal-flow severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Tan, Benjamin Yong-Qiang; Sia, Ching-Hui; Lee, Glenn K M; Kong, William K F; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-05-01

    In severe aortic stenosis (AS), deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to 50%) and with paired echocardiography were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified factors associated with LVEF deterioration. Clinical outcomes were determined on follow-up for more than 5 years. Significant LVEF deterioration (to <50%) was seen in 18% of low-flow (initial LVEF 63±8% to 32±9%) and 18% of normal-flow AS (61±7% to 31±12%). Independent factors in low-flow AS were hypertension (OR: 30.7, 95% CI: 2.0-467.6, P=.014) and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.086, 95% CI: 1.022-1.153, P=.008), compared to normal-flow, which were hypertension (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 3.1-81.9, P=.001), higher septal E/E' ratio (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P=.043), lower septal S' velocity (OR: 0.204, 95% CI: 0.061-0.682, P=.010), and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.051, 95% CI: 1.001-1.104, P=.047). Overall, a third of the cohort experienced MACE, regardless of flow (log-rank 0.048, P=.827). However, aortic valve replacement (AVR) rates were lower in low-flow AS (20% vs 43%, P=.005). Low-flow AS despite normal LVEF appears similar to normal-flow in terms of LVEF deterioration and clinical outcomes in our Asian population. AVR rate was lower even though low-flow may not reflect less severe disease. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  14. Sexual behaviour and dysfunction and help-seeking patterns in adults aged 40-80 years in the urban population of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Alfredo; Glasser, Dale B; Kim, Sae C; Marumo, Ken; Laumann, Edward O

    2005-03-01

    To study sexual activity, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and related help-seeking behaviour among middle-aged and elderly people in Asia. A random population survey was carried out in 2001-2002 among urban residents aged 40-80 years in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and The Philippines, with interviews based on a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, health, relationships, and sexual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs. An intercept method of sampling was used in all countries except Japan, where questionnaires were mailed to a sample drawn from telephone directories. Sexual dysfunction was defined as persistent sexual problems. The questionnaire was completed by 6700 people (3350 men and 3350 women), giving a response rate of 27%. Across all countries, 82% of men and 64% of women had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. Most of the respondents considered satisfactory sex an essential means of maintaining a relationship. More than 20% of men and 30% of women complained of having at least one sexual dysfunction, although there were marked variations among the countries. The sexual dysfunctions most frequently reported were early ejaculation (20%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 18-21) and erectile dysfunction (15%, 14-17) among men; and a lack of sexual interest (27%, 25-29), lubrication difficulties (24%, 22-25), and an inability to reach orgasm (23%, 22-25) among women. Of the 948 men and 992 women who were sexually active and reported sexual dysfunctions, 45% did sought no help or advice and only 21% sought medical care. Men and women in Asian countries continue to show sexual interest and activity into middle age and beyond. Although sexual dysfunction is prevalent in this age group, several sociocultural and economic factors appear to be preventing individuals from seeking medical help for these problems.

  15. Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372 in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 – 1.56, p = 1.96 × 10-3. For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ≤ 1.04 × 10-7. Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups.

  16. The Use of Fecal Calprotectin Levels in the Fontan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos; Taqatqa, Anas; Chapa-Rodriguez, Adrian; Holton, Jacob P; Awad, Sawsan M

    2018-03-01

    The Fontan procedure was first performed in the seventies as a palliation for patients with single ventricle physiology. A feared complication after a Fontan procedure is the development of protein losing enteropathy (PLE). Systemic inflammation has a negative effect on the intestinal barrier integrity, which has supported the use of steroids in this setting. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies linking intestinal inflammation in patients with PLE after Fontan. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of intestinal inflammation measured by FC in patients with PLE after a Fontan procedure. A cross-sectional analysis was performed examining 23 stool samples from 23 Fontan patients for both Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (FA1AT) and FC with and without PLE. The median FC was 21 mcg/gm of stool (IQR: 15.7-241 mcg/gm of stool), and the median FA1AT was 40 mg/dL (IQR: 30-220 mg/dL). The median FC and FA1AT were significantly higher in the PLE group than in the Non-PLE group (p = 0.002 and p PLE, which correlated with the elevated levels of FA1AT. Inversely, levels of FC in Fontan patients without suspected PLE were within the normal range. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate intestinal inflammation using FC in the setting of PLE within this cohort, and may prove to be useful as a diagnostic tool in its treatment.

  17. Soy Food Intake and Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Possible Difference in Asian Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Ju, Dan; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2017-01-01

    Soy foods may protect against breast cancer in Asian but not in Western populations. We examined if the levels of various markers of breast cancer risk and inflammation, as well as the effects of soy food consumption on these markers, differ between Asian and non-Asian premenopausal women in two soy intervention trials. One study randomized 220 women to a 2-yr intervention and the other one randomized 96 women in a crossover design to examine the effects of consumption of 2 daily soy servings on nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) volume; estrogens in serum, NAF, and urine; insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and inflammatory markers in serum; and mammographic densities. Mixed linear models were applied to assess ethnic differences in biomarkers and response to the soy diet. Serum C-reactive protein, serum leptin, NAF volume, and NAF estrone sulfate were lower, while urinary isoflavones were higher in Asian than in non-Asian women. A significant interaction (p interaction = 0.05) between ethnicity and soy diet was observed for IGF-1 but not for other biomarkers. The current findings suggest possible ethnic differences in levels of biomarkers for breast cancer risk but little evidence that Asian women respond differently to soy foods than non-Asian women.

  18. Emergence of cytotoxic resistance in cancer cell populations: Single-cell mechanisms and population-level consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzi, Tommaso; Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Lorz, Alexander; Neves de Almeida, Luís; Clairambault, Jean; Larsen, Annette K.; Escargueil, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We formulate an individual-based model and a population model of phenotypic evolution, under cytotoxic drugs, in a cancer cell population structured by the expression levels of survival-potential and proliferation-potential. We apply these models to a recently studied experimental system. Our results suggest that mechanisms based on fundamental laws of biology can reversibly push an actively-proliferating, and drug-sensitive, cell population to transition into a weakly-proliferative and drug-tolerant state, which will eventually facilitate the emergence of more potent, proliferating and drug-tolerant cells.

  19. Emergence of cytotoxic resistance in cancer cell populations: Single-cell mechanisms and population-level consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzi, Tommaso [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Cachan 94230 Cedex, France & INRIA-Paris-Rocquencourt, MAMBA Team, Domaine de Voluceau, BP105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Chisholm, Rebecca H. [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Lorz, Alexander; Neves de Almeida, Luís; Clairambault, Jean [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); INRIA-Paris-Rocquencourt, MAMBA Team, Domaine de Voluceau, BP105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France); Larsen, Annette K.; Escargueil, Alexandre [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, F-75005, Paris (France); INSERM, UMR-S 938, Laboratory of “Cancer Biology and Therapeutics”, F-75012, Paris (France)

    2016-06-08

    We formulate an individual-based model and a population model of phenotypic evolution, under cytotoxic drugs, in a cancer cell population structured by the expression levels of survival-potential and proliferation-potential. We apply these models to a recently studied experimental system. Our results suggest that mechanisms based on fundamental laws of biology can reversibly push an actively-proliferating, and drug-sensitive, cell population to transition into a weakly-proliferative and drug-tolerant state, which will eventually facilitate the emergence of more potent, proliferating and drug-tolerant cells.

  20. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  1. Building the Evidence Base for Population-Level Interventions: Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifsey, Sarah; Cash, Amanda; Anthony, Jodi; Mathis, Sheryl; Silva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Population-level interventions focused on policy, systems, and environmental change strategies are increasingly being used to affect and improve the health of populations. At the same time, emphasis on implementing evidence-based public health practices and programming is increasing, particularly at the federal level. Valuing strategies in the…

  2. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  3. Impact of Physician Training on Diagnosis and Counseling of Overweight and Obese Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Deepa A; Northrup, Thomas F; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Bamidele, Oluwatosin O; Stotts, Angela L

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is widely underdiagnosed among Asians, due in part to a lack of physician awareness of the modified diagnostic criteria for Asians. This study investigated the effect of a physician training on accurately diagnosing obesity among and providing weight counseling to overweight and obese Asian patients. Physicians (N = 16) from five primary care practices received 1 h of face-to-face training and other reminder resources (e.g., wallet card) describing the guidelines for the diagnosis of overweight/obesity among Asians, as well as weight counseling instruction. Chart reviews of overweight/obese Asian patients were conducted for the 12 months before the training (n = 198) and 3 months following the training (n = 163). Physician race (Asian/non-Asian) and clinic setting (private/academic) were included as outcome moderators. Patients were predominantly male (63.1 %), with a mean age of 46.0 years (SD = 14.9) and an average BMI of 28.2 (SD = 3.8). Across all physicians, 26.8 and 45.1 % of patients were accurately diagnosed as overweight or obese before and after the training, respectively (p Asian patients as overweight or obese were 102 % higher at post-training after accounting for nesting of patients within physicians. Similarly, weight counseling was higher (65.0 %) following training compared to pre-training levels (43.9 %) but failed to reach significance (p = 0.06). Accurate identification and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients can be improved by education and training. Universal adoption of race-specific guidelines will ensure more successful weight management and reduced morbidity in a rapidly growing Asian population.

  4. Targeted case finding for hepatitis B using dry blood spot testing in the British-Chinese and South Asian populations of the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, S; Valappil, M; Moses, S E; Eltringham, G; Miller, C; Baxter, K; Chan, A; Shafiq, K; Saeed, A; Qureshi, R; Hudson, M; Bassendine, M F

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Targeted HBV screening is recommended by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention for subjects born in countries with >2% HBV prevalence. However, there are no UK guidelines. Here, we applied the (CDC) recommendations to the British-Chinese and British-South Asian community of North-East (NE) England. British-Chinese and South Asian subjects were invited to attend for HBV education and screening sessions held in community centres. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) were tested with dry blood spot tests. South Asians were also tested for hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb). A total of 1126 subjects (606 Chinese and 520 South Asian) were screened. Sixty-two (5.5%) were HBsAg positive. Ten of these reported a previous diagnosis of HBV. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 4.6% when previously diagnosed individuals were excluded. The HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher in the Chinese subjects compared with South Asians (8.7% VS. 1.7% P < 0.001). In Chinese subjects, HBsAg positivity was highest in subjects born in Vietnam (17.4%), followed by China (11%), Hong Kong (7.8%) and the UK (6.7%). Subjects from Pakistan had the highest HBsAg and HCV Ab prevalence in the South Asians (3.1% and 1.8%, respectively). Ten percentage of HBsAg positive patients who had follow-up assessment had active disease requiring antiviral treatment. Undiagnosed HBV infection was above the 2% threshold for screening suggested by the CDC in the British-Chinese and Pakistani community of NE England, which provides evidence for a UK HBV-targeted screening programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  6. Mercury Levels in an Urban Pregnant Population in Durham County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon; Maxson, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data from a prospective, cohort study of pregnant women from an inland area in the US South, we sought to understand the fish consumption habits and associated mercury levels across subpopulations. Over 30% of women had at least 1 μg/L of mercury in their blood, and about 2% had blood mercury levels above the level of concern during pregnancy (≥3.5 μg/L). Mercury levels were higher among Asian/Pacific Islander, older, higher educated, and married women. Fish consumption from any source was reported by 2/3 of the women in our study, with older women more likely to consume fish. Despite eating more fish meals per week, lower income, lower educated women had lower blood mercury levels than higher income, higher educated women. This suggests the different demographic groups consume different types of fish. Encouraging increased fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure requires careful crafting of a complex health message. PMID:21556174

  7. Economic evaluation of Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) in South Asian and African countries: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Asif R; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Magee, Laura A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-05-26

    Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, are the leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality, and impose substantial burdens on the families of pregnant women, their communities, and healthcare systems. The Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial evaluates a package of care applied at both community and primary health centres to reduce maternal and perinatal disabilities and deaths resulting from the failure to identify and manage pre-eclampsia at the community level. Economic evaluation of health interventions can play a pivotal role in priority setting and inform policy decisions for scale-up. At present, there is a paucity of published literature on the methodology of economic evaluation of large, multi-country, community-based interventions in the area of maternal and perinatal health. This study protocol describes the application of methodology for economic evaluation of the CLIP in South Asia and Africa. A mixed-design approach i.e. cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and qualitative thematic analysis will be used alongside the trial to prospectively evaluate the economic impact of CLIP from a societal perspective. Data on health resource utilization, costs, and pregnancy outcomes will be collected through structured questionnaires embedded into the pregnancy surveillance, cross-sectional survey and budgetary reviews. Qualitative data will be collected through focus groups (FGs) with pregnant women, household male-decision makers, care providers, and district level health decision makers. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for healthcare system and societal perspectives, taking into account the country-specific model inputs (costs and outcome) from the CLIP Trial. Emerging themes from FGs will inform the design of the model, and help to interpret findings of the CEA. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends cost-effective interventions as a key

  8. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  9. Going flat: examining heterogeneity in the soda-obesity relationship by subgroup and place of birth among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. An omnibus population-based health survey. Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271). Despite low levels of soda consumption in several Asian-American ethnic groups, soda consumption increased the odds of being obese among Chinese, Koreans and Other Asians but not for Whites. Obesity risk varied across Asian subgroups and by place of birth within these subgroups. More public health efforts addressing soda consumption in Asian-American communities are needed as a strategy for not only preventing chronic diseases but also disparities, considering the varying levels of soda intake across subgroups. Results support the growing body of literature critiquing acculturation theory in immigrant health research by documenting inconsistent findings by place of birth. Future research should take into account the heterogeneity among Asian Americans to advance our understanding of health outcomes and disparities.

  10. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A.; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C.; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I.; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking

  11. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...

  12. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Macdonald, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    A divided infraorbital foramen is an important morphological feature in lion taxonomy and has previously been considered to occur only in the Asian lion, Panthera leo persica. Based on an examination of 498 lion skulls from museum collections in Europe and southern Africa, we report for the first

  13. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  14. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  15. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in normal population of northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madood-ul-mannan; Anwar, M.; Saleem, M.; Waqar, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnosis of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency can not be made unless reference ranges of these vitamins in a given population are known. These serum levels depend upon the dietary intake of these vitamins which in turn depends upon the availability of foods containing these vitamins and the methods of cooking/processing. The latter vary in different populations. Therefore serum level of these vitamins would vary in different populations. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folate were estimated by radioimmunoassay technique in 30 normal subjects of different age groups. The levels of vitamin B12 were found to be 215.2 pg/ml and that of folate 3.9 ng/ml. These values are much lower than those described for European population. It is therefore concluded that the cut off point of the levels of these vitamins should be different than the European figures. (author)

  16. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K.; McClellan, Sean R.; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this paper we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. METHODS We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population, and compared them to non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient- level) of screening completion among Asian patients. RESULTS Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography (OR:0.81 95% CI:0.71–0.92) and colorectal cancer screening (OR:0.79 CI:0.72–0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR:1.16 CI:1.00–1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.66 CI:1.51–1.82). Additionally, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR:1.32 CI:1.20–1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.31 CI:1.24–1.37). CONCLUSIONS Language- and gender- concordant primary care providers, and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. IMPACT This study demonstrates how use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. PMID:25368396

  17. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Caroline A; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K; McClellan, Sean R; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-11-01

    Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records (EHR) include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this article, we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population and compared them with non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient-level) of screening completion among Asian patients. Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography [OR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.92] and colorectal cancer screening (OR, 0.79; CI, 0.72-0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR, 1.16; CI, 1.00-1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR, 1.66; CI, 1.51-1.82). In addition, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR, 1.32; CI, 1.20-1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR, 1.31; CI, 1.24-1.37). Language- and gender-concordant primary care providers and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. This study demonstrates how the use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  19. Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-10-01

    Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpretation and use of the 5-level EQ-5D response labels varied with survey language among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nan; Wang, Ye; How, Choon How; Tay, Ee Guan; Thumboo, Julian; Herdman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the comparability of the English, Chinese, and Malay versions of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) response labels in Singapore. Visitors to a primary care institution in Singapore (n = 743) were asked to complete two exercises: (1) rating the severity of the EQ-5D-5L response labels presented in English, Chinese, or Malay using a 0-100 numeric rating scale and (2) using the labels to describe various hypothetical health problems. Label ratings and choices between language versions were compared using regression analysis. Perceived severity of the English and Chinese labels was similar. Compared with their English counterparts, the Malay label "slight(ly)" was rated as more severe (adjusted mean difference: 10.5 to 14.5) and "unable"/"extreme(ly)" as less severe (adjusted mean difference: -13.3 to -11.0) (P language versions of the instrument. Future studies need to investigate ways to reduce the variations and increase the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  2. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  4. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  5. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...

  6. The costs, efects and cost-effetiveness of counteracting overweight on a population level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.; van Baal, P; Wendel-Vos, W.; Schuit, A.J.; Feskens, E.; Ament, A.; Hoogenveen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To gain insight in realistic policy targets for overweight at a population level and the accompanying costs. Therefore, the effect on overweight prevalence was estimated of large scale implementation of a community intervention (applied to 90% of general population) and an intensive

  7. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-12-20

    The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  8. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babakus Whitney S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA and sedentary time (ST and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  9. Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry; Pachuilo, Michael; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-01-01

    The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron

  10. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  11. Estimating the Population-Level Effectiveness of Vaccination Programs in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijhe, Maarten; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco

    There are few estimates of the effectiveness of long-standing vaccination programs in developed countries. To fill this gap, we investigate the direct and indirect effectiveness of childhood vaccination programs on mortality at the population level in the Netherlands.

  12. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  13. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Chapelain

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  14. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P valuehypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P valuehypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-based population-level interventions for promoting child oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...

  16. Obesity modifies the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and insulin resistance in Korean general population without increased fasting glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Kim, Myounghee; Kim, Ho; Han, Seung Seok; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Dong Ki; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Park, Ae Kyung; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2014-10-01

    The inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and insulin resistance (IR) has been reported, but many interventional studies failed to reduce IR with 25(OH)D supplementation. In addition, there has been a paucity of literature on the interaction between 25(OH)D status and IR according to the degree of obesity in Asian subjects. We therefore evaluated the association between 25(OH)D status and IR according to the degree of obesity. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2010 were analyzed. The study subjects comprised 10,629 participants aged ≥20 years with fasting glucoseobesity in an adult Korean population without increased fasting glucose levels. We suggest that proper supplementation of vitamin D might be beneficial in obese Korean adults.

  17. Reference Man for Asians as well as for Europeans-A change in the ICRP concept of Reference Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1990-01-01

    ICRP Reference Man, according to the definition, is primarily for Caucasoid populations (Western Europeans and North Americans) that contribute only 13 per cent of the world population. A speculative world population dose will, assuming a uniform exposure all over the world at a level of 10 μSv, be 50 k man Sv in total. Of this, all regions of Caucasoid populations may contribute by 22 per cent maximum. Asian populations will share about 58 per cent (29 k man Sv) of the world population dose. About eighty per cents in total of the world population can be convered by scientific dose assessment, if Reference Man data for Asians are made available. Thus the importance of establishing Asian Reference Man should be evident. The important point of characteristics of Asians is that they are 'Vegetarians' as compared to Westerners, which suggests different pathways with respect to transfer of radionuclides from foods to the human body. Therefore it is required to determine accurate and suitable parameters relevant to dose assessment. Considering the above, contribution of Japan in science and technology to Asian countries with 'knowhows' accumulated may be of a most urgent matter. (author)

  18. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack...... of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates....

  19. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  20. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Shermin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns in the association of individuals can shed light on the underlying conditions and processes that shape societies. Here we characterize patterns of association in a population of wild Asian Elephants at Uda Walawe National Park in Sri Lanka. We observed 286 individually-identified adult female elephants over 20 months and examined their social dynamics at three levels of organization: pairs of individuals (dyads, small sets of direct companions (ego-networks, and the population level (complete networks. Results Corroborating previous studies of this and other Asian elephant populations, we find that the sizes of elephant groups observed in the field on any particular day are typically small and that rates of association are low. In contrast to earlier studies, our longitudinal observations reveal that individuals form larger social units that can be remarkably stable across years while associations among such units change across seasons. Association rates tend to peak in dry seasons as opposed to wet seasons, with some cyclicity at the level of dyads. In addition, we find that individuals vary substantially in their fidelity to companions. At the ego-network level, we find that despite these fluctuations, individuals associate with a pool of long-term companions. At the population level, social networks do not exhibit any clear seasonal structure or hierarchical stratification. Conclusions This detailed longitudinal study reveals different social dynamics at different levels of organization. Taken together, these results demonstrate that low association rates, seemingly small group sizes, and fission-fusion grouping behavior mask hidden stability in the extensive and fluid social affiliations in this population of Asian elephants.

  2. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  3. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Quantifying risks experienced by populations exposed to low levels of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1985-05-01

    The objective was to provide a direct assessment of risks associated with exposures at the actual levels of interest. There are several epidemiological studies of populations that have received occupational exposure to radiation including workers at the Hanford nuclear facility. This population was used as a typical example to illustrate methods of analyzing such data. The Hanford data appear to demonstrate directly that risk estimates obtained by linear extrapolation from data on populations exposed at high levels are unlikely to underestimate risks by a factor greater than three. 15 refs

  5. Depression in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-09-01

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical preparation of H2 rovibrational levels with almost complete population transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenrui; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N.

    2013-08-01

    Using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (SARP), it is possible, in principle, to transfer all the population in a rovibrational level of an isolated diatomic molecule to an excited rovibrational level. We use an overlapping sequence of pump (532 nm) and dump (683 nm) single-mode laser pulses of unequal fluence to prepare isolated H2 molecules in a molecular beam. In a first series of experiments we were able to transfer more than half the population to an excited rovibrational level [N. Mukherjee, W. R. Dong, J. A. Harrison, and R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys. 138(5), 051101-1051101-4 (2013)], 10.1063/1.4790402. Since then, we have achieved almost complete transfer (97% ± 7%) of population from the H2 (v = 0, J = 0) ground rovibrational level to the H2 (v = 1, J = 0) excited rovibrational level. An explanation is presented of the SARP process and how these results are obtained.

  7. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  8. Acculturation, Skin Tone Preferences, and Tanning Behaviours Among Young Adult Asian Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2016-10-01

    Australia has a significant proportion of residents of Asian heritage. Although the incidence of skin cancer is lower in those of Asian heritage than Caucasians, their prognosis is often worse. Sociocultural variables are central to the tanning behaviours of individuals from Western cultures. We examined the role of sociocultural variables in the tanning behaviours (outdoor tanning, indoor/solarium and fake tan use) among Asian Australians. A sample of 399 young adults identifying either as a person of Asian heritage or as Asian Australian participated in an online survey. Our results suggest that Asian Australians are at risk of skin cancer; over 35 % of the sample reported engaging in outdoor tanning and over 10 % in solarium tanning. After controlling for demographic factors and skin cancer knowledge, preferring a darker skin tone and being acculturated to Australia were significantly associated with tanning behaviour. Participants' low levels of skin cancer knowledge are of concern, and possibilities for improving knowledge levels in this group are considered. Further, we recommended that future research studies investigate sociocultural and appearance-related beliefs associated with tanning behaviours in this population, in order to determine best avenues for intervention.

  9. Using the Concept of "Population Dose" in Planning and Evaluating Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…

  10. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between birds, vicinity to sources and trans-boundary movement of pollutants were identified as key exposure routes and subsequent OHCs contamination in Asian birds. There is extreme scarcity of literature on organohalogen contamination in birds from Northern, South-eastern and west Asian countries where an industrial boom has been witnessed in the past few decades. Current scenarios suggest that levels of OHCs, particularly the FRs, are rising in birds of Asia and it would be wise to develop baseline information and to regulate the OHCs emission

  11. Revising the American Dream: How Asian Immigrants Adjust After an HIV Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Wei-Ti; GUTHRIE, Barbara; SHIU, Cheng-Shi; WANG, Lixuan; WENG, Zhongqi; LI, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; EMIKO, Kamitani; FUKUDA, Yumiko; LUU, Binh Vinh

    2015-01-01

    Aim We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Background Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the US. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. Design A mixed-methods study was conducted. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyze the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January - June 2013. Discussion Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their ‘American dreams’. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could ‘make their dreams come true.’ Conclusion Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower-acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should

  12. Revising the American dream: how Asian immigrants adjust after an HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2015-08-01

    We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to

  13. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. Conservation Biology ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original

  14. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  15. Mental health of South Asian youth in Peel Region, Toronto, Canada: a qualitative study of determinants, coping strategies and service access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148

  16. A Meta-analysis on the Effect of Ulinastatin on Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Asian Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunze; Wang, Yijia; Fu, Wenzheng; Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Tao; Qin, Hai

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the influence of ulinastatin (UTI) on the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in Asian patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) by performance of a meta-analysis. Two investigators independently searched 11 databases, including PUBMED, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and China Biomedicine Database. The full-text articles were screened and the data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form. All statistical analyses were conducted with Stata software, version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). A total of 94 studies were initially retrieved, and 10 studies containing 424 Asian patients with AP were ultimately enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results revealed that the serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in Asian AP patients significantly decreased after UTI therapy (CRP: standardized mean difference [SMD] = 3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-4.83, p < 0.001; IL-6: SMD = 5.92, 95% CI = 2.09-9.75, p = 0.002; TNF-α: SMD = 4.07, 95% CI = 0.79-7.35, p = 0.015). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that UTI can effectively depress the serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in Asian patients with AP, and thereby inhibit inflammation.

  17. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  18. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil--excited neutral helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil--excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n -3 , but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number

  19. Relative and absolute level populations in beam-foil-excited neutral helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.

    1975-01-01

    Relative and absolute populations of 19 levels in beam-foil-excited neutral helium at 0.275 MeV have been measured. The singlet angular-momentum sequences show dependences on principal quantum number consistent with n to the -3rd power, but the triplet sequences do not. Singlet and triplet angular-momentum sequences show similar dependences on level excitation energy. Excitation functions for six representative levels were measured in the range from 0.160 to 0.500 MeV. The absolute level populations increase with energy, whereas the neutral fraction of the beam decreases with energy. Further, the P angular-momentum levels are found to be overpopulated with respect to the S and D levels. The overpopulation decreases with increasing principal quantum number.

  20. Physical Activity Among Asian American Adults in Houston, Texas: Data from the Health of Houston Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Dennis; Carvalho Gulati, Amy; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-12-01

    This study used the 2010 Health of Houston Survey to examine the physical activity of Asian American adults living in Houston, Texas. Multivariate regression models were conducted to examine the number of moderate leisure physical activity days in the past week and likelihood of having sufficient levels of physical activity. The results showed that Asians were among the least physically active of the major racial/ethnic groups. Most notably, Asians were less likely than whites to have sufficient levels of physical activity and had similarly lower expected numbers of physical activity minutes and days. Within the Asian American population, Vietnamese adults had more physical activity minutes and days than their Chinese counterparts-after controlling for other sociodemographic and health factors. Age- and gender-adjusted rates suggested a significant gender disparity among the Vietnamese and South Asian adults (less so for the Chinese adults), but this varied across different age groups. Several factors emerged as significant predictors of physical activity for Asian Americans, including age, immigration status, speaking a non-English language at home, marital status, and neighborhood incivilities. Findings highlight the need for targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to promote physical activity in Asian American communities.

  1. Ethical issues in using Twitter for population-level depression monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude; Hurst, Samantha; Conway, Mike

    2016-04-14

    Recently, significant research effort has focused on using Twitter (and other social media) to investigate mental health at the population-level. While there has been influential work in developing ethical guidelines for Internet discussion forum-based research in public health, there is currently limited work focused on addressing ethical problems in Twitter-based public health research, and less still that considers these issues from users' own perspectives. In this work, we aim to investigate public attitudes towards utilizing public domain Twitter data for population-level mental health monitoring using a qualitative methodology. The study explores user perspectives in a series of five, 2-h focus group interviews. Following a semi-structured protocol, 26 Twitter users with and without a diagnosed history of depression discussed general Twitter use, along with privacy expectations, and ethical issues in using social media for health monitoring, with a particular focus on mental health monitoring. Transcripts were then transcribed, redacted, and coded using a constant comparative approach. While participants expressed a wide range of opinions, there was an overall trend towards a relatively positive view of using public domain Twitter data as a resource for population level mental health monitoring, provided that results are appropriately aggregated. Results are divided into five sections: (1) a profile of respondents' Twitter use patterns and use variability; (2) users' privacy expectations, including expectations regarding data reach and permanence; (3) attitudes towards social media based population-level health monitoring in general, and attitudes towards mental health monitoring in particular; (4) attitudes towards individual versus population-level health monitoring; and (5) users' own recommendations for the appropriate regulation of population-level mental health monitoring. Focus group data reveal a wide range of attitudes towards the use of public

  2. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient populations, even for similar patient groups (ICU patients in two distinct geographic regions, with only three of 142 ICU genotypes detected in both ICUs. The two major CF clones were unique to CF patients. CONCLUSION: The population structure of P. aeruginosa isolates is highly diverse and population specific without evidence for a core lineage in which major CF, hospital or community clones co-cluster. The two genotypes highly prevalent among Dutch CF patients appeared unique to CF patients

  3. How much can be learned from populations exposed to low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-05-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Many of the problems in analyzing and interpreting data on populations exposed to low levels of radiation are well illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant. The conclusion drawn is that the amount that can be learned from the Hanford population, and other populations exposed to low levels of radiation, is extremely limited. The data are not adequate to determine reliable estimates of risks, or to investigate the appropriateness of various models. Although there are problems in using data from populations exposed at high levels to estimate risks of low level exposure to radiation, the problems in obtaining such estimates directly are even more severe. Thus data from populations such as the Japanese A-bomb survivors and the British ankylosing spondylitis patients must continue to serve as our primary source of information on radiation effects. 27 references, 3 tables

  4. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  5. Riding the Asian Wave....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses strategies U.S. universities are using to deal with declining enrollments by Asian students, brought on by the Asian financial crisis. Strategies include recruiting students from other countries. (Author/VWL)

  6. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  7. The biological model of postradiation restoration of plants on the organismic and population levels of organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanishvili, N.I.; Gogebashvili, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : When studying postradiating restoration of plants, the question of working out of biological models for testing of biosystems' reliability has become rather urgent. It is known that each organization level of a live organism is characterized by certain mechanisms of postradiating restoration at the formation of various radiobiological reactions. For example, the basic processes at cellular, tissue and organism levels are reparation and regeneration whereas at cenosis level the leading processes are often the forms of population restoration. Besides, in spite of the fact that the population restoration at cenosis level is continuously inked with restoration at the lower organization levels, at this level the specific forms of restoration characterized for only this level are seen. It is natural that studying of the mechanisms of response to the influence of damaging factors needs new methodological approaches on various forms of population restoration with the use of adequate test systems. For this purpose the species of duckweed was used. It was seen that this test-system is characterized by the two levels of response to radiation influence. The first one - at a rather low level of radiation influence (up to 50Gy) when decrease in intensity of leaf growth as well as in colony formation was observed and the second one - at a high level of radiation influence (up to 200Gy) when a crushing of colonies took place and an increase in quantity of undeveloped plant leaves was seen. Thus, thanks to the step character of response of culture duckweed it becomes possible to definite quantity indicators for the investigated populations, not only at the influence of concrete physical and chemical factors but also at multifactorial influences that is often difficult to be calculated. It can be concluded that at the first level of damage an increase of plant resistance to unfavorable factors takes place that is due to the inhibition of growth processes

  8. Experimental study of relative level populations in beam-foil excited Ar+7 and Kr+7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.; Oona, H.; Veje, E.

    1981-01-01

    The relative level populations in beam-foil excited sodium-like argon (Ar VIII) and copper-like krypton (Kr VIII) have been studied at 2 MeV projectile energy. In Ar VIII, the 3p and the 3d terms are strongly excited. The level population decreases rapidly with increasing value of the principal quantum number n, reaches a minimum for levels with n = 5 or 6, but increases then and reaches a strong maximum for levels with n approximately 11. Also the Kr VIII data show a population maximum for levels with n = 11. The strong 3p and 3d level excitations in Ar VIII are explained as selective inner-shell processes which can be understood in the molecular-orbital electron-promotion picture. The preferential population of high-flying Rydberg states is explained as resulting from a near-resonance electron transfer from the valence band of the carbon foil to the projectile. This process takes place when the projectile leaves the back of the foil. (Auth.)

  9. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  10. Effects of collisions on level populations and dielectronic recombination rates of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.L.; Davis, J.

    1978-01-01

    A generalization of previously reported statistical theories is developed for determining the excited-level populations and the ionization-recombination balance of multiply charged atomic ions in an optically thin high-temperature plasma. Account is taken of the most important collisional and radiative processes involving bound and autoionizing levels in three consecutive ionization stages. We obtain a set of rate equations for the population densities of the low-lying levels which contains effective excitation, ionization, and recombination rates describing indirect transitions through the more highly excited bound and autoionizing levels. The familiar corona-model equations for the ground-state populations are recovered by making the assumption that all excited states decay by only spontaneous radiative or autoionization processes. When collisional processes become efficient in depopulating the highly excited levels important in dielectronic recombination, the effective rate of recombination must be described by a collisional-dielectronic recombination coefficient. Results of calculations are presented for the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for recombination of Fe +8 --Fe +13 ions. At an electron density of 10 16 cm -3 , dielectronic recombination is still the dominant recombination process. However, the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients are found to be reduced by about an order of magnitude from their corona-model values due to the effects of multiple-collisional excitations on the populations of the highly excited bound levels of the recombined ion. The dielectronic recombination rates into these highly excited levels are found to be enhanced by the effects of collisionally induced angular momentum redistribution on the populations of the autoionizing levels

  11. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kim Cook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  12. Population-level impact of white-nose syndrome on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; McKann, Patrick C.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Establishing status and trend for an endangered species is critical to recovery, especially when it is faced with a nascent extinction agent. We calculated, with hierarchical log-linear change-point models, hibernaculum-level population trends between 1983 and 2009 for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) now subjected to the fast-spreading fungal disease white-nose syndrome. We combined trends from 222 wintering populations before and after onset of the disease to determine trend for clusters of interacting wintering populations, recovery units, and the species. Before onset of the disease, a west-to-east gradient in trends existed, with westernmost populations declining and easternmost populations increasing in abundance. The species as a whole, however, was stationary between 1983 and 2005 (-0.5% mean annual change; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8, +1.8%). Estimated mean population size in 2009 was 377,124 bats (195,398-957,348), with large variance apparently caused by white-nose syndrome. With the onset of white-nose syndrome (2006-2009), the species exhibited a 10.3% annual decline (95% CI = -21.1, +2.0%). White-nose syndrome is having an appreciable influence on the status and trends of Indiana bat populations, stalling and in some cases reversing population gains made in recent years.

  13. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  14. Problems With the Collection and Interpretation of Asian-American Health Data: Omission, Aggregation, and Extrapolation

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Asian-American citizens are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Nevertheless, data on Asian American health are scarce, and many health disparities for this population remain unknown. Much of our knowledge of Asian American health has been determined by studies in which investigators have either grouped Asian-American subjects together or examined one subgroup alone (e.g., Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese). National health surveys that co...

  15. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Racial Differences in Expression Levels of miRNA Machinery-Related Genes, Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8, and AGO2, in Asian Korean Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Comparative Validation Using the Cancer Genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegil Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant regulation of microRNA (miRNA machinery components is associated with various human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, which is the most common type of thyroid cancer, and a higher prevalent female malignancy. The purpose of this study is to investigate racial differences in mRNA expression levels of four miRNA machinery components, Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8, and AGO2, and their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics. Forty PTC samples from female Asian Korean PTC patients were enrolled. Using qPCR, we examined mRNA expression levels of the components and next validated our results by comparison with results of female white American in the TCGA PTC project. Interestingly, mRNA expression levels of the selected factors were altered in the TCGA PTC samples. However, only Drosha showed a significantly lower expression level in Asian Korean PTC samples. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the four components showed no association with clinicopathological characteristics in both groups. On the other hand, positive correlations were observed between altered mRNA expression levels of Dicer and Drosha and DGCR8 and Drosha in TCGA PTC samples. These findings collectively revealed that altered mRNA expression levels of miRNA machinery components might be responsible for racial differences in the carcinogenesis of PTC.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  20. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  1. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of