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Sample records for asian populations identifies

  1. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

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    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  2. Population effect model identifies gene expression predictors of survival outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma for both Caucasian and Asian patients.

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    Guoshuai Cai

    Full Text Available We analyzed and integrated transcriptome data from two large studies of lung adenocarcinomas on distinct populations. Our goal was to investigate the variable gene expression alterations between paired tumor-normal tissues and prospectively identify those alterations that can reliably predict lung disease related outcomes across populations.We developed a mixed model that combined the paired tumor-normal RNA-seq from two populations. Alterations in gene expression common to both populations were detected and validated in two independent DNA microarray datasets. A 10-gene prognosis signature was developed through a l1 penalized regression approach and its prognostic value was evaluated in a third independent microarray cohort.Deregulation of apoptosis pathways and increased expression of cell cycle pathways were identified in tumors of both Caucasian and Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that a 10-gene biomarker panel can predict prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in both Caucasians and Asians. Compared to low risk groups, high risk groups showed significantly shorter overall survival time (Caucasian patients data: HR = 3.63, p-value = 0.007; Asian patients data: HR = 3.25, p-value = 0.001.This study uses a statistical framework to detect DEGs between paired tumor and normal tissues that considers variances among patients and ethnicities, which will aid in understanding the common genes and signalling pathways with the largest effect sizes in ethnically diverse cohorts. We propose multifunctional markers for distinguishing tumor from normal tissue and prognosis for both populations studied.

  3. Type 2 diabetes: identifying high risk Asian American subgroups in a clinical population.

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    Wang, Elsie J; Wong, Eric C; Dixit, Anjali A; Fortmann, Stephen P; Linde, Randolph B; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system. A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared. Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% (women) and 8.1 to 25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men). Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Analysis in European and Asian Populations Identified Novel Genes for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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    Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations.Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects. For the newly identified RA-associated genes, gene set enrichment analyses and protein-protein interactions analyses were carried out with DAVID and STRING version 10.0, respectively. Differential expression verification was conducted using 4 GEO datasets. The expression levels of three selected 'highly verified' genes were measured by ELISA among our in-house RA cases and controls.A total of 221 RA-associated genes were newly identified by gene-based association study, including 71'overlapped', 76 'European-specific' and 74 'Asian-specific' genes. Among them, 105 genes had significant differential expressions between RA patients and health controls at least in one dataset, especially for 20 genes including 11 'overlapped' (ABCF1, FLOT1, HLA-F, IER3, TUBB, ZKSCAN4, BTN3A3, HSP90AB1, CUTA, BRD2, HLA-DMA, 5 'European-specific' (PHTF1, RPS18, BAK1, TNFRSF14, SUOX and 4 'Asian-specific' (RNASET2, HFE, BTN2A2, MAPK13 genes whose differential expressions were significant at least in three datasets. The protein expressions of two selected genes FLOT1 (P value = 1.70E-02 and HLA-DMA (P value = 4.70E-02 in plasma were significantly different in our in-house samples.Our study identified 221 novel RA-associated genes and especially highlighted the importance of 20 candidate genes on RA. The results addressed ethnic genetic background differences for RA susceptibility between European and Asian populations and detected a long list of overlapped or ethnic specific RA

  5. Diverse Array of New Viral Sequences Identified in Worldwide Populations of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Using Viral Metagenomics.

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    Nouri, Shahideh; Salem, Nidá; Nigg, Jared C; Falk, Bryce W

    2015-12-16

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the natural vector of the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease. Together; HLB and D. citri represent a major threat to world citrus production. As there is no cure for HLB, insect vector management is considered one strategy to help control the disease, and D. citri viruses might be useful. In this study, we used a metagenomic approach to analyze viral sequences associated with the global population of D. citri. By sequencing small RNAs and the transcriptome coupled with bioinformatics analysis, we showed that the virus-like sequences of D. citri are diverse. We identified novel viral sequences belonging to the picornavirus superfamily, the Reoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Bunyaviridae families, and an unclassified positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. Moreover, a Wolbachia prophage-related sequence was identified. This is the first comprehensive survey to assess the viral community from worldwide populations of an agricultural insect pest. Our results provide valuable information on new putative viruses, some of which may have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents. Insects have the most species of all animals, and are hosts to, and vectors of, a great variety of known and unknown viruses. Some of these most likely have the potential to be important fundamental and/or practical resources. In this study, we used high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to identify putative viruses associated with Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. D. citri is the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), currently the most serious threat to citrus worldwide. Here, we report several novel viral sequences associated with D. citri. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Clinically identified postpartum depression in Asian American mothers.

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    Goyal, Deepika; Wang, Elsie J; Shen, Jeremy; Wong, Eric C; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2012-01-01

    To identify the clinical diagnosis rate of postpartum depression (PPD) in Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Cross-sectional study using electronic health records (EHR). A large, outpatient, multiservice clinic in Northern California. A diverse clinical population of non-Hispanic White (N = 4582), Asian Indian (N = 1264), Chinese (N = 1160), Filipino (N = 347), Japanese (N = 124), Korean (N = 183), and Vietnamese (N = 147) mothers. Cases of PPD were identified from EHRs using physician diagnosis codes, medication usage, and age standardized for comparison. The relationship between PPD and other demographic variables (race/ethnicity, maternal age, delivery type, marital status, and infant gender) were examined in a multivariate logistic regression model. The PPD diagnosis rate for all Asian American mothers in aggregate was significantly lower than the diagnosis rate in non-Hispanic White mothers. Moreover, of the six Asian American subgroups, PPD diagnosis rates for Asian Indian, Chinese, and Filipino mothers were significantly lower than non-Hispanic White mothers. In multivariate analyses, race/ethnicity, age, and cesarean were significant predictors of PPD. In this insured population, PPD diagnosis rates were lower among Asian Americans, with variability in rates across the individual Asian American subgroups. It is unclear whether these lower rates are due to underreporting, underdiagnosis, or underutilization of mental health care in this setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A.; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C.; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I.; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking

  8. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Genomic copy number variations in three Southeast Asian populations.

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    Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus

    2010-07-01

    Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Genome-wide association study in Asian populations identifies variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Wanling Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex and potentially fatal autoimmune disease, characterized by autoantibody production and multi-organ damage. By a genome-wide association study (320 patients and 1,500 controls and subsequent replication altogether involving a total of 3,300 Asian SLE patients from Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Thailand, as well as 4,200 ethnically and geographically matched controls, genetic variants in ETS1 and WDFY4 were found to be associated with SLE (ETS1: rs1128334, P = 2.33x10(-11, OR = 1.29; WDFY4: rs7097397, P = 8.15x10(-12, OR = 1.30. ETS1 encodes for a transcription factor known to be involved in a wide range of immune functions, including Th17 cell development and terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes. SNP rs1128334 is located in the 3'-UTR of ETS1, and allelic expression analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower expression level from the risk allele. WDFY4 is a conserved protein with unknown function, but is predominantly expressed in primary and secondary immune tissues, and rs7097397 in WDFY4 changes an arginine residue to glutamine (R1816Q in this protein. Our study also confirmed association of the HLA locus, STAT4, TNFSF4, BLK, BANK1, IRF5, and TNFAIP3 with SLE in Asians. These new genetic findings may help us to gain a better understanding of the disease and the functions of the genes involved.

  11. Natural selection on HFE in Asian populations contributes to enhanced non-heme iron absorption.

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    Ye, Kaixiong; Cao, Chang; Lin, Xu; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-06-10

    HFE, a major regulator of iron (Fe) homeostasis, has been suggested to be under positive selection in both European and Asian populations. While the genetic variant under selection in Europeans (a non-synonymous mutation, C282Y) has been relatively well-studied, the adaptive variant in Asians and its functional consequences are still unknown. Identifying the adaptive HFE variants in Asians will not only elucidate the evolutionary history and the genetic basis of population difference in Fe status, but also assist the future practice of genome-informed dietary recommendation. Using data from the International HapMap Project, we confirmed the signatures of positive selection on HFE in Asian populations and identified a candidate adaptive haplotype that is common in Asians (52.35-54.71%) but rare in Europeans (5.98%) and Africans (4.35%). The T allele at tag SNP rs9366637 (C/T) captured 95.8% of this Asian-common haplotype. A significantly reduced HFE expression was observed in individuals carrying T/T at rs9366637 compared to C/C and C/T, indicating a possible role of gene regulation in adaptation. We recruited 57 women of Asian descent and measured Fe absorption using stable isotopes in those homozygous at rs9366637. We observed a 22% higher absorption in women homozygous for the Asian-common haplotype (T/T) compared to the control genotype (C/C). Additionally, compared with a group of age-matched Caucasian women, Asian women exhibited significantly elevated Fe absorption. Our results indicate parallel adaptation of HFE gene in Europeans and Asians with different genetic variants. Moreover, natural selection on HFE may have contributed to elevated Fe absorption in Asians. This study regarding population differences in Fe homeostasis has significant medical impact as high Fe level has been linked to an increased disease risk of metabolic syndromes.

  12. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  13. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

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    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  15. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  16. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  17. GWAS-identified schizophrenia risk SNPs at TSPAN18 are highly diverged between Europeans and East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Su, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a role in SCZ susceptibility. Here, we explored this possibility by examining the allele frequency divergence of 136 previously reported genome-wide SCZ risk SNPs between European and East Asian populations. Our results showed that two SNPs (rs11038167 and rs11038172) at TSPAN18, reported as genome-wide significant SCZ risk variants in Han Chinese, were entirely monomorphic in Europeans, indicating a deep between-population divergence at this gene locus. To explore the evolutionary history of TSPAN18 in East Asians, we conducted population genetic analyses including multiple neutrality tests, the haplotype-based iHS and EHH tests, as well as haplotype bifurcation map and network constructions. We found that the protective allele of rs11038172 (G allele) had a long extended haplotype with much slower decay compared to the A allele. The star-like shape of the G-allele-carrying haplotypes indicates a recent enrichment in East Asians. Together, the evidences suggest that the protective allele of rs11038172 has experienced recent Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. These findings provide new insights that may help explain the strong genetic heterogeneity in SCZ risk and previous inconsistent association results for SCZ among both Europeans and East Asians. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gender differences in smoking behaviors in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N

    2008-01-01

    Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.

  19. RECORD-4 multicenter phase 2 trial of second-line everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Asian versus non-Asian population subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Alyasova, Anna; Ye, Dingwei; Ridolfi, Antonia; Dezzani, Luca; Motzer, Robert J

    2018-02-17

    RECORD-4 assessed everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed after 1 prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or cytokine and reinforced the clinical benefit of second-line everolimus. Because of the high percentage of patients from China enrolled in RECORD-4 (41%) and some reported differences in responses to certain targeted agents between Chinese and Western patients, this subanalysis evaluated outcomes in Asian versus non-Asian patients. RECORD-4 enrolled patients with clear cell mRCC into 3 cohorts based on prior first-line therapy: sunitinib, other anti-VEGF (sorafenib, bevacizumab, pazopanib, other), or cytokines. Patients received everolimus 10 mg/d until progression of disease (RECIST, v1.0) or intolerance. Primary end point was progression-free survival per investigator review. Data cutoff was Sept 1, 2014. Among Asian (n = 55) versus non-Asian (n = 79) patients, 98% versus 84% had good/intermediate MSKCC prognosis; 73% versus 65% were men, and 85% versus 73% were < 65 years of age. All (100%) Asian patients were of Chinese ethnicity. Median duration of exposure was 5.5 mo for Asian and 6.0 mo for non-Asian patients. Among Asian versus non-Asian patients, median progression-free survival (months) was 7.4 versus 7.8 overall, 7.4 versus 4.0 with prior sunitinib, and 5.7 versus 9.2 with prior other anti-VEGFs. Clinical benefit rate was similar between populations: 74.5% (95% CI 61.0-85.3) for Asian patients and 74.7% (95% CI 63.6-83.8) for non-Asian patients. Most patients achieved stable disease as best overall response (Asian, 63.6%; non-Asian, 69.6%). Overall rate of grade 3/4 adverse events appeared similar for Asian (58%) and non-Asian patients (54%). This RECORD-4 subanalysis demonstrated comparable efficacy and adverse event profiles of second-line everolimus in Asian and non-Asian patients. Efficacy and safety outcomes by prior therapy should be interpreted with caution because of small

  20. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  1. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  2. 12th meeting of Asian Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the 12th annual Asian Parliamentarians Meeting on Population and Development, co-sponsored by the Asian Population and Development Association (APDA) of Japan and the Philippine Legislative Committee on Population and Development (PLCPD), the adverse effect of population growth on economic development and the importance of improvements in women's status were central themes. Fukusaburo Maeda, President of APDA Japan, noted that an understanding of women's issues is key to solving global population problems. Numerous participants urged rapid implementation of plans outlined at recent conferences in Cairo and Beijing to empower women and involve them in all stages of the development process. Even issues of food security are linked to women's issues, since women are generally responsible for feeding their families. Participants voted to adopt the "Manila Resolution on Women, Gender, Population, and Development"--a call for social and economic empowerment of women and resources for gender-related programs. Dr. Patricia Licuanan, Chair of the UN Committee on the Status of Women, noted that men should not feel threatened by women holding positions of power; rather, they should welcome an equal partnership between men and women. In her closing address, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani, Chair of PLCPD, stressed the importance of placing women's empowerment on various parliamentary agendas and commended APDA for its research and population-based surveys in Asia.

  3. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  4. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  5. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-12-30

    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI 'barcode' region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular 'barcode'. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics.

  6. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  7. Predictors and Barriers to Hepatitis B Screening in a Midwest Suburban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanna; Li, Elton; Lok, Anna S

    2017-06-01

    Despite guidelines recommending hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among the Asian population, not all Asians are screened. We assessed barriers to and factors predicting HBV screening in Michigan. Adults residing in Southeast Michigan self-identifying as Asian were surveyed at Asian grocery stores, restaurants, churches, and community events. 404 persons participated in the survey, 54 % were women, median age was 51 years, 63 % were Chinese, and 93.8 % were born outside the U.S. 181 (44.8 %) had not or could not recall having been screened for HBV. Of these, 89 % said their primary care physicians (PCP) had never brought up screening. Unscreened participants were more likely to think HBV is genetically inherited and cannot be treated than those who had been screened. They were also more likely to think they should avoid close contact with others, would bring shame to their families, and lose their job, if found to be infected with HBV. Among 223 (55.2 %) who had been screened, 48 % said their PCP had the greatest influence in their decision to be screened and 70.9 % said they were screened at a doctor's visit. Screened participants were more likely to know someone with HBV, have a PCP, and have health insurance. Logistic regression analysis showed knowing someone with HBV was the only predictor for screening. Despite guidelines for HBV screening, only half of the Asian Americans surveyed had been screened. Increasing awareness among PCPs is needed to increase HBV screening in this population.

  8. Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas G.; Kelly, Derek E.; Hansen, Matthew E. B.; Beltrame, Marcia H.; Fan, Shaohua; Bowman, Shanna L.; Jewett, Ethan; Ranciaro, Alessia; Thompson, Simon; Lo, Yancy; Pfeifer, Susanne P.; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Campbell, Michael C.; Beggs, William; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Mokone, Gaonyadiwe George; Nyambo, Thomas; Meskel, Dawit Wolde; Belay, Gurja; Haut, Jake; Rothschild, Harriet; Zon, Leonard; Zhou, Yi; Kovacs, Michael A.; Xu, Mai; Zhang, Tongwu; Bishop, Kevin; Sinclair, Jason; Rivas, Cecilia; Elliot, Eugene; Choi, Jiyeon; Li, Shengchao A.; Hicks, Belynda; Burgess, Shawn; Abnet, Christian; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Oceana, Elena; Song, Yun S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Brown, Kevin M.; Marks, Michael S.; Loftus, Stacie K.; Pavan, William J.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Tishkoff, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide range of skin pigmentation in humans, little is known about its genetic basis in global populations. Examining ethnically diverse African genomes, we identify variants in or near SLC24A5, MFSD12, DDB1, TMEM138, OCA2 and HERC2 that are significantly associated with skin pigmentation. Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans. At all other loci, variants associated with dark pigmentation in Africans are identical by descent in southern Asian and Australo-Melanesian populations. Functional analyses indicate that MFSD12 encodes a lysosomal protein that affects melanogenesis in zebrafish and mice, and that mutations in melanocyte-specific regulatory regions near DDB1/TMEM138 correlate with expression of UV response genes under selection in Eurasians. PMID:29025994

  9. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly.

  10. Name Recognition to Identify Patients of South Asian Ethnicity within the Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Singh-Carlson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this project was to develop a list of forenames and surnames of South Asian (SA women that could be used to identify SA breast cancer patients within the cancer registry. This list was compiled, evaluated, and validated to ensure comprehensiveness, accuracy, and applicability of SA names. Methods: This project was conducted by Canadian researchers who are immersed in conducting behavioral studies with SA women diagnosed with cancer in the province of British Columbia. Recruiting SA cancer patients for research can be a difficult task due to social and cultural factors. Methods used by other researchers to identify ethnicity related unique names were employed to filter surnames and forenames that were not common to this ethnic group. Co-author (Gurpreet Oshan of SA ethnicity rigorously identified and deleted multiple lists and redundant entries along with common English forenames which resulted in a list of 16,888 SA forenames. All co-authors of Indian ethnicity (Gurpreet Oshan, Savitri Singh-Carlson, Harajit Lail were involved in critiquing and manually reviewing the names list throughout this process. Comprehensive lists of SA surnames and women′s forenames were reviewed to identify those that were unique to SA ethnicity. Accuracy was ensured by constantly filtering the redundancy by using an Excel program which helped to illustrate the number of times each name was spelled in different ways. Results: The final lists included 9112 surnames and 16,888 forenames of SA ethnicity. On the basis of the surname linkage only, the sensitivity of the list was 76.6%, specificity was 62.9%, and the positive predictive value was 58.5%. On the basis of both the surname and forename linkage, the specificity of the list was 88.6%. These lists include variations in spelling forenames and surnames as well. Conclusions: The list of surnames and forenames can be useful tools to identify SA ethnic groups from large population database in

  11. Comparison of exposure response relationship of atrasentan between North American and Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence...... change in albuminuria. Bodyweight change, a proxy of fluid retention, was used as a safety endpoint. Pharmacodynamics were determined in Asians (N = 77) and North Americans (N = 134). Atrasentan plasma concentration was measured in 161 atrasentan-treated patients. RESULTS: Mean albuminuria reduction...... in Asian, compared to North American, patients was, respectively, -34.4% vs -26.3% for 0.75 mg/d ( P  = .44) and -48.0% vs -28.9% for 1.25 mg/d ( P  = .035). Bodyweight gain did not differ between North American and Asian populations. Atrasentan plasma concentrations were higher in Asians compared to North...

  12. Dimensions of Assertiveness in an Asian-American Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Mary A.; Greenfield, Tom K.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed components of assertiveness, assessed by the College Self-Expression Scale, for Asian-American (N=105) and Caucasian (N=135) students. Results showed a significant difference in full-scale assertion scores indicating lower levels of overall assertion in Asian Americans, interpreted as consistent with value differences between…

  13. A Clinical Prediction Model for Postcardiac Surgery Atrial Fibrillation in an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Weiling; Chew, Sophia T H; Shen, Liang; Ti, Lian Kah

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. Current prediction models for postoperative AF are based primarily on Western populations. In this study, we sought to develop a clinical prediction rule for postcardiac surgery AF for a multiethnic Asian population. Two thousand one hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft or valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were prospectively enrolled in this observational study between August 2008 and July 2012 at Singapore's 2 national heart centers. Postoperative AF was defined as an irregularly irregular electrocardiogram rhythm without identifiable P wave after surgery and before hospital discharge that lasted more than an hour, or affected hemodynamics (ie, systolic blood pressure 120 minutes (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.47-2.52, P Chinese ethnicity (Chinese versus Indian OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.28-3.41, P = 0.003) or Malay (Malay versus Indian OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.36-4.05, P = 0.002) to be independently associated with postoperative AF. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of the model was 0.704 (95% CI, 0.674-0.734). Internal validation produced an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.756 (95% CI, 0.690-0.821). Clinical risk factors for AF after cardiac surgery in an Asian population are similar to that reported from primarily Western populations, but specific ethnicity influences susceptibility.

  14. Usual populations, unusual individuals: insights into the behavior and management of Asian elephants in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant M Srinivasaiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC, unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km(2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals

  15. Comparison of exposure response relationship of atrasentan between North American and Asian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Makino, Hirofumi; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Coll, Blai; Davis, Justin W.; Idler, Ken; Kohan, Donald E.; Liu, Mohan; Perkovic, Vlado; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Aims: The selective endothelin (ET) A receptor antagonist atrasentan has been shown to lower albuminuria in North American and Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. As drug responses to many drugs may differ between North American and Asian populations, we assessed the influence of

  16. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara C Elbers

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of ∼2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hispanics and 841 East Asians, using the IBC array, a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array. Meta-analyses confirmed 16 lipid loci previously established in European populations at genome-wide significance level, and found multiple independent association signals within these lipid loci. Initial discovery and in silico follow-up in 7,000 additional African American samples, confirmed two novel loci: rs5030359 within ICAM1 is associated with total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p = 8.8×10(-7 and p = 1.5×10(-6 respectively and a nonsense mutation rs3211938 within CD36 is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels (p = 13.5×10(-12. The rs3211938-G allele, which is nearly absent in European and Asian populations, has been previously found to be associated with CD36 deficiency and shows a signature of selection in Africans and African Americans. Finally, we have evaluated the effect of SNPs established in European populations on lipid levels in multi-ethnic populations and show that most known lipid association signals span across ethnicities. However, differences between populations, especially differences in allele frequency, can be leveraged to identify novel signals, as shown by the discovery of ICAM1 and CD36 in the current report.

  17. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -11 compared to 4.6 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. (author)

  18. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  19. Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorajoo, R; Blakemore, A I F; Sim, X; Ong, R T-H; Ng, D P K; Seielstad, M; Wong, T-Y; Saw, S-M; Froguel, P; Liu, J; Tai, E-S

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from Chinese (three cohorts, including one with type 2 diabetes and another one of children), Malay and Indian ethnic groups from Singapore. Data sets were analysed individually and subsequently in combined meta-analysis for Z-score body-mass index (BMI) associations. Variants at the FTO locus showed the strongest associations with BMI Z-score after meta-analysis (P-values 1.16 × 10(-7)-7.95 × 10(-7)). We further detected associations with nine other index obesity variants close to the MC4R, GNPDA2, TMEM18, QPCTL/GIPR, BDNF, ETV5, MAP2K5/SKOR1, SEC16B and TNKS/MSRA loci (meta-analysis P-values ranging from 3.58 × 10(-4)-1.44 × 10(-2)). Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CADM2, PTBP2 and FAIM2 were associated with BMI (P-value ≤ 0.0418) in at least one dataset. The neurotrophin/TRK pathway (P-value=0.029) was highlighted by pathway-based analysis of loci that had statistically significant associations among Singaporean populations. Our data confirm the role of FTO in obesity predisposition among Chinese, Malays and Indians, the three major Asian ethnic groups. We additionally detected associations for 12 obesity-associated SNPs among Singaporeans. Thus, it is likely that Europeans and Asians share some of the genetic predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the neurotrophin/TRK signalling may have a central role for common obesity among Asians.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Asian and European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hamann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA have markedly increased risks of developing breast and ovarian cancers during their lifetime. It has been estimated that their breast and ovarian cancer risks are in the range of 46-87% and 15-68%, respectively. Therefore it is of utmost clinical importance to identify BRCA mutation carriers in order to target unaffected women for prevention and/or close surveillance and to help affected women choose the best chemotherapy regimen. Genetic testing for BRCA germline mutations is expanding in clinical oncology centers worldwide. Given the high costs of complete BRCA gene screens, a lot of effort has been expended on deciding upon whom to test. Relevant issues involved in decision making include the prior probability of a woman having a BRCA mutation, which is a function of her age and her disease status, her ethnic group, and her family history of breast or ovarian cancer. The frequency and spectrum of mutations in these genes show considerable variation by ethnic groups and by geographic regions. Most studies have been conducted in European and North American populations, while studies in Asian, Hispanic, and African populations are fewer. In most populations, many BRCA mutations were identified, which were distributed all over the genes. However, in some populations, a relatively small number of specific BRCA mutations are recurrent and account for the majority of all mutations in that population. Many of the recurrent mutations are founder mutations, which were derived from a common ancestor. Founder mutations are present in Ashkenazi Jewish, European, and Islander (Faroe, Easter, and Pitcairn populations. Such mutations have also been identified in patients from several Asian, South American, and African countries. Population-specific genetic risk assessment and genetic mutation screening have been facilitated at low costs. Given that mutations

  1. Genome-wide meta-analysis of five Asian cohorts identifies PDGFRA as a susceptibility locus for corneal astigmatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Fan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corneal astigmatism refers to refractive abnormalities and irregularities in the curvature of the cornea, and this interferes with light being accurately focused at a single point in the eye. This ametropic condition is highly prevalent, influences visual acuity, and is a highly heritable trait. There is currently a paucity of research in the genetic etiology of corneal astigmatism. Here we report the results from five genome-wide association studies of corneal astigmatism across three Asian populations, with an initial discovery set of 4,254 Chinese and Malay individuals consisting of 2,249 cases and 2,005 controls. Replication was obtained from three surveys comprising of 2,139 Indians, an additional 929 Chinese children, and an independent 397 Chinese family trios. Variants in PDGFRA on chromosome 4q12 (lead SNP: rs7677751, allelic odds ratio = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.16-1.36, P(meta = 7.87×10(-9 were identified to be significantly associated with corneal astigmatism, exhibiting consistent effect sizes across all five cohorts. This highlights the potential role of variants in PDGFRA in the genetic etiology of corneal astigmatism across diverse Asian populations.

  2. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Luo, Xun; Lin, Tseng-Hsi

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer in an Asian population. Nationwide population-based case-control study. All healthcare facilities in Taiwan. A total of 103 466 women (mean age 53.3 years) were enrolled. 51 733 adult women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer without a previous cancer history between 2006 and 2011 were identified and included in our study. 51 733 women with no cancer diagnosis prior to the index date were age matched as controls. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer or the same index date was identified, age, histories of thyroid disease treatment, oestrogen use and radioactive iodine treatment were adjusted. To identify risk differences in developing breast cancer among patients with a medical history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. There was a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism under the age of 55 years (age hypothyroidism also showed an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.19, P=0.029) without statistical significance after stratification by age group (age 55 years). Treatment for thyroid disorders did not alter the association in subgroup analyses (P=0.857; 0.262, respectively). Asian women under 55 years of age with history of hyperthyroidism have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer regardless of treatment. Women with history of hypothyroidism may also have an increased risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Genome-wide association study of telomere length among South Asians identifies a second RTEL1 association signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Dayana A; Zhang, Chenan; Chen, Lin S; Gao, Jianjun; Roy, Shantanu; Shinkle, Justin; Sabarinathan, Mekala; Argos, Maria; Tong, Lin; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Hasan; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Ahsan, Habibul; Pierce, Brandon L

    2018-01-01

    Leucocyte telomere length (TL) is a potential biomarker of ageing and risk for age-related disease. Leucocyte TL is heritable and shows substantial differences by race/ethnicity. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) report ~10 loci harbouring SNPs associated with leucocyte TL, but these studies focus primarily on populations of European ancestry. This study aims to enhance our understanding of genetic determinants of TL across populations. We performed a GWAS of TL using data on 5075 Bangladeshi adults. We measured TL using one of two technologies (qPCR or a Luminex-based method) and used standardised variables as TL phenotypes. Our results replicate previously reported associations in the TERC and TERT regions (P=2.2×10 -8 and P=6.4×10 -6 , respectively). We observed a novel association signal in the RTEL1 gene (intronic SNP rs2297439; P=2.82×10 -7 ) that is independent of previously reported TL-associated SNPs in this region. The minor allele for rs2297439 is common in South Asian populations (≥0.25) but at lower frequencies in other populations (eg, 0.07 in Northern Europeans). Among the eight other previously reported association signals, all were directionally consistent with our study, but only rs8105767 ( ZNF208 ) was nominally significant (P=0.003). SNP-based heritability estimates were as high as 44% when analysing close relatives but much lower when analysing distant relatives only. In this first GWAS of TL in a South Asian population, we replicate some, but not all, of the loci reported in prior GWAS of individuals of European ancestry, and we identify a novel second association signal at the RTEL1 locus. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis...... (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3...

  5. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  6. The more from East-Asian, the better: risk prediction of colorectal cancer risk by GWAS-identified SNPs among Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makiko; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Nomura, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the difference of genetic predisposition for CRC between ethnicities; however, many genetic traits common to colorectal cancer have been identified. This study investigated whether more SNPs identified in GWAS in East Asian population could improve the risk prediction of Japanese and explored possible application of genetic risk groups as an instrument of the risk communication. 558 Patients histologically verified colorectal cancer and 1116 first-visit outpatients were included for derivation study, and 547 cases and 547 controls were for replication study. Among each population, we evaluated prediction models for the risk of CRC that combined the genetic risk group based on SNPs from GWASs in European-population and a similarly developed model adding SNPs from GWASs in East Asian-population. We examined whether adding East Asian-specific SNPs would improve the discrimination. Six SNPs (rs6983267, rs4779584, rs4444235, rs9929218, rs10936599, rs16969681) from 23 SNPs by European-based GWAS and five SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279) among ten SNPs by Asian-based GWAS were selected in CRC risk prediction model. Compared with a 6-SNP-based model, an 11-SNP model including Asian GWAS-SNPs showed improved discrimination capacity in Receiver operator characteristic analysis. A model with 11 SNPs resulted in statistically significant improvement in both derivation (P = 0.0039) and replication studies (P = 0.0018) compared with six SNP model. We estimated cumulative risk of CRC by using genetic risk group based on 11 SNPs and found that the cumulative risk at age 80 is approximately 13% in the high-risk group while 6% in the low-risk group. We constructed a more efficient CRC risk prediction model with 11 SNPs including newly identified East Asian-based GWAS SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279). Risk grouping based on 11 SNPs depicted lifetime difference of CRC risk. This might be useful for

  7. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilizing a diabetic registry to manage diabetes in a low-income Asian American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Winnie; Turner, Barbara S; Champagne, Mary T; Liu, Lynn

    2012-08-01

    Racial and income disparities persist in diabetes management in America. One third of African and Hispanic Americans with diabetes receive the recommended diabetes services (hemoglobin A1c [A1c] testing, retinal and foot examinations) shown to reduce diabetes complications and mortality, compared to half of whites with diabetes. National data for Asian Americans are limited, but studies suggest that those with language and cultural barriers have difficulty accessing health services. A diabetic registry has been shown to improve process and clinical outcomes in a population with diabetes. This study examined whether a community center that serves primarily low-income Asian American immigrants in Santa Clara County, California, could improve diabetes care and outcomes by implementing a diabetic registry. The registry was built using the Access 2007 software program. A total of 580 patients with diabetes were identified by reviewing charts, the appointment database, and reimbursement records from Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance companies. Utilizing the registry, medical assistants contacted patients for follow-up appointments, and medical providers checked and tracked the patients' A1c results. Among the 431 patients who returned for treatment, the mean A1c was reduced from 7.27% to 6.97% over 8 months (P<0.001). Although 10.8% of the patients changed from controlled to uncontrolled diabetes post intervention, 32.6% of patients with uncontrolled diabetes converted to controlled diabetes (P<0.001). The diabetes control rate improved from 47% to 59% at the end of the study. This study demonstrated that a diabetic registry is an effective tool to manage an underserved population with diabetes, thereby reducing disparities in diabetes management.

  9. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  10. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  11. The effectiveness of structured exercise in the south Asian population with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Hani; Coulter, Elaine; Ghouri, Nazim; Paul, Lorna

    2017-11-01

    The impact of exercise interventions on south Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), who have a higher T2DM incidence rate compared to other ethnic groups, is inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of exercise interventions in south Asians with T2DM. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the impact of exercise interventions on south Asian adults with T2DM. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Eighteen trials examining the effect of aerobic, resistance, balance or combined exercise programs met the eligibility criteria. All types of exercise were associated with improvements in glycemic control, blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, muscle strength, functional mobility, quality of life or neuropathy progression. The majority of included studies were of poor methodological quality. Few studies compared different types or dose of exercise. In conclusion, this review supports the benefits of exercise for south Asians with T2DM, although it was not possible to identify the most effective exercise prescription. Further studies of good methodological quality are required to determine the most effective dosage and type of exercise to manage T2DM in this population.

  12. Population education in the school curriculum: a comparative analysis of the American and Asian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okobiah, O S

    1981-02-01

    The content, strategies, and objectives of population education curriculum materials developed for use in school systems in a developed country (US) and in a developing country (Thailand) were compared. It was assumed that the objectives and strategies of population education developed in a specific country would reflect the way in which population matters were viewed by that country's policy makers and planners. In developed countries, population education is primarily an outgrowth of environmental concerns. In less developed countries population education is pursued mainly because of concerns about rapid population growth. The specific curriculum materials which were analyzed were the Population, Environmental-Ecological Education Project developed by the Missouri State Department of Education and the Population and Family Education Project developed in Bangkok. A conceptual framework for analyzing the content of the materials was developed. The framework included 5 major parameters. These parameters were 1) a description of the human population, 2) basic population concepts and processes, 3) population dynamics, 4) the causes and consequences of population change, and 5) population issues. Content analysis of the materials revealed that the content focus was similar for both of the curriculum materials. 74% of the Asian curricula and 73% of the US curricula focused on population issues and on the causes and consequences of population growth; however, the US materials emphasized environmental consequences and policies while the Asian materials emphasized family planning policies and the effects of population growth on family, community, sociocultural, and personal factors. Marked differences were revealed when the instructional strategies and course objectives of the materials were judged in reference to established educational standards of objectivity. All of the sampled instructional strategies in the US materials were judged as suitable for use in the formal

  13. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  15. Identifying subgroup markers in heterogeneous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, Jorma J.; Rigaill, Guillem; Rottenberg, Sven; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods that aim to identify biomarkers that distinguish between two groups, like Significance Analysis of Microarrays or the t-test, perform optimally when such biomarkers show homogeneous behavior within each group and differential behavior between the groups. However, in many

  16. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure

  17. Recurrent mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Asian breast cancer patients identify carriers in those with presumed low risk by family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter Choon Eng; Phuah, Sze Yee; Sivanandan, Kavitta; Kang, In Nee; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Liu, Jian Jun; Hassan, Norhashimah; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hui, Miao; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng Har; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.

  18. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  20. Asian longhorned beetle, over the river and through the woods: habitat-dependent population spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan J. Sawyer; William S. Panagakos; Audra E. Horner; Kevin J. Freeman

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an introduced pest of hardwood trees in North America. This paper addresses population spread in open landscapes and wooded areas, with emphasis on recent findings from Staten Island, NY, and Worcester, MA.

  1. Evaluation of European Schizophrenia GWAS Loci in Asian Populations via Comprehensive Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Chang, Hong; Liu, Zichao; Li, Ming

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. Recent genetic analyses including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia among European populations. However, many of these risk variants were not largely validated in other populations of different ancestry such as Asians. To validate whether these European GWAS significant loci are associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations, we conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analyses on 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Asian populations by combining all available case-control and family-based samples, including up to 30,000 individuals. We employed classical fixed (or random) effects inverse variance weighted methods to calculate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Among the 19 GWAS loci, we replicated the risk associations of nine markers (e.g., SNPs at VRK2, ITIH3/4, NDST3, NOTCH4) surpassing significance level (two-tailed P Asian replication samples and initial European GWAS findings, and the successful replications of these GWAS loci in a different ethnic group provide stronger evidence for their clinical associations with schizophrenia. Further studies, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of these GWAS significant loci, will become increasingly important for understanding of the pathogenesis to schizophrenia.

  2. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...

  3. Association of a polymorphism of BTN2A1 with dyslipidemia in East Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIMAKI, TETSUO; KATO, KIMIHIKO; OGURI, MITSUTOSHI; YOHIDA, TETSURO; HORIBE, HIDEKI; YOKOI, KIYOSHI; WATANABE, SACHIRO; SATOH, KEI; AOYAGI, YUKITOSHI; TANAKA, MASASHI; YOSHIDA, HIROTO; SHINKAI, SHOJI; NOZAWA, YOSHINORI; SHIN, DONG-JIK; LEE, JONG HO; JANG, YANGSOO; YAMADA, YOSHIJI

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified rs6929846 of the butyrophilin, subfamily 2, member A1 gene (BTN2A1) as a susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction in Japanese individuals by a genome-wide association study. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to dyslipidemia in Japanese and Korean populations, given that dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for myocardial infarction. A total of 10,953 individuals from three independent subject panels were examined. The relations of the rs6929846 polymorphism of BTN2A1 to serum concentrations of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were examined in each subject panel. The C→T polymorphism (rs6929846) of BTN2A1 was significantly associated with serum concentrations of triglycerides in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0004) and B (P=0.0010), and in the Korean population (P=0.0095), with the minor T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of triglycerides. The rs6929846 was associated with serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol in Japanese subject panels A (P=0.0047) and B (P=0.0015), with the T allele being related to a decreased serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol, but not in the Korean population. This polymorphism was associated with the serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol only in Japanese subject panel B (P=0.0059), with the T allele being related to an increased serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol. The results suggest that BTN2A1 may be a susceptibility gene for hypertriglyceridemia in East Asian populations and for low serum HDL-cholesterol in the Japanese population. PMID:22977569

  4. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte A; Mawani, Shefina; King, Kathryn M; Allu, Selina Omar; Smith, Megan; Mohan, Sailesh; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-11

    Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13) and Punjabi (N = 15) translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  5. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  6. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  7. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  9. Distinct genetic alteration profiles of acute myeloid leukemia between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chunlin; Lin, Dong; Liu, Bingcheng; Liu, Kaiqi; Qiu, Shaowei; Gong, Benfa; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guangji; Wei, Shuning; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Yuntao; Zhao, Xingli; Gu, Runxia; Mi, Yingchang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2018-02-10

    Racial and ethnic disparities in malignancies attract extensive attention. To investigate whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population, data from several prospective AML trials were retrospectively analyzed in this study. We found that there were more patients with core binding factor (CBF) leukemia in Eastern Asian cohorts and there were different CBF leukemia constitutions between them. The ratios of CBF leukemia are 27.7, 22.1, 21.1, and 23.4%, respectively, in our (ChiCTR-TRC-10001202), another Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Eastern Asian cohorts, which are significantly higher than those in ECOG1900, MRC AML15, UK NCRI AML17, HOVON/SAKK AML-42, and German AML2003 (15.5, 12.5, 9.3, 10.2, and 12%, respectively). And CBFbeta-MYH11 occurred more prevalently in HOVON/SAKK AML- 42 and ECOG1900 trials (50.0 and 54.3% of CBF leukemia, respectively) than in Chinese and Japanese trials (20.1 and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of FLT3-ITD mutation is 11.2% in our cohort, which is lower than that in MRC AML15 and UK NCRI AML17 (24.6 and 17.9%, respectively). Even after excluding the age bias, there are still different incidence rates of mutation between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population. These data suggest that there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

  10. Trends in Stroke Incidence and 28-Day Case Fatality in a Nationwide Stroke Registry of a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuen Seng; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Tan, Pei Zheng; Chan, Bernard P L; Tang, Kok-Foo; Ahmad, Aftab; Kong, Keng He; Chang, Hui Meng; Chow, Khuan Yew; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated trends in stroke incidence and case fatality overall and according to sex, age, ethnicity, and stroke subtype in a multiethnic Asian population. The Singapore Stroke Registry identifies all stroke cases in all public hospitals using medical claims, hospital discharge summaries, and death registry data. Age-standardized incidence rates and 28-day case-fatality rates were calculated for individuals aged ≥15 years between 2006 and 2012. To estimate the annual percentage change of the rates, a linear regression model was fitted to the log rates, and a Wald test was performed to test for trend. P values Chinese (-2.64; 95% CI, -3.15 to -2.13), Indians (-3.78; 95% CI, -5.93 to -1.58), and others (-12.73; 95% CI, -18.93 to -6.06) compared with Malays (2.58; 95% CI, 1.17 to 4.02); and in ischemic stroke subtype (ischemic: -2.43; 95% CI, -3.13 to -1.73; hemorrhagic: -1.02; 95% CI, -2.04 to 0.01). Subgroup-specific findings for case fatality were similar. This is the first countrywide hospital-based registry study in a multiethnic Asian population, and it revealed marked overall reductions in stroke incidence and case fatality. However, it also identified important population groups with less favorable trends, especially younger adults and those of Malay ethnicity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Risk of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis in a Multi-Racial Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Loke Meng; Ch'ng, Chin Chin; Wee, Hong Chin; Supramaniam, Premaa; Zainal, Hadzlinda; Goh, Bak Leong; Bavanandan, Sunita; Mushahar, Lily; Hooi, Lai Seong; Ahmad, Ghazali

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  12. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory Y H; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-04-25

    Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%). 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1%) (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean). Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD) 0.18), median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.848 to 1) and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18), median 1 (IQR 1 to 1). Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  13. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  14. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, 65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration ( p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  16. In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture. PMID:20823912

  17. Cancer-specific mortality of Asian Americans diagnosed with cancer: a nationwide population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L; Leow, Jeffrey J; Dalela, Deepansh; Chao, Grace F; Mahal, Brandon A; Nayak, Manan; Schmid, Marianne; Choueiri, Toni K; Aizer, Ayal A

    2015-06-01

    Racial disparities in cancer survival outcomes have been primarily attributed to underlying biologic mechanisms and the quality of cancer care received. Because prior literature shows little difference exists in the socioeconomic status of non-Hispanic whites and Asian Americans, any difference in cancer survival is less likely to be attributable to inequalities of care. We sought to examine differences in cancer-specific survival between whites and Asian Americans. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify patients with lung (n = 130 852 [16.9%]), breast (n = 313 977 [40.4%]), prostate (n = 166 529 [21.4%]), or colorectal (n = 165 140 [21.3%]) cancer (the three leading causes of cancer-related mortality within each sex) diagnosed between 1991 and 2007. Fine and Gray's competing risks regression compared the cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of eight Asian American groups (Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Japanese, Korean, other Asian, South Asian [Indian/Pakistani], and Vietnamese) to non-Hispanic white patients. All P values were two-sided. In competing risks regression, the receipt of definitive treatment was an independent predictor of CSM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.40; HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.58; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.62; and HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.29) for prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers respectively, all P < .001). In adjusted analyses, most Asian subgroups (except Hawaiians and Koreans) had lower CSM relative to white patients, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.54 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.78) to 0.88 (95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93) for Japanese patients with prostate and Chinese patients with lung cancer, respectively. Despite adjustment for potential confounders, including the receipt of definitive treatment and tumor characteristics, most Asian subgroups had better CSM than non-Hispanic white patients. These findings suggest that underlying genetic

  18. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  20. Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Natsu; Mahbub, MH; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi- Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Takasu, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. Methods We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association wit...

  1. Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality: A prospective cohort study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia C; Teo, Boon Wee; Ong, Peng Guan; Cheung, Carol Y; Lim, Su Chi; Chow, Khuan Yew; Meng, Chan Choon; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950). CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%). In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  2. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  3. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  4. Simultaneous determination of seven informative Y chromosome SNPs to differentiate East Asian, European, and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Tomonori; Iida, Reiko; Fujihara, Junko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yukina; Imamura, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Yuasa, Isao; Toga, Tomoko; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-05-01

    Identification of the population origin of an individual is very useful for crime investigators who need to narrow down a suspect based on specimens left at a crime scene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are a class of markers of interest to forensic investigators because many of the markers indicate regional specificity, thus providing useful information about the geographic origin of a subject. We selected seven informative Y-SNPs (M168, M130, JST021355, M96, P126, P196, and P234) to differentiate the three major population groups (East Asian, European, and African) and used them to develop forensic application. SNP genotyping was carried out by multiplex PCR reaction and multiplex single base extension (MSBE) reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis of extension products. This method can be used to assign a haplogroup from both degraded male DNA samples and DNA samples containing a mixture of female and male DNA through PCR primers that generate small amplicons (less than about 150 bp) and are highly specific for targets on the Y chromosome. The allelic state of each marker was definitively determined from a total of 791 males from the three major population groups. As expected, samples from the three major population groups showed Y-haplogroups common in the region of provenance: Y haplogroups C, D, and O for East Asians; IJ and R1 for Europeans; and AB and E for Africans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Central Obesity and H. pylori Infection Influence Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in an Asian Population.

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    Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI, metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE.A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4 from check-up center in same hospital. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference (female>80cm; male>90cm, metabolic syndrome by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Taiwan. Independent risk factors for BE were identified by multiple logistic regression analyses.The mean age for BE was 53.8±13.7 years and 75.8% was male. H. pylori infection status was detected by the rapid urease test with the prevalence of 28.4% and 44.4% in the BE patients and controls, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analyses showed the risk was associated with higher waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.60, metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38-2.96 and negative H. pylori infection (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BE associated with higher waist circumference (adjusted OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.89-4.12 and negative H. pylori infection (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70.Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of BE whereas H. pylori infection with a lower risk in an ethnic Chinese population.

  6. Interaction of malaria with a common form of severe thalassemia in an Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, A.; Premawardhena, A.; Arambepola, M.; Samaranayake, R.; Allen, S. J.; Peto, T. E. A.; Fisher, C. A.; Cook, J.; Corran, P. H.; Olivieri, Nancy F.; Weatherall, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    In many Asian populations, the commonest form of severe thalassemia results from the coinheritance of HbE and β thalassemia. The management of this disease is particularly difficult because of its extreme clinical diversity; although some genetic and adaptive factors have been identified as phenotypic modifiers, the reasons remain unclear. Because the role of the environment in the course of severe thalassemia has been neglected completely and because malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has been prevalent in Sri Lanka, we carried out a pilot study of patients with HbE β thalassemia that showed high frequencies of antibodies to both parasite species and that 28.6% of the children had DNA-based evidence of current infection with P. vivax. Malarial antibodies then were assessed in patients with HbE β thalassemia compared with those in age-matched controls. There was a significant increase in the frequency of antibodies in the thalassemic patients, particularly against P. vivax and in young children. There was also a higher frequency in those who had been splenectomized compared with those with intact spleens, although in the latter it was still higher than that in the controls. The thalassemic patients showed significant correlations between malaria antibody status and phenotype. Patients with HbE β thalassemia may be more prone to malaria, particularly P. vivax, which is reflected in their clinical severity. Because P. vivax malaria is widespread in Asia, further studies of its interaction with HbE β thalassemia and related diseases are required urgently as a part of ongoing thalassemia control programs. PMID:19841268

  7. Determinants of Breastfeeding Practices and Success in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2016-03-01

    Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Omalizumab therapy for treatment of recalcitrant chronic spontaneous urticaria in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Tuchinda, Papapit; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Likitwattananurak, Chayanee; Ungaksornpairote, Chanida

    2017-03-01

    There are limited data regarding omalizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in Asian populations. This study evaluated the effectiveness and the proper dosage of omalizumab for Asian CSU patients in a real-life setting. We retrospectively reviewed recalcitrant CSU patients seeking treatment at the Skin Allergy Clinic, Siriraj Hospital during the 3-year period. All patients were treated with omalizumab as an add-on therapy. Standard seven-day urticaria activity score (UAS7) and medication score were used to assess omalizumab response. Of 13 patients, 9 patients (70%) responded well to 150 mg omalizumab injection every month, whereas 4 patients requiring updosing to 300 mg. In the 150 mg group, one patient achieved complete symptom control without antihistamine intake. Most of them required antihistamines without prednisolone and ciclosporin. Onset of omalizumab was fast, usually within the first week. Though only two patients in the 300 mg group achieved complete absence of symptoms, ciclosporin and oral corticosteroids could be discontinued. No patients reported adverse effects. Omalizumab at an initial dosage of 150 mg was effective in the treatment of recalcitrant CSU among Asians. Updosing to 300 mg was required to achieve satisfactory outcomes.

  9. Are C-reactive protein associated genetic variants associated with serum levels and retinal markers of microvascular pathology in Asian populations from Singapore?

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    Rajkumar Dorajoo

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations.Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434 and Malays (N = 2,542 and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538 from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry.Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10(-8 after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10 (p-values ≤0.009, in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250 were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036 but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058.Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with CRP levels in East-Asian and South-Asian

  10. Are C-Reactive Protein Associated Genetic Variants Associated with Serum Levels and Retinal Markers of Microvascular Pathology in Asian Populations from Singapore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Liu, Jianjun; Froguel, Philippe; Lee, Jeannette; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan Ting; Peng, Chen; Young, Terri L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Aung, Tin; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Klein, Ronald; Siscovick, David S.; Jensen, Richard A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Smith, Albert Vernon; Teo, Yik Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations. Methods Genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) for serum CRP was performed in East-Asian Chinese (N = 2,434) and Malays (N = 2,542) and South-Asian Indians (N = 2,538) from Singapore. Leveraging on GWAS data, we assessed, in silico, association levels among the Singaporean datasets for 22 recently identified CRP-associated loci. At loci where directional inconsistencies were observed, quantification of inter-ethnic linkage disequilibrium (LD) difference was determined. Next, we assessed association for a variant at CRP and retinal vessel traits [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE)] in a total of 24,132 subjects of East-Asian, South-Asian and European ancestry. Results Serum CRP was associated with SNPs in/near APOE, CRP, HNF1A and LEPR (p-values ≤4.7×10−8) after meta-analysis of Singaporean populations. Using a candidate-SNP approach, we further replicated SNPs at 4 additional loci that had been recently identified to be associated with serum CRP (IL6R, GCKR, IL6 and IL1F10) (p-values ≤0.009), in the Singaporean datasets. SNPs from these 8 loci explained 4.05% of variance in serum CRP. Two SNPs (rs2847281 and rs6901250) were detected to be significant (p-value ≤0.036) but with opposite effect directions in the Singaporean populations as compared to original European studies. At these loci we did not detect significant inter-population LD differences. We further did not observe a significant association between CRP variant and CRVE or CRAE levels after meta-analysis of all Singaporean and European datasets (p-value >0.058). Conclusions Common variants associated with serum CRP, first detected in primarily European studies, are also associated with

  11. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  13. Identifying the Transgender Population in the Medicare Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Kimberly; Haffer, Samuel C.; Ewald, Erin; Hodge, Carla; James, Cara V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To identify and describe the transgender population in the Medicare program using administrative data. Methods: Using a combination of International Classification of Diseases ninth edition (ICD-9) codes relating to transsexualism and gender identity disorder, we analyzed 100% of the 2013 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Fee-For-Service (FFS) “final action” claims from both institutional and noninstitutional providers (∼1 billion claims) to identify individuals who may be transgender Medicare beneficiaries. To confirm, we developed and applied a multistage validation process. Results: Four thousand ninety-eight transgender beneficiaries were identified, of which ∼90% had confirmatory diagnoses, billing codes, or evidence of a hormone prescription. In general, the racial, ethnic, and geographic distribution of the Medicare transgender population tends to reflect the broader Medicare population. However, age, original entitlement status, and disease burden of the transgender population appear substantially different. Conclusions: Using a variety of claims information, ranging from claims history to additional diagnoses, billing modifiers, and hormone prescriptions, we demonstrate that administrative data provide a valuable resource for identifying a lower bound of the Medicare transgender population. In addition, we provide a baseline description of the diversity and disease burden of the population and a framework for future research. PMID:28861539

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism studies in Asian Indian pregnant women biochemically identifies gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran A; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2014-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been widely investigated in Asian Indian populations with different ethnic origins. The present study examined possible association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. A total of 200 pregnant women (100 GDM and 100 non-GDM) were recruited in this study and I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gel electrophoresis. The distribution of the variants like II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene showed differences between normal GDM versus non-GDM subjects, and the frequency of the ID+ DD Vs II genotype was significant (p=0.0002) in the GDM group. ACE gene polymorphism was associated with GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The South Asian genome.

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    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  16. Positive Predictive Value of BI-RADS Categorization in an Asian Population

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    Yah-Yuen Tan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS categorization of mammograms is useful in estimating the risk of malignancy, thereby guiding management decisions. However, in Asian women, in whom breast density is increased, the sensitivity of mammography is correspondingly lower. We sought to determine the positive predictive value of BI-RADS categorization for malignancy in our Asian population and, hence, its value in helping us to choose between the various modalities for breast biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occult breast lesions detected on mammography or ultrasound who underwent needle-localization open breast biopsy (NLOB in our institution over a 6-year period. There were 470 biopsies in 427 patients; 16% of lesions were malignant. The positive predictive value of BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions for cancer was 0.27 and 0.84, respectively. While most BI-RADS 5 mass lesions were invasive cancers, the majority of calcifications in this category were in situ carcinomas. We conclude that BI-RADS remains useful in aiding decision-making for biopsy in our Asian population. Based on positive predictive values, we recommend percutaneous breast biopsy for initial evaluation of lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4 or less. For BI-RADS 5 lesions with microcalcifications, open surgical biopsy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure may be more appropriate. In the case of a BI-RADS 5 lesion associated with a mass, initial percutaneous biopsy may be useful for diagnosis, followed by a planned single-stage surgical procedure as necessary.

  17. Hemoglobin Constant Spring among Southeast Asian Populations: Haplotypic Heterogeneities and Phylogenetic Analysis.

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    Wittaya Jomoui

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations.A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15-49 year-old and 40 Laotian (aged 18-39 year-old subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5'Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3', were determined using PCR-RFLP assay.Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+-S + + -, most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+-M + + -, both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS.Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region.

  18. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

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    Guohong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan. Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984 polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. METHODS: A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76 and 3.86 (2.96-5.03 for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13. Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07. CONCLUSION: Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled

  19. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohong; Mai, Ruiqin; Huang, Bo

    2010-10-27

    Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central China. The Arg47His (rs1229984) polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a frequent ADH1B*47His allele in Central Asians. This polymorphism was identified as responsible for susceptibility in the first large-scale genome-wide association study of ESCC and that's explained by its modulation of alcohol oxidization capability. To investigate the association of ADH1B Arg47His with ESCC in Asian populations under a common ancestry scenario of the susceptibility loci, we combined all available studies into a meta-analysis. A dataset composed of 4,220 cases and 8,946 controls from twelve studies of Asian populations was analyzed for ADH1B Arg47His association with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and ALDH2 Glu504Lys. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were also tested. The ADH1B*47Arg allele was found to be associated to increased risk of ESCC, with the odds ratios (OR) being 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.76) and 3.86 (2.96-5.03) for the His/Arg and the Arg/Arg genotypes, respectively. When compared with the His/His genotype of non-drinkers, the Arg/Arg genotype can interact with alcohol drinking and greatly increase the risk of ESCC (OR = 20.69, 95%CI: 5.09-84.13). Statistical tests also showed gene-gene interaction of ADH1B Arg+ with ALDH2 Lys+ can bring more risk to ESCC (OR  = 13.46, 95% CI: 2.32-78.07). Revealed by this meta-analysis, ADH1B*47Arg as a common ancestral allele can significantly increase the risk of ESCC in Asians, especially when coupled with alcohol drinking or the ALDH2*504Lys allele.

  20. Identifying Multiple Populations in M71 using CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    It is now well established that globular clusters (GCs) host multiple stellar populations characterized by differences in several light elements. While these populations have been found in nearly all GCs, we still lack an entirely successful model to explain their formation. A key constraint to these models is the detailed pattern of light element abundances seen among the populations; different techniques for identifying these populations probe different elements and do not always yield the same results. We study a large sample of stars in the GC M71 for light elements C and N, using the CN and CH band strength to identify multiple populations. Our measurements come from low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the WIYN-3.5m telescope for ~150 stars from the tip of the red-giant branch down to the main-sequence turn-off. The large number of stars and broad spatial coverage of our sample (out to ~3.5 half-light radii) allows us to carry out a comprehensive characterization of the multiple populations in M71. We use a combination of the various spectroscopic and photometric indicators to draw a more complete picture of the properties of the populations and to investigate the consistency of classifications using different techniques.

  1. Periodontal disease in a remote Asian population: association between clinical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnvik, Christine; Söljegård, Emelie; Charalampakis, Georgios; Suksu-Art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to clinically and microbiologically describe the periodontal conditions in a remote adult Asian population with poor oral hygiene. The subjects were 30-60-year-old adults of Karen Hill tribes with no access to dental care. Eighty-six subjects were selected randomly. Clinical registrations included number of remaining teeth, plaque index (PlI), bleeding on probing (BoP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and probing pocket depth (PPD). Subgingival plaque samples were collected and analyzed with the checkerboard method. Subjects of the study group had mean number of remaining teeth of 26.5 despite the abundant plaque and a high bleeding score. Severe periodontitis (CAL ≥ 7 mm) was recorded in 12.9% of the youngest age group (30-39 years) while it was significantly higher (52%) in the middle group (40-49 years) and (60%) in the eldest age group (50-60 years). Pathological pocketing (PPD ≥ 7 mm) was significantly lower in all age groups. Age, betel chewing, and a microbiological cluster including at least one of Prevotella tannerae, Filifactor alocis and Porphyromonas endodontalis significantly correlated with the severity of periodontal disease. Age, betel chewing, and a new bacterial complex other than the "red complex" correlated to periodontal breakdown in this remote adult Asian population. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, PAsian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. IDENTIFYING DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY POPULATION : A CAMP APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anand P; Chaukimath; Srikanth; Koli

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia is an emerging medico social problem affecting elderly, and poses a challenge to clinician and caregivers. It is usually identified in late stage where management becomes difficult. AIM: The aim of camp was to identify dementia in elderly population participating in screening camp. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The geriatric clinic and department of psychiatry jointly organised screening camp to detect dementia in elderly for five days in Sept...

  4. Increase in density of genetically diverse invasive Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) populations in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Joshua P; Williams, Larissa M

    2017-04-01

    Hemigrapsus sanguineus , the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas , the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus , populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species.

  5. IDENTIFYING DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY POPULATION : A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dementia is an emerging medico social problem affecting elderly, and poses a challenge to clinician and caregivers. It is usually identified in late stage where management becomes difficult. AIM: The aim of camp was to identify dementia in elderly population participating in screening camp. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The geriatric clinic and department of psychiatry jointly organised screening camp to detect dementia in elderly for five days in September 2014 to commemorate world Alzheimer’s day. The invitation regarding camp was sent to all senio r citizen forums and also published in leading Kannada daily newspaper. Mini Mental Status Examination and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition criteria (DSM IV was used to identify dementia. RESULTS: Elderly male participate d in camp in more number than females and dementia was identified in 36% elderly with education less than 9 th standard. Dementia was found in 18% in our study population. CONCLUSION: The camp help identify elderly suffering from dementia and also created a wareness about it. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were common co morbidity in study population. Our study suggested organising screening camp will help identify elderly living with dementia.

  6. EvoSNP-DB: A database of genetic diversity in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Kiejung

    2013-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become popular as an approach for the identification of large numbers of phenotype-associated variants. However, differences in genetic architecture and environmental factors mean that the effect of variants can vary across populations. Understanding population genetic diversity is valuable for the investigation of possible population specific and independent effects of variants. EvoSNP-DB aims to provide information regarding genetic diversity among East Asian populations, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Non-redundant SNPs (1.6 million) were genotyped in 54 Korean trios (162 samples) and were compared with 4 million SNPs from HapMap phase II populations. EvoSNP-DB provides two user interfaces for data query and visualization, and integrates scores of genetic diversity (Fst and VarLD) at the level of SNPs, genes, and chromosome regions. EvoSNP-DB is a web-based application that allows users to navigate and visualize measurements of population genetic differences in an interactive manner, and is available online at [http://biomi.cdc.go.kr/EvoSNP/].

  7. Body mass index and retinopathy in Asian populations with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, David; Lye, Weng Kit; Tan, Gavin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Kumari, Neelam; Zheng, Ying Feng; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor for diabetes. However, the association between BMI and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been inconclusive. We aimed to assess the association between BMI and DR in a large population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults in Singapore. We examined 2,278 adults aged ≥40 years with diabetes who participated in three population-based studies conducted from 2004 to 2011: the Singapore Malay Eye Study, the Singapore Indian Eye Study, and the Singapore Chinese Eye Study. Retinal photographs taken from both eyes were graded for any and vision-threatening (VTDR) using the modified Airlie House Classification. BMI (kg/m(2)) was categorized into normal/underweight (<25), overweight (25-29.9), and obese (≥30). The prevalence rates of any and VTDR in the study population were 35.1 % and 9.1 %, respectively. The prevalence of any and VTDR decreased with increasing categories of BMI (P trend <0.001 and 0.005). In multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders, compared to those with normal weight, the odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of any DR was 0.71 (0.57-0.88) for overweight and 0.70 (0.53-0.92) for obese. Corresponding estimates for VTDR were 0.84 (0.59-1.21) for overweight and 0.58 (0.35-0.94) for obese. The inverse association between BMI and any DR was consistently present when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable and in analyses stratified by ethnicity and age. In a population-based sample of multi-ethnic Asian adults, BMI levels were inversely associated with any DR and VTDR.

  8. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  9. Recalibration of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score in a multiethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark Y; Shah, Bimal R; Gao, Fei; Sim, Ling Ling; Chua, Terrance; Tan, Huay Cheem; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Ong, Hean Yee; Foo, David; Goh, Ping Ping; Surrun, Soondal K; Pieper, Karen S; Granger, Christopher B; Koh, Tian Hai; Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong

    2011-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality in Asia. However, quantitative risk scores to predict mortality after AMI were developed without the participation of Asian countries. We evaluated the performance of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) in-hospital mortality risk score, directly and after recalibration, in a large Singaporean cohort representing 3 major Asian ethnicities. The GRACE cohort included 11,389 patients, predominantly of European descent, hospitalized for AMI or unstable angina from 2002 to 2003. The Singapore cohort included 10,100 Chinese, 3,005 Malay, and 2,046 Indian patients hospitalized for AMI from 2002 to 2005.Using the original GRACE score, predicted in-hospital mortality was 2.4% (Chinese), 2.0% (Malay), and 1.6% (Indian). However, observed in-hospital mortality was much greater at 9.8% (Chinese), 7.6% (Malay), and 6.4% (Indian). The c statistic for Chinese, Malays, and Indians was 0.86, 0.86, and 0.84, respectively, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 250, 56, and 41, respectively. Recalibration of the GRACE score, using the mean-centered constants derived from the Singapore cohort, did not change the c statistic but substantially improved the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic to 90, 24, and 18, respectively. The recalibrated GRACE score predicted in-hospital mortality as follows: 7.7% (Chinese), 6.0% (Malay), and 5.2% (Indian). In this large cohort of 3 major Asian ethnicities, the original GRACE score, derived from populations outside Asia, underestimated in-hospital mortality after AMI. Recalibration improved risk estimation substantially and may help adapt externally developed risk scores for local practice. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in African, Asian and European populations and its relationship with different malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Alarcón, Jose Antonio; Kuroe, Kazuto

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that midline basicranial orientation and posterior cranial base length are discriminating factors between adults of different populations and its potential maxillo/mandibular disharmonies. Twenty-nine 2D landmarks of the midline cranial base, the face and the mandible of dry skull X-rays from three major populations (45 Asians, 34 Africans, 64 Europeans) were digitized and analysed by geometric morphometrics. We used, first, MANOVA to test for mean shape differences between populations; then, principal components analysis (PCA) to assess the overall variation in the sample and finally, canonical variate analysis (CVA) with jack-knife validations (N=1000) to analyse the anatomical features that best distinguished among populations. Significant mean shapes differences were shown between populations (P<0.001). CVA revealed two significant axes of discrimination (P<0.001). Jack-knife validation correctly identified 92% of 15,000 unknowns. In Africans the whole cranial base is rotated into a forward-downward position, while in Asians it is rotated in the opposite way. The Europeans occupied an intermediate position. African and Asian samples showed a maxillo/mandibular prognathism. African prognathism was produced by an anterior positioned maxilla, Asian prognathism by retruded anterior cranial base and increase of the posterior cranial base length. Europeans showed a trend towards retracted mandibles with relatively shorter posterior cranial bases. The results supported the hypothesis that basicranial orientation and posterior cranial base length are valid factors to distinguish between geographic groups. The whole craniofacial configuration underlying a particular maxillo-facial disharmony must be considered in diagnosis, growth predictions and resulting treatment planning.

  11. Identifying Depression in South Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Considerations for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a prevalent burden for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and one that is under-recognized and consequently under-treated. Although several studies have explored the association between depression symptoms, treatment adherence and outcomes in Euro-American patient groups, quantitative and qualitative exploration of these issues in patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds has been lacking. This review discusses the methodological issues associated with measuring depression in patients of South Asian origin who have a 3- to 5-fold greater risk of developing ESRD. There is a need to advance research into the development of accurate screening practices for this patient group, with an emphasis on studies utilizing rigorous approaches to evaluating the use of both emic (culture-specific and etic (universal or culture-general screening instruments.

  12. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Fathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%, Chinese (27%, and Myanmarese (27% subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67% and Malay (33% subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS. In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements (P<0.05 between the ethnic groups. On the other hand, the morphometry of coracoid process from CT scans data is bigger in Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex (P<0.05. Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males (P<0.05. Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  13. Anatomic Variation in Morphometry of Human Coracoid Process among Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Manal; Cheah, Pike-See; Ahmad, Umar; Nasir, M Nizlan; San, Aye Aye; Abdul Rahim, Ezamin; Hussin, Paisal; Mahmud, Rozi; Othman, Fauziah

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects. The morphometric measurements were performed using digital caliper and software developed at Golden Horses Health Sanctuary (GHHS). In the Indian cadaveric shoulders, the coracoid process is better developed than the other groups with the exception of the tip width of coracoid process. There are significant differences in almost all measurements ( P Chinese than Malay subjects when stratified by sex ( P < 0.05). Moreover, in all morphometric measurements, the females had smaller measurements than males ( P < 0.05). Understanding such differences is important in anatomy, forensic and biological identity, and orthopaedic and shoulder surgeries.

  14. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  15. The association between two common polymorphisms in MicroRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs participate in human carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the miRNAs may influence the function of mature miRNAs and then affect the processing of carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that two common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs3746444 in miR-499 are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, published results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To acquire a more precise effect of the association between these polymorphisms and HCC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of SNPs rs2910164 and/or rs3746444 with susceptibility to HCC in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for the period up to Sep 10th, 2012. A total of 6 studies were identified with 2071 cases and 2350 controls for miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, 667 cases and 1006 controls for miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism. It was found that neither allele frequency nor genotype distribution of the two polymorphisms was associated with risk of HCC in all genetic models. Similarly, subgroup analysis in Asian population showed no associations between the two SNPs and the susceptibility to HCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This meta-analysis suggests that miR-146a rs2910164 and miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphisms may not be associated with the risk of HCC, especially for Asian population. However, well-designed studies with larger sample size and more detailed data are needed to confirm these conclusions.

  16. Epidemiology of postoperative endophthalmitis in an Asian population: 11-year incidence and effect of intracameral antibiotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin S H; Wong, Hon Kiat; Yang, Francine P

    2012-03-01

    To describe the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in a multiethnic Asian population over an 11-year period, compare the endophthalmitis rates before and after the use of intracameral antibiotic agents, and identify potential risk factors for endophthalmitis. Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Cohort study. The incidence and risk factors for postoperative endophthalmitis in patients who had cataract surgery over 11 years were reviewed. Subconjunctival antibiotic agents only were administered over 7 years; in the subsequent 4 years, intracameral cefazolin (1.0 mg/0.1 mL) was used. The overall incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis in 50,177 was 0.042%. Over the 7 years without intracameral antibiotics, the endophthalmitis rate was 0.064% (19/29,539). With the use of intracameral cefazolin, the incidence decreased to 0.01% (2/20,638) (multivariate odds ratio [OR], 13.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.15-58.58; P<.001). The independent risk factors for endophthalmitis were age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P=.025) and male sex (0.06% versus 0.02%; OR, 2.96; 95% CI; 1.15-7.65; P=.025). There was a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative endophthalmitis in a multiethnic Asian population with the use of intracameral cefazolin. Men and older patients were at a higher risk for endophthalmitis. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-Population Variability of Endosymbiont Densities in the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.

  18. Establishing multiple omics baselines for three Southeast Asian populations in the Singapore Integrative Omics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Tantoso, Erwin; Begum, Husna; Zhou, Lihan; Zou, Ruiyang; He, Cheng; Chan, Sze Ling; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Wong, Lai-Ping; Xu, Wenting; Moong, Don Kyin Nwe; Lim, Yenly; Li, Bowen; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Tomasz; Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lim, Wei-Yen; Luo, Ma; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Brunham, Liam R; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Too, Heng Phon; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus R; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2017-09-21

    The Singapore Integrative Omics Study provides valuable insights on establishing population reference measurement in 364 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals. These measurements include > 2.5 millions genetic variants, 21,649 transcripts expression, 282 lipid species quantification, and 284 clinical, lifestyle, and dietary variables. This concept paper introduces the depth of the data resource, and investigates the extent of ethnic variation at these omics and non-omics biomarkers. It is evident that there are specific biomarkers in each of these platforms to differentiate between the ethnicities, and intra-population analyses suggest that Chinese and Indians are the most biologically homogeneous and heterogeneous, respectively, of the three groups. Consistent patterns of correlations between lipid species also suggest the possibility of lipid tagging to simplify future lipidomics assays. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study is expected to allow the characterization of intra-omic and inter-omic correlations within and across all three ethnic groups through a systems biology approach.The Singapore Genome Variation projects characterized the genetics of Singapore's Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study introduced here goes further in providing multi-omic measurements in individuals from these populations, including genetic, transcriptome, lipidome, and lifestyle data, and will facilitate the study of common diseases in Asian communities.

  19. The role of polymorphisms associated with early tooth eruption in dental and occlusal traits in East Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Kim, Yong-Il; Haga, Shugo; Katayama, Koshu; Ishida, Hajime; Park, Soo-Byung; Maki, Koutaro; Kimura, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent study suggested that rs6504340, a polymorphism within the homeobox B (HOXB) gene cluster, is associated with the susceptibility for malocclusions in Europeans. The resulting malocclusions require orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs6504340 and other dentition-implicated polymorphisms with dental and occlusal traits in Korean and Japanese populations. Methods The study participants included 223 unrelated Koreans from the Busan area and 256 unrelated Japanese individuals from the Tokyo metropolitan area. DNA samples were extracted from saliva specimens. Genotyping for rs6504340 and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been shown to be associated with the timing of first tooth eruption and the number of teeth at 1 year of age (rs10506525, rs1956529, rs9674544, and rs8079702) was performed using TaqMan assays. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), overjet, overbite, arch length discrepancy, crown sizes, and length and width of the dental arches were measured. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationships between rs6504340 and these dental/occlusal traits. Results We evaluated the aesthetic components and dental health components of the IOTN in the Korean and Japanese populations and found that neither rs6504340 nor the other four SNPs showed any association with dental and occlusal traits in these East Asian populations. Conclusions These negative results suggest that further research is needed to identify the genetic determinants of malocclusions in order to reach a consensus. PMID:24696826

  20. Comparative efficacy of Rubini, Jeryl-Lynn and Urabe mumps vaccine in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Gary; Goh, Kee Tai; Ma, Stefan; Chew, Suok Kai

    2005-11-01

    The comparative efficacy of the three mumps vaccine strains (Jeryl-Lynn, Urabe and Rubini) was conducted in an Asian population from data arising from an epidemiological investigation of seven institutional outbreaks of mumps in Singapore. Demographic information (gender, age, ethnic group), clinical presentation and vaccination history (date and place of mumps vaccination, type of mumps vaccine received) of all children who attended the six childcare centres and one primary school where outbreaks of 20 or more cases of mumps occurred in 1999 were collected. The attack rate of the unvaccinated group and the attack rates of the vaccine groups (for each vaccine strain) were determined and the vaccine efficacy of the three vaccines calculated. The vaccine efficacy of the Jeryl-Lynn strain, Urabe strain and Rubini strain mumps vaccine were 80.7, 54.4 and -55.3%, respectively. Rubini strain mumps vaccine conferred no protection and has since been deregistered in Singapore.

  1. Shovel-shaped incisors and associated invagination in some Asian and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, D U; Saini, T S; Mokeem, S

    1990-08-01

    Shovelling of the incisors is considered to be a polygenic inheritable trait. Shovelling differs considerably between groups of racial populations but is relatively stable within each group. Presence or absence of shovelling helps in racial identification and in exploration of ancestry. Periapical radiographs of patients of several nationalities from Asian and African continents were obtained. Shovelling and invaginations associated with the shovel-shaped incisors was studied according to nationality. Results indicated that the incidence of shovelling in Syrians, Jordanians, Palestinians and Filipinos was 5-6 per cent. In Saudi Arabians, Pakistanis and Indians, the incidence of shovelling was 10-12 per cent. Among Yemenis, Sudanese and Egyptians, the incidence of shovelling was 20-25 percent. The occurrence of invaginations in shovel-shaped incisors was 11 per cent.

  2. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Alves, Joel M; Palmer, William J; Day, Jonathan P; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Black, William C; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-02-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans. To understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants. We conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for disease transmission.

  3. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    BackgroundThe mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.ResultsTo understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants.ConclusionsWe conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for

  4. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  5. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  6. A facial expression image database and norm for Asian population: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Cho, Shu-ling; Horszowska, Katarzyna; Chen, Mei-Yen; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2009-01-01

    We collected 6604 images of 30 models in eight types of facial expression: happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, contempt and neutral. Among them, 406 most representative images from 12 models were rated by more than 200 human raters for perceived emotion category and intensity. Such large number of emotion categories, models and raters is sufficient for most serious expression recognition research both in psychology and in computer science. All the models and raters are of Asian background. Hence, this database can also be used when the culture background is a concern. In addition, 43 landmarks each of the 291 rated frontal view images were identified and recorded. This information should facilitate feature based research of facial expression. Overall, the diversity in images and richness in information should make our database and norm useful for a wide range of research.

  7. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  8. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  9. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.

  10. First record of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, in Italy: invasion from an established Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Huemer, Hartwig P; Indra, Alexander; Capelli, Gioia; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-05-16

    In 2011 we identified the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae) for the first time in northern Slovenia and in the bordering Austrian federal state of Styria. Between May and July 2012 the distribution area of Ae. j. japonicus was already found to be extended westwards into Carinthia and eastwards towards Burgenland and bordering Hungary. In August 2012 the species was first detected in a western province of Hungary. In subsequent years, follow-up field studies demonstrated an active spread westwards throughout Carinthia, reaching the border to northern Italy. In July 2015 several aquatic-stage specimens of the species were discovered at three different sites in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, north-eastern Italy. In September 2015, co-occurrence of Ae. j. japonicus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) was observed in the same sample in that region. Ae. j. japonicus actively extended its geographic range from an established population in Carinthia (Austria) southwards to northern Italy by crossing Alpine ranges. Since Ae. albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) are already well established in northern Italy, it will be pivotal to monitor the consequences of a third invasive mosquito species trying to populate the same geographic region.

  11. Population genetics of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325

  12. Prevalence, Correlates, and Impact of Uncorrected Presbyopia in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd Man, Ryan Eyn; Fenwick, Eva Katie; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Li, Ling-Jun; Gupta, Preeti; Tham, Yih-Chung; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. We included 7890 presbyopic subjects (3909 female; age range, 40-86 years) of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study. Presbyopia was classified as corrected and uncorrected based on self-reported near correction use. VF was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of sociodemographic and clinical parameters with uncorrected presbyopia, and its impact on VF, respectively. As myopia may mitigate the impact of noncorrection, we performed a subgroup analysis on myopic subjects only (n = 2742). In total, 2678 of 7890 subjects (33.9%) had uncorrected presbyopia. In multivariable models, younger age, male sex, Malay and Indian ethnicities, presenting distance visual impairment (any eye), and lower education and income levels were associated with higher odds of uncorrected presbyopia (all P Malay and Indian ethnicities are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  14. Differences in health insurance and health service utilization among Asian Americans: method for using the NHIS to identify unique patterns between ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruy, Hosihn; Young, Wendy B; Kwak, Hoil

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a method to identify the characteristics of socioeconomic variables in determining the differences in health insurance coverage and health services utilization patterns for different ethnic groups, using the behavioural model of health service utilization. A sample drawn from Asian American adult respondents to the 1992, 1993, and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in the USA formed the data set. The results showed Asian Americans as not being homogeneous. There were distinctly different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between six Asian American ethnic groups that affect health insurance coverage and health service utilization. The study method is useful for constructing health policy and services to address the general public need without adversely affecting smaller minority groups. Secondary analysis of well-constructed national data sets such as the specific Asian ethnic groups in NHIS, offers a rich method for predicting the differential impact of specific health policies on various ethnic groups.

  15. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  16. The profile of adult onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Adeline Mei-Yen; Lee, Shan-Xian; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is less common in adults and has been linked with a more severe clinical syndrome as well as a higher frequency of renal disease and internal malignancy. Renal involvement in adult HSP has been significantly associated with antecedent infections, pyrexia at time of first presentation, and purpura above the waist. We aim to evaluate the frequency of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features and identify the predictive factors for renal involvement in Asian adults with HSP. We performed a retrospective study of 48 adult Asian patients diagnosed with HSP based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria at a tertiary hospital in Singapore between January 2000 and December 2011. The most common cutaneous manifestations were palpable purpura (73%), papules (31%), and petechiae (27%). Forty-percent had cutaneous lesions extending above the waist. Fifteen patients (31%) had gastrointestinal symptoms, 21 (44%) had joint involvement, and 27 (56%) had renal disease. Seventy-percent of patients with pyrexia at presentation experienced renal disease, whereas only 30% without pyrexia had renal involvement (P = 0.018). Sixty-six percent of patients with purpura had renal involvement as compared to 31% in those without purpura (P = 0.049). The frequency of renal involvement in patients with purpura above the waist (52%) was similar to those with purpura below the waist (55%). Our study confirms that HSP in adults tends to be more severe with a high incidence of extracutaneous manifestations, especially renal disease. Pyrexia at presentation and the presence of purpura were significant predictive factors for renal involvement. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Evaluation of common type 2 diabetes risk variants in a South Asian population of Sri Lankan descent.

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    Neelam Hassanali

    Full Text Available Most studies seeking common variant associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D have focused on individuals of European ancestry. These discoveries need to be evaluated in other major ancestral groups, to understand ethnic differences in predisposition, and establish whether these contribute to variation in T2D prevalence and presentation. This study aims to establish whether common variants conferring T2D-risk in Europeans contribute to T2D-susceptibility in the South Asian population of Sri Lanka.Lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs at 37 T2D-risk loci attaining genome-wide significance in Europeans were genotyped in 878 T2D cases and 1523 normoglycaemic controls from Sri Lanka. Association testing was performed by logistic regression adjusting for age and sex and by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test after stratifying according to self-identified ethnolinguistic subgroup. A weighted genetic risk score was generated to examine the combined effect of these SNPs on T2D-risk in the Sri Lankan population.Of the 36 SNPs passing quality control, sixteen showed nominal (p<0.05 association in Sri Lankan samples, fifteen of those directionally-consistent with the original signal. Overall, these association findings were robust to analyses that accounted for membership of ethnolinguistic subgroups. Overall, the odds ratios for 31 of the 36 SNPs were directionally-consistent with those observed in Europeans (p = 3.2×10(-6. Allelic odds ratios and risk allele frequencies in Sri Lankan subjects were not systematically different to those reported in Europeans. Genetic risk score and risk of T2D were strongly related in Sri Lankans (per allele OR 1.10 [95%CI 1.08-1.13], p = 1.2×10(-17.Our data indicate that most T2D-risk variants identified in Europeans have similar effects in South Asians from Sri Lanka, and that systematic difference in common variant associations are unlikely to explain inter-ethnic differences in prevalence or presentation of T2D.

  18. Is the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) sarcoma nomogram useful in an Asian population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Deanna Wan Jie; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Lim, Cindy Xindi; Chee, Soo Khee; Quek, Richard Hong Hui; Farid, Mohamad; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2017-10-01

    A nomogram for prediction of 12-year sarcoma-specific survival has been developed based on patients with soft tissue sarcomas treated in Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC). We aim to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the MSKCC sarcoma nomogram in a cohort of patients treated at an Asian institution. This has not been validated in an Asian population and thus its universal applicability remains unproven. Between 1990 and 2013, 840 adult patients underwent treatment for primary soft tissue sarcoma (STS) at the National Cancer Centre Singapore. Patients who presented with locally recurrent or metastatic disease were excluded from the analysis. The variables included in the MSKCC nomogram included age at diagnosis, tumor size, histologic grade, histologic subtype, depth and site. A total of 399 patients were left for analysis. The nomogram was validated by assessing its extent of discrimination and level of calibration. All patients had deep tumors. Disease occurred most commonly in the lower extremity (n = 149 [37.3%]), the most common histologic subtype was "Others" (angiosarcoma, ewing's sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, sarcoma NOS [not otherwise specified] and rhabdomyosarcoma). Sixty-four percent of all patients had high-grade tumors while 36% had low-grade tumors. The median patient age at diagnosis was 54 years (range: 17-88 years). The median follow up time for all patients and surviving patients were 29 (range: 1-174) and 33 (range: 1-157) months, respectively. The observed 5- and 10-year sarcoma-specific survival were 55% and 33%, respectively. The concordance index was 0.71. For level of calibration, the observed correspondence between predicted and actual outcomes suggest that the MSKCC nomogram generally predicts well for patients with higher survival probability, but consistently overpredicts survival for the other groups, in our cohort of patients. The MSKCC sarcoma nomogram was found to be accurate in terms of extent of discrimination

  19. E-selectin gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Asian population: an updated meta-analysis.

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    Gaojun Cai

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T may be associated with essential hypertension (EH, but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH.We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893-2.748, P<0.001 in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679-10.420, P<0.001 in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981-2.808, P = 0.001 in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627-0.983, P = 0.035 in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336-4.652, P = 0.739 in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649-0.999, P = 0.049 in allelic model.The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk.

  20. Identifying and Assessing Interesting Subgroups in a Heterogeneous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojoo; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pernemalm, Maria; Guegan, Justine; Dessen, Philippe; Lazar, Vladimir; Lehtiö, Janne; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-01-01

    Biological heterogeneity is common in many diseases and it is often the reason for therapeutic failures. Thus, there is great interest in classifying a disease into subtypes that have clinical significance in terms of prognosis or therapy response. One of the most popular methods to uncover unrecognized subtypes is cluster analysis. However, classical clustering methods such as k-means clustering or hierarchical clustering are not guaranteed to produce clinically interesting subtypes. This could be because the main statistical variability--the basis of cluster generation--is dominated by genes not associated with the clinical phenotype of interest. Furthermore, a strong prognostic factor might be relevant for a certain subgroup but not for the whole population; thus an analysis of the whole sample may not reveal this prognostic factor. To address these problems we investigate methods to identify and assess clinically interesting subgroups in a heterogeneous population. The identification step uses a clustering algorithm and to assess significance we use a false discovery rate- (FDR-) based measure. Under the heterogeneity condition the standard FDR estimate is shown to overestimate the true FDR value, but this is remedied by an improved FDR estimation procedure. As illustrations, two real data examples from gene expression studies of lung cancer are provided.

  1. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232 Th and 238 U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232 Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238 U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232 Th and 12.7 mBq for 238 U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 μg) 232 Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 μg) 238 U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232 Th and 15.6 mBq 238 U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232 Th and 238 U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 μSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 μSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR

  2. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.

  3. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

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    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  4. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  5. Population-level impact of active tuberculosis case finding in an Asian megacity.

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    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential population-level impact of private-sector initiatives for tuberculosis (TB case finding in Southeast Asia remains uncertain. In 2011, the Indus Hospital TB Control Program in Karachi, Pakistan, undertook an aggressive case-finding campaign that doubled notification rates, providing an opportunity to investigate potential population-level effects. METHODS: We constructed an age-structured compartmental model of TB in the intervention area. We fit the model using field and literature data, assuming that TB incidence equaled the estimated nationwide incidence in Pakistan (primary analysis, or 1.5 times greater (high-incidence scenario. We modeled the intervention as an increase in the rate of formal-sector TB diagnosis and evaluated the potential impact of sustaining this rate for five years. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the five-year intervention averted 24% (95% uncertainty range, UR: 18-30% of five-year cumulative TB cases and 52% (95% UR: 45-57% of cumulative TB deaths. Corresponding reductions in the high-incidence scenario were 12% (95% UR: 8-17% and 27% (95% UR: 21-34%, although the absolute number of lives saved was higher. At the end of five years, TB notification rates in the primary analysis were below their 2010 baseline, incidence had dropped by 45%, and annual mortality had fallen by 72%. About half of the cumulative impact on incidence and mortality could be achieved with a one-year intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained, multifaceted, and innovative approaches to TB case-finding in Asian megacities can have substantial community-wide epidemiological impact.

  6. Mid-term study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in an Asian population with severe aortic stenosis: two-year Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Nicholas; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt; Yip, Wei Luen James; Chan, Siew Pang; Poh, Kian-Keong; Kong, William Kok-Fai; Teoh, Kristine Leok Kheng; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Tan, Huay Cheem; Tay, Edgar Lik Wui

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an effective treatment for high-risk or inoperative patients with severe aortic stenosis. Given the unique characteristics of Asian populations, questions regarding mid-term outcomes in Asians undergoing TAVI have yet to be addressed. We evaluated the two-year clinical outcomes of TAVI in an Asian population using Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. This prospective study recruited 59 patients from a major academic medical centre in Singapore. The main outcomes were two-year survival rates, peri-procedural complications, symptom improvement, valvular function and assessment of learning curve. Mean age was 76.8 years (61.0% male), mean body surface area 1.6 m 2 and mean logistic EuroSCORE 18.7%. Survival was 93.2%, 86.0% and 79.1% at 30 days, one year and two years, respectively. At 30 days post TAVI, the rate of stroke was 1.7%, life-threatening bleeding 5.1%, acute kidney injury 25.0%, major vascular complication 5.1%, and new permanent pacemaker implantation 6.8%. 29.3% of TAVI patients were rehospitalised (47.1% cardiovascular-related) within one year. These composite outcomes were measured: device success (93.2%); early safety (79.7%); clinical efficacy (66.1%); and time-related valve safety (84.7%). Univariate analysis found these predictors of two-year all-cause mortality: logistic EuroSCORE (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07; p < 0.001); baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR 0.97; p = 0.048); and acute kidney injury (HR 5.33; p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis identified non-transfemoral TAVI as a predictor of cardiovascular-related two-year mortality (HR 14.64; p = 0.008). Despite the unique clinical differences in Asian populations, this registry demonstrated favourable mid-term clinical and safety outcomes in Asians undergoing TAVI. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  7. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  8. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  9. Efficient logistic regression designs under an imperfect population identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Paul S; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by actual study designs, this article considers efficient logistic regression designs where the population is identified with a binary test that is subject to diagnostic error. We consider the case where the imperfect test is obtained on all participants, while the gold standard test is measured on a small chosen subsample. Under maximum-likelihood estimation, we evaluate the optimal design in terms of sample selection as well as verification. We show that there may be substantial efficiency gains by choosing a small percentage of individuals who test negative on the imperfect test for inclusion in the sample (e.g., verifying 90% test-positive cases). We also show that a two-stage design may be a good practical alternative to a fixed design in some situations. Under optimal and nearly optimal designs, we compare maximum-likelihood and semi-parametric efficient estimators under correct and misspecified models with simulations. The methodology is illustrated with an analysis from a diabetes behavioral intervention trial. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  11. A diversity of cancer incidence and mortality in West Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Boreiri, Majid; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    -quality data for some West Asian countries was the major limitation of this study. Therefore, as the first step of cancer control programs, it is recommended that well-structured population-based cancer registries be established in all of these countries. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  13. Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Silver

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK

  14. Pathways-Driven Sparse Regression Identifies Pathways and Genes Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Two Asian Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune

  15. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits.

  16. Characteristics and Risk Factors for Type 2 Endoleak in an East Asian Population From a Japanese Multicenter Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Naoki; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Watada, Susumu; Shibutani, Shintaro; Akiyoshi, Takurin; Harada, Hirohisa; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Clinically distinct differences exist between East Asian and Caucasian subjects, but data for type 2 endoleak (T2EL) are limited in the East Asian population. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of East Asian T2EL using a Japanese multicenter database. Retrospective analysis of 832 endovascular aneurysm repairs performed from 2008 to 2014 were conducted. T2EL was observed in 234 cases (28.1%), and in 32 cases (3.8%) it led to sac expansion >5 mm caused by isolated T2EL (median follow-up, 35.6 months). On univariate and multivariate analysis, non-smoker status (odds ratio [OR], 2.216; P<0.001), Excluder stent graft (OR, 2.027; P<0.001), and T2EL at final angiogram (OR, 2.080; P<0.001) were risk factors for T2EL. On multivariate analysis for isolated T2EL with sac expansion, only non-smoker status remained (OR, 2.671; P<0.001). Other than T1EL, isolated T2EL was the most significant risk factor for sac expansion (OR, 18.486; P<0.001). Furthermore, out of 11 transarterial embolization procedures initiated, 4 led to rupture during follow-up. East Asian T2EL had a strong relationship with non-smoker status. Also, T2EL was a significant risk factor for sac expansion, which sometimes led to rupture even after intervention. Along with the high prevalence of T2EL observed, East Asian T2EL may not always be benign.

  17. Assessment of condylar morphology and position using MSCT in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Wei, Xiaoer; Guan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ran; Zou, Derong; Yu, Lvfeng

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the volume, surface, morphometric index (MI), and position of the condyle in a normal population by applying Mimics 17.0 software. Then, the difference between left and right sides, sex, and age can be explored, which will contribute to establish the reference value of condylar morphology and position in normal individuals, and help us to study characteristics of condylar morphology and position in abnormal individuals. Three-hundred subjects were enrolled in our study from the radiology department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. They were divided into three groups according to the age: group 1 (18-24 years old), group 2 (25-34 years old), and group 3 (35-44 years old). Each group included 100 subjects (with 50 males and 50 females). They were examined using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after that. All images of condyle were reconstructed by Mimics 17.0 software, so as to measure the volume, surface, and MI of condyle, and to analyze the position of condyle in the articular fossa by means of joint spaces. The differences of condylar volume, surface, and MI between left and right sides were not obvious (P > 0.05). The condylar volume and surface were greater in males than females (P  0.05). No statistical differences were found in volume and surface among three age groups. However, the MI of group 1 was statistically lower than that of group 3 (P position (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, there were significant differences of condylar position regarding the gender and age (P position between left and right sides, but factors of gender and age were proven to have a certain influence on the morphology and position of the condyle. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar morphology and position in the normal Asian population. Examination of condylar morphology and position is important for evaluating the

  18. CMPK1 and RBP3 are associated with corneal curvature in Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Miyake, Masahiro; Fan, Qiao; Liao, Jiemin; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ikram, Mohammad K; Chew, Merywn; Vithana, Eranga N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Saw, Seang-Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-11-15

    Corneal curvature (CC) measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of CC, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis in 12 660 Asian individuals. Our Stage 1 was done in multiethnic cohorts comprising 7440 individuals, followed by a Stage 2 replication in 2473 Chinese and Stage 3 in 2747 Japanese. The SNP array genotype data were imputed up to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 cosmopolitan panel. The SNP association with the radii of CC was investigated in the linear regression model with the adjustment of age, gender and principal components. In addition to the known genes, MTOR (also known as FRAP1) and PDGFRA, we discovered two novel genes associated with CC: CMPK1 (rs17103186, P = 3.3 × 10(-12)) and RBP3 (rs11204213 [Val884Met], P = 1.1 × 10(-13)). The missense RBP3 SNP, rs11204213, was also associated with axial length (AL) (P = 4.2 × 10(-6)) and had larger effects on both CC and AL compared with other SNPs. The index SNPs at the four indicated loci explained 1.9% of CC variance across the Stages 1 and 2 cohorts, while 33.8% of CC variance was explained by the genome-wide imputation data. We identified two novel genes influencing CC, which are related to either corneal shape or eye size. This study provides additional insights into genetic architecture of corneal shape. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Determinants of eating at local and western fast-food venues in an urban Asian population: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Nasheen; van Dam, Rob M; Ng, Sheryl; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chen, Shiqi; Lim, Jia Yi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; Rebello, Salome A

    2017-05-25

    Like several Southeast Asian countries, Singapore has a complex eating-out environment and a rising eating-out prevalence. However the determinants and drivers of eating-out in urban Asian environments are poorly understood. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics of persons who frequently ate away from home in local eateries called hawker centres and Western fast-food restaurants, using data from 1647 Singaporean adults participating in the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2010. We also assessed the underlying drivers of eating out and evaluated if these were different for eating at local eateries compared to Western fast-food restaurants using 18 focus group discussions of women (130 women). Participants reported a high eating-out frequency with 77.3% usually eating either breakfast, lunch or dinner at eateries. Main venues for eating-out included hawker centres (61.1% usually ate at least 1 of 3 daily meals at this venue) and school/workplace canteens (20.4%). A minority of participants (1.9%) reported usually eating at Western fast-food restaurants. Younger participants and those of Chinese and Malay ethnicity compared to Indians were more likely to eat at Western fast-food restaurants. Chinese and employed persons were more likely to eat at hawker centres. The ready availability of a large variety of affordable and appealing foods appeared to be a primary driver of eating out, particularly at hawker centres. Our findings highlight the growing importance of eating-out in an urban Asian population where local eating venues play a more dominant role compared with Western fast-food chains. Interventions focusing on improving the food quality at venues for eating out are important to improve the diet of urban Asian populations.

  20. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  1. Dietary acculturation among the South-Asian Surinamese population in the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-08-01

    To test Koctürk's model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968). Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies. Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.

  2. The linear relationship between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 score and mortality in an Asian population of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jye; Lin, Wender; Chang, Ling-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) has been used as a screening tool to identify vulnerable community-dwelling older persons for more in-depth assessment and targeted interventions. Although many studies supported its use in different populations, few have addressed Asian populations. The optimal scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting health outcomes also has not been adequately tested. This study (1) assesses the applicability of the VES-13 to predict the mortality of community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan, (2) identifies the best scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting mortality using generalized additive models (GAMs), and (3) determines whether including covariates, such as socio-demographic factors and common geriatric syndromes, improves model fitting. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study analyzed the data of 2184 community-dwelling persons 65 years old or older from the 2003 wave of the national-wide Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used. The VES-13 significantly predicted the mortality of Taiwan's community-dwelling elders. A one-point increase in the VES-13 score raised the risk of death by 26% (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). The hazard ratio of death increased linearly with each additional VES-13 score point, suggesting that using a continuous scale is appropriate. Inclusion of socio-demographic factors and geriatric syndromes improved the model-fitting. The VES-13 is appropriate for an Asian population. VES-13 scores linearly predict the mortality of this population. Adjusting the weighting of the physical activity items may improve the performance of the VES-13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G.V. E-mail: v.iyengar@iaea.org; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S

    2004-07-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of {sup 232}Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of {sup 238}U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for {sup 232}Th and 12.7 mBq for {sup 238}U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 {mu}g) {sup 232}Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 {mu}g) {sup 238}U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq {sup 232}Th and 15.6 mBq {sup 238}U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 {mu}Sv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 {mu}Sv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR.

  4. Unidimensional versus Multidimensional Approaches to the Assessment of Acculturation for Asian American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe-Kim, Jennifer; Okazaki, Sumie; Goto, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines approaches to assessing acculturation among Asian Americans college students in relation to the cultural indicators of individualism-collectivism, self-construal, impression management, and loss of face. An uneven nature of these relationships was found which is significant in light of the fact that acculturation differences are often…

  5. Medical care of hepatitis B among Asian American populations: perspectives from three provider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jessica P; Roundtree, Aimee K; Engebretson, Joan C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2010-03-01

    Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer. Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities. We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach. We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test. We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts. Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers. More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.

  6. Clustering of cardiac risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and associations with psychosocial distress in a young Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchday, Sonia; Bellehsen, Mayer; Friedberg, Jennifer P; Almeida, Maureen; Kaplan, Erica

    2014-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a precursor for coronary heart disease. However, its pathophysiology is not clear, its phenotypic expression may vary by region; also, the phenotypic manifestation may be exacerbated by psychosocial distress and family history. The purpose of the current study was to assess the factor structure of the metabolic syndrome in young urban Asian Indians. Asian Indian youth (N = 112) were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic: SBP; diastolic: DBP), blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, psychosocial distress and family health history. Factor analyses were computed on components of the metabolic syndrome. Three factors were identified for the entire sample: hemodynamic-obesity (SBP, DBP, waist-hip ratio), Lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride), and insulin-obesity (blood sugar, BMI, insulin). Similar to previous research with this population, three distinct factors with no overlap were identified. Factors did not correlate with psychosocial distress or family history. Lack of correlation with family history and psychosocial distress may be a function of the young age and demographics of the sample.

  7. Identifying vulnerable populations to death and injuries from residential fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stanley W; Butry, David T

    2017-08-03

    This study proposes and evaluates the theory that people who are susceptible to injury in residential fires are not susceptible to death in residential fires and vice versa. It is proposed that the population vulnerable to death in residential fires can be proxied by 'frailty', which is measured as age-gender adjusted fatality rates due to natural causes. This study uses an ecological approach and controls for exposure to estimate the vulnerability of different population groups to death and injury in residential fires. It allows fatalities and injuries to be estimated by different models. Frailty explains fire-related death in adults while not explaining injuries, which is consistent with the idea that deaths and injuries affect disjoint populations. Deaths and injuries in fire are drawn from different populations. People who are susceptible to dying in fires are unlikely to be injured in fires, and the people who are susceptible to injury are unlikely to die in fires. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Smile characterization by U.S. white, U.S. Asian Indian, and Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Mike

    2012-05-01

    With growing demand for high esthetic standards, dentists must understand patient perception and incorporate their preferences into treatment. However, little is known about how cultural and ethnic differences influence esthetic perception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in ethnic background, including the possibility of assimilation, affected a layperson's perception of esthetic and smile characteristics. A survey was developed containing images that were digitally manipulated into a series of barely perceptible steps, changing 1 smile parameter to form a strip of images that displayed that parameter over a wide range. Data were collected with a customized program which randomly displayed a single image and allowed the subject to use the mouse to adjust an on-screen slider according to displayed instructions, that is, "Please move the slider to select the image you find to be most ideal"; or "Please move the slider to select the first image that you find unattractive." A convenience sample (n=288) comprised of U.S. whites, U.S. Asian Indians, and Indians living in India was surveyed. This sample provided a power of .86 to detect a difference of ±1.5 mm. Subjects evaluated images showing the smile arc, buccal corridor, gingival display, vertical overlap, lateral incisal step, maxillary midline to midface, and maxillary to mandibular midline. Rater reliability was assessed with the Fleiss-Cohen weighted Kappa (Kw) statistic and corresponding 95% confidence interval after each question was repeated in a random sequence. Choice differences due to ethnicity were assessed with a multiple randomization test and the adjusted P value with the step-down Bonferrroni method of Holm (α=.05). The Kw for the 17 variables in all 3 groups ranged from 0.11 for ideal vertical overlap to 0.64 for ideal buccal corridor space. Overall reliability was fair to moderate. Differences attributed to ethnicity were demonstrated between the Asian Indians and U

  9. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

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    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  10. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.

  11. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

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    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  12. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  13. A de novo transcriptome of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to identify candidate transcripts for diapause preparation

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    Poelchau Monica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many temperate insects survive the harsh conditions of winter by undergoing photoperiodic diapause, a pre-programmed developmental arrest initiated by short day lengths. Despite the well-established ecological significance of photoperiodic diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, represents an outstanding emerging model to investigate the molecular basis of photoperiodic diapause in a well-defined ecological and evolutionary context. Ae. albopictus is a medically significant vector and is currently considered the most invasive mosquito in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to the rapid spread of this mosquito. To generate novel sequence information for this species, as well as to discover transcripts involved in diapause preparation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Ae. albopictus oocytes destined to become diapausing or non-diapausing pharate larvae. Results 454 GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded >1.1 million quality-filtered reads, which we assembled into 69,474 contigs (N50 = 1,009 bp. Our contig filtering approach, where we took advantage of strong sequence similarity to the fully sequenced genome of Aedes aegypti, as well as other reference organisms, resulted in 11,561 high-quality, conservative ESTs. Differential expression estimates based on normalized read counts revealed 57 genes with higher expression, and 257 with lower expression under diapause-inducing conditions. Analysis of expression by qPCR for 47 of these genes indicated a high correlation of expression levels between 454 sequence data and qPCR, but congruence of statistically significant differential expression was low. Seven genes identified as differentially expressed based on qPCR have putative functions that are consistent with the insect diapause syndrome; three genes have unknown function and represent

  14. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR patients with GFR protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  15. Genetic variation and potential coinfection of Wolbachia among widespread Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Hoffmann, Mark; Braswell, W Evan; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2017-12-29

    Wolbachia can profoundly influence the survival, reproduction, and defenses of insect hosts. These interactions could potentially be harnessed for managing pests or insect-transmitted diseases. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a phloem-feeding pest capable of transmitting the putative causal agent of citrus greening, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Like many insects, D. citri is also infected with Wolbachia (wDi). Recent studies indicate that the relative abundance of wDi could be associated with the abundance of CLas, and that wDi may contribute to regulating expression of phage lytic cycle genes in CLas, suggesting the need for better understanding of wDi biology in general. This study investigated the genetic diversity of wDi among D. citri in populations spanning eleven countries and two U.S. territories. Six Wolbachia genes, wsp, coxA, fbpA, ftsZ, gatB, and hcpA, were sequenced and compared across samples. Two prevalent wDi strains were identified across the samples, and screening of clone libraries revealed possible coinfection of wDi strains in specific populations. D. citri mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOI) were more divergent between D. citri populations that were infected with different wDi strains or had different infection statuses (single infection vs. coinfection). While we could not eliminate the possibility that maternal transmission may contribute to such patterns, it is also possible that wDi may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in their host. These findings should contribute to the understanding of wDi population ecology, which may facilitate manipulation of this endosymbiont for management of citrus greening disease worldwide. © 2017 The Authors. Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

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    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  17. Identification of Ethnically Specific Genetic Variations in Pan-Asian Ethnos

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin Ok; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Park, Seong-Jin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Kiejung; Lee, Byungwook

    2014-01-01

    Asian populations contain a variety of ethnic groups that have ethnically specific genetic differences. Ethnic variants may be highly relevant in disease and human differentiation studies. Here, we identified ethnically specific variants and then investigated their distribution across Asian ethnic groups. We obtained 58,960 Pan-Asian single nucleotide polymorphisms of 1,953 individuals from 72 ethnic groups of 11 Asian countries. We selected 9,306 ethnic variant single nucleotide polymorphism...

  18. Patterns of physical activity in different domains and implications for intervention in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study

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    Tai E Shyong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of regular physical activity for quality of life and disease prevention have been well documented. Identification of low activity groups would facilitate interventional programs. Many studies have focussed on leisure time activity, which may not capture the spectrum of physical activity relevant to disease prevention. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted in urban Asian settings. Methods We evaluated physical activity in different domains (leisure time, occupational, household and transportation and its sociodemographic determinants in 4750 adult Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian Singaporeans. Physical activity was assessed using locally validated questionnaires. Results Occupational and household activity contributed substantially more to total physical activity than leisure time or transportation activity. However, when only activity of at least moderate intensity was considered leisure time activity contributed most to total physical activity. Higher socio-economic status was associated with more leisure time activity, but less total physical activity due to reduced activity in the other domains. Chinese ethnicity was also associated with less total physical activity as a result of less activity in non-leisure time domains. Conclusions In assessing levels of physical activity and recommending changes, it is important to consider physical activity in different domains. Focus on leisure-time physical activity alone could identify the wrong groups for intervention and miss opportunities for increasing physical activity in populations.

  19. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Elderly: Real World Outcomes of Immunochemotherapy in Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ja Min; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kang, Beodeul; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the real-life treatment outcomes of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from a homogenous Asian population and defined the cutoff age for "elderly." The medical records of 192 DLBCL patients aged > 60 years who had received first-line immunochemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. The treatment schedule, adverse events, and survival outcomes were analyzed overall and stratified by 4 age groups (> 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and ≥ 75 years). Patient age of ≥ 75 years was associated with a significantly lower complete remission rate (86.5% vs. 81.4% vs. 82.0% vs. 51%; P population, 75 years seems to be a judicious cutoff for predicting treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of serum celiac antibodies in a multiracial Asian population--a first study in the young Asian adult population of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18-30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3-60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1-65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought.

  1. Prevalence of Serum Celiac Antibodies in a Multiracial Asian Population-A First Study in the Young Asian Adult Population of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18–30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. Results 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3–60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1–65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. Conclusions The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought. PMID:25799401

  2. Impacts of urbanisation on the lifestyle and on the prevalence of diabetes in native Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A; Snehalatha, C; Latha, E; Manoharan, M; Vijay, V

    1999-06-01

    Recent studies from the Asian subcontinent show an increasing prevalence of diabetes. This increase has been attributed to factors related to lifestyle changes related to modernisation. A periurban rural population resembling the rural in their occupation, but with access to certain urban facilities was chosen for this study. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of modernisation on the rising prevalence of diabetes in the native Indians. A total of 1637 adults aged 20 years and above (749 men and 888 women) were tested for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by 2 h post-glucose challenge. Demographic, anthropometric, dietary and occupational details, were recorded. Dietary habits were similar in all categories of socio-economic strata. In the present study group, the age standardised prevalence of Type 2 diabetes was 5.9%, which was intermediate to that in the urban (11.6%) and rural (2.4%) populations. The prevalence data of the latter two population were available from previous surveys. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was high (6.9%) and similar in all three population samples. In the periurban population, a large percentage of subjects were doing only routine household work and had a sedentary life-style. After correcting for the age and BMI, sedentary work and occupation had a significant association with diabetes, suggesting that sedentary lifestyle may be an important determinant for the higher prevalence of diabetes in an urbanising population.

  3. The distribution of urban population and income: explorations using six Asian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, S

    1993-02-01

    "Urban concentration (or primacy) and inequality (in size distribution of income) are expected to follow bell shaped curves through the development process. Spatial convergence (through investments in transportation etc.) is expected to precede income convergence. Using longitudinal data from six Asian countries (Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India) this paper shows that (i) the bell shapes for urban concentration and income inequality generally hold, and (ii) the temporal relationship between the curve peaks is determined by geographical factors (for urban concentration); income inequality is seen to be more policy amenable." excerpt

  4. Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Victor; Cheung, Carol Y; Li, Xiang; Tian, Dechao; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Y

    2016-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This population-based study of 10,033 participants (75.7% response rate) included Chinese, Indian and Malay persons aged 40 years and older. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standardized interviews and laboratory blood tests were performed. Digital fundus photographs were assessed for presence of RVO following the definitions used in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Regression analysis models were constructed to study the relationship between ocular and systemic factors and RVO. Age-specific prevalence rates of RVO were applied to project the number of people affected in Asia from 2013 to 2040. The overall crude prevalence of RVO was 0.72% (n = 71; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.87%). The crude prevalence of RVO was similar in Chinese, Indian and Malay participants (p = 0.865). In multivariable regression models, significant risk factors of RVO included increased age (odds ratio, OR, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), hypertension (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.61-8.31), increased serum creatinine (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, per 10 mmol/L increase), history of heart attack (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.54) and increased total cholesterol (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59, per 1 mmol/L increase). None of the ocular parameters were associated with RVO. RVO is estimated to affect up to 16 and 21 million people in Asia by 2020 and 2040, respectively. RVO was detected in 0.72% of a multi-ethnic Asian population aged 40-80 years in Singapore. The significant systemic risk factors of RVO are consistent with studies in white populations.

  5. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian American students using Asian specific criteria to determine weight classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals of Asian descent have been found to be at greater risk of developing conditions associated with obesity at lower BMI levels compared to other ethnic groups. As a result, new criteria have been developed to identify overweight and obesity in Asian populations. The purpose of the current s...

  7. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  8. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Fang-Yi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Salgia, Ravi; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Jer-Wei; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsu, Han-Shui; Huang, Shiu-Feng Kathy; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kanteti, Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  9. Identifying and prioritizing the tools/techniques of knowledge management based on the Asian Productivity Organization Model (APO) to use in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajouei, Hamid; Khajouei, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate knowledge, correct information, and relevant data are vital in medical diagnosis and treatment systems. Knowledge Management (KM) through its tools/techniques provides a pertinent framework for decision-making in healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the KM tools/techniques that apply to hospital setting. This is a descriptive-survey study. Data were collected using a -researcher-made questionnaire that was developed based on experts' opinions to select the appropriate tools/techniques from 26 tools/techniques of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) model. Questions were categorized into five steps of KM (identifying, creating, storing, sharing, and applying the knowledge) according to this model. The study population consisted of middle and senior managers of hospitals and managing directors of Vice-Chancellor for Curative Affairs in Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Kerman, Iran. The data were analyzed in SPSS v.19 using one-sample t-test. Twelve out of 26 tools/techniques of the APO model were identified as the tools applicable in hospitals. "Knowledge café" and "APO knowledge management assessment tool" with respective means of 4.23 and 3.7 were the most and the least applicable tools in the knowledge identification step. "Mentor-mentee scheme", as well as "voice and Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP)" with respective means of 4.20 and 3.52 were the most and the least applicable tools/techniques in the knowledge creation step. "Knowledge café" and "voice and VOIP" with respective means of 3.85 and 3.42 were the most and the least applicable tools/techniques in the knowledge storage step. "Peer assist and 'voice and VOIP' with respective means of 4.14 and 3.38 were the most and the least applicable tools/techniques in the knowledge sharing step. Finally, "knowledge worker competency plan" and "knowledge portal" with respective means of 4.38 and 3.85 were the most and the least applicable tools

  10. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  11. Vitamin D status and vascular dementia due to cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Supriya, Manjunath; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D plays vital roles in human health and recent studies have shown its beneficial effect on brain functioning. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of vitamin D with vascular dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in Asian Indian population. 140 VaD patients aged ≥ 60 years with neuroimaging evidence of SVD, and 132 age and gender-matched controls, were investigated. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Logistic regression model revealed that deficient levels of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml), the odds were increased to 31.6-fold and 14.4-fold, respectively. However, in hypertensives with vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/ml), the odds of VaD were increased by 3.8-fold only. Pearson correlation showed that serum vitamin D was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.401 and -0.411, pvitamin D-deficient subjects. Since the combined presence of hypertension and vitamin D deficiency increases the probability of developing VaD, screening for vitamin D status in addition to regular monitoring of blood pressure, could reduce the risk of VaD associated with cerebral SVD in the elderly Asian Indian subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Chin A.; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Kwon, O. Jung; Shin, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  13. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chin A. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Health Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O. Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  14. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eMinard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the 21st century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects.

  15. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  17. Chaunocephalosis in a wild population of Asian open-billed storks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonswad, P; Chatikavanij, P; Thamavit, W

    1992-07-01

    The most common trematode collected from Asian open-billed storks (Anastomus oscitans) was Chaunocephalus ferox (80% prevalence). The trematode was paired in granulomas in the intestinal wall. Based on histological examination of these capsules, there was degeneration and necrosis of muscle cells in the tunica muscularis. Granulation tissue with hetrophil and lymphocyte infiltration appeared in the granulomas. Intestinal villi were shorter and wider in infected areas than in non-infected areas. Some intestinal glands were dilated. Storks with high intensity of C. ferox appeared ill. The death of storks infected with C. ferox may result from malnutrition due to the loss of absorptive function of the intestine and from the effect of granuloma formation which might interfere with the intestinal peristalsis.

  18. Association of "Elevated Blood Pressure" and "Stage 1 Hypertension" With Cardiovascular Mortality Among an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Naeimeh; Koh, Angela S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-04-10

    The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure (BP) guidelines in the United States have lowered definition of hypertension by defining normal as systolic/diastolic BP hypertension as systolic between 130 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic between 80 and 89 mm Hg. We investigated the association between the new hypertension definition and cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from 30 636 participants of a population-based cohort, the SCHS (Singapore Chinese Health Study), who had BPs measured using a standard protocol at ages 46 to 85 years between 1994 and 2005. Information on lifestyle factors was collected at recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 interviews (1999 and 2004). Mortality was identified via nationwide registry linkage up to December 31, 2016. Neither elevated BP (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.07) nor stage 1 hypertension (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.11) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normal BP in the whole cohort. Stage 1 hypertension was associated with increased cardiovascular risk only in those hypertension may not be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality across all ages among Chinese in Singapore, but that the at-risk subpopulation is limited to those <65 years of age and without a prior cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  1. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  2. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  3. Towards a population information network for the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN POPIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, G D

    1982-04-01

    ASEAN POPIN was inspired by the work of various international organizations in developing or strengthening capabilities of countries to share population information, and nurtured by the recognition by ASEAN heads of population programs that population information is essential to policy making and program development. Population information has been made a focal point of ASEAN country population programs in various ways, and there has been some attempt to coordinate a sharing of information. Some form of informal network exists in each country among producers, channellers and users of population information. With a view toward strengthening these within and later among the countries, an ASEAN POPIN project was agreed upon in 1979 and a draft proposal developed. The proposal was approved after a series of meetings with ASEAN population program heads. Objectives and expectations of the program, plan of work, strategy of implementation, and past and current activities of the project are briefly summarized and areas of concern and needs discussed.

  4. Perceptions of community participation and health gain in a community project for the South Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandesha, G; Litva, A

    2005-09-01

    The new public health rejects old individualist attempts at improving health and embraces community-based approaches in reducing health inequalities. Primary Care Trusts in England face the challenge of converting community participation in health into reality. This study explores differences in perception of participation between lay and professional stakeholders of a community health project for a South Asian population in Greater Manchester. In-depth interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of professional and lay stakeholders. All data were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes using a qualitative framework. Professionals talked of working in partnership with the community but lay stakeholders did not feel that they had control over the project. There were problems in engaging the community and local health professionals in the project. Lack of cultural awareness hampered participation in the project. There was agreement that the project improved the self-confidence of participants and created a more informed population. However, there was little support for claims of improvements in social cohesion and changes in lifestyle directly as a result of the project. Converting the rhetoric of community participation in health into reality is a greater challenge than was envisaged by policy makers. Marginalized communities may not be willing participants and issues of language and cultural sensitivity are important. Project outcomes need to be agreed to ensure projects are evaluated appropriately. Projects with South Asian communities should not be seen to be dealing with all 'ethnic health' issues without addressing changes in statutory organizations and other wider social determinants of health.

  5. Predictive Factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in an Asian Clinic-Based Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Y Wong

    Full Text Available The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN has proposed guidelines for the genetic testing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, based on studies in western populations. This current study assessed potential predictive factors for BRCA mutation probability, in an Asian population.A total of 359 breast cancer patients, who presented with either a family history (FH of breast and/or ovarian cancer or early onset breast cancer, were accrued at the National Cancer Center Singapore (NCCS. The relationships between clinico-pathological features and mutational status were calculated using the Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis.Of 359 patients, 45 (12.5% had deleterious or damaging missense mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. BRCA1 mutations were more likely to be found in ER-negative than ER-positive breast cancer patients (P=0.01. Moreover, ER-negative patients with BRCA mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (40 vs. 48 years, P=0.008. Similarly, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patients were more likely to have BRCA1 mutations (P=0.001 and that these patients were diagnosed at a relatively younger age than non-TNBC patients (38 vs. 46 years, P=0.028. Our analysis has confirmed that ER-negative status, TNBC status and a FH of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC are strong factors predicting the likelihood of having BRCA mutations.Our study provides evidence that TNBC or ER-negative patients may benefit from BRCA genetic testing, particularly younger patients (<40 years or those with a strong FH of HBOC, in Asian patients.

  6. Prevalence and Associations of Retinal Emboli With Ethnicity, Stroke, and Renal Disease in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Teo, Kelvin; Zhao, Wanting; Wang, Jie Jin; Neelam, Kumari; Tan, Nicholas Y Q; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-10-01

    To our knowledge, population-based data on retinal emboli are limited in Asia. Besides its associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stroke, associations between retinal emboli and renal disease and function remain unclear. To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for retinal emboli in a large, contemporary, multiethnic Asian population. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 2004 to 2011 and included a total of 10 033 Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons aged 40 to 80 years residing in the general communities of Singapore. Analyses were performed from November 2016 to February 2017. Retinal emboli were ascertained from retinal photographs obtained from both eyes of all participants according to a standardized protocol. Age-standardized prevalence of retinal emboli was calculated using the 2010 Singapore adult population. Risk factors were assessed from comprehensive systemic and ophthalmic examinations, interviews, and laboratory investigations. Retinal emboli. Of the 10 033 participants, 9978 (99.5%) had gradable retinal photographs. Of these, 5057 (50.7%) were female, and 3375 (33.8%) were Indian. We identified 88 individuals (0.9%) with retinal emboli; the overall person-specific, age-standardized prevalence of retinal emboli was 0.75% (95% CI, 0.60-0.95), with the highest prevalence seen in the Indian cohort (0.98%), followed by the Chinese (0.73%) and Malay (0.44%) cohorts (P = .03). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, factors associated with prevalent retinal emboli included older age (per 5-year increase; odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41), Indian ethnicity (compared with Malay ethnicity; OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.95-6.60), hypertension (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.03-3.70), chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.15-3.64), creatinine level (per SD increase; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21), glomerular filtration rate (per SD increase; OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86), and history of stroke (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1

  7. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  8. Performance of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Revised Race and Ethnicity Categories in Asian Populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Joan L; Press, Nancy; Vollmer, William M; Harris, Emily L; Vogt, Thomas M; Chen, Chuhe

    2007-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity information recently divided the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category into "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander". The OMB's decision to disaggregate the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category was the first step toward providing these communities with information to better serve their needs. However, whether individuals who formerly made up the combined group categorize themselves as the new guidelines intend is a question analyzed in this report. METHODS: A subset of adults participating in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study completed both the OMB-minimum and the expanded race and ethnicity measure used in the National Health Interview Survey. We compared responses on the expanded measure contained within the OMB "Asian" definition (Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Chinese, and/or Other Asian) to "Asian" responses on the OMB-minimum measure. RESULTS: Mixed heritage Asians less often marked "Asian". Among mixed heritage Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos, 27%, 49%, and 52% did not mark "Asian" on the OMB measure, respectively. Eleven percent of single-heritage Filipinos did not mark "Asian." CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals formerly making up the combined "Asian or Pacific Islander" group do not categorize themselves as the revised OMB guidelines intend. This is particularly evident among Filipinos and among Asians of mixed heritage. This research illuminates the reliability and utility of the broad "Asian" category and points to possible consequences of collapsing groups into a single category, i.e., missed information and/or erroneous generalization.

  9. Identifying with Science: A case study of two 13-year-old `high achieving working class' British Asian girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, 'case study' style analysis of the experiences of two 13-year-old British Asian girls from a larger qualitative study investigating minority ethnic students' aspirations in science. Through the lens of identity as performativity and Bourdieu's notions of habitus and capital, the ways in which two girls engage with the field of science is examined. Samantha is British Indian and Fay is British Bangladeshi and they are both 'top set' students in science, but only one aspired to study triple science, while the other desired to be 'famous'. The experiences of the two girls are explicated in this paper, teasing out their experiences and constructions of science. It is argued that cultural discourses of family, peers and teacher expectations can shape students' perceptions of science and education.

  10. Critical shoulder angle in an East Asian population: correlation to the incidence of rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun; Shiota, Yuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-05-03

    Focus has recently been on the critical shoulder angle (CSA) as a factor related to rotator cuff tear and osteoarthritis (OA) in the European population. However, whether this relationship is observed in the Asian population is unclear. The correlation between the CSAs measured on anteroposterior radiographs and the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears or OA changes was assessed in 295 patients. Rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. OA findings were classified using the Samilson-Prieto classification. The CSAs among the patients with rotator cuff tears, OA changes, and those without pathologies were compared. Multivariable analyses were used to clarify the potential risks for these pathologies. The mean CSA with rotator cuff tear (33.9° ± 4.1°) was significantly greater than that without a rotator cuff tear (32.3° ± 4.5°; P = .002). Multivariable analysis also showed that a greater CSA had a significantly increased risk of rotator cuff tears, with the odds ratio of 1.08 per degree. OA findings showed no significant correlation to the CSAs. Our study demonstrates that the CSA is greater in those with a rotator cuff tear than in those without a tear or OA changes, which may be an independent risk factor for the incidence of rotator cuff tears in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  13. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2 in 156 (80.5% and low (Z score ≤ -2 in 38 (19.5% patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study.

  14. Obesity, hypertension, and migration: a meta-analysis of populations of the South Asian diaspora.

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    Madrigal, Lorena; Brady, Jeffrey; Raxter, Michelle; Ruiz, Ernesto; Otarola, Flory; Blell, Mwenza

    2011-02-01

    The effects of migration on human health have been a topic of interest for demographers and human biologists. Even if migrants to a new region achieve a higher standard of living in their new place of residence, their improved living conditions may not be associated with better health. Part of the difficulty of understanding the health consequences of migration is the complications in trying to control for variables that may affect health, such as gender, age, and urban or rural environment of migrants and nonmigrants. In this paper we report results of a meta-analysis of the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) of people of South Asian descent, by comparing nonmigrants who inhabit the subcontinent, with migrants who moved to various places around the globe. Our results indicate that BMI almost always increases to a significant level upon migration and that an increase in BMI is most pronounced in female migrants. Our results also show that BP does not always increase in migrant communities and that it is actually lower in some migrant samples than it is in comparable nonmigrant groups. Therefore, our results show that BP and the BMI do not behave in the same manner following a migration event. We propose that the BMI changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect different activity levels and diet in the new homeland. However, the BP changes experienced by migrants are likely to reflect stress broadly defined. Such stress may be increased or decreased, depending on the specific migration experience. We propose that the BMI and BP measure two different dimensions of the migration experience.

  15. Major single nucleotide polymorphisms in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a comparative analysis between Thai and other Asian populations

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    Chantaren P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patchima Chantaren1, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk1, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol2, Montip Tiensuwan3, Somying Promso41Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Virology and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the association in a Thai population between the major age-related macular degeneration (AMD susceptibility loci, Y402H and I62V in the complement factor H (CFH and A69S in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2 genes, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV.Methods: A case-control study included 97 PCV cases and 102 age- and gender-matched controls without any retinopathy. The genotypic profiles of the three polymorphisms were obtained using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The allelic and genotypic association between the polymorphisms and PCV were compared with those from the compiled data of other Asian populations reported previously.Results: Strong associations between the Y402H, I62V, and A69S polymorphisms and PCV were observed in the present study (P = 0.002, 0.003, and 0.0008 respectively and in the compiled data (P < 0.0001 for all three polymorphisms. The risk allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in PCVs and in controls from the present study (15.0% and 5.4% for Y402H, 71.7% and 57.4% for I62V, and 54.1% and 37.3% for A69S respectively were also comparable with the frequencies from the compiled data (10.3% and 6.4% for Y402H, 75.2% and 58.3% for I62V, and 56.8% and 36.8% for A69S respectively. The genotype distribution for each polymorphism was also comparable in both datasets.Conclusion: The findings of this study support a significant genetic association between the major AMD susceptibility genes and PCV across Asian

  16. Epstein-Barr virus latent gene sequences as geographical markers of viral origin: unique EBNA3 gene signatures identify Japanese viruses as distinct members of the Asian virus family.

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    Sawada, Akihisa; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kondo, Osamu; Yasui, Masahiro; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Inoue, Masami; Kawa, Keisei; Rickinson, Alan B; Tierney, Rosemary J

    2011-05-01

    Polymorphisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes can identify virus strains from different human populations and individual strains within a population. An Asian EBV signature has been defined almost exclusively from Chinese viruses, with little information from other Asian countries. Here we sequenced polymorphic regions of the EBNA1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and LMP1 genes of 31 Japanese strains from control donors and EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (T/NK-LPD) patients. Though identical to Chinese strains in their dominant EBNA1 and LMP1 alleles, Japanese viruses were subtly different at other loci. Thus, while Chinese viruses mainly fall into two families with strongly linked 'Wu' or 'Li' alleles at EBNA2 and EBNA3A/B/C, Japanese viruses all have the consensus Wu EBNA2 allele but fall into two families at EBNA3A/B/C. One family has variant Li-like sequences at EBNA3A and 3B and the consensus Li sequence at EBNA3C; the other family has variant Wu-like sequences at EBNA3A, variants of a low frequency Chinese allele 'Sp' at EBNA3B and a consensus Sp sequence at EBNA3C. Thus, EBNA3A/B/C allelotypes clearly distinguish Japanese from Chinese strains. Interestingly, most Japanese viruses also lack those immune-escape mutations in the HLA-A11 epitope-encoding region of EBNA3B that are so characteristic of viruses from the highly A11-positive Chinese population. Control donor-derived and T/NK-LPD-derived strains were similarly distributed across allelotypes and, by using allelic polymorphisms to track virus strains in patients pre- and post-haematopoietic stem-cell transplant, we show that a single strain can induce both T/NK-LPD and B-cell-lymphoproliferative disease in the same patient.

  17. Evaluation of the URIT-2900 automated hematology analyzer for screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian populations.

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    Karnpean, Rossarin; Pansuwan, Anupong; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of the URIT-2900 Hematology Analyzer for screening of hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asian populations was examined. Appropriate cut-off values of MCV and MCH for screening of α(0) and β thalassemias were derived from the receiver operator characteristic curve conducted initially on 279 subjects with various thalassemia genotypes. Validation was performed additionally in a cohort of another unrelated 313 subjects. The best cut off values of MCV and MCH were found to be 78fL and 27pg, respectively. Using these cut off values in combination with the dichlorophenolindophenol test in screening of α(0) thalassemia, β thalassemia and Hb E in a cohort study revealed 100% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. The combined blood cell counting using the URIT-2900 Automated Hematology Analyzer and dichlorophenolindophenol test is suitable for population screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

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    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  19. Worlds apart 2: Thailand and the Philippines. Heroes and villains in an Asian population drama.

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    Ness, G D

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."

  20. The New Asian Immigrants.

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    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  1. Using appropriate body mass index cut points for overweight and obesity among Asian Americans

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    Jih, Jane; Mukherjea, Arnab; Vittinghoff, Eric; Nguyen, Tung T.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Tseng, Winston; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans have low prevalence of overweight/obesity based on standard BMI cut points yet have higher rates of diabetes. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity, using lower BMI cut points recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians, and diabetes in Asian American subgroups in California. Method Secondary analysis of the 2009 adult California Health Interview Survey (n = 45,946) of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans, Hispanics and Asians (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian and Japanese). WHO Asian BMI cut points (overweight = 23–27.5 kg/m2; obese ≥ 27.5 kg/m2) were used for Asian subgroups. Standard BMI cut points (overweight = 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese ≥ 30 kg/m2) were applied for other groups. Results Among Asian subgroups, overweight/obesity was highest among Filipinos (78.6%), which was higher than NHWs (p Asians with BMI = 23–24.9 kg/m2 and Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese with BMI = 27.5–29.9 kg/m2, the ranges WHO recommends as overweight or obese for Asians but not for other groups. Conclusions Filipinos should be a priority population for overweight/obesity screening. Filipinos, Vietnamese, Korean, South Asians and Japanese have higher diabetes prevalence at lower BMI cut points. WHO Asian BMI cut points may have clinical utility to identify at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:24736092

  2. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

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    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Multiplexed SNP Typing of Ancient DNA Clarifies the Origin of Andaman mtDNA Haplogroups amongst South Asian Tribal Populations

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    Endicott, Phillip; Metspalu, Mait; Stringer, Chris; Macaulay, Vincent; Cooper, Alan; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of errors in genetic data sets is of growing concern, particularly in population genetics where whole genome mtDNA sequence data is coming under increased scrutiny. Multiplexed PCR reactions, combined with SNP typing, are currently under-exploited in this context, but have the potential to genotype whole populations rapidly and accurately, significantly reducing the amount of errors appearing in published data sets. To show the sensitivity of this technique for screening mtDNA genomic sequence data, 20 historic samples of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders and 12 modern samples from three Indian tribal populations (Chenchu, Lambadi and Lodha) were genotyped for 20 coding region sites after provisional haplogroup assignment with control region sequences. The genotype data from the historic samples significantly revise the topologies for the Andaman M31 and M32 mtDNA lineages by rectifying conflicts in published data sets. The new Indian data extend the distribution of the M31a lineage to South Asia, challenging previous interpretations of mtDNA phylogeography. This genetic connection between the ancestors of the Andamanese and South Asian tribal groups ∼30 kya has important implications for the debate concerning migration routes and settlement patterns of humans leaving Africa during the late Pleistocene, and indicates the need for more detailed genotyping strategies. The methodology serves as a low-cost, high-throughput model for the production and authentication of data from modern or ancient DNA, and demonstrates the value of museum collections as important records of human genetic diversity. PMID:17218991

  4. Conceptual parameters of acculturation within the Asian and Pacific Islander American populations: applications for nursing practice and research.

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    Baker, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (A&PIAs) are experiencing health inequities. For example, A&PIA is the only racial/ethnic group in America to experience cancer as their leading cause of death. Several studies within the A&PIA population have pointed to acculturation as a significant variable to explain their health and health-seeking behaviors. Acculturation is a key construct in understanding the health of the A&PIA population. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide a current conceptual understanding of the relationship between acculturation and health, especially within the A&PIA populations, which will serve as a pragmatic guideline for nursing practice and research. Understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the conceptual application of acculturation will aid in the development of appropriate programs to reduce health inequities. Acculturation was explored using the Morse method of concept analysis. An iterative historical and contemporary literature review across the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, and nursing was completed. Analytical questions asked of the resultant data provided the theoretical definition, antecedents, key attributes, outcomes, and implications. The concept analysis resulted in a new theoretical definition that includes multidimensional concepts of acculturation. Dilemmas in the measurement of key attributes of acculturation include unidirectional and bidirectional analysis, psychometric issues, and the appropriateness of proxy measurements. Outcomes of acculturation on health can be positive or negative and depend on an individual's or group's ability to navigate freely with necessary supports. Results of the conceptual analysis resulted in recommendations for nursing practice and future acculturation research. While debate continues about the appropriate use and definition of acculturation, researchers agree that it is an important construct in understanding the health of migrating

  5. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

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    Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.

  6. The STOP-BANG questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apneainduced hypertension in Asian population

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    Tanut Pavarangkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm.

  7. Early Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation after penetrating keratoplasty leads to better outcomes in an Asian population with preexisting glaucoma.

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    Ming-Cheng Tai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs, graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1 and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2. Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98, but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049 and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA (p21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation.

  8. Early Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation after Penetrating Keratoplasty Leads to Better Outcomes in an Asian Population with Preexisting Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Hao; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Liang, Chang-Min; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Chen, Ching-Long; Lu, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs), graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1) and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2). Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98), but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049) and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA) (pglaucoma, a history of previous PKP, and a preoperative IOP that was >21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. Conclusions/Significance Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation. PMID:22629464

  9. Fetal growth trajectories in pregnancies of European and South Asian mothers with and without gestational diabetes, a population-based cohort study.

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    Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nakstad, Britt; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd Harald; Birkeland, Kåre I; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the impact of gestational diabetes (GDM), from before the GDM-diagnosis is made, on fetal growth trajectories, and to compare it in Europeans and South Asians; two ethnic groups with dissimilar fetal growth patterns. We studied European (n = 349) and South Asian (n = 184) pregnant women, from the population-based STORK-Groruddalen cohort in Oslo, Norway. Mothers were enrolled in early pregnancy, screened for GDM in gestational week 28 ±2, and classified as "non-GDM", "mild GDM" or "moderate/severe GDM". We measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length by ultrasound, and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, and performed corresponding measurements at birth. In non-GDM pregnancies, South Asian fetuses (n = 156) had a slower growth from gestational week 24, compared with Europeans (n = 310). More than two thirds of the European mothers later diagnosed with GDM were overweight or obese in early pregnancy, while this was not observed in South Asians. Fetuses of GDM mothers tended to be smaller than fetuses of non-GDM mothers in week 24, but thereafter grew faster until birth. This pattern was especially pronounced in fetuses of South Asian mothers with moderate/severe GDM. In week 24 these fetuses had a -0.95 SD (95% CI: -1.53, -0.36) lower estimated fetal weight than their non-GDM counterparts. In contrast, at birth they were 0.45 SD (0.09, 0.81) larger. Offspring of GDM mothers were smaller in mid pregnancy, but subsequently grew faster until birth, compared with offspring of non-GDM mothers. This pattern was most prominent in South Asian mothers with moderate to severe GDM. However, the most remarkable characteristic of these fetuses was not a large size at birth, but the small size in mid pregnancy, before the GDM diagnosis was set.

  10. Population-based intervention for cardiovascular diseases related knowledge and behaviours in Asian Indian women.

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    Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and vitamin D deficiency in an Asian resident population.

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    Quraishi, Mohammed K; Badsha, Humeira

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a UAE population. Forty-five consecutive subjects were prospectively recruited during the early summer with their clinical examination and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) being recorded at a clinic appointment, along with their blood sample being taken for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) total test. Thirty-five (76%) patients claimed to be exposed to sunlight for Disease Activity Score (DAS28) or HAQ scores. A direct relationship was observed between HAQ scores and DAS28 scores (P culture. No association was observed between vitamin D and disease activity. However, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency may negatively impact on bone health of these patients in the future. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Management of Complex Knee Deformities in Asian Population: Our Experience of 11 Cases

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    Syed Shahid Noor

    2015-01-01

    Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA is a life changing procedure for such patients. Great improvements in quality of life and outcome measure scores have been observed in patients undergone TKA. Our patients are challenging further as compared to western population because they present late for consultation when the disease and deformity is advanced. Their expectations are high, as they wish to resume their ground base activities such as kneeling for prayers. Furthermore with financial constraints present with most of the patients, one has to be careful in choosing the type of implant and keep in consideration other alternative available options. This case series encompasses our experience of TKA on patients with variety of challenging deformities, their short term outcome and a review of the literature.

  13. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Optimizing Glycemic Control Through Titration of Insulin Glargine 100 U/mL: A Review of Current and Future Approaches with a Focus on Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Bajpai, Shailendra; Dwipayana, I Made Pande; Hussein, Zanariah; Mabunay, Maria Aileen; Rosales, Reynaldo; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tsang, Man Wo

    2017-12-01

    Various data have demonstrated inadequate glycemic control amongst Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly on account of suboptimal titration of basal insulin-an issue which needs to be further examined. Here we review the available global and Asia-specific data on titration of basal insulin, with a focus on the use of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). We also discuss clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of titrating Gla-100, different approaches to titration, including some of the latest technological advancements, and guidance on the titration of basal insulin from international and local Asian guidelines. The authors also provide their recommendations for the initiation and titration of basal insulin for Asian populations. Discussion of the data included in this review and in relation to the authors' clinical experience with treating T2DM in Asian patients is also included. Briefly, clinical studies demonstrate the achievement of adequate glycemic control in adults with T2DM through titration of Gla-100. However, studies investigating approaches to titration, specifically in Asian populations, are lacking and need to be conducted. Given that the management of insulin therapy is a multidisciplinary team effort involving endocrinologists, primary care physicians, nurse educators, and patients, greater resources and education targeted at these groups are needed regarding the optimal titration of basal insulin. Technological advancements in the form of mobile or web-based applications for automated dose adjustment can aid different stakeholders in optimizing the dose of basal insulin, enabling a larger number of patients in Asia to reach their target glycemic goals with improved outcomes.

  15. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.; Alves, Joel M.; Palmer, William J.; Day, Jonathan P.; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.; Black, William C., IV; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2017-01-01

    this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri

  16. Screening of the GPX3 gene identifies the "T" allele of the SNP -861A/T as a risk for ischemic stroke in young Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mohammad S; Biswas, Arijit; Rashid, Hina; Devi, Luxmi; Behari, Madhuri; Saxena, Renu

    2014-09-01

    Deficiency of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) has been associated with platelet-dependent thrombosis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of GPX3 gene have been found associated with the risk for ischemic stroke in Caucasian populations. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the impact of genetic variations in the GPX3 gene and plasma GPx-3 antigen levels on ischemic stroke in young Asian Indians. One hundred patients with ischemic stroke and 200 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Genetic analysis for the study population was done by a combination of variant screening using single-stranded conformation polymorphism and final genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reactions. Plasma GPx-3 antigen levels were evaluated using commercial kits. Data were analyzed using genetic analysis software and statistical tools. Significantly higher GPx-3 levels were observed in controls compared with patients (controls 26.37 ± 3.66 μg/mL and patients 22.83 ± 4.57 μg/mL, P stroke phenotype (P stroke (P ischemic stroke phenotype. The -861A/T and -568T/C SNPs may show a statistically significant association with both plasma GPx-3 antigen levels and the stroke phenotype in a larger sample size. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  18. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  19. Comparison of Muscle Recovery Following Bi-cruciate Substituting versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Akihito; Ryu, Keinosuke; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle recovery in the lower extremities following the newly developed bi-cruciate substituting (BCS) to posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the Asian population. Forty-one knees in 41 patients undergoing BCS-TKA (41 female, average age: 71 ± 8.8) and 34 knees in 34 patients undergoing PS-TKA (33 female, average age: 73 ± 7.2) were included in this study. The maximum isometric power of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery using a handheld dynamometer. Postoperative muscle recovery was calculated regarding preoperative muscle power as 100%. Pre- and postoperative range of knee motion, femorotibial angle, and clinical scores (Knee Society score and function score) were also compared. No significant difference in sex, age, preoperative quadriceps, or preoperative hamstring power was observed between the BCS and PS-TKA groups. When regarding the preoperative muscle power as 100%, quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 61.2 ± 22%, 86.3 ± 28.3%, 97 ± 27.4%, and 112.4 ± 30.8%, respectively. Quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 72.4 ± 20.8%, 84 ± 16.9%, 95 ± 20.7%, and 110.8 ± 27%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 96.3 ± 30%, 111.4 ± 35%, 120 ± 37%, and 125 ± 31%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 95 ± 25%, 112.4 ± 27%, 117 ± 38.5%, and 120.4 ± 18.5%, respectively. No significant difference in muscle power recovery was observed at 3 ( p  = 0.995), 6 ( p  = 0.944), and 12 ( p  = 0.917) months after surgery between the two groups. No significant difference of the clinical score was observed between the groups (Knee Society score: p  = 0.479, function score: p  = 0.342). No significant

  20. Asian patients with dyslipidemia in an urban population: Effect of ethnicity on their LDL-cholesterol treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Koh, Kim Hwee; Goh, Chin Chin; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Goh, Soo Chye Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for arthrosclerosis. It is the most common chronic disease among the multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Local national health survey has shown ethnic variability in achieving control of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients in primary care, who achieved their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol treatment goals, stratified by the local major ethnic groups. It also evaluated the factors that affected their dyslipidemia control, including diet, exercise and medication usage. Research assistants administered questionnaires on adult patients with physician-diagnosed dyslipidemia to determine their views on diet, exercise, and medications in this cross-sectional study in 2 local primary care clinics. Their lipid profiles were retrieved from their laboratory reports in their electronic health records. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for the categorical demographics and questionnaire variables, (P < .05: statistically significant). Logistic regression was performed using these significant variables to determine the adjusted odds of the ethnic groups. A total of 1093 eligible patients completed the questionnaires. The proportion of Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients who achieved LDL-cholesterol goals was 78.3%, 67.9%, and 68.5%, respectively. Among those who self-reported taking their favorite cholesterol-rich food occasionally when their cholesterol became controlled, 35.8% Indians failed to achieve treatment goals, compared to 20.1% Chinese and 30.9% Malay patients. Regular medication adherence was associated with 81.8% Chinese, 69.0% Malay, and 69.7% Indian reaching treatment goals. More Chinese met LDL-cholesterol treatment goals compared to Malays and Indians. Lipid-lowering medications enabled but smoking hindered their achievement of these treatment goals. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire and the Singapore prospective study program physical activity questionnaire in a multiethnic urban Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai E Shyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity patterns of a population remain mostly assessed by the questionnaires. However, few physical activity questionnaires have been validated in Asian populations. We previously utilized a combination of different questionnaires to assess leisure time, transportation, occupational and household physical activity in the Singapore Prospective Study Program (SP2. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ has been developed for a similar purpose. In this study, we compared estimates from these two questionnaires with an objective measure of physical activity in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Physical activity was measured in 152 Chinese, Malay and Asian Indian adults using an accelerometer over five consecutive days, including a weekend. Participants completed both the physical activity questionnaire in SP2 (SP2PAQ and IPAQ long form. 43subjects underwent a second set of measurements on average 6 months later to assess reproducibility of the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements. Spearman correlations were used to evaluate validity and reproducibility and correlations for validity were corrected for within-person variation of accelerometer measurements. Agreement between the questionnaires and the accelerometer measurements was also evaluated using Bland Altman plots. Results The corrected correlation with accelerometer estimates of energy expenditure from physical activity was better for the SP2PAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.73; moderate activity: r = 0.27 than for the IPAQ (vigorous activity: r = 0.31; moderate activity: r = 0.15. For moderate activity, the corrected correlation between SP2PAQ and the accelerometer was higher for Chinese (r = 0.38 and Malays (r = 0.57 than for Indians (r = -0.09. Both questionnaires overestimated energy expenditure from physical activity to a greater extent at higher levels of physical activity than at lower levels of physical activity. The

  2. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832, East Asian (n = 9,449, and European (n = 10,829 ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4 in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.

  3. Suboptimal vitamin D status in a population-based study of Asian children: prevalence and relation to allergic diseases and atopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New evidence shows high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in many countries and some studies suggest a possible link between vitamin D status and allergic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in a population sample of Asian children and to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status with allergic diseases and atopy. METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years (N = 1315 in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese CHildren (PATCH study were evaluated using questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and total and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE. RESULTS: The mean concentration of serum 25(OHD was 20.4 ng/mL (SD: 7.1 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25(OHD0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OHD levels are remarkably common in this population sample of Asian children, suggesting that millions of children living in Taiwan may have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which should be a matter of public health concern. Our results provides epidemiological evidence against the association of vitamin D status with various allergic diseases and atopy in Asian children.

  4. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  5. Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival Among Asian Women by Ethnicity and Immigrant Status: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival. Methods. We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007. Results. US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics. Conclusions. Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control. PMID:20299648

  6. Is cardiovascular risk reduction therapy effective in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes? A population-based cohort study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Calvin H; Morgan, Steve; Smolina, Kate; Gasevic, Danijela; Qian, Hong; Khan, Nadia A

    2017-08-31

    Guidelines recommend ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics in all patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the effectiveness of these agents in South Asian and Chinese populations is unknown. We sought to determine whether ACEi, ARB, CCB and diuretics are associated with reduced mortality in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes. Population-based cohort study using administrative health databases. Province of British Columbia, Canada (2006-2013). Patients aged ≥35 years with incident diabetes. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality for each medication class compared with untreated patients within each ethnicity. Treatment effect was assessed using inverse probability of treatment weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Medication adherence effect on mortality was also evaluated. 208 870 patients (13 755 South Asian, 22 871 Chinese, 172 244 other Canadian) were included. ACEi reduced mortality in other patients (HR=0.88, 0.84-0.91), but power was insufficient to evaluate for benefit in Chinese and South Asian patients. ARB and diuretics reduced mortality in Chinese (ARB HR=0.64, 0.50-0.82; diuretics HR=0.77, 0.62-0.96) and other patients (ARB HR=0.69, 0.64-0.74; diuretics HR=0.66, 0.63-0.69) compared with untreated patients. No mortality benefit was observed among South Asians for any drug class or for CCB among all ethnicities. Higher medication adherence was associated with lower mortality for other patients only (HR=0.79, 0.72-0.86). Effectiveness of cardiovascular risk reduction therapy on mortality varies considerably by ethnicity. Further study is needed to evaluate the mortality benefit of antihypertensive agents in South Asians. Inclusion of these ethnic groups in future clinical trials is essential to examine for differential responses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  7. PedMine – A simulated annealing algorithm to identify maximally unrelated individuals in population isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Julie A.; Sandefur, Conner I.

    2008-01-01

    In family-based genetic studies, it is often useful to identify a subset of unrelated individuals. When such studies are conducted in population isolates, however, most if not all individuals are often detectably related to each other. To identify a set of maximally unrelated (or equivalently, minimally related) individuals, we have implemented simulated annealing, a general-purpose algorithm for solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate our method on data from a ge...

  8. Genetic diversity of the captive Asian tapir population in Thailand, based on mitochondrial control region sequence data and the comparison of its nucleotide structure with Brazilian tapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Amano, Akira; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Thongtip, Nikorn; Kaolim, Nongnid; Sukmak, Manakorn; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Maikaew, Umaporn; Thomas, Warisara; Polsrila, Kanda; Dongsaard, Kwanreaun; Sanannu, Saowaphang; Wattananorrasate, Anuwat

    2017-07-01

    The Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2008). Genetic diversity data provide important information for the management of captive breeding and conservation of this species. We analyzed mitochondrial control region (CR) sequences from 37 captive Asian tapirs in Thailand. Multiple alignments of the full-length CR sequences sized 1268 bp comprised three domains as described in other mammal species. Analysis of 16 parsimony-informative variable sites revealed 11 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis using median-joining network clearly showed three clades correlated with our earlier cytochrome b gene study in this endangered species. The repetitive motif is located between first and second conserved sequence blocks, similar to the Brazilian tapir. The highest polymorphic site was located in the extended termination associated sequences domain. The results could be applied for future genetic management based in captivity and wild that shows stable populations.

  9. A longitudinal genetic survey identifies temporal shifts in the population structure of Dutch house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousseau, L; Husemann, M; Foppen, R; Vangestel, C; Lens, L

    2016-01-01

    Dutch house sparrow (Passer domesticus) densities dropped by nearly 50% since the early 1980s, and similar collapses in population sizes have been reported across Europe. Whether, and to what extent, such relatively recent demographic changes are accompanied by concomitant shifts in the genetic population structure of this species needs further investigation. Therefore, we here explore temporal shifts in genetic diversity, genetic structure and effective sizes of seven Dutch house sparrow populations. To allow the most powerful statistical inference, historical populations were resampled at identical locations and each individual bird was genotyped using nine polymorphic microsatellites. Although the demographic history was not reflected by a reduction in genetic diversity, levels of genetic differentiation increased over time, and the original, panmictic population (inferred from the museum samples) diverged into two distinct genetic clusters. Reductions in census size were supported by a substantial reduction in effective population size, although to a smaller extent. As most studies of contemporary house sparrow populations have been unable to identify genetic signatures of recent population declines, results of this study underpin the importance of longitudinal genetic surveys to unravel cryptic genetic patterns. PMID:27273323

  10. Issues of College Persistence between Asian and Asian Pacific American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Theresa Ling

    2004-01-01

    This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…

  11. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Prabu

    Full Text Available Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  12. Circulating MiRNAs of ‘Asian Indian Phenotype’ Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians—an ethnic population characterized to represent ‘Asian Indian phenotype’ known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a ‘New Lead’ in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes. PMID:26020947

  13. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  14. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  15. Genome-wide association study meta-analysis of European and Asian-ancestry samples identifies three novel loci associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D T; Jiang, X; Akula, N; Shugart, Y Y; Wendland, J R; Steele, C J M; Kassem, L; Park, J-H; Chatterjee, N; Jamain, S; Cheng, A; Leboyer, M; Muglia, P; Schulze, T G; Cichon, S; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; McMahon, F J; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P; Craig, I; Lewis, C; Hosang, G; Cohen-Woods, S; Vincent, J B; Kennedy, J L; Strauss, J

    2013-02-01

    Meta-analyses of bipolar disorder (BD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genome-wide significant signals in European-ancestry samples, but so far account for little of the inherited risk. We performed a meta-analysis of ∼750,000 high-quality genetic markers on a combined sample of ∼14,000 subjects of European and Asian-ancestry (phase I). The most significant findings were further tested in an extended sample of ∼17,700 cases and controls (phase II). The results suggest novel association findings near the genes TRANK1 (LBA1), LMAN2L and PTGFR. In phase I, the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9834970 near TRANK1, was significant at the P=2.4 × 10(-11) level, with no heterogeneity. Supportive evidence for prior association findings near ANK3 and a locus on chromosome 3p21.1 was also observed. The phase II results were similar, although the heterogeneity test became significant for several SNPs. On the basis of these results and other established risk loci, we used the method developed by Park et al. to estimate the number, and the effect size distribution, of BD risk loci that could still be found by GWAS methods. We estimate that >63,000 case-control samples would be needed to identify the ∼105 BD risk loci discoverable by GWAS, and that these will together explain <6% of the inherited risk. These results support previous GWAS findings and identify three new candidate genes for BD. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and may potentially lead to identification of functional variants. Sample size will remain a limiting factor in the discovery of common alleles associated with BD.

  16. The effect of tranexamic acid in unilateral and bilateral total knee arthroplasty in the South Asian population: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrih, Syed Hamza; Malik, Azeem Tariq; Qureshi, Nada Qaisar; Lakdawala, Riaz Hussain; Rabbani, Muhammad Umar; Ali, Arif; Noordin, Shahryar

    2018-04-01

    Together with evidence of higher bleeding tendencies, the vulnerability of the South-Asian population to anemia secondary to a higher prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and micronutrient deficiencies merits further exploration of the effects of tranexamic acid on this population. Additionally, limited access to self-care facilities and certain sociocultural beliefs and practices may not be conducive to a speedy recovery from surgical complications. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intraoperative administration of tranexamic acid during total knee arthroplasty when considering the South-Asian population. Medical record files of 355 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (2007-2015) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient characteristics, surgical variables and post-operative complications. Unilateral and Bilateral total knee arthroplasty were studied separately. Analysis was done using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square and Fisher's exact square where appropriate. The threshold for significance was p tranexamic acid caused a significant reduction in estimated blood loss (p-value=0.011), total operative time, calculated blood loss, and hemoglobin change (p-valuetranexamic acid only caused a significant reduction in calculated blood loss (p-value tranexamic acid vs. those who did not, there was a significant increase in length of hospital stay (ptranexamic acid effectively reduces intraoperative blood loss, it does not have an effect on the need for post-operative blood transfusions. The increased length of stay and special care unit admissions associated with tranexamic acid use should be explored further to reveal the complete safety profile of tranexamic acid administration in the South-Asian population during total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Potato and Asian Citrus Psyllid Adult and Nymph Transcriptomes Identified Vector Transcripts with Potential Involvement in Circulative, Propagative Liberibacter Transmission

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    Tonja W. Fisher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid (PoP Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc and Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso and Ca. L. asiaticus (CLas, respectively. CLso causes Zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, CLas causes citrus greening disease. The reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in alternative approaches, including RNA interference to abate expression of genes essential for psyllid-mediated Ca. Liberibacter transmission. To identify genes with significantly altered expression at different life stages and conditions of CLso/CLas infection, cDNA libraries were constructed for CLso-infected and -uninfected PoP adults and nymphal instars. Illumina sequencing produced 199,081,451 reads that were assembled into 82,224 unique transcripts. PoP and the analogous transcripts from ACP adult and nymphs reported elsewhere were annotated, organized into functional gene groups using the Gene Ontology classification system, and analyzed for differential in silico expression. Expression profiles revealed vector life stage differences and differential gene expression associated with Liberibacter infection of the psyllid host, including invasion, immune system modulation, nutrition, and development.

  18. A new approach to chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers identifies new associations in Asian and European case-parent triads of orofacial clefts.

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    Øivind Skare

    Full Text Available GWAS discoveries on the X-chromosome are underrepresented in the literature primarily because the analytical tools that have been applied were originally designed for autosomal markers. Our objective here is to employ a new robust and flexible tool for chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers in complex traits. Orofacial clefts are good candidates for such analysis because of the consistently observed excess of females with cleft palate only (CPO and excess of males with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P.Genotypes for 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European isolated cleft triads were available from a previously published GWAS. The R-package HAPLIN enables genome-wide-level analyses as well as statistical power simulations for a range of biologic scenarios. We analyzed isolated CL/P and isolated CPO for each ethnicity in HAPLIN, using a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis and two different statistical models, with and without X-inactivation in females.There was a larger number of associations in the Asian versus the European sample, and similar to previous reports that have analyzed the same GWAS dataset using different methods, we identified associations with EFNB1/PJA1 and DMD. In addition, new associations were detected with several other genes, among which KLHL4, TBX22, CPXCR1 and BCOR were noteworthy because of their roles in clefting syndromes. A few of the associations were only detected by one particular X-inactivation model, whereas a few others were only detected in one sex.We found new support for the involvement of X-linked variants in isolated clefts. The associations were specific for ethnicity, sex and model parameterization, highlighting the need for flexible tools that are capable of detecting and estimating such effects. Further efforts are needed to verify and elucidate the potential roles of EFNB1/PJA1, KLHL4, TBX22, CPXCR1 and BCOR in isolated clefts.

  19. Diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs for gastric cancer in Asian populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiutang; Liu, Jianchao

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) accounts for one of the highest mortality worldwide and particularly in East Asia. Many studies have reported on the potential value of microRNAs (miRNAs) detection for diagnosing GC, but their results have proven inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of circulating miRNAs for GC diagnosis. A literature search was carried out in databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and CNKI) and other sources using combinations of keywords relating to GC, miRNAs, and diagnosis. The values of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) reported in individual studies were pooled using random-effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were assessed with subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess the diagnosis accuracy of miRNAs. This meta-analysis included 1,279 patients with GC and 954 healthy controls from 20 publications. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 0.78 (95 % CI: 0.73-0.81), 0.80 (95 % CI: 0.76-0.84), 4.0 (95 % CI: 3.1-6.0), 0.28 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.34), 14 (95 % CI: 10-21), and 0.86 (95 % CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that early stages (I and II) GC were more easily detected than later stages and that multiple miRNAs assays were more accurate than single miRNA assays. Our meta-analysis suggests that miRNAs have a high diagnostic value for GC, especially in its early stages (I and II). In addition, multiple miRNAs assays have a better diagnosis value than single miRNA assays. In conclusion, circulating miRNAs might be used as noninvasive biomarkers for the confirmation of GC detection in Asian populations.

  20. High rates of pneumonia in children under two years of age in a South East Asian refugee population.

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    Claudia Turner

    Full Text Available There are an estimated 150 million episodes of childhood pneumonia per year, with 11-20 million hospital admissions and 1.575 million deaths. Refugee children are particularly vulnerable, with poorly defined pneumonia epidemiology.We followed a birth cohort of 955 refugee infants, born over a one-year period, until two years of age. Clinical and radiographic pneumonia were diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Detailed characteristics were collected to determine risk factors for clinical, radiological and multiple episodes of pneumonia. Investigations were taken during a pneumonia episode to help determine or to infer an aetiological diagnosis.The incidence of clinical pneumonia was 0.73 (95% CI 0.70-0.75 episodes per child year (/CY and of radiological primary endpoint pneumonia (PEP was 0.22/CY (95% CI 0.20-0.24. The incidence of pneumonia without severe signs was 0.50/CY (95% CI 0.48-0.53, severe pneumonia 0.15/CY (95% CI 0.13-0.17 and very severe pneumonia 0.06/CY (0.05-0.07. Virus was detected, from a nasopharyngeal aspirate, in 61.3% of episodes. A reduced volume of living space per person (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.0, p = 0.003 and young maternal age (IRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12-2.27, p = 0.01 were risk factors for developing pneumonia. The risk of a child having >1 episode of pneumonia was increased by having a shorter distance to the next house (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00, p = 0.04. Infants were at risk of having an episode of PEP if there was a shorter distance from stove to bed (IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03. Raised CRP and neutrophil values were associated with PEP.There was a high incidence of pneumonia in young children in this SE Asian refugee population. Viral infections were important, however CXR and non-specific marker findings suggested that bacteria may be involved in up to a third of cases.

  1. Comparing characteristics and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in low-flow vs normal-flow severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Tan, Benjamin Yong-Qiang; Sia, Ching-Hui; Lee, Glenn K M; Kong, William K F; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-05-01

    In severe aortic stenosis (AS), deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to 50%) and with paired echocardiography were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified factors associated with LVEF deterioration. Clinical outcomes were determined on follow-up for more than 5 years. Significant LVEF deterioration (to <50%) was seen in 18% of low-flow (initial LVEF 63±8% to 32±9%) and 18% of normal-flow AS (61±7% to 31±12%). Independent factors in low-flow AS were hypertension (OR: 30.7, 95% CI: 2.0-467.6, P=.014) and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.086, 95% CI: 1.022-1.153, P=.008), compared to normal-flow, which were hypertension (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 3.1-81.9, P=.001), higher septal E/E' ratio (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35, P=.043), lower septal S' velocity (OR: 0.204, 95% CI: 0.061-0.682, P=.010), and higher end-systolic wall stress (OR: 1.051, 95% CI: 1.001-1.104, P=.047). Overall, a third of the cohort experienced MACE, regardless of flow (log-rank 0.048, P=.827). However, aortic valve replacement (AVR) rates were lower in low-flow AS (20% vs 43%, P=.005). Low-flow AS despite normal LVEF appears similar to normal-flow in terms of LVEF deterioration and clinical outcomes in our Asian population. AVR rate was lower even though low-flow may not reflect less severe disease. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Powell O; Frank, Ariel T H; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-12-16

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs. The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Asian populations from six countries : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information

  4. DESCARTES' RULE OF SIGNS AND THE IDENTIFIABILITY OF POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS FROM GENOMIC VARIATION DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Song, Yun S

    2014-01-01

    The sample frequency spectrum (SFS) is a widely-used summary statistic of genomic variation in a sample of homologous DNA sequences. It provides a highly efficient dimensional reduction of large-scale population genomic data and its mathematical dependence on the underlying population demography is well understood, thus enabling the development of efficient inference algorithms. However, it has been recently shown that very different population demographies can actually generate the same SFS for arbitrarily large sample sizes. Although in principle this nonidentifiability issue poses a thorny challenge to statistical inference, the population size functions involved in the counterexamples are arguably not so biologically realistic. Here, we revisit this problem and examine the identifiability of demographic models under the restriction that the population sizes are piecewise-defined where each piece belongs to some family of biologically-motivated functions. Under this assumption, we prove that the expected SFS of a sample uniquely determines the underlying demographic model, provided that the sample is sufficiently large. We obtain a general bound on the sample size sufficient for identifiability; the bound depends on the number of pieces in the demographic model and also on the type of population size function in each piece. In the cases of piecewise-constant, piecewise-exponential and piecewise-generalized-exponential models, which are often assumed in population genomic inferences, we provide explicit formulas for the bounds as simple functions of the number of pieces. Lastly, we obtain analogous results for the "folded" SFS, which is often used when there is ambiguity as to which allelic type is ancestral. Our results are proved using a generalization of Descartes' rule of signs for polynomials to the Laplace transform of piecewise continuous functions.

  5. DESCARTES’ RULE OF SIGNS AND THE IDENTIFIABILITY OF POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS FROM GENOMIC VARIATION DATA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Song, Yun S.

    2016-01-01

    The sample frequency spectrum (SFS) is a widely-used summary statistic of genomic variation in a sample of homologous DNA sequences. It provides a highly efficient dimensional reduction of large-scale population genomic data and its mathematical dependence on the underlying population demography is well understood, thus enabling the development of efficient inference algorithms. However, it has been recently shown that very different population demographies can actually generate the same SFS for arbitrarily large sample sizes. Although in principle this nonidentifiability issue poses a thorny challenge to statistical inference, the population size functions involved in the counterexamples are arguably not so biologically realistic. Here, we revisit this problem and examine the identifiability of demographic models under the restriction that the population sizes are piecewise-defined where each piece belongs to some family of biologically-motivated functions. Under this assumption, we prove that the expected SFS of a sample uniquely determines the underlying demographic model, provided that the sample is sufficiently large. We obtain a general bound on the sample size sufficient for identifiability; the bound depends on the number of pieces in the demographic model and also on the type of population size function in each piece. In the cases of piecewise-constant, piecewise-exponential and piecewise-generalized-exponential models, which are often assumed in population genomic inferences, we provide explicit formulas for the bounds as simple functions of the number of pieces. Lastly, we obtain analogous results for the “folded” SFS, which is often used when there is ambiguity as to which allelic type is ancestral. Our results are proved using a generalization of Descartes’ rule of signs for polynomials to the Laplace transform of piecewise continuous functions. PMID:28018011

  6. Studying the Genetics of Complex Disease With Ancestry-Specific Human Phenotype Networks: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes in East Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Ben; Sung, Hyuna; Low, Siew-Kee; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lu, Wei; Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Wen, Wanqing; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Noh, Dong-Young; Shen, Chen-Yang; Matsuo, Keitaro; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hartman, Mikael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Matsuda, Koichi; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Min Ho; Zheng, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Park, Sue K.; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Chan, Kelvin Y. K.; Man, Ellen P. S.; Iwata, Hiroji; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Miao, Hui; Liao, Jiemin; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Bingshan; Li, Chun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kang, Daehee; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified three novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene, P = 8.82 × 10−9), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene, P = 1.67 × 10−9), and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene, P = 4.25 × 10−8). These associations were replicated in European-ancestry populations including 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls (P = 0.030, 0.004, and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 may be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer. PMID:25038754

  8. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  9. Identifying Copy Number Variants under Selection in Geographically Structured Populations Based on -statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Hiang Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale copy number variants (CNVs in the human provide the raw material for delineating population differences, as natural selection may have affected at least some of the CNVs thus far discovered. Although the examination of relatively large numbers of specific ethnic groups has recently started in regard to inter-ethnic group differences in CNVs, identifying and understanding particular instances of natural selection have not been performed. The traditional FST measure, obtained from differences in allele frequencies between populations, has been used to identify CNVs loci subject to geographically varying selection. Here, we review advances and the application of multinomial-Dirichlet likelihood methods of inference for identifying genome regions that have been subject to natural selection with the FST estimates. The contents of presentation are not new; however, this review clarifies how the application of the methods to CNV data, which remains largely unexplored, is possible. A hierarchical Bayesian method, which is implemented via Markov Chain Monte Carlo, estimates locus-specific FST and can identify outlying CNVs loci with large values of FST. By applying this Bayesian method to the publicly available CNV data, we identified the CNV loci that show signals of natural selection, which may elucidate the genetic basis of human disease and diversity.

  10. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  11. Association of mRNA expression of TP53 and the TP53 codon 72 Arg/Pro gene polymorphism with colorectal cancer risk in Asian population: a bioinformatics analysis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Longzhi; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Cunchuan

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between TP53 codon 72 Pro/Arg gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Asians is still controversial, and this bioinformatics analysis and meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and eligible reports were included. RevMan 5.3.1 software, Oncolnc, cBioPortal, and Oncomine online tools were used for statistical analysis. A random/fixed effects model was used in meta-analysis. The data were reported as risk ratios or mean differences with corresponding 95% CI. We confirmed that TP53 was associated with colorectal cancer, the alteration frequency of TP53 was 53% mutation and 7% deep deletion, and TP53 mRNA expression was different in different types of colorectal cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then, 18 studies were included that examine the association of TP53 codon 72 gene polymorphism with colorectal cancer risk in Asians. The meta-analysis indicated that TP53 Pro allele and Pro/Pro genotype were associated with colorectal cancer risk in Asian population, but Arg/Arg genotype was not (Pro allele: odds ratios [OR]=1.20, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.35, P =0.003; Pro/Pro genotype: OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.69, P =0.0007; Arg/Arg genotype: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.00, P =0.05). Interestingly, in the meta-analysis of the controls from the population-based studies, we found that TP53 codon 72 Pro/Arg gene polymorphism was associated with colorectal cancer risk (Pro allele: OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.55, P =0.0002; Pro/Pro genotype: OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.02, P colorectal cancer, but the different value levels of mRNA expression were not associated with survival rate of colon and rectal cancer. TP53 Pro allele and Pro/Pro genotype were associated with colorectal cancer risk in Asians.

  12. Identifying Dieters Who Will Develop an Eating Disorder: A Prospective, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A.; Davies, Beverley A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to identify the characteristics of the dieters most at risk of subsequently developing an eating disorder and to evaluate the feasibility of using a brief questionnaire to identify such dieters in advance. Method A general population cohort of 2,992 young women who were dieting was identified. On four occasions over the subsequent 2 years, this cohort was sent a questionnaire concerning eating habits and attitudes. Participants whose responses suggested that they had developed an eating disorder were interviewed to establish their true case status. The baseline questionnaires of those who did and did not subsequently develop an eating disorder were compared to identify features that predicted future case status. Results One hundred four of the dieters developed an eating disorder of clinical severity during the 2 years of follow-up. Their baseline questionnaire scores differed in many respects from those who had not developed an eating disorder. Items associated with developing an eating disorder were selected by using three different statistical methods. A simple case-predicting instrument based on one of five items scoring above an optimal cut point had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 72% (overall efficiency of 72%). Conclusions Dieters who will develop an eating disorder within the next 2 years have distinctive features. It is feasible to identify them in advance with reasonable efficiency with a brief questionnaire. This questionnaire could be incorporated into routine health assessments, thereby identifying those at high risk. PMID:16330587

  13. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

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    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  14. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  15. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  16. [Meta-analysis on relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 in ABCG2 gene and gout in East Asian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Zhang, Di

    2015-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout in East Asian population. The literature retrieval was conducted by using English databases (Medline, EMbase), Chinese databases (CNKI, Vip, Wanfang, SinaMed) and others to collect the published papers on the association between single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 genetic susceptibility and gout by the end of December 2014. Meta-analysis was performed with software Stata 12.0. Nine studies were included. There were significant associations between increased risk of gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142, the combined OR was 2.04 (95%CI: 1.82-2.28) for A allele and C allele, 1.97 (95%CI: 1.57-2.48) for CA and CC, 3.71 (95%CI: 3.07-4.47) for AA and CC. Sex and region specific subgroup analysis showed less heterogeneity. There is significant association between gout and single nucleotide polymorphism of rs2231142 in East Asian population, and A allele is a high risk gene for gout.

  17. Lupus, still a mystery: A comparison of clinical features of Pakistani population living in suburbs of Karachi with other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, M.; Nazir, L.; Riaz, A.; Kidwai, S.S.; Haroon, W.; Siddiq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presenting features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at a private hospital in Karachi, and to compare the features with those of other Asian populations. Methods: The retrospective study comprised records of all lupus cases meeting the revised American Rheumatism Association criteria at the time of presentation at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, from May 2008 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Of the 105 cases in the study, there were 6 (5.7%) males and 99 (94.3%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:16 and a mean age of 31.6+-10.5 years. Clinical manifestations included: constitutional symptoms in (n=69; 65.7%), arthropathy (n=81; 77%), cutaneous involvement (n=39; 37%), lupus nephritis (n=24; 22.8%), pleurisy (n=9; 8.6%), Raynaud's phenomenon (n=24; 22.8%), and vasculitis (n=18; 17%). One (0.95%) patient presented with mononeuritis multiplex, and 1 (0.95%) with acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: The diversity in clinical presentation appeared to be a reflection of the great variability that exists among Asian countries with regards to their genetic, environmental and socio-demographic backgrounds. The differences also existed in our own population, suggesting some unknown etiology. (author)

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

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    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  19. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  20. Oculocutaneous albinism: identifying and overcoming barriers to vision care in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, N N; Eze, B I; Onwubiko, S N; Arinze, O C; Onwasigwe, E N; Umeh, R E

    2014-06-01

    To assess eye care service utilization, and identify access barriers in a south-eastern Nigerian albino population. The study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in Enugu state between August, 2011 and January, 2012. Using the data base of the state's Albino Foundation and tailored awareness creation, persons living with albinism were identified and recruited at two study centres. Data on participants' socio-demographics, perception of vision, visual needs, previous eye examination and or low vision assessment, use of glasses or low vision devices were collected. Reasons for non-utilisation of available vision care services were also obtained. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. A p low vision assessment and none--0.0% had used low vision device. Of the participants, 82.4% reported previous eye examination, 33.3% had not used spectacles previously, despite the existing need. Ignorance--88.9% and poor access--8.5% were the main barriers to uptake of vision care services. In Enugu, Nigeria, there is poor awareness and low utilization of vision care services among people with albinism. The identified barriers to vision care access are amenable to awareness creation and logistic change in the provision of appropriate vision care services.

  1. Reconstructing the population activity of olfactory output neurons that innervate identifiable processing units

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    Shigehiro Namiki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the functional organization of the moth antennal lobe (AL, the primary olfactory network, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings and anatomical identification. The moth AL contains about 60 processing units called glomeruli that are identifiable from one animal to another. We were able to monitor the output information of the AL by recording the activity of a population of output neurons, each of which innervated a single glomerulus. Using compiled intracellular recordings and staining data from different animals, we mapped the odor-evoked dynamics on a digital atlas of the AL and geometrically reconstructed the population activity. We examined the quantitative relationship between the similarity of olfactory responses and the anatomical distance between glomeruli. Globally, the olfactory response profile was independent of the anatomical distance, although some local features were present.

  2. Game over: Asian Americans and video game representation [symposium

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    Thien-bao Thuc Phi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.

  3. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  4. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    group. These findings have implications for screening, and early cardiovascular prevention strategies in South Asian populations. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  5. Differential distribution and association of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism with obesity: A cross-sectional study among two tribal populations of India with East-Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Somorjit Singh; Chhungi, Varhlun; Newmei, Masan Kambo; Rajkumari, Sunanda; Devi, Naorem Kiranmala; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava

    2018-03-20

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene polymorphism is most widely studied in terms of obesity in various populations. Recently, the prevalence of obesity has been reported to be very high among the North-Eastern State of India. The major aim of the present study is to understand the extent of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and its association with obesity among the two North-East Indian tribal populations with similar East Asian ancestry. Somatometric data and fasting blood sample were collected from 521 tribal individuals (258 Liangmai and 263 Mizo) of Manipur after obtaining written informed consent. Genotyping of FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism method for PCR-amplified fragments. Both the presently studied populations were not following Hardy-Weinberg law. The prevalence of obesity and minor allele frequency of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was found to be significantly higher among the Mizo tribe compared to that of Liangmai. The selected polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with obesity (BMI) only among the Liangmai tribe (Odds ratio-3.0; 95% CI-1.4, 6.4; p-0.003), after adjusting for age and occupation. Age-cohort wise distribution and absolute fitness analysis indicated the lower fitness of minor allele in the higher age group among the Liangmai tribe. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first study, associating FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism and obesity in the North-eastern Indian tribal populations with East-Asian ancestry. This study revealed the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism is observed to be associated with obesity only among the Liangmai tribe not among the Mizo tribe. The differential distribution and association observed in the two selected tribes, inhabited in a similar geographical region, could be attributed to differences in their migratory histories in terms of both route and time of settlement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  6. Coeliac disease in Asians in a single centre in southern Derbyshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Geoffrey KT; Moor, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Background Coeliac disease affects adult Asians from north India, Pakistan and Bangladesh in the UK but how commonly this occurs is unknown. An audit of coeliac disease was therefore conducted in a well-defined area in southern Derbyshire. Methods All white and Asian patients with biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease diagnosed between 1958 and 2008 were identified. Population data from the Office of National Statistics allowed the calculation of prevalence. Presenting symptoms, adherence to a gluten-free diet and follow-up record were determined for Asians and compared with matched white patients. Results Among 1305 coeliac patients diagnosed between 1958 and 2008, 82 were Asian. Coeliac disease occurred significantly more frequently in Asian than white individuals and this could be attributed to the significantly higher prevalence in women 16 years and older and under 60 years of age. No Asian man over the age of 65 years was diagnosed with coeliac disease. Asians are more likely to present with anaemia and less likely to present with diarrhoea than white individuals. Asians are less likely to adhere to a strict gluten-free diet than white patients. Conclusions This baseline audit indicates that increased efforts should be directed towards diagnosing coeliac disease in Asian men over the age of 65 years, in whom at present it is unrepresented. Strategies also need to be developed to help more Asian patients adhere strictly to the gluten-free diet. PMID:28839681

  7. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  8. Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the Asian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, J I; Baker, J L; Vowden, P; Wilkinson, D

    2001-03-01

    Studies relating to the ethnic origin of patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are few and are mainly concerned with the differences between black and white Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the incidence of AAA among the Asian population of Bradford is different from that in the Caucasian population. A retrospective study of patients with an AAA was carried out between 1990 and 1997 using data collected by the Patient Administrative Service, personal databases of the vascular consultants and theatre records. Information about the ethnic composition of the population of Bradford was obtained from the 1991 national census. Demographic data, including ethnic origin and clinical details, were obtained from patient notes. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with an AAA were identified during the study interval. The Asian population comprised 14.0 per cent of the total population of Bradford. Twenty-eight AAAs would be expected per year. All of the aneurysms identified occurred in the Caucasian population and none in the Asian community. These early results suggest that AAA is rare among the Asian population.

  9. Gaussian Graphical Models Identify Networks of Dietary Intake in a German Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Khalid; Buijsse, Brian; Wirth, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    Data-reduction methods such as principal component analysis are often used to derive dietary patterns. However, such methods do not assess how foods are consumed in relation to each other. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) are a set of novel methods that can address this issue. We sought to apply GGMs to derive sex-specific dietary intake networks representing consumption patterns in a German adult population. Dietary intake data from 10,780 men and 16,340 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were cross-sectionally analyzed to construct dietary intake networks. Food intake for each participant was estimated using a 148-item food-frequency questionnaire that captured the intake of 49 food groups. GGMs were applied to log-transformed intakes (grams per day) of 49 food groups to construct sex-specific food networks. Semiparametric Gaussian copula graphical models (SGCGMs) were used to confirm GGM results. In men, GGMs identified 1 major dietary network that consisted of intakes of red meat, processed meat, cooked vegetables, sauces, potatoes, cabbage, poultry, legumes, mushrooms, soup, and whole-grain and refined breads. For women, a similar network was identified with the addition of fried potatoes. Other identified networks consisted of dairy products and sweet food groups. SGCGMs yielded results comparable to those of GGMs. GGMs are a powerful exploratory method that can be used to construct dietary networks representing dietary intake patterns that reveal how foods are consumed in relation to each other. GGMs indicated an apparent major role of red meat intake in a consumption pattern in the studied population. In the future, identified networks might be transformed into pattern scores for investigating their associations with health outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Novel Somatic Copy Number Alteration Identified for Cervical Cancer in the Mexican American Population

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    Alireza Torabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer affects millions of Americans, but the rate for cervical cancer in the Mexican American is approximately twice that for non-Mexican Americans. The etiologies of cervical cancer are still not fully understood. A number of somatic mutations, including several copy number alterations (CNAs, have been identified in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas in non-Mexican Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate CNAs in association with cervical cancer in the Mexican American population. We conducted a pilot study of genome-wide CNA analysis using 2.5 million markers in four diagnostic groups: reference (n = 125, low grade dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-I, n = 4, high grade dysplasia (CIN-II and -III, n = 5 and invasive carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 5 followed by data analyses using Partek. We observed a statistically-significant difference of CNA burden between case and reference groups of different sizes (>100 kb, 10–100 kb and 1–10 kb of CNAs that included deletions and amplifications, e.g., a statistically-significant difference of >100 kb deletions was observed between the reference (6.6% and pre-cancer and cancer (91.3% groups. Recurrent aberrations of 98 CNA regions were also identified in cases only. However, none of the CNAs have an impact on cancer progression. A total of 32 CNA regions identified contained tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Moreover, the pathway analysis revealed endometrial cancer and estrogen signaling pathways associated with this cancer (p < 0.05 using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. This is the first report of CNAs identified for cervical cancer in the U.S. Latino population using high density markers. We are aware of the small sample size in the study. Thus, additional studies with a larger sample are needed to confirm the current findings.

  11. Association of DSM-5 Betel-Quid Use Disorder With Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder in 6 Betel-Quid Endemic Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yang, Frances M; Hung, Chung-Chieh; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2018-03-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) is the fourth most popular psychoactive agent worldwide. An emerging trend across Asia is the addictive consumption of BQ, which is associated with oral cancer and other health consequences. To investigate the validity and pattern of DSM-5-defined BQ use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) among Asian populations. In-person interviews were conducted from January 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010, among a random sample of 8922 noninstitutionalized adults from the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study, an Asian representative survey of 6 BQ-endemic populations. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Participants were evaluated for BUD using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder and for OPMD using a clinical oral examination. Current users of BQ with 0 to 1 symptoms were classified as having no BUD, those with 2 to 3 symptoms as having mild BUD, those with 4 to 5 symptoms as having moderate BUD, and those with 6 or more symptoms as having severe BUD. Among the 8922 participants (4564 women and 4358 men; mean [SD] age, 44.2 [0.2] years), DSM-5 symptoms showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD. The 12-month prevalence of DSM-5-defined BUD in the 6 study populations was 18.0% (mild BUD, 3.2%; moderate BUD, 4.3%; and severe BUD, 10.5%). The 12-month proportion of DSM-5-defined BUD among current users of BQ was 86.0% (mild BUD, 15.5%; moderate BUD, 20.6%; and severe BUD, 50.0%). Sex, age, low educational level, smoking, and drinking were significantly associated with BUD. Among individuals who used BQ, family use, high frequency of use, and amount of BQ used were significantly linked to moderate to severe BUD. Compared with individuals who did not use BQ, those who used BQ and had no BUD showed a 22.0-fold (95% CI, 4.3-112.4) risk of OPMD (P < .001), whereas those with mild BUD showed a 9.6-fold (95% CI, 1.8-56.8) risk (P = .01), those

  12. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  13. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

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    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  14. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

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    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  15. Molecular genetic studies in Saudi population; identified variants from GWAS and meta-analysis in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khalid Khalaf; Ali Khan, Imran; Alotaibi, Mohammad Abdullah; Saud Aloyaid, Abdullah; Al-Basheer, Haifa Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Naelah Abdullah; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Sulaiman, A M

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder, correlates with heritability and considered as one of the major diseases. The prior reports performed the variable models such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), replication, case-control, cross-sectional and meta-analysis studies and still, we lack diagnostic marker in the global world. There are limited studies were carried out in Saudi population, and we aim to investigate the molecular association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through GWAS and meta-analysis studies in stroke patients in the Saudi population. In this case-control study, we have opted gender equality of 207 cases and 207 controls from the capital city of Saudi Arabia in King Saud University Hospital. The peripheral blood (5 ml) sample will be collected in two different vacutainers, and three mL of the coagulated blood will be used for lipid analysis (biochemical tests) and two mL will be used for DNA analysis (molecular tests). Genomic DNA will be extracted with the collected blood samples, and specific primers will be designed for the opted SNPs ( SORT1 -rs646218 and OLR1 -rs11053646 polymorphisms) and PCR-RFLP will be performed and randomly DNA sequencing will be carried out to cross check the results. The rs646218 and rs11053646 polymorphisms were significantly associated with allele, genotype and dominant models with and without crude odds ratios (OR's) and Multiple logistic regression analysis (p Saudi population. The current results were in the association with the prior study results documented through GWAS and meta-analysis association. However, other ethnic population studies should be performed to rule out in the human hereditary diseases.

  16. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging-assessed stress perfusion defect severity is associated with mortality independent of ethnicity in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Tang; Gao, Fei; Keng, Felix Y J; Shah, Bimal R; Koh, Angela S; Tan, Ru San; Chua, Terrance S J

    2014-12-01

    Ischemic heart disease is growing by epidemic proportions in Asia. Among patients in Western populations with similar myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) ischemia severity, ethnicity is independently associated with mortality. We aimed to determine the differential prognostic value of MPI abnormality severity among three major Asian ethnic groups. From 16,921 consecutive patients, we used summed stress score to define increasing abnormal scan severity groups (minimal, mild, moderate, and severe) among Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. We determined mortality from the national death registry. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined the association between ethnicity and mortality. Chinese patients were older than Indians or Malays. Annual all-cause death rates increased with increasing abnormal scan severity in all three ethnicities. After adjustment, ethnicity was not associated with mortality. With Chinese as the reference group, adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI for Malays and Indians were 1.29 (0.95-1.77) and 1.06 (0.74-1.50) in the minimally abnormal scan group, and 1.20 (0.75-1.91) and 0.82 (0.47-1.45) in the severely abnormal scan group, respectively. Mortality risk is related to the severity of scan abnormality and is independent of ethnicity in Asians. Our findings emphasize the continued utility of MPI in guiding risk stratification in Asia.

  18. Time trends in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection in a multiracial Asian population--a 20-year experience over three time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A H-R; Lim, Y-Y; Liew, W-C; Goh, K-L

    2016-04-01

    Marked epidemiological changes in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection have taken place in the Asian Pacific region. In particular, differences with respect to race in the multiracial Asian population in Malaysia have been important and interesting. A time trend study of upper gastrointestinal disease and H. pylori infection in three time periods: 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 spanning a period of 20 years was carried out. Consecutive first time gastroscopies carried out on patients attending the University of Malaya Medical Center were studied. Diagnoses and H. pylori infection status were carefully recorded. A steady decline in prevalence of duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) from 21.1% to 9.5% to 5.0% and from 11.9% to 9.4% to 9.9% while an increase in erosive oesophagitis (EO) from 2.0% to 8.4% to 9.5% (chi-square for trend; P Chinese and Indians but the difference over time was most marked in Malays. There was a steady decline in the proportion of patients with gastric and oesophageal cancers. Peptic ulcers have declined significantly over a 20-year period together with a decline in H. pylori infection. In contrast, a steady increase in erosive oesophagitis was observed. Gastric and oesophageal squamous cell cancers have declined to low levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  20. Incidental copy-number variants identified by routine genome testing in a clinical population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Philip M.; Soens, Zachry T.; Campbell, Ian M.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Plon, Sharon E.; Shaw, Chad A.; McGuire, Amy L.; Lupski, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mutational load of susceptibility variants has not been studied on a genomic scale in a clinical population, nor has the potential to identify these mutations as incidental findings during clinical testing been systematically ascertained. Methods Array comparative genomic hybridization, a method for genome-wide detection of DNA copy-number variants, was performed clinically on DNA from 9,005 individuals. Copy-number variants encompassing or disrupting single genes were identified and analyzed for their potential to confer predisposition to dominant, adult-onset disease. Multigene copy-number variants affecting dominant, adult-onset cancer syndrome genes were also assessed. Results In our cohort, 83 single-gene copy-number variants affected 40 unique genes associated with dominant, adult-onset disorders and unrelated to the patients’ referring diagnoses (i.e., incidental) were found. Fourteen of these copy-number variants are likely disease-predisposing, 25 are likely benign, and 44 are of unknown clinical consequence. When incidental copy-number variants spanning up to 20 genes were considered, 27 copy-number variants affected 17 unique genes associated with dominant, adult-onset cancer predisposition. Conclusion Copy-number variants potentially conferring susceptibility to adult-onset disease can be identified as incidental findings during routine genome-wide testing. Some of these mutations may be medically actionable, enabling disease surveillance or prevention; however, most incidentally observed single-gene copy-number variants are currently of unclear significance to the patient. PMID:22878507

  1. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.M.; Karssen, L.C.; Deelen, J.; Isaacs, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Mbarek, H.; Kanterakis, A.; Trompet, S.; Postmus, I.; Verweij, N.; van Enckevort, D.; Huffman, J.E.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.F.; Bartz, T.M.; Manichaikul, A.; Joshi, P.K.; Peloso, G.M.; Deelen, P.; Dijk, F.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Milaneschi, Y.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Francioli, L.C.; Menelaou, A.; Pulit, S.L.; Rivadeneira, F.; Hofman, A.; Oostra, B.A.; Franco, O.H.; Mateo Leach, I.; Beekman, M.; de Craen, A.J.; Uh, H.W.; Trochet, H.; Hocking, L.J.; Porteous, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Packard, C.J.; Buckley, B.M.; Brody, J.A.; Bis, J.C.; Rotter, J.I.; Mychaleckyj, J.C.; Campbell, H.; Duan, Q.; Lange, L.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Hayward, C.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Rich, S.S.; Psaty, B.M.; Borecki, I.B.; Kearney, P.M.; Stott, D.J.; Cupples, L.A.; Jukema, J.W.; van der Harst, P.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Swertz, M.A.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Bakker, P.I.W.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Wijmenga, C.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created

  2. Genetic studies of type 2 diabetes in South Asians: a systematic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ritam; Narayan, Kabayam M Venkat; Zabetian, Azadeh; Raj, Suraja; Tabassum, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus, which affects 366 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality of life. South Asians, comprising 24% of the world's population, suffer a large burden of type 2 diabetes. With intriguing risk phenotypes, unique environmental triggers, and potential genetic predisposition, South Asians offer a valuable resource for investigating the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Genomics has proven its potential to underpin some of the etiology of type 2 diabetes by identifying a number of susceptibility genes, but such data are scarce and unclear in South Asians. We present a systematic review of studies on the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes or its complications in South Asians published between 1987-2012, and discuss the findings and limitations of the available data. Of the 91 eligible studies meeting our inclusion criteria, a vast majority included Indian populations, followed by a few in those of Pakistani origin, while other South Asian countries were generally under-represented. Though a large number of studies focused on the replication of findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European populations, a few studies explored new genes and pathways along with GWAS in South Asians and suggested the potential to unravel population- specific susceptibility genes in this population. We find encouraging improvements in study designs, sample sizes and the numbers of genetic variants investigated over the last five years, which reflect the existing capacity and scope for large-scale genetic studies in South Asians.

  3. Using appropriate body mass index cut points for overweight and obesity among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Jane; Mukherjea, Arnab; Vittinghoff, Eric; Nguyen, Tung T; Tsoh, Janice Y; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S; Tseng, Winston; Kanaya, Alka M

    2014-08-01

    Asian Americans have low prevalence of overweight/obesity based on standard BMI cut points yet have higher rates of diabetes. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity, using lower BMI cut points recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians, and diabetes in Asian American subgroups in California. Secondary analysis of the 2009 adult California Health Interview Survey (n=45,946) of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans, Hispanics and Asians (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian and Japanese). WHO Asian BMI cut points (overweight=23-27.5kg/m(2); obese≥27.5kg/m(2)) were used for Asian subgroups. Standard BMI cut points (overweight=25-29.9kg/m(2); obese≥30kg/m(2)) were applied for other groups. Among Asian subgroups, overweight/obesity was highest among Filipinos (78.6%), which was higher than NHWs (pAmericans and Hispanics. Compared to NHW, diabetes prevalence was higher for Vietnamese, Koreans, Filipinos and South Asians with BMI=23-24.9kg/m(2) and Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese with BMI=27.5-29.9kg/m(2), the ranges WHO recommends as overweight or obese for Asians but not for other groups. Filipinos should be a priority population for overweight/obesity screening. Filipinos, Vietnamese, Korean, South Asians and Japanese have higher diabetes prevalence at lower BMI cut points. WHO Asian BMI cut points may have clinical utility to identify at-risk Asian Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variants identified by GWAS was associated with colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: Colorectal cancer (CRC, now the third most common cancer across the world, is known to aggregate in families. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with CRC in Caucasians. Materials and Methods: To validate whether the same variations conferred risk to CRC in the Han Chinese population, we genotyped 760 individuals (380 controls and 380 cases samples recruited from the Han Chinese origin. Results: We found rs11987193 in 8p12 (P = 0.0472 after correction, OR = 0.751 was significantly associated with CRC but rs12080929 in 1p33 (P = 0.0650 after correction, OR = 0.750 was not. Conclusion: Our findings supported that rs11987193 is a susceptibility locus for CRC, and gene DUSP4 was possible to play a role in the pathology of CRC.

  5. Identifying musical difficulties as they relate to congenital amusia in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lyndy J; He, Kaidi; Derkay, Craig S

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 4% of the population fails to develop basic music skills and can be identified as "amusic". Congenital amusia (CA), or "tone deafness", is thought to be a hereditary disordera predominantly affecting the perception and production of music. The gold standard for diagnosis is the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This study aims to pinpoint factors in the history that may help identify amusic children and to determine if amusic pediatric patients can be identified using a widely available, shorter test validated in adults. Subjects ages 7-17 years were recruited to take an online test, validated against the MBEA, for CA. The sections tested recognition of "off-beat" (OB), "mistuned" (MT), and "out-of-key" (OOK) conditions. Parents filled out a questionnaire regarding the subject's past medical, educational, musical exposure, and family history. Of 114 subjects recruited, complete data was available on 105 with a mean age of 12.5 years. According to adult criteria, 63/105 (60%) of subjects scored in the "amusic" range. Children >10 years of age scored significantly higher on the off-beat section (p=0.001) and total scores (p=0.025). Subjects who were born prematurely scored significantly lower (p=0.045). Children whose father had difficulties with music scored significantly lower on the off-beat section (p=0.003) and total scores (p=0.008). CA is a disorder that has implications for quality of life. Earlier identification may help elucidate the pathogenesis of the condition and, in the future, the institution of prompt treatment. Further studies are needed to identify the most appropriate and convenient tests, as well as the optimal timing of testing, for reliably diagnosing CA in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2017-06-15

    Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.

  7. The ZJU index is a powerful index for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; You, Wenyi; Ren, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The ZJU index is a novel model for detecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that it is calculated based on combination of the body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and the serum alanine aminotransferase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the ZJU index in detecting NAFLD in the Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory data, and ultrasonography features were collected through a standard protocol. The ZJU index, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index were calculated. Then the predictive values of the five indices were compared according to the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. A total of 19,804 participants were recruited, of whom 7324 participants were diagnosed with NFALD and 12,480 subjects were regarded as controls. The AUROC value for NAFLD identification by the ZJU index was 0.925 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.919-0.931), which was significantly higher than the values for the other four models (P 60 years, the AUROC for the ZJU increased from 87.1 to 95.4%, values which were also greater than those for the other four indices. Analysis by sex also showed that the performance of the ZJU index in males and females was better than that of the other four indices. The ZJU index is an accurate and easy to employ tool for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

  8. Identifying the Social Structure and the Inequality in Monetary Income of Russian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at identifying the social structure and the inequality in monetary income of the population in Russia. identification of the social groups with different levels of material well-being in a society with a high inequality in the distribution of living standard is a relevant topic. The integration of normative and statistical methods allows to consider the limitations of the existing model of the distribution of cash income and adjust the boundaries of social groups with different levels of material well-being. At the same time, we stay within the criteria for the social standards of the differentiation of living standards. The authors have corrected the specific weight of the Russian social groups with different levels of material well-being. To define these social groups, we have applied the system of normative consumer budgets for different level of material well-being. This paper discovers the intervals for the levels of income and consumption, which are not in contradiction with the normative approach and existing conditions of the Russian economic development. These intervals are advisable for the identification of the social groups with different levels of life. The proposed tools allow to integrate the measurements into the international system and define the place of Russia in terms of economic inequalities among other countries. The authors have assessed the weights of the different social groups, their share in the total volume of monetary income and their polarization in terms of living standards. The main conclusions of the article can be used as a theoretical, methodological and practical basis for identifying social structures in terms of living standards, determining their numbers and economic inequality. The research results can be introduced into the statistical monitoring of the living standards of the population.

  9. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  10. Screening of the NOS3 gene identifies the variants 894G/T, 1998C/G and 2479G/A to be associated with acute onset ischemic stroke in young Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mohd Suhail; Biswas, Arijit; Rashid, Hina; Devi, Luxmi; Behari, Madhuri; Saxena, Renu

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide levels and NOS3 gene variants play a pivotal role in the development of vascular diseases/stroke. We attempted to determine the role of NOS3 gene variants and plasma NO levels towards the development of ischemic stroke in young Asian-Indians. One hundred ischemic stroke patients and 200 age and sex matched control study subjects were screened for NOS3 gene variants using SSCP [single stranded confirmation polymorphism] and PCR based techniques. Plasma NO metabolites [NOx] were evaluated for the investigated population. Significantly higher NOx levels were observed in controls [controls 56.63±25.92 μmol/L, patients 34.73±19.88 μmol/L, pischemic stroke in young Asian Indians. These NOS3 SNPs might represent genetic risk factors for ischemic stroke in young Asian Indians. However these observations need to be confirmed by larger replicate/cross-sectional studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Minami; Takahashi, Harumi; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wen, Ming-Shien; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Luo, Chen-Hui; Arima, Aki; Onozuka, Akiko; Nagai, Rui; Shiomi, Mari; Mihara, Kiyoshi; Morita, Takashi; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S), and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR) responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S) to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S), and that between Cp(S) and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT) as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S), NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S), that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S) and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively). Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S), ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S), might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  12. Determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation therapy in Asian patients based on population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Ohara

    Full Text Available To clarify pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD factors associated with the over-anticoagulation response in Asians during warfarin induction therapy, population PK-PD analyses were conducted in an attempt to predict the time-courses of the plasma S-warfarin concentration, Cp(S, and coagulation and anti-coagulation (INR responses. In 99 Chinese patients we analyzed the relationships between dose and Cp(S to estimate the clearance of S-warfarin, CL(S, and that between Cp(S and the normal prothrombin concentration (NPT as a coagulation marker for estimation of IC50. We also analyzed the non-linear relationship between NPT inhibition and the increase in INR to derive the non-linear index λ. Population analyses accurately predicted the time-courses of Cp(S, NPT and INR. Multivariate analysis showed that CYP2C9*3 mutation and body surface area were predictors of CL(S, that VKORC1 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms were predictors of IC50, and that baseline NPT was a predictor of λ. CL(S and λ were significantly lower in patients with INR≥4 than in those with INR<4 (190 mL/h vs 265 mL/h, P<0.01 and 3.2 vs 3.7, P<0.01, respectively. Finally, logistic regression analysis revealed that CL(S, ALT and hypertension contributed significantly to INR≥4. All these results indicate that factors associated with the reduced metabolic activity of warfarin represented by CL(S, might be critical determinants of the over-anticoagulation response during warfarin initiation in Asians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02065388.

  13. Identifying water price and population criteria for meeting future urban water demand targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, Negin; Dzombak, David A.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2017-12-01

    Predictive models for urban water demand can help identify the set of factors that must be satisfied in order to meet future targets for water demand. Some of the explanatory variables used in such models, such as service area population and changing temperature and rainfall rates, are outside the immediate control of water planners and managers. Others, such as water pricing and the intensity of voluntary water conservation efforts, are subject to decisions and programs implemented by the water utility. In order to understand this relationship, a multiple regression model fit to 44 years of monthly demand data (1970-2014) for Los Angeles, California was applied to predict possible future demand through 2050 under alternative scenarios for the explanatory variables: population, price, voluntary conservation efforts, and temperature and precipitation outcomes predicted by four global climate models with two CO2 emission scenarios. Future residential water demand in Los Angeles is projected to be largely driven by price and population rather than climate change and conservation. A median projection for the year 2050 indicates that residential water demand in Los Angeles will increase by approximately 36 percent, to a level of 620 million m3 per year. The Monte Carlo simulations of the fitted model for water demand were then used to find the set of conditions in the future for which water demand is predicted to be above or below the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power 2035 goal to reduce residential water demand by 25%. Results indicate that increases in price can not ensure that the 2035 water demand target can be met when population increases. Los Angeles must rely on furthering their conservation initiatives and increasing their use of stormwater capture, recycled water, and expanding their groundwater storage. The forecasting approach developed in this study can be utilized by other cities to understand the future of water demand in water-stressed areas

  14. Identifying Genetic Signatures of Natural Selection Using Pooled Population Sequencing in Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-07-07

    The joint inference of selection and past demography remain a costly and demanding task. We used next generation sequencing of two pools of 48 Norway spruce mother trees, one corresponding to the Fennoscandian domain, and the other to the Alpine domain, to assess nucleotide polymorphism at 88 nuclear genes. These genes are candidate genes for phenological traits, and most belong to the photoperiod pathway. Estimates of population genetic summary statistics from the pooled data are similar to previous estimates, suggesting that pooled sequencing is reliable. The nonsynonymous SNPs tended to have both lower frequency differences and lower FST values between the two domains than silent ones. These results suggest the presence of purifying selection. The divergence between the two domains based on synonymous changes was around 5 million yr, a time similar to a recent phylogenetic estimate of 6 million yr, but much larger than earlier estimates based on isozymes. Two approaches, one of them novel and that considers both FST and difference in allele frequencies between the two domains, were used to identify SNPs potentially under diversifying selection. SNPs from around 20 genes were detected, including genes previously identified as main target for selection, such as PaPRR3 and PaGI. Copyright © 2016 Chen et al.

  15. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Salmerón, Jorge; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón

    2016-01-01

    To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  16. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

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    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations: a case for examining disaggregated data in public health research.

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    Budhwani, H; De, P

    2017-12-01

    Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040). Asian Indians had high income, education, and health insurance coverage, all positive predictors of preventative health engagement and vaccine uptake. However, we find that Asian Indians had comparatively lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval = 0.207-0.832), and foreign-born Asian Indians had the lowest rate HPV vaccination of all subpopulations (2.3%). Findings substantiate the need for research on disaggregated data rather than evaluating vaccination behaviors solely across standard racial and ethnic categories. We identified two populations that were initiating HPV vaccine at abysmal levels: foreign-born persons and Asian Indians. Development of culturally appropriate messaging has the potential to improve these initiation rates and improve population health. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asian Ginseng

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    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  19. Identifying the bleeding trauma patient: predictive factors for massive transfusion in an Australasian trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeremy Ming; Hitos, Kerry; Fletcher, John P

    2013-09-01

    Military and civilian data would suggest that hemostatic resuscitation results in improved outcomes for exsanguinating patients. However, identification of those patients who are at risk of significant hemorrhage is not clearly defined. We attempted to identify factors that would predict the need for massive transfusion (MT) in an Australasian trauma population, by comparing those trauma patients who did receive massive transfusion with those who did not. Between 1985 and 2010, 1,686 trauma patients receiving at least 1 U of packed red blood cells were identified from our prospectively maintained trauma registry. Demographic, physiologic, laboratory, injury, and outcome variables were reviewed. Univariate analysis determined significant factors between those who received MT and those who did not. A predictive multivariate logistic regression model with backward conditional stepwise elimination was used for MT risk. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS PASW. MT patients had a higher pulse rate, lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, lower systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin level, higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), higher international normalized ratio (INR), and longer stay. Initial logistic regression identified base deficit (BD), INR, and hemoperitoneum at laparotomy as independent predictive variables. After assigning cutoff points of BD being greater than 5 and an INR of 1.5 or greater, a further model was created. A BD greater than 5 and either INR of 1.5 or greater or hemoperitoneum was associated with 51 times increase in MT risk (odds ratio, 51.6; 95% confidence interval, 24.9-95.8). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.859. From this study, a combination of BD, INR, and hemoperitoneum has demonstrated good predictability for MT. This tool may assist in the determination of those patients who might benefit from hemostatic resuscitation. Prognostic study, level III.

  20. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  1. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

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    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (562.11 and 562.13), and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06) and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008) in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86) for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively. The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  2. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Shong Chang

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis.We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes (562.11 and 562.13, and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression.Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06 and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008 in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86 for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively.The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  3. Asian population frequencies and haplotype distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes among Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore.

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    Lee, Yi Chuan; Chan, Soh Ha; Ren, Ee Chee

    2008-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.

  4. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Gray, Russell D; Drummond, Alexei J

    2008-02-01

    The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remain unknown. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity carries a legacy of our population history. Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. However, recent work has challenged the validity of using mtDNA diversity to infer species population sizes. Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global data set of 357 human mtDNA coding-region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across 8 major geographic regions. Our estimates of relative population sizes show remarkable concordance with the contemporary regional distribution of humans across Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, indicating that mtDNA diversity is a good predictor of population size in humans. Plots of population size through time show slow growth in sub-Saharan Africa beginning 143-193 kya, followed by a rapid expansion into Eurasia after the emergence of the first non-African mtDNA lineages 50-70 kya. Outside Africa, the earliest and fastest growth is inferred in Southern Asia approximately 52 kya, followed by a succession of growth phases in Northern and Central Asia (approximately 49 kya), Australia (approximately 48 kya), Europe (approximately 42 kya), the Middle East and North Africa (approximately 40 kya), New Guinea (approximately 39 kya), the Americas (approximately 18 kya), and a second expansion in Europe (approximately 10-15 kya). Comparisons of relative regional population sizes through time suggest that between approximately 45 and 20 kya most of humanity lived in Southern Asia. These findings not only support the use of mtDNA data for estimating human population size but also provide a unique picture of human prehistory and demonstrate the importance of Southern Asia to our recent evolutionary past.

  5. Biobanks in the United States: how to identify an undefined and rapidly evolving population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Gregory J; Whipple, Warren; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E

    2012-12-01

    As part of a larger organizational study, we sought to survey biobanks in the United States. However, we encountered two problems with this population. First, no common definition of biobanks exists. Second, no census is available of these facilities from which to sample in order to implement a survey. In light of these problems, we employed a multifaceted approach using electronic searches of PubMed, RePORTER, and Google. In addition, we systematically searched for biobanks housed within universities that have NIH-designated Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA). We expanded this part of the search by looking for biobanks among all members of the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC). Finally, we added banks to our database found previously by other researchers and banks found via correspondence with our colleagues. Our search strategy produced a database of 624 biobanks for which we were able to confirm contact information in order to conduct our online survey. Another 140 biobanks were identified but did not respond to our requests to confirm their existence or contact information. In order to maximize both the uniqueness of banks found and the greatest return on effort for each search, we suggest targeting resources that are already organized. In our work, these included the CTSA, AAMC, and part of the Google searches. We contend that our search provides a model for analysis of new fields of research and/or rapidly evolving industries. Furthermore, our approach demonstrates that with the appropriate tools it is possible to develop a systematic and comprehensive database to investigate undefined populations.

  6. Identifying the quality of life effects of urinary incontinence with depression in an Australian population

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    Avery Jodie C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the additive effect of urinary incontinence, in people with comorbid depression, on health related quality of life. Methods Males and females, 15 to 95 years (n = 3010, response rate 70.2% were interviewed face to face in the 1998 Autumn South Australian Health Omnibus Survey. Results Self-reported urinary incontinence was found in 20.3% (n=610, and depression as defined by the PRIME-MD in 15.2% (n=459 of the survey population. Urinary incontinence with comorbid depression was found in 4.3% of the overall population. Univariate analysis showed that respondents with urinary incontinence and comorbid depression were more likely to be aged between 15 and 34 years and never married when compared to those with incontinence only. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in people with incontinence, the risk of having comorbid depression was increased by an overall health status of Fair or Poor, or the perception that their incontinence was moderately or very serious. Respondents reporting that they experienced incontinence with comorbid depression scored significantly lower than those experiencing incontinence without depression on all dimensions of the SF-36. The interaction of the presence of incontinence and the presence of depression was significantly associated with the dimensions of physical functioning. Conclusions Depression and incontinence both reduce QOL. When they occur together there appears to be an additive effect which affects both physical and mental health, perhaps by increasing a person’s negative perceptions of their illness. Clinicians should identify and manage comorbid depression when treating patients who have incontinence to improve their overall QOL.

  7. Does tranexamic acid increase the risk of thromboembolism after bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasties in Asian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Seo, Dong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    To ascertain whether tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and transfusion rate and volumes; increase the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT); and investigate factors associated with DVT in patients undergoing primary bilateral total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) without use of chemical thromboprophylaxis. There were 874 patients (1748 knees) in the control group who did not receive tranexamic acid and 871 patients (1742 knees) in the study group who received tranexamic acid. Mechanical compression device was applied without any chemical thromboprophylaxis. Transfusion rates and volumes were recorded. DVT was diagnosed using both sonogram and venogram at 7 or 8 day post-operatively. Intra- and post-operative blood loss and transfusion volumes were significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group. The prevalence of DVT was 14% (245 of 1748 knees) in the control group and 18% (314 of 1742 knees) in the tranexamic acid group. Pre- and post-operative perfusion lung scans revealed no evidence of PE in any patients in either group. Coagulation or thrombophilic data or molecular genetic testing was not significantly different between the two groups. The use of tranexamic acid reduces the volume of blood transfusion and does not increase the prevalence of DVT or PE in the patients who did not receive routine chemical thromboprophylaxis after primary bilateral simultaneous sequential TKAs in Asian patients.

  8. Morphological variability and distribution of the exotic Asian Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: in the Neotropical region

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    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From a series of biological samples collected from different freshwater environments in Costa Rica, Central America, the exotic Asian cyclopoid Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Harada, 1931 was identified. We analyzed the morphology and appendage ornamentation of different Neotropical populations of this species, including specimens from Honduras, southeastern Mexico, and Costa Rica. We also examined Asian specimens from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand, and performed a comparison of the Neotropical and Asian populations including a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The Neotropical and Asian specimens show subtle morphological variations in the antennules, antennae, mandibles, swimming legs 1-4, and fifth legs. Some characters in the Neotropical group appear to diverge from the Asian pattern and the PCA indicated that intercontinental populations of M. thermocyclopoides are far from being homogeneous. These intra-specific differences are described to expand the known morphological range of this species and to provide the first comparative analysis of an exotic copepod in the Americas. Our analysis suggests that the geographic isolation of the American populations and the subtle morphological divergences with respect to the Asian patterns could be related to speciation processes in the Neotropical region, but also intra-Asian differences are reported. In the Neotropical region this species appears to be restricted to southeastern Mexico, Central America, and one Caribbean island; its potential as biological control of mosquito might enhance its spread in the region.

  9. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    network in 2011. Likewise, the wild Murchison Mountains population was consistently the sink of the network. Other nodes, such as the offshore islands and the wildlife hospital, varied in importance over time. Common network descriptors and measures of centrality identified key locations for targeting disease surveillance. The visual representation of movements of animals in a population that this technique provides can aid decision makers when they evaluate translocation proposals or attempt to control a disease outbreak. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Selection strategies of segregant soybean populations for resistance to Asian rust Estratégias de seleção de populações segregantes de soja para resistência à ferrugem-asiática

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    Aliny Simony Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify the best selection strategies for the more promising parental combinations to obtain lines with good resistance to soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Two experiments were carried out in the field during the 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons, to determine the percentage of infected leaf area of individual plants of five parents and their segregant F2 and F3 populations. The data obtained indicates that additive genetic variance predominates in the control of soybean resistance to Asian rust, and that the year and time of assessment do not significantly influence the estimates of the genetic parameters obtained. The narrow-sense heritability (h²r ranged from 23.12 to 55.83%, and indicates the possibility of successful selection of resistant individuals in the early generations of the breeding program. All the procedures used to select the most promising populations to generate superior inbred lines for resistance to P. pachyrhizi presented similar results and identified the BR01-18437 x BRS 232 population as the best for inbred line selection.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as estratégias mais eficientes para selecionar as combinações parentais mais promissoras e obter linhas com bom grau de resistência à ferrugem-asiática da soja (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Dois experimentos foram realizados em campo nos anos agrícolas 2006/2007 e 2007/2008, para avaliar a percentagem da área foliar infectada em plantas individuais de cinco parentais e das suas populações segregantes F2 e F3. Os dados obtidos indicam que a variância genética aditiva predomina no controle da resistência da soja à ferrugem-asiática e que os anos e as épocas de avaliação não influenciaram significativamente as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito (h²r variou de 23,12 a 55,83%, o que indica a possibilidade de sucesso com a seleção de indiv

  11. The habits of highly effective phages: population dynamics as a framework for identifying therapeutic phages

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    James J Bull

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacteriophages as antibacterial agents is being actively researched on a global scale. Typically, the phages used are isolated from the wild by plating on the bacteria of interest, and a far larger set of candidate phages is often available than can be used in any application. When an excess of phages is available, how should the best phages be identified? Here we consider phage-bacterial population dynamics as a basis for evaluating and predicting phage success. A central question is whether the innate dynamical properties of phages are the determinants of success, or instead, whether extrinsic, indirect effects can be responsible. We address the dynamical perspective, motivated in part by the absence of dynamics in previously suggested principles of phage therapy. Current mathematical models of bacterial-phage dynamics do not capture the realities of in vivo dynamics, nor is this likely to change, but they do give insight to qualitative properties that may be generalizable. In particular, phage adsorption rate may be critical to treatment success, so understanding the effects of the in vivo environment on host availability may allow prediction of useful phages prior to in vivo experimentation. Principles for predicting efficacy may be derived by developing a greater understanding of the in vivo system, or such principles could be determined empirically by comparing phages with known differences in their dynamic properties. The comparative approach promises to be a powerful method of discovering the key to phage success. We offer five recommendations for future study: (i compare phages differing in treatment efficacy to identify the phage properties associated with success, (ii assay dynamics in vivo, (iii understand mechanisms of bacterial escape from phages, (iv test phages in model infections that are relevant to the intended clinical applications, and (v develop new classes of models for phage growth in spatially heterogeneous

  12. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  13. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

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    Vaingankar Janhavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT. The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96. A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69, suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The

  14. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  15. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  16. Whole exome analysis identifies frequent CNGA1 mutations in Japanese population with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

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    Satoshi Katagiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frequent disease-causing gene mutations in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP in the Japanese population. METHODS: In total, 99 Japanese patients with non-syndromic and unrelated arRP or sporadic RP (spRP were recruited in this study and ophthalmic examinations were conducted for the diagnosis of RP. Among these patients, whole exome sequencing analysis of 30 RP patients and direct sequencing screening of all CNGA1 exons of the other 69 RP patients were performed. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing of 30 arRP/spRP patients identified disease-causing gene mutations of CNGA1 (four patients, EYS (three patients and SAG (one patient in eight patients and potential disease-causing gene variants of USH2A (two patients, EYS (one patient, TULP1 (one patient and C2orf71 (one patient in five patients. Screening of an additional 69 arRP/spRP patients for the CNGA1 gene mutation revealed one patient with a homozygous mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first identification of CNGA1 mutations in arRP Japanese patients. The frequency of CNGA1 gene mutation was 5.1% (5/99 patients. CNGA1 mutations are one of the most frequent arRP-causing mutations in Japanese patients.

  17. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  18. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical population monitoring of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Nevada and California—Identifying populations for management at the appropriate spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Ricca, Mark A.; Wann, Gregory T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Hanser, Steven E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Edmunds, David R.; Espinosa, Shawn P.

    2017-08-10

    Population ecologists have long recognized the importance of ecological scale in understanding processes that guide observed demographic patterns for wildlife species. However, directly incorporating spatial and temporal scale into monitoring strategies that detect whether trajectories are driven by local or regional factors is challenging and rarely implemented. Identifying the appropriate scale is critical to the development of management actions that can attenuate or reverse population declines. We describe a novel example of a monitoring framework for estimating annual rates of population change for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) within a hierarchical and spatially nested structure. Specifically, we conducted Bayesian analyses on a 17-year dataset (2000–2016) of lek counts in Nevada and northeastern California to estimate annual rates of population change, and compared trends across nested spatial scales. We identified leks and larger scale populations in immediate need of management, based on the occurrence of two criteria: (1) crossing of a destabilizing threshold designed to identify significant rates of population decline at a particular nested scale; and (2) crossing of decoupling thresholds designed to identify rates of population decline at smaller scales that decouple from rates of population change at a larger spatial scale. This approach establishes how declines affected by local disturbances can be separated from those operating at larger scales (for example, broad-scale wildfire and region-wide drought). Given the threshold output from our analysis, this adaptive management framework can be implemented readily and annually to facilitate responsive and effective actions for sage-grouse populations in the Great Basin. The rules of the framework can also be modified to identify populations responding positively to management action or demonstrating strong resilience to disturbance. Similar hierarchical approaches might be beneficial

  20. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  1. Happy@Work: protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial to improve mental well-being among an Asian working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Liu, Su; Tang, Szehang; Zhang, Dexing

    2014-07-04

    Mental health issues pose a serious concern in the workplace for the huge productivity loss and financial burden associated with it. Unlike the traditional 'fixing-what-is-wrong' approach, positive psychology offers a less-stigmatized way to promote mental health. Psychological capital, a concept originated from positive psychology, has been proven effective in improving mental well-being and work performance. However, little evidence exists for its implementation among Asian working population or its cost-benefit for organizations adopting such promotion strategy. The current study is designed to assess the protective effects of a web-based psychology capital intervention among Hong Kong working population on individuals' mental health and work performance, as well as organizations' return-on-investment. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design will be adopted. Eligible working adults will be randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the waiting-list control group, with 177 participants in each arm. The intervention, which consists of four web-based training sessions, each targeting one of the psychological capital components (hope, efficacy, optimism and resilience), will be implemented over a 4-week period. On-line surveys will assess the participants in each group at baseline, intervention completion, 1 and 3 months after the completion. The primary outcome is individuals' psychological capital level; secondary outcomes include individuals' well-being, depressive symptoms, work engagement and productivity. Return-on-investment will be calculated from the employers' perspective based on productivity gain, savings in medical expenditure, as well as operation and time costs. Analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. This is the first experimental study that explores the applicability of psychological capital development among Asian population. Through investigating changes in individuals' work productivity from absenteeism and

  2. Identifying Children at Risk of High Myopia Using Population Centile Curves of Refraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxian Chen

    Full Text Available To construct reference centile curves of refraction based on population-based data as an age-specific severity scale to evaluate their efficacy as a tool for identifying children at risk of developing high myopia in a longitudinal study.Data of 4218 children aged 5-15 years from the Guangzhou Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC study, and 354 first-born twins from the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES with annual visit were included in the analysis. Reference centile curves for refraction were constructed using a quantile regression model based on the cycloplegic refraction data from the RESC. The risk of developing high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6 diopters [D] was evaluated as a diagnostic test using the twin follow-up data.The centile curves suggested that the 3rd, 5th, and 10th percentile decreased from -0.25 D, 0.00 D and 0.25 D in 5 year-olds to -6.00 D, -5.65D and -4.63 D in 15 year-olds in the population-based data from RESC. In the GTES cohort, the 5th centile showed the most effective diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 92.9%, a specificity of 97.9% and a positive predictive value (PPV of 65.0% in predicting high myopia onset (≤-6.00D before the age of 15 years. The PPV was highest (87.5% in 3rd centile but with only 50.0% sensitivity. The Mathew's correlation coefficient of 5th centile in predicting myopia of -6.0D/-5.0D/-4.0D by age of 15 was 0.77/0.51/0.30 respectively.Reference centile curves provide an age-specific estimation on a severity scale of refractive error in school-aged children. Children located under lower percentiles at young age were more likely to have high myopia at 15 years or probably in adulthood.

  3. Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Chan, Xue Wei; Xu, Hui; Li, Jia Liang; Lee, Evan Jc

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend objective nutritional assessments in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients but were developed while referencing to a North-American population. Specific recommendations for assessing muscle mass were suggested (mid-arm circumference, MAC; corrected mid-arm muscle area, cAMA; mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC). This study aimed to assess correlation and association of these assessments with dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of healthy and CKD patients. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections of selected participants to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). Ideal body weight (IDW; kg) was calculated and muscle assessments conducted. Analyses involved correlation and linear regression, taking significance at ppatients and 103 healthy participants comprising of 51.0% male, 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malay, 23.6% Indian, and 8.4% others. The mean TPI was 58.9 ± 18.4 g/day in healthy participants and 53.6 ± 19.4 g/day in CKD patients. When normalized to ideal body weight, TPI-IDW (g/kg/day) was similar in healthy and CKD participants. Overall, TPI was associated with MAC (r=0.372, ppatients. Total protein intake was associated with muscle assessments in all participants. TPI normalized to IDW should only be used in CKD patients.

  4. Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.

  5. Adipocytokine Associations with Insulin Resistance in British South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Webb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Adipocytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and may represent identifiable precursors of metabolic disease within high-risk groups. We investigated adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α and assessed the contribution of these molecules to insulin resistance in south Asians. Hypothesis. South Asians have adverse adipocytokine profiles which associate with an HOMA-derived insulin resistance phenotype. Methods. We measured adipocytokine concentrations in south Asians with newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a case-control study. 158 (48.5% males volunteers aged 25–75 years with risk factors for diabetes but no known vascular or metabolic disease provided serum samples for ELISA and bioplex assays. Results. Total adiponectin concentration progressively decreased across the glucose spectrum in both sexes. A reciprocal trend in leptin concentration was observed only in south Asian men. Adiponectin but not leptin independently associated with HOMA-derived insulin resistance after logistic multivariate regression. Conclusion. Diasporic south Asian populations have an adverse adipocytokine profile which deteriorates further with glucose dysregulation. Insulin resistance is inversely associated with adiponectin independent of BMI and waist circumference in south Asians, implying that adipocytokine interplay contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease in this group.

  6. Altered endoribonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 variants identified in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the major mammalian enzyme in the DNA base excision repair pathway and cleaves the DNA phosphodiester backbone immediately 5' to abasic sites. APE1 also has 3'-5' DNA exonuclease and 3' DNA phosphodiesterase activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its redox regulatory function. The human APE1 has recently been shown to endonucleolytically cleave single-stranded regions of RNA. Towards understanding the biological significance of the endoribonuclease activity of APE1, we examined eight different amino acid substitution variants of APE1 previously identified in the human population. Our study shows that six APE1 variants, D148E, Q51H, I64V, G241R, R237A, and G306A, exhibit a 76-85% reduction in endoribonuclease activity against a specific coding region of the c-myc RNA, yet fully retain the ability to cleave apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA. We found that two APE1 variants, L104R and E126D, exhibit a unique RNase inhibitor-resistant endoribonuclease activity, where the proteins cleave c-myc RNA 3' of specific single-stranded guanosine residues. Expression of L104R and E126D APE1 variants in bacterial Origami cells leads to a 60-80% reduction in colony formation and a 1.5-fold increase in cell doubling time, whereas the other variants, which exhibit diminished endoribonuclease activity, had no effect. These data indicate that two human APE1 variants exhibit a unique endoribonuclease activity, which correlates with their ability to induce cytotoxicity or slow down growth in bacterial cells and supports the notion of their biological functionality.

  7. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  8. Identifying causes for population decline of the brown hare in agricultural landscapes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine-Lee Wincentz

    In recent decades the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in Denmark has undergone a substantial decline, but proximate causes are unknown and little is known about actual densities. In this thesis, hare populations are investigated with respect to age composition and reproductive parameters...... proportions in game bags have dropped significantly since the 1950ies. Simple matrix population models with variable juvenile recruitment predict the similar population growth rates as actually observed in the annual bag records. The model substantiates the supposition that declines in the Danish hare...

  9. Identifying Rare Variation in Cases of Schizophrenia in the Isolated Population of the Faroe Islands using Whole-genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; Lescai, Francesco; Dahl, Hans

    to map risk variants involved in complex traits. We aim at utilizing samples of cases and controls of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands to conduct whole-genome-sequence analysis in order to identify rare genetic variants associated with schizophrenia. We will search for rare genetic variants...... of developing SZ. However, these studies are designed to examining only “the common variant” proportion of the genomic landscape of SZ. Due to increased genetic drift during founding and potential bottlenecks, followed by population expansion, isolated populations may be particularly useful in identifying rare...... disease variants, that may appear at higher frequencies and/or within a more clearly distinct haplotype structure compared to outbred populations. Small isolated populations also typically show reduced phenotypic, genetic and environmental heterogeneity, thus making them advantageous in studies aiming...

  10. Detection of previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease,...

  11. The neuromuscular effects of rocuronium under sevoflurane-remifentanil or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia: a randomized clinical comparative study in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangseok; Ro, Young Jin; Koh, Won Uk; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2016-08-22

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the differences in the blocking effect of different doses of rocuronium between sevoflurane- or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in an Asian population. A total of 368 ASA I-II patients was enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (TIVA) or 5.0 vol.% sevoflurane with 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil (SEVO). Tracheal intubation was facilitated at 180 s after the administration of rocuronium at 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 mg/kg and then intubation condition was evaluated. The time to maximum block and recovery profile were monitored by TOF stimulation of the ulnar nerve and by recording the adductor pollicis response using acceleromyography. The numbers of patients with clinically acceptable intubation conditions were 41, 82, and 97 % (TIVA) and 34, 85, and 90 % (SEVO) at each dose of rocuronium, respectively. There were no significant differences in the time to maximum block between groups at each rocuronium dose. There were significant differences in the recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 90 % between the groups: 42.7 (19.5), 74.8 (29.9), and 118.4 (35.1) min (TIVA) and 66.5 (39.3), 110.2 (43.5), and 144.4 (57.5) min (SEVO) at 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively (P rocuronium. The type of anesthetic does not significantly influence the time to maximum block by rocuronium. Rocuronium at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg should be used for better intubation conditions with both anesthesia regimens in an Asian population. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ; UMIN#000007289 ; date of registration 14(th) February 2012).

  12. A Bayesian approach to identifying and compensating for model misspecification in population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, James T; Ono, Kotaro; Munch, Stephan B

    2014-02-01

    State-space estimation methods are increasingly used in ecology to estimate productivity and abundance of natural populations while accounting for variability in both population dynamics and measurement processes. However, functional forms for population dynamics and density dependence often will not match the true biological process, and this may degrade the performance of state-space methods. We therefore developed a Bayesian semiparametric state-space model, which uses a Gaussian process (GP) to approximate the population growth function. This offers two benefits for population modeling. First, it allows data to update a specified "prior" on the population growth function, while reverting to this prior when data are uninformative. Second, it allows variability in population dynamics to be decomposed into random errors around the population growth function ("process error") and errors due to the mismatch between the specified prior and estimated growth function ("model error"). We used simulation modeling to illustrate the utility of GP methods in state-space population dynamics models. Results confirmed that the GP model performs similarly to a conventional state-space model when either (1) the prior matches the true process or (2) data are relatively uninformative. However, GP methods improve estimates of the population growth function when the function is misspecified. Results also demonstrated that the estimated magnitude of "model error" can be used to distinguish cases of model misspecification. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects for GP methods in other state-space models, including age and length-structured, meta-analytic, and individual-movement models.

  13. Toxicogenomics of nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events among populations of African, Asian, and European descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Jing; Guo, Sheng; Hall, David; Cammett, Anna M.; Jayadev, Supriya; Distel, Manuel; Storfer, Stephen; Huang, Zimei; Mootsikapun, Piroon; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Podzamczer, Daniel; Haas, David W.; Benetucci, Jorge; Ortega, Gerardo; Cahn, Pedro; Cesar, Carina; Cassetti, Isabel; Bissio, Emiliano; Lupo, Sergio; Chuah, John; Workman, Cassy; Rees, Vanessa; Cooper, David A.; Hickey, Rebecca; Anderson, Jonathan; Moore, Richard; Hoy, Jennifer; Downs, Cath; Finlayson, Robert; Bodsworth, Neil; Eu, Beng; Lau, Helen; Montaner, Julio; Harris, Marianne; Walmsley, Sharon; d'Aquila, Adrianna; Conway, Brian; Tossonian, Harout; Morlat, Philippe; Louis, Isabelle; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Ajana, Faiza; Bollens, Diane; Girard, Pierre-Marie; May, Thierry; Pialoux, Gilles; Slama, Laurence; Lyavanc, Thomas; Piketty, Christophe; Reiss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine is widely prescribed for HIV-1 infection. We characterized relationships between nevirapine-associated cutaneous and hepatic adverse events and genetic variants among HIV-infected adults. We retrospectively identified cases and controls. Cases experienced symptomatic nevirapine-associated

  14. The use of population viability analysis to identify possible factors contributing to the decline of a rare ungulate population in south-eastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D. Capon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations that are vulnerable to decline are of particular concern to wildlife managers and uncovering the mechanisms responsible for downward trends is a crucial step towards developing future viable populations. The aims of this study were to better understand the mechanisms behind the historic decline of the sable antelope, Hippotragus niger, population at the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve (MWR, to assess its future viability and to use this analysis to determine key areas of breakdown in population growth and link these to potential limiting factors. VORTEX, a population viability model was used to assess the future viability of the sable antelope population and a sensitivity analysis was applied to identify the key areas of breakdown in growth. The sable population is currently viable, but remains highly vulnerable to changes in adult female survival, a factor which had the greatest influence on overall population fitness. Lion predation, impacting on the adult segment of the population, appeared to be the main factor responsible for the historic decline at the MWR.Conservation implications: Sable generally occur at low densities in the lowveld region of Zimbabwe and, as such, populations are vulnerable to increases in mortality rates. The role of lions in driving the decline at the MWR suggests a need to control their numbers and develop prey refuges through improved management of artificial water.

  15. A Cross-National Comparative Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension Between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-Origin Populations: The Role of National Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body

  16. A systematic review of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staimez, Lisa R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, K M Venkat; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2013-07-01

    This systematic review synthesizes data published between 1988 and 2009 on mean BMI and prevalence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian subgroups in the U.S. We conducted systematic searches in Pub- Med for peer-reviewed, English-language citations that reported mean BMI and percent overweight, obesity, and diabetes among South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We identified 647 database citations and 23 additional citations from hand-searching. After screening titles, abstracts, and full-text publications, 97 citations remained. None were published between 1988 and 1992, 28 between 1993 and 2003, and 69 between 2004 and 2009. Publications were identified for the following Asian subgroups: South Asian (n=8), Asian Indian (n=20), Chinese (n=44), Filipino (n=22), Korean (n= 8), and Vietnamese (n=3). The observed sample sizes ranged from 32 to 4245 subjects with mean ages from 24 to 78 years. Among samples of men and women, the lowest reported mean BMI was in South Asians (22.1 kg/m(2)), and the highest was in Filipinos (26.8 kg/m(2)). Estimates for overweight (12.8-46.7%) and obesity (2.1-59.0%) were variable. Among men and women, the highest rate of diabetes was reported in Asian Indians with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (32.9%, age and sex standardized). This review suggests heterogeneity among U.S. Asian populations in cardiometabolic risk factors, yet comparisons are limited due to variability in study populations, methods, and definitions used in published reports. Future efforts should adopt standardized methods to understand overweight, obesity and diabetes in this growing U.S. ethnic population.

  17. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, AND TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG ASIAN AMERICAN SUBGROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAIMEZ, LISA R.; WEBER, MARY BETH; NARAYAN, K.M. VENKAT; OZA-FRANK, REENA

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes data published between 1988 and 2009 on mean BMI and prevalence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian subgroups in the U.S. We conducted systematic searches in PubMed for peer-reviewed, English-language citations that reported mean BMI and percent overweight, obesity, and diabetes among South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We identified 647 database citations and 23 additional citations from hand-searching. After screening titles, abstracts, and full-text publications, 97 citations remained. None were published between 1988 and 1992, 28 between 1993 and 2003, and 69 between 2004 and 2009. Publications were identified for the following Asian subgroups: South Asian (n=8), Asian Indian (n=20), Chinese (n=44), Filipino (n=22), Korean (n= 8), and Vietnamese (n=3). The observed sample sizes ranged from 32 to 4245 subjects with mean ages from 24 to 78 years. Among samples of men and women, the lowest reported mean BMI was in South Asians (22.1 kg/m2), and the highest was in Filipinos (26.8 kg/m2). Estimates for overweight (12.8 - 46.7%) and obesity (2.1 – 59.0%) were variable. Among men and women, the highest rate of diabetes was reported in Asian Indians with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (32.9%, age and sex standardized). This review suggests heterogeneity among U.S. Asian populations in cardiometabolic risk factors, yet comparisons are limited due to variability in study populations, methods, and definitions used in published reports. Future efforts should adopt standardized methods to understand overweight, obesity and diabetes in this growing U.S. ethnic population. PMID:23590534

  18. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  19. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu?Won; Park, Yong?Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population?selective or ?adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry infere...

  20. Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Oberhauser, Karen; Drum, Ryan G.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Altizer, Sonia; Taylor, Orley R.; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Darius J.; Semmens, Brice X.; Erickson, Richard A.; Libby, Kaitlin; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids). While climatic factors, principally breeding season temperature, were important determinants of annual variation in abundance, our results indicated strong negative relationships between population size and habitat loss variables, principally glyphosate use, but also weaker negative effects from the loss of overwinter forest and breeding season use of neonicotinoids. Further declines in population size because of glyphosate application are not expected. Thus, if remaining threats to habitat are mitigated we expect climate-induced stochastic variation of the eastern migratory population of monarch butterfly around a relatively stationary population size.

  1. SNPs in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in East Asian and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unoki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Takahisa

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study using 207,097 SNP markers in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes and unrelated controls, and identified KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1) to be a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabete...

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, A.Y-F; Chow, P.K.H.; Yu, W-K.; Ho, J.M.S.; Chan, H-S.; Wong, W-K.; Soo, K-C.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  3. Impact of Body Mass Index on the relationship of epicardial adipose tissue to metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in an Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Myeong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, measured by echocardiography, was increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD. Several studies on obese patients, however, failed to demonstrate any relationship between EAT and CAD. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI affected the link between EAT and MS and CAD. Methods We consecutively enrolled 643 patients (302 males, 341 females; 59 ± 11 years, who underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography. The EAT thickness was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle at the end of diastole. All patients were divided into two groups: high BMI group, ≥27 kg/m2 (n = 165, and non-high BMI group, 2 (n = 478. Results The median and mean EAT thickness of 643 patients were 3.0 mm and 3.1 ± 2.4 mm, respectively. In the non-high BMI group, the median EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS compared to those without MS (3.5 vs. 1.9 mm, p Conclusions While EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS and CAD, the power of EAT thickness to predict MS and CAD was stronger in patients with BMI 2. These findings showed that the measurement of EAT thickness by echocardiography might be especially useful in an Asian population with a non-high BMI, less than 27 kg/m2.

  4. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  5. [The general methodological approaches identifying strategic positions in developing healthy lifestyle of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, S B; Babenko, A I

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of national and international publications concerning methodological aspects of elaborating systematic approach to healthy life-style of population. This scope of inquiry plays a key role in development of human capital. The costs related to healthy life-style are to be considered as personal investment into future income due to physical incrementation of human capital. The definitions of healthy life-style, its categories and supportive factors are to be considered in the process of development of strategies and programs of healthy lifestyle. The implementation of particular strategies entails application of comprehensive information and educational programs meant for various categories of population. Therefore, different motivation techniques are to be considered for children, adolescents, able-bodied population, the elderly. This approach is to be resulted in establishing particular responsibility for national government, territorial administrations, health care administrations, employers and population itself. The necessity of complex legislative measures is emphasized. The recent social hygienic studies were focused mostly on particular aspects of development of healthy life-style of population. Hence, the demand for long term exploration of development of organizational and functional models implementing medical preventive measures on the basis of comprehensive information analysis using statistical, sociological and professional expertise.

  6. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P < 0.05). Our results indicate high levels of genetic exchange in the spiraea aphid, possibly facilitated by geography and climate. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species.

  7. Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based sam......BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population....

  8. Identifying footprints of selection in stocked brown trout populations: a spatio-temporal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Meier, Kristian; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2010-01-01

    Studies of interactions between farmed and wild salmonid fishes have suggested reduced fitness of farmed strains in the wild, but evidence for selection at the genic level is lacking. We studied three brown trout populations in Denmark which have been significantly admixed with stocked hatchery...... trout (19–64%), along with two hatchery strains used for stocking. The wild populations were represented by contemporary samples (2000–2006) and two of them by historical samples (1943–1956). We analysed 61 microsatellite loci, nine of which showed putative functional relationships [expressed sequence...... trout. In the most strongly admixed population, however, there was no evidence for selection, possibly because of immigration by stocked trout overcoming selection against hatchery-derived alleles or supportive breeding practices allowing hatchery strain trout to escape natural selection. To our...

  9. Are symbols useful and culturally acceptable in health-state valuation studies? An exploratory study in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hwee-Lin, Wee1, Shu-Chuen Li2, Xu-Hao Zhang1, Feng Xie3, David Feeny4, Nan Luo5, Yin-Bun Cheung6, David Machin7, Kok-Yong Fong8, Julian Thumboo81Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore (NUS, Singapore; 2Discipline of Pharmacy and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 3McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Kaiser Permanente Northwest Center for Health Research, Portland, OR, USA; 5Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS, Singapore; 6Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Research Unit, Singapore; 7School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 8Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, SingaporeBackground: Symbols have been used in health state valuation studies to help subjects distinguish the severity of various characteristics of a given health state. Symbols used in such studies need to be evaluated for their cross-cultural appropriateness because a given symbol may have different meanings or acceptability in different cultures, which may affect results of such studies.Objectives: To evaluate if using symbols to differentiate health states of different severity is useful and culturally acceptable in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population.Methods: Using in-depth interviews with adult Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporeans conducted in English/mother-tongue, subjects were shown a health state with 6 levels (Health Utilities Index 3 vision, each displayed with a symbol, and asked (1a if symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level (measured using dichotomous and 0–10 visual analog scale [VAS] scales or (1b offensive and (2 to assess 7 alternative sets of symbols.Results: Of 63 subjects (91% response rate, 18 (29% felt symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level. Reported usefulness

  10. A case-control study of the association between ulcerative colitis and hyperthyroidism in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2017-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease with significant clinical diversity. However, the aetiology, pathogenesis and optimal treatment of UC remain unclear. The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the association between previously diagnosed hyperthyroidism and UC using a large population-based data set in Taiwan. The data for this population-based case-control study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We included 2709 patients with UC as cases and 8127 sex- and age-matched patients without UC as controls. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between UC and prior hyperthyroidism. We found that, in total, 327 of the 10 836 sampled patients (3.02%) had previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. There was a higher proportion of prior hyperthyroidism among cases than controls (4.10% vs 2.66%, Phyperthyroidism was 1.57 (95% CI=1.24-1.98) compared to controls. Similarly, after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location and urbanization level, cases were still more likely to have previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.27-2.05). Furthermore, we analysed the ORs of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls according to age group. We found that of the youngest group of sampled patients (18-39 years), cases had the greatest adjusted OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.04-3.79). This study demonstrated an association between UC and hyperthyroidism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Firing properties of identified interneuron populations in the mammalian hindlimb central pattern generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M.; Kiehn, Ole

    2002-01-01

    a heterogenous population with neurons that fired in all phases of the locomotor cycle and exhibited varying degrees of rhythmicity, from strongly rhythmic to nonrhythmic. Among the rhythmic, putative CPG dCINs were populations that fired inphase with the ipsilateral or with the contralateral L2 locomotorlike......, with little direct contribution from the intrinsic pacemaker hyperpolarization-activated inward current. For both ipsilaterally and contralaterally firing dCINs the dominant synaptic drive was in-phase with the ipsilateral L2 motor activity. This study provides the first characterization of putative CPG...

  12. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  13. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  14. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  15. Incidence and predictors of target lesion failure in a multiethnic Asian population receiving the SYNERGY coronary stent: A prospective all-comers registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Kristanto, William; Liu, Li; Chan, Siew-Pang; Loh, Poay Huan; Tay, Edgar L; Chan, Koo Hui; Chan, Mark Y; Lee, Chi-Hang; Low, Adrian F; Tan, Huay Cheem; Loh, Joshua P

    2018-03-07

    To evaluate the target lesion failure (TLF) rate of the SYNERGY stent in all-comers, multiethnic Asian population. Currently, most drug eluting stents deliver anti-proliferative drugs from a durable polymer which is associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. The novel everolimus-eluting, platinum chromium SYNERGY stent is coated with a bioabsorbable abluminal polymer that resolves within 4 months. This was a prospective, single center registry of consecutive patients treated with the SYNERGY stent between December 2012 and April 2015. The primary outcome was the incidence of TLF, defined as the combination of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 1 year. A total of 807 patients received the SYNERGY stent during the study period. One-year clinical outcome data was available for 765 patients (94.8%) and were considered for statistical analysis. The mean age was 60.7 ± 10.8 years, and 83.4% were males. Patients with acute myocardial infarction consisted of 50.3% (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 23.0%, Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 27.3%) of the study population. The treated lesions were complex (ACC/AHA type B2/C: 72.7%). The primary end point of TLF at 1 year was 5.8%. Rates of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, and TLR were 4.2, 1.0, and 1.3%, respectively, at 1 year. Predictors of the incidence and time to early TLF were female gender, Malay ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction at presentation, a prior history of coronary artery bypass surgery and the presence of lesion calcification. The incidence of definite stent thrombosis was 0.4% at 1 year. In this registry, the use of the SYNERGY stent was associated with low rates of TLF at 1 year. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spatial Interaction Modeling to Identify Potentially Exposed Populations during RDD or IND Terrorism Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.; Gupta, S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive no.5 (HSPD-5) Management of Domestic Incidents and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents underscore the need to delineate radiological emergency guidance applicable to remedial action and recovery following an RDD or IND incident. Rapid delineation of the population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from fallout during terrorist incidents involving RDDs or low-yield nuclear devices (≤ 20 KT) is necessary for effective medical response and incident management as part of the recovery process. This paper illustrates the application of spatial interaction models to allocate population data for a representative U.S. urban area (≅1.3M people; 1,612.27 km 2 area) at a geographical scale relevant for accurately estimating risk given dose concentrations. Estimated total dose equivalents (TEDE) are calculated for isopleths moving away from the detonation point for typical release scenarios. Population is estimated within the TEDE zones using Euclidean distances between zip code polygon centroids generated in ArcGIS version 9.1 with distance decay determined by regression analysis to apportion origin-destination pairs to a population count and density matrix on a spatial basis for daytime and night-time release scenarios. (authors)

  17. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  18. Identifying data gaps and prioritizing restoration strategies for Fremont cottonwood using linked geomorphic and population models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, E. B.; Stella, J. C.; Fremier, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is an important component of semi-arid riparian ecosystems throughout western North America, but its populations are in decline due to flow regulation. Achieving a balance between human resource needs and riparian ecosystem function requires a mechanistic understanding of the multiple geomorphic and biological factors affecting tree recruitment and survival, including the timing and magnitude of river flows, and the concomitant influence on suitable habitat creation and mortality from scour and sedimentation burial. Despite a great deal of empirical research on some components of the system, such as factors affecting cottonwood recruitment, other key components are less studied. Yet understanding the relative influence of the full suite of physical and life-history drivers is critical to modeling whole-population dynamics under changing environmental conditions. We addressed these issues for the Fremont cottonwood population along the Sacramento River, CA using a sensitivity analysis approach to quantify uncertainty in parameters on the outcomes of a patch-based, dynamic population model. Using a broad range of plausible values for 15 model parameters that represent key physical, biological and climatic components of the ecosystem, we ran 1,000 population simulations that consisted of a subset of 14.3 million possible combinations of parameter estimates to predict the frequency of patch colonization and total forest habitat predicted to occur under current hydrologic conditions after 175 years. Results indicate that Fremont cottonwood populations are highly sensitive to the interactions among flow regime, sedimentation rate and the depth of the capillary fringe (Fig. 1). Estimates of long-term floodplain sedimentation rate would substantially improve model accuracy. Spatial variation in sediment texture was also important to the extent that it determines the depth of the capillary fringe, which regulates the availability of

  19. Do recognizable lifetime eating disorder phenotypes naturally occur in a culturally asian population? A combined latent profile and taxometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Ruscio, John; Ng, King Lam; Casale, Kristen E; Becker, Anne E; Lee, Sing

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether empirically derived eating disorder (ED) categories in Hong Kong Chinese patients (N = 454) would be consistent with recognizable lifetime ED phenotypes derived from latent structure models of European and American samples. We performed latent profile analysis (LPA) using indicator variables from data collected during routine assessment, and then applied taxometric analysis to determine whether latent classes were qualitatively versus quantitatively distinct. Latent profile analysis identified four classes: (i) binge/purge (47%); (ii) non-fat-phobic low-weight (34%); (iii) fat-phobic low-weight (12%); and (iv) overweight disordered eating (6%). Taxometric analysis identified qualitative (categorical) distinctions between the binge/purge and non-fat-phobic low-weight classes, and also between the fat-phobic and non-fat-phobic low-weight classes. Distinctions between the fat-phobic low-weight and binge/purge classes were indeterminate. Empirically derived categories in Hong Kong showed recognizable correspondence with recognizable lifetime ED phenotypes. Although taxometric findings support two distinct classes of low weight EDs, LPA findings also support heterogeneity among non-fat-phobic individuals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. A suite of molecular markers for identifying species, detecting introgression and describing population structure in spadefoot toads (Spea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Karin S; Allenby, Ashley; Martin, Ryan A; Monroy, Anaïs; Jones, Corbin D

    2012-09-01

    Two congeneric species of spadefoot toad, Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons, have been the focus of hybridization studies since the 1970s. Because complex hybrids are not readily distinguished phenotypically, genetic markers are needed to identify introgressed individuals. We therefore developed a set of molecular markers (amplified fragment length polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphism) for identifying pure-species, F1 hybrids and more complex introgressed types. To do so, we tested a series of markers across both species and known hybrids using populations in both allopatry and sympatry. We retained those markers that differentiated the two pure-species and also consistently identified known species hybrids. These markers are well suited for identifying hybrids between these species. Moreover, those markers that show variation within each species can be used in conjunction with existing molecular markers in studies of population structure and gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Validation of rearrangement break points identified by paired-end sequencing in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Julie M; Thornton, Kevin R

    2010-01-13

    Several recent studies have focused on the evolution of recently duplicated genes in Drosophila. Currently, however, little is known about the evolutionary forces acting upon duplications that are segregating in natural populations. We used a high-throughput, paired-end sequencing platform (Illumina) to identify structural variants in a population sample of African D. melanogaster. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmation of duplications detected by multiple, independent paired-ends showed that paired-end sequencing reliably uncovered the break points of structural rearrangements and allowed us to identify a number of tandem duplications segregating within a natural population. Our confirmation experiments show that rates of confirmation are very high, even at modest coverage. Our results also compare well with previous studies using microarrays (Emerson J, Cardoso-Moreira M, Borevitz JO, Long M. 2008. Natural selection shapes genome wide patterns of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 320:1629-1631. and Dopman EB, Hartl DL. 2007. A portrait of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104:19920-19925.), which both gives us confidence in the results of this study as well as confirms previous microarray results.We were also able to identify whole-gene duplications, such as a novel duplication of Or22a, an olfactory receptor, and identify copy-number differences in genes previously known to be under positive selection, like Cyp6g1, which confers resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Several "hot spots" of duplications were detected in this study, which indicate that particular regions of the genome may be more prone to generating duplications. Finally, population frequency analysis of confirmed events also showed an excess of rare variants in our population, which indicates that duplications segregating in the population may be deleterious and ultimately destined to be lost from the

  2. Day-to-day discrimination and health among Asian Indians: a population-based study of Gujarati men and women in Metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Bybee, Deborah; Blazevski, Juliane

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between experiences of day-to-day discrimination and two measures of health among Gujaratis, one of the largest ethnic groups of Asian Indians in the U.S. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit (N = 423). Using structural equation modeling, we tested two gender-moderated models of the relationship between day-to-day discrimination and health, one using the single-item general health status and the other using the 4-item emotional wellbeing measure. For both women and men, controlling for socio-demographic and other relevant characteristics, the experience of day-to-day discrimination was associated with worse emotional wellbeing. However, day-to-day discrimination was associated with the single-item self-rated general health status only for men. This study identified not only gender differences in discrimination-health associations but also the importance of using multiple questions in assessing perceived health status.

  3. Demography and clinical course of ulcerative colitis in a multiracial Asian population: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, I; Singh, R; Ganesananthan, S; Yatim, I; Radzi, M; Chua, A B S; Tan, H J; Huang, S; Chin, K S; Menon, J; Goh, K L

    2009-02-01

    To establish the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Malaysian population, comparing the three major ethnic groups: Malay, Chinese and Indian. Patients who were diagnosed with UC from seven major medical referral centers in Malaysia were recruited. Their baseline characteristics, and the extent of the disease, its clinical course and complications were recorded. A total of 118 patients was included. The extent of disease was as follows: proctitis alone in 22 (18.6%), sigmoid colon in 23 (19.5%), descending colon in 16 (13.6%), transverse colon in 11 (9.3%), ascending colon and pancolitis 46 (39%). Most patients had chronic intermittent disease. Extra-intestinal complications were seen in 27 (22.9%) patients and fulminant colitis was seen in four (3.4%). None developed colorectal cancer. The overall cumulative colectomy rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 3.4% (CI: 0.9-8.5), 5.9% (CI: 1.9-13.2) and 15.6% (CI: 6.5-29.4), respectively. There was a higher prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations and a trend towards more extensive disease among Indian patients. However, no significant differences were seen in the age of onset, the severity of disease (fulminant colitis, refractory disease) and the colectomy rate. As in developed countries, most of our patients have a remitting and relapsing pattern of disease but the clinical course appears to be milder, with lower rates of colectomies. There are differences in clinical presentation among the three major ethnic groups, with Indians having a higher prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations and a trend towards more extensive disease.

  4. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    and often lead to unsafe sex. 3) Low self-esteem increases the risk of ignoring crossing of one’s personal boundaries and thereby resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior. 4) Increased sexual experience was found to be associated with lack of condom use. Surprisingly, the informants did not consider drug...... and used to describe important points of interest regarding sexual behavior in the young population....

  5. Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease can be identified through population-based registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Gunnar; Hærskjold, Ann; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research is facilitated in Sweden by a history of national health care registers, making large unselected national cohort studies possible. However, for complex clinical populations, such as children with congenital heart disease (CHD), register-based studies...... are challenged by registration limitations. For example, the diagnostic code system International Classification of Diseases, 10th version (ICD-10) does not indicate the clinical significance of abnormalities, therefore may be of limited use if used as the sole parameter in epidemiological research. Palivizumab...

  6. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Design Scoping review Methods Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Synthesis Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. Conclusion There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. PMID:28576896

  7. Seizing the Moment: California’s Opportunity to Prevent Nutrition-Related Health Disparities in Low-Income Asian American Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gail G.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foerster, Susan B.; Lee, Henry; Kim, Loan Pham; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Fernandez-Ami, Allyn; Quinn, Valerie; Bal, Dileep G.

    2005-01-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. We conducted focus groups and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese,...

  8. Association of Vagotomy and Decreased Risk of Subsequent Ischemic Stroke in Complicated Peptic Ulcer Patients: an Asian Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chu-Wen; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Muo, Chih-Hsin

    2017-12-01

    The primary management of peptic ulcers is medical treatment. Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to complications (perforation and/or bleeding). There has been a trend toward the use of a less invasive surgical simple suture, simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiography) hemostasis rather than acid-reducing vagotomy (i.e., vagus nerve severance) for treating complicated peptic ulcers. Other studies have shown the relationship between high vagus nerve activity and survival in cancer patients via reduced levels of inflammation, indicating the essential role of the vagus nerve. We were interested in the role of the vagus nerve and attempted to assess the long-term systemic effects after vagus nerve severance. Complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent truncal vagotomy may represent an appropriate study population for investigating the association between vagus nerve severance and long-term effects. Therefore, we assessed the risks of subsequent ischemic stroke using different treatment methods in complicated peptic ulcer patients who underwent simple suture/hemostasis or truncal vagotomy/pyloroplasty. We selected 299,742 peptic ulcer patients without a history of stroke and Helicobacter pylori infection and an additional 299,742 matched controls without ulcer, stroke, and Helicobacter pylori infection from the National Health Insurance database. The controls were frequency matched for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, hypertension, hyperlipidemia history, and index year. Then, we measured the incidence of overall ischemic stroke in the two cohorts. The hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression. Compared to the controls, peptic ulcer patients had a 1.86-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke. There were similar results in gender, age, CCI, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia stratified analyses. In complicated peptic ulcer patients, those who received

  9. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yook Chin; Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-05-19

    This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78. Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

  11. The Rome II and Rome III criteria identify the same subtype-populations in irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simrén, M; Bytzer, P

    2012-01-01

    For comparing trials using different classifications for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtypes, it is important to know whether these identify the same sub-populations. Our aim was to determine the agreement between Rome II and Rome III subtypes, and to explore whether agreement depends...

  12. Genome-wide association studies in the Japanese population identify seven novel loci for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamura, Minako; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 80 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but most of its heritability still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS for T2D in the Japanese population. Combined data from discovery and ...

  13. Does breast density measured through population-based screening independently increase breast cancer risk in Asian females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park B

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boyoung Park,1,2 Hye Mi Cho,2 Eun Hye Lee,3 Seunghoon Song,2 Mina Suh,2 Kui Son Choi,1,2 Bong Joo Kang,4 Kyungran Ko,5 Ann Yi,6 Hae Kyoung Jung,7 Joo Hee Cha,8 Jae Kwan Jun,1,2 1National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 2National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Radiology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; 8Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. Patients and methods: We conducted a nested case–control study for a randomly selected population of 1,561 breast cancer patients and 6,002 matched controls from the National Cancer Screening Program. Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS. Associations between BI-RADS density and breast cancer risk were evaluated according to screening results, time elapsed since receiving non-recall results, age, and menopausal status after adjusting for possible covariates. Results: Breast cancer risk for women with extremely dense breasts was five times higher (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] =3

  14. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  15. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  16. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...

  17. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  18. Sexual behaviour and dysfunction and help-seeking patterns in adults aged 40-80 years in the urban population of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Alfredo; Glasser, Dale B; Kim, Sae C; Marumo, Ken; Laumann, Edward O

    2005-03-01

    To study sexual activity, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and related help-seeking behaviour among middle-aged and elderly people in Asia. A random population survey was carried out in 2001-2002 among urban residents aged 40-80 years in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and The Philippines, with interviews based on a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, health, relationships, and sexual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs. An intercept method of sampling was used in all countries except Japan, where questionnaires were mailed to a sample drawn from telephone directories. Sexual dysfunction was defined as persistent sexual problems. The questionnaire was completed by 6700 people (3350 men and 3350 women), giving a response rate of 27%. Across all countries, 82% of men and 64% of women had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. Most of the respondents considered satisfactory sex an essential means of maintaining a relationship. More than 20% of men and 30% of women complained of having at least one sexual dysfunction, although there were marked variations among the countries. The sexual dysfunctions most frequently reported were early ejaculation (20%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 18-21) and erectile dysfunction (15%, 14-17) among men; and a lack of sexual interest (27%, 25-29), lubrication difficulties (24%, 22-25), and an inability to reach orgasm (23%, 22-25) among women. Of the 948 men and 992 women who were sexually active and reported sexual dysfunctions, 45% did sought no help or advice and only 21% sought medical care. Men and women in Asian countries continue to show sexual interest and activity into middle age and beyond. Although sexual dysfunction is prevalent in this age group, several sociocultural and economic factors appear to be preventing individuals from seeking medical help for these problems.

  19. Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372 in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 – 1.56, p = 1.96 × 10-3. For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ≤ 1.04 × 10-7. Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups.

  20. Bullying Prevention as a Social Justice Issue: Implications with Asian American Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Wang, Weimeng; Zheng, Lianzhe; Atwal, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Asian American elementary students' experience with victimization. Data were collected from 313 fourth and fifth graders from an ethnically diverse elementary school in southern California. Most participants self-identified as Asian/Asian American and spoke an Asian language at home. Results indicated that Asian American…

  1. A GIS Approach to Identifying Socially and Medically Vulnerable Older Adult Populations in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth; Stoler, Justin; Emrich, Christopher T; Tewary, Sweta; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-11-10

    We define, map, and analyze geodemographic patterns of socially and medically vulnerable older adults within the tri-county region of South Florida. We apply principal components analysis (PCA) to a set of previously identified indicators of social and medical vulnerability at the census tract level. We create and map age-stratified vulnerability scores using a geographic information system (GIS), and use spatial analysis techniques to identify patterns and interactions between social and medical vulnerability. Key factors contributing to social vulnerability in areas with higher numbers of older adults include age, large household size, and Hispanic ethnicity. Medical vulnerability in these same areas is driven by disease burden, access to emergency cardiac services, availability of nursing home and hospice beds, access to home health care, and available mental health services. Age-dependent areas of social vulnerability emerge in Broward County, whereas age-dependent areas of medical vulnerability emerge in Palm Beach County. Older-adult social and medical vulnerability interact differently throughout the study area. Spatial analysis of older adult social and medical vulnerability using PCA and GIS can help identify age-dependent pockets of vulnerability that are not easily identifiable in a populationwide analysis; improve our understanding of the dynamic spatial organization of health care, health care needs, access to care, and outcomes; and ultimately serve as a tool for health care planning. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Whole-exome sequencing identifies common and rare variant metabolic QTLs in a Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousri, Noha A; Fakhro, Khalid A; Robay, Amal; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mohney, Robert P; Zeriri, Hassina; Odeh, Tala; Kader, Sara Abdul; Aldous, Eman K; Thareja, Gaurav; Kumar, Manish; Al-Shakaki, Alya; Chidiac, Omar M; Mohamoud, Yasmin A; Mezey, Jason G; Malek, Joel A; Crystal, Ronald G; Suhre, Karsten

    2018-01-23

    Metabolomics-genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) have uncovered many metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) influencing human metabolic individuality, though predominantly in European cohorts. By combining whole-exome sequencing with a high-resolution metabolomics profiling for a highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population, we discover 21 common variant and 12 functional rare variant mQTLs, of which 45% are novel altogether. We fine-map 10 common variant mQTLs to new metabolite ratio associations, and 11 common variant mQTLs to putative protein-altering variants. This is the first work to report common and rare variant mQTLs linked to diseases and/or pharmacological targets in a consanguineous Arab cohort, with wide implications for precision medicine in the Middle East.

  3. Specific olfactory receptor populations projecting to identified glomeruli in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Pedersen, P E; Greer, C A; Stewart, W B; Kauer, J S; Benson, T E; Shepherd, G M

    1984-08-01

    A critical gap exists in our knowledge of the topographical relationship between the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. The present report describes the application to this problem of a method involving horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. This material was iontophoretically delivered to circumscribed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and the characteristics and distribution of retrogradely labeled receptor cells were assessed. After discrete injections into small glomerular groups in the caudomedial bulb, topographically defined populations of receptor cells were labeled. Labeled receptor cell somata appeared at several levels within the epithelium. The receptor cell apical dendrites followed a tight helical course towards the surface of the epithelium. The data thus far demonstrate that functional units within the olfactory system may include not only glomeruli as previously suggested but, in addition, a corresponding matrix of receptor cells possessing functional and topographical specificity.

  4. Distinct and conserved prominin-1/CD133-positive retinal cell populations identified across species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Jászai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a marker of various somatic stem cells in mammals, prominin-1 (CD133 plays a role in maintaining the photoreceptor integrity since mutations in the PROM1 gene are linked with retinal degeneration. In spite of that, little information is available regarding its distribution in eyes of non-mammalian vertebrates endowed with high regenerative abilities. To address this subject, prominin-1 cognates were isolated from axolotl, zebrafish and chicken, and their retinal compartmentalization was investigated and compared to that of their mammalian orthologue. Interestingly, prominin-1 transcripts--except for the axolotl--were not strictly restricted to the outer nuclear layer (i.e., photoreceptor cells, but they also marked distinct subdivisions of the inner nuclear layer (INL. In zebrafish, where the prominin-1 gene is duplicated (i.e., prominin-1a and prominin-1b, a differential expression was noted for both paralogues within the INL being localized either to its vitreal or scleral subdivision, respectively. Interestingly, expression of prominin-1a within the former domain coincided with Pax-6-positive cells that are known to act as progenitors upon injury-induced retino-neurogenesis. A similar, but minute population of prominin-1-positive cells located at the vitreal side of the INL was also detected in developing and adult mice. In chicken, however, prominin-1-positive cells appeared to be aligned along the scleral side of the INL reminiscent of zebrafish prominin-1b. Taken together our data indicate that in addition to conserved expression of prominin-1 in photoreceptors, significant prominin-1-expressing non-photoreceptor retinal cell populations are present in the vertebrate eye that might represent potential sources of stem/progenitor cells for regenerative therapies.

  5. Differential effects of cocaine on histone posttranslational modifications in identified populations of striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Emmanuelle; Heiman, Myriam; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Guermonprez, Pierre; Cheng, Shuk Kei; Nairn, Angus C; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2013-06-04

    Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, induce changes in gene expression and epigenetic marks including alterations in histone posttranslational modifications in striatal neurons. These changes are thought to participate in physiological memory mechanisms and to be critical for long-term behavioral alterations. However, the striatum is composed of multiple cell types, including two distinct populations of medium-sized spiny neurons, and little is known concerning the cell-type specificity of epigenetic modifications. To address this question we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which express EGFP fused to the N-terminus of the large subunit ribosomal protein L10a driven by the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor (D1R, D2R) promoter, respectively. Fluorescence in nucleoli was used to sort nuclei from D1R- or D2R-expressing neurons and to quantify by flow cytometry the cocaine-induced changes in histone acetylation and methylation specifically in these two types of nuclei. The two populations of medium-sized spiny neurons displayed different patterns of histone modifications 15 min or 24 h after a single injection of cocaine or 24 h after seven daily injections. In particular, acetylation of histone 3 on Lys 14 and of histone 4 on Lys 5 and 12, and methylation of histone 3 on Lys 9 exhibited distinct and persistent changes in the two cell types. Our data provide insights into the differential epigenetic responses to cocaine in D1R- and D2R-positive neurons and their potential regulation, which may participate in the persistent effects of cocaine in these neurons. The method described should have general utility for studying nuclear modifications in different types of neuronal or nonneuronal cell types.

  6. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community.

  7. Home care utilization and outcomes among Asian and other Canadian patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Kathryn M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure (HF is a major cause of hospitalization and death in the aging population around the world. Home care utilization is associated with improved survival for the patients with HF, and varies by ethno-culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in hospital readmission rate and mortality between Asian and other Canadian HF patients. Methods HF patients were identified using hospital discharge abstracts from March 31, 2000 to April 1, 2006 in Calgary Health Region. Readmission and one-year mortality for HF were determined by linking hospital discharge and vital statistics data. Stratified by home care services use, readmission and mortality rates were compared between the Asians and other Canadians while controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, and household income. Results Of 26,171 HF patients discharged from hospital, 56.6% of Asians and 58.0% of other Canadians used home care services [adjusted odds ratio (OR for Asian: 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.74-0.89]. The hospital readmission rate was similar between Asians and other Canadians regardless of home care services use. Mortality was similar between those who used home care services (adjusted OR for Asian: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.13. For patients who did not use home care services, Asians had significantly lower mortality than other Canadians (adjusted OR for Asian: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.86. Conclusion Mortality was similar between Asian and other Canadian patients when home care services were utilized. However, among those without home care, Asian patients had a significantly lower mortality than other Canadian patients.

  8. Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, L P; Wong, E C; Shin, J J; Fortmann, S P; Lauderdale, D S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome for Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), given that existing evidence shows racial/ethnic heterogeneity exists in how BMI predicts metabolic syndrome. Electronic health records of 43,507 primary care patients aged 35 years and older with self-identified race/ethnicity of interest (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese or NHW) were analyzed in a mixed-payer, outpatient-focused health-care organization in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is significantly higher in Asians compared with NHWs for every BMI category. For women at the mean age of 55 and BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 12% for NHW women compared with 30% for Asians; similarly for men, the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 22% for NHWs compared with 43% of Asians. Compared with NHW women and men with a BMI of 25  kg  m(-2), comparable prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed at BMI of 19.6  kg  m(-2) for Asian women and 19.9  kg  m(-2) for Asian men. A similar pattern was observed in disaggregated Asian subgroups. In spite of the lower BMI values and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity than NHWs, Asian Americans have higher rates of metabolic syndrome over the range of BMI. Our results indicate that BMI ranges for defining overweight/obesity in Asian populations should be lower than for NHWs.

  9. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  10. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [

  11. Identifying elements of patient-centered care in underserved populations: a qualitative study of patient perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raja

    Full Text Available Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes.

  12. Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Peloso, Gina M; Liu, Dajiang J

    2017-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used a...

  13. ELF-test less accurately identifies liver cirrhosis diagnosed by liver stiffness measurement in non-Asian women with chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkisoen, S.; Boland, G. J.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The enhanced liver fibrosis test (ELF-test) has been validated for several hepatic diseases. However, its performance in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infected patients is uncertain. This study investigates the diagnostic value of the ELF test for cirrhosis identified by liver stiffness

  14. Validity and reliability of the semi-quantitative self-report Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist (HFAI-C) in White and South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; LeCroy, Madison; Sahota, Pinki; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2016-05-04

    Despite interest in the importance of the home food environment and its potential influence on children's diets and social norms, there remain few self-report checklist methods that have been validated against the gold standard of researcher-conducted inventories. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of the 'Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist' (HFAI-C), a 39-item checklist including categories of fruit, vegetables, snacks and drinks. The HFAI-C was completed by 97 participants of White and Pakistani origin in the UK. Validity was determined by comparing participant-reported HFAI-C responses to data from researcher observations of home food availability using PABAK and weighted kappa statistics. The validity of measuring the amount of items (in addition to presence/absence) available was also determined. Test-retest reliability compared repeated administrations of the HFAI-C using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity and reliability was fair to moderate overall. For validity, the average category-level PABAK ranged from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.37) for vegetables to 0.44 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) for fruits. Assessment of the presence/absence of items demonstrated higher validity compared to quantity measurements. Reliability was increased when the HFAI-C was repeated close to the time of the first administration. For example, ICCs for reliability of the measurement of fruits were 0.52 (95%CI: 0.47, 0.56) if re-administered within 5 months, 0.58 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.64) within 30 days and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00) if re-administered on the same day. Overall, the HFAI-C demonstrated fair to moderate validity and reliability in a population of White and South Asian participants. This evaluation is consistent with previous work on other checklists in less diverse, more affluent populations. Our research supports the use of the HFAI-C as a useful, albeit imperfect, representation of researcher-conducted inventories. The feasibility of

  15. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  16. Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Josefsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (=1402 to 1902. TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck’s depression inventory, BDI were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR and fanatical people (ScT were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.

  17. Missing paternal demographics: A novel indicator for identifying high risk population of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Shi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of every 6 United Status birth certificates contains no information on fathers. There might be important differences in the pregnancy outcomes between mothers with versus those without partner information. The object of this study was to assess whether and to what extent outcomes in pregnant women who did not have partner information differ from those who had. Methods We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the registry data in the United States for the period of 1995–1997, which was a matched multiple birth file (only twins were included in the current analysis. We divided the study subjects into three groups according to the availability of partner information: available, partly missing, and totally missing. We compared the distribution of maternal characteristics, maternal morbidity, labor and delivery complications, obstetric interventions, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, fetal death, neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and neonatal morbidity among three study groups. Results There were 304466 twins included in our study. Mothers whose partner's information was partly missing and (especially totally missing tended to be younger, of black race, unmarried, with less education, smoking cigarette during pregnancy, and with inadequate prenatal care. The rates of preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, Apgar score Conclusions Mothers whose partner's information was partly and (especially totally missing are at higher risk of adverse pregnant outcomes, and clinicians and public health workers should be alerted to this important social factor.

  18. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad; Haque, Sejuty; Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali; Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x 2 ) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  19. A review on the performance of osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians in determining osteoporosis and fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis in Asian countries is growing. An effective screening method will enable patients at risk for osteoporosis to receive early diagnosis and treatment, and avoid overcrowding the limited dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines available in Asian countries. Many simple osteoporosis screening algorithms have been developed but they are not validated for use in Asian populations. osteoporosis self-assessment tools for Asians (OSTA), established using a multinational Asian cohort, is the first screening algorithm that caters for the Asian populations. It considers only body weight and age in the algorithm. It shows consistently high performance and sensitivity in identifying postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis in many Asian countries. Its usage has been expanded for identifying osteoporosis in men, as well as determining fracture risk for both sexes. However, the performance of OSTA is influenced by age, sex, ethnicity and site of BMD measurement to define osteoporosis. Its usage is also limited in individuals without apparent risk factors. These limitations should be noted by physicians considering the use of OSTA in clinical setting. As a conclusion, OSTA is a cost-effective measure for osteoporosis screening in primary healthcare setting.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oxaliplatin in adults and children identifies important covariates for dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanjam, Mina; Stewart, Clinton F; Takimoto, Chris H; Synold, Timothy W; Beaty, Orren; Fouladi, Maryam; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic function in children and adults. Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic data were combined from phase I and II clinical trials: three pediatric trials (Peds1-3) and two adult NCI organ dysfunction studies (Hepatic and Renal). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed utilizing platinum ultrafiltrate concentrations to characterize changes in oxaliplatin disposition with age and organ dysfunction along with other potential sources of oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic variability. A total of 1,508 concentrations from 186 children and adults were used in the study. The data were well described by a three-compartment model. Serum creatinine (SCR) was an independent predictor of clearance (CL) while age was an independent predictor of volume of distribution. Although age was a significant covariate on CL in the univariate analysis, age effects on CL were entirely accounted for by SCR. Gender, hepatic function, and race had no effect on CL or volume of distribution. Median CL values were 0.58 (Hepatic), 0.34 (Renal), 0.78 (Peds1), 0.74 (Peds2), and 0.81 (Peds3) (L/h/kg(0.75)). Monte Carlo simulations of the final model with 130 mg/m(2) yielded median AUC values of: 14.2 (2-6 years), 16.8 (6-12 years), 16.5 (12-18 years), and 17.3 (>18 years) (µg h/mL). Renal function had the greatest effect on CL with a small age effect seen on the distribution of oxaliplatin. Young pediatric patients had higher CL values than adults as a result of better renal function.

  1. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Neerincx, Pieter B.T.; Elbers, Clara C.; Francesco Palamara, Pier; Pe'er, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F.J.; Stoneking, Mark; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Joeri van der Velde, K.; van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; van Schaik, Barbera D.C.; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Jukema, J. Wouter; van der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (~35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value <6.61 × 10−4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted to be deleterious. The frequency of this ABCA6 variant is 3.65-fold increased in the Dutch and its effect (βLDL-C=0.135, βTC=0.140) is estimated to be very similar to those observed for single variants in well-known lipid genes, such as LDLR. PMID:25751400

  2. Measurement invariance of the people of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale with Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Alvarez, Alvin N; Li, Robin; Chen, Grace A; Iwamoto, Derek K

    2016-01-01

    Racial identity has been linked to a number of important psychological outcomes, including perceptions of racism, self-esteem, and psychological well-being in Asian American populations. Although the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995) is the most widely used measure in Asian American racial identity research, numerous competing measurement models of the PRIAS have been identified in independent Asian American samples. Therefore, this study tested these competing PRIAS measurement models and also examined PRIAS measurement invariance across generational status, gender, and ethnicity using a combined sample of 1,946 Asian American college students and community adults. Study findings demonstrated the superiority of a 12-item 4-factor PRIAS measurement model that was consistent with Helms's original racial identity theory, suggesting that the PRIAS operates in an equivalent manner across generational status, gender, and ethnicity. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Methods for Identifying Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Populations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hamann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of 22 monolingual and 54 bilingual children with and without specific language impairment (SLI, in a non-word repetition task (NWRT and a sentence repetition task (SRT. Both tasks were constructed according to the principles for LITMUS tools (Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings developed within COST Action IS0804 and incorporated phonological or syntactic structures that are linguistically complex and have been shown to be difficult for children with SLI across languages. For phonology these are in particular (nonwords containing consonant clusters. In morphosyntax, complexity has been attributed to factors such as embedding and/or syntactic movement. Tasks focusing on such structures are expected to identify SLI in bilinguals across language combinations. This is notoriously difficult because structures that are problematic for typically developing bilinguals (BiTDs and monolingual children with SLI (MoSLI often overlap. We show that the NWRT and the SRT are reliable tools for identification of SLI in bilingual contexts. However, interpretation of the performance of bilingual children depends on background information as provided by parental questionnaires. To evaluate the accuracy of our tasks, we recruited children in ordinary kindergartens or schools and in speech language therapy centers and verified their status with a battery of standardized language tests, assessing bilingual children in both their languages. We consider a bilingual child language impaired if she shows impairments in two language domains in both her languages. For assessment, we used tests normed for monolinguals (with one exception and adjusted the norms for bilingualism and for language dominance. This procedure established the following groups: 10 typical monolinguals (MoTD, 12 MoSLI, 46 BiTD, and 8 bilingual children with SLI (BiSLI. Our results show that both tasks target relevant structures: monolingual

  4. Genome-wide association studies in the Japanese population identify seven novel loci for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamura, Minako; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 80 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but most of its heritability still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS for T2D in the Japanese population. Combined data from discovery...... and subsequent validation analyses (23,399 T2D cases and 31,722 controls) identify 7 new loci with genome-wide significance (P2, rs7107784 near MIR4686 and rs67839313 near INAFM2....... Of these, the association of 4 loci with T2D is replicated in multi-ethnic populations other than Japanese (up to 65,936 T2Ds and 158,030 controls, P

  5. Lineage Tracing and Cell Ablation Identify a Post-Aire-Expressing Thymic Epithelial Cell Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C. Metzger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire, a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire+ mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire− mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates toward the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance.

  6. Identifying harmful drinking using a single screening question in a psychiatric consultation-liaison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Norris, Lorenzo; Lausin, Melissa; Nwaneri, Chinyere; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2011-01-01

    Harmful drinking is common in medical inpatients, yet commonly missed due in part to time pressures. A screening question about past year heavy drinking recommended by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has been validated in primary care and emergency room settings. We tested the psychometric properties of a modified single screening question (SSQ) in hospitalized patients referred to a consultation-liaison service. A psychiatry attending (n = 40), a psychiatry resident (n = 30) and a medical student (n = 30) administered the SSQ, followed by a self-report 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to a sample of 100 consultation-liaison patients who were able to give informed consent for participation. Using the AUDIT as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of the SSQ to detect harmful drinking in this sample were .96 and .82, respectively. Gender differences in specificity were not found. The single question also had a strong correlation with dependence (r(b) = .457, p past year heavy drinking can rapidly identify harmful drinking in alert nonpsychotic consultation-liaison patients. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted case finding for hepatitis B using dry blood spot testing in the British-Chinese and South Asian populations of the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, S; Valappil, M; Moses, S E; Eltringham, G; Miller, C; Baxter, K; Chan, A; Shafiq, K; Saeed, A; Qureshi, R; Hudson, M; Bassendine, M F

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Targeted HBV screening is recommended by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention for subjects born in countries with >2% HBV prevalence. However, there are no UK guidelines. Here, we applied the (CDC) recommendations to the British-Chinese and British-South Asian community of North-East (NE) England. British-Chinese and South Asian subjects were invited to attend for HBV education and screening sessions held in community centres. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) were tested with dry blood spot tests. South Asians were also tested for hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb). A total of 1126 subjects (606 Chinese and 520 South Asian) were screened. Sixty-two (5.5%) were HBsAg positive. Ten of these reported a previous diagnosis of HBV. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 4.6% when previously diagnosed individuals were excluded. The HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher in the Chinese subjects compared with South Asians (8.7% VS. 1.7% P < 0.001). In Chinese subjects, HBsAg positivity was highest in subjects born in Vietnam (17.4%), followed by China (11%), Hong Kong (7.8%) and the UK (6.7%). Subjects from Pakistan had the highest HBsAg and HCV Ab prevalence in the South Asians (3.1% and 1.8%, respectively). Ten percentage of HBsAg positive patients who had follow-up assessment had active disease requiring antiviral treatment. Undiagnosed HBV infection was above the 2% threshold for screening suggested by the CDC in the British-Chinese and Pakistani community of NE England, which provides evidence for a UK HBV-targeted screening programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  9. Functional Investigations of HNF1A Identify Rare Variants as Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Laeya Abdoli; Aukrust, Ingvild; Flannick, Jason; Molnes, Janne; Burtt, Noel; Molven, Anders; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Variants in HNF1A encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1A) are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young form 3 (MODY 3) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether functional classification of HNF1A rare coding variants can inform models of diabetes risk prediction in the general population by analyzing the effect of 27 HNF1A variants identified in well-phenotyped populations (n = 4,115). Bioinformatics tools classified 11 variants as likely pathogenic and showed no association with diabetes risk (combined minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.22%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 0.73–5.60; P = 0.18). However, a different set of 11 variants that reduced HNF-1A transcriptional activity to diabetes in the general population (combined MAF 0.22%; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.99–12.80; P = 0.0007). Our functional investigations indicate that 0.44% of the population carry HNF1A variants that result in a substantially increased risk for developing diabetes. These results suggest that functional characterization of variants within MODY genes may overcome the limitations of bioinformatics tools for the purposes of presymptomatic diabetes risk prediction in the general population. PMID:27899486

  10. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  11. Quality of life domains important and relevant to family caregivers of advanced cancer patients in an Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geok Ling; Ow, Mandy Yen Ling; Akhileswaran, Ramaswamy; Pang, Grace Su Yin; Fan, Gilbert Kam Tong; Goh, Brandon Huat Heng; Wong, Cai Fong; Cheung, Yin Bun; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to identify domains of quality of life (QoL) that are culturally relevant to Chinese caregivers of advanced cancer patients in Singapore and to evaluate content adequacy of currently available instruments for use in the target population. English- and Chinese-speaking caregivers of advanced cancer patients receiving care under a tertiary cancer center and/or a community hospice home care/day care provider were recruited for in-depth interviews. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified domains, themes and sub-themes were compared to concepts addressed by items from five existing cancer-specific caregiver QoL instruments. Eighteen female and eight male caregivers aged 28-74 years participated in the study. Twenty-nine QoL themes and 59 sub-themes were identified in six domains, namely physical health, mental health, social health, spiritual health, financial health and daily life. Collectively, but not individually, the content of the five existing instruments adequately cover the physical health domain, social health domain and some themes on mental health domain for the study population. Content gaps were identified in the domains of mental health, spiritual health, daily life and financial health. The present study found culturally and contextually specific themes and sub-themes about positive emotional health, spiritual health and financial health.

  12. Somatic populations of PGT135-137 HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies identified by 454 pyrosequencing and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang eZhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Select HIV-1-infected individuals develop sera capable of neutralizing diverse viral strains. The molecular basis of this neutralization is currently being deciphered by the isolation of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. In one infected donor, three neutralizing antibodies, PGT135-137, were identified by assessment of neutralization from individually sorted B cells and found to recognize an epitope containing an N-linked glycan at residue 332 on HIV-1 gp120. Here we use deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods to interrogate the B cell record of this donor to gain a more complete understanding of the humoral immune response. PGT135-137-gene family-specific primers were used to amplify heavy and light chain-variable domain sequences. 454 pyrosequencing produced 141,298 heavy-chain sequences of IGHV4-39 origin and 87,229 light-chain sequences of IGKV3-15 origin. A number of heavy and light chain sequences of ~90% identity to PGT137, several to PGT136, and none of high identity to PGT135 were identified. After expansion of these sequences to include close phylogenetic relatives, a total of 202 heavy-chain sequences and 72 light-chain sequences were identified. These sequences were clustered into populations of 95% identity comprising 15 for heavy chain and 10 for light chain, and a select sequence from each population was synthesized and reconstituted with a PGT137-partner chain. Reconstituted antibodies showed varied neutralization phenotypes for HIV-1 clade A and D isolates. Sequence diversity of the antibody population represented by these tested sequences was notably higher than observed with a 454 pyrosequencing-control analysis on 10 antibodies of defined sequence, suggesting that this diversity results primarily from somatic maturation. Our results thus provide an example of how pathogens like HIV-1 are opposed by a varied humoral immune response, derived from intrinsic mechanisms of antibody development, and embodied by somatic populations

  13. Self-reported domain-specific and accelerometer-based physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to psychological distress among an urban Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; van Dam, R M; Biddle, S J H; Tan, C S; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2018-04-05

    The interpretation of previous studies on the association of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with psychological health is limited by the use of mostly self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and a focus on Western populations. We aimed to explore the association of self-reported and devise-based measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour domains on psychological distress in an urban multi-ethnic Asian population. From a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-79 years, data were used from an overall sample (n = 2653) with complete self-reported total physical activity/sedentary behaviour and domain-specific physical activity data, and a subsample (n = 703) with self-reported domain-specific sedentary behaviour and accelerometry data. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour data were collected using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), a domain-specific sedentary behaviour questionnaire and accelerometers. The Kessler Screening Scale (K6) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to assess psychological distress. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The sample comprised 45.0% men (median age = 45.0 years). The prevalence of psychological distress based on the K6 and GHQ-12 was 8.4% and 21.7%, respectively. In the adjusted model, higher levels of self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were associated with significantly higher odds for K6 (OR = 1.47 [1.03-2.10]; p-trend = 0.03) but not GHQ-12 (OR = 0.97 [0.77-1.23]; p-trend = 0.79), when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile. Accelerometry-assessed MVPA was not significantly associated with K6 (p-trend = 0.50) nor GHQ-12 (p-trend = 0.74). The highest tertile of leisure-time physical activity, but not work- or transport-domain activity, was associated

  14. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...

  15. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Macdonald, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    A divided infraorbital foramen is an important morphological feature in lion taxonomy and has previously been considered to occur only in the Asian lion, Panthera leo persica. Based on an examination of 498 lion skulls from museum collections in Europe and southern Africa, we report for the first

  16. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  17. Lethal Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Demand® CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Implications for Population Suppression, Tree Protection, Eradication and Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for adult Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, using topical application. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: the LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. Residual...

  18. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  19. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  20. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  1. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  2. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of Epstein-Barr virus identifies variants and genes associated with gastric carcinoma and population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youyuan; Xu, Miao; Liang, Liming; Zhang, Haojiong; Xu, Ruihua; Feng, Qisheng; Feng, Lin; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is a ubiquitous virus and is associated with several human malignances, including the significant subset of gastric carcinoma, Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma. Some Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases are uniquely prevalent in populations with different geographic origins. However, the features of the disease and geographically associated Epstein-Barr virus genetic variation as well as the roles that the variation plays in carcinogenesis and evolution remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced 95 geographically distinct Epstein-Barr virus isolates from Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma biopsies and saliva of healthy donors to detect variants and genes associated with gastric carcinoma and population structure from a genome-wide spectrum. We demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus revealed the population structure between North China and South China. In addition, we observed population stratification between Epstein-Barr virus strains from gastric carcinoma and healthy controls, indicating that certain Epstein-Barr virus subtypes are associated with different gastric carcinoma risks. We identified that the BRLF1, BBRF3, and BBLF2/BBLF3 genes had significant associations with gastric carcinoma. LMP1 and BNLF2a genes were strongly geographically associated genes in Epstein-Barr virus. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus for gastric carcinoma, and the genetic variants associated with gastric carcinoma can serve as biomarkers for oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus.