WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian pacific islanders

  1. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  2. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This... success are uniquely American. As we celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we... Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, let us celebrate the millions of Asian Americans...

  3. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  4. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  5. Underage drinking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence rates among four major ethnic groups of Hawai'i and examined the relationship among risk factors, protective factors, and demographic variables related to underage drinking. A total of 196 students were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, the American Drug and Alcohol Survey, and the Prevention Planning Survey. Drinking rates for Native Hawaiian students were significantly higher than those for Japanese and Caucasian students. Multiple logistic regression models accounted for 49% of the variance for any alcohol use. Ethnic group differences were found when data were disaggregated for Asian and Pacific Islander students.

  6. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Asian or Pacific Islander. Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Asian or Pacific Islander include: (1) Top 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs: SY 2013-14; (2)…

  7. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Bratton, Sally I.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed were the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander (API) California community college students who took the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey. This was done to identify characteristics related to sexual behavior and choice of birth control and examine the association between condom use and history…

  8. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...

  9. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Facts, Not Fiction--Setting the Record Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE), consisting of a national commission, an advisory board, and a research team at New York University, aims to engage realistic and actionable discussions about the mobility and educational opportunities for AAPIs and how distinctions of race, ethnicity,…

  10. Evaluation of a Health Careers Program for Asian American and Pacific Islander High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated a health careers program in a U.S. urban public high school. After small subgroups of the original sample were removed, participants included 162 Asian American and Pacific Islander students. Analyses of covariance indicated that, compared with the comparison group, the treatment group reported significantly higher levels of…

  11. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  12. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... reflect on our past, we mark 70 years since the Executive Order that authorized the internment of Japanese... 4, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8806--Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month... Fitness and Sports Month, 2012 Proclamation 8809--Older Americans Month, 2012 Proclamation 8810--Law...

  13. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  14. Neighborhood poverty and kidney transplantation among US Asians and Pacific Islanders with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Y N; O'Hare, A M; Young, B A; Boyko, E J; Chertow, G M

    2008-11-01

    The degree to which low transplant rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States are confounded by poverty and reduced access to care is unknown. We examined the relationship between neighborhood poverty and kidney transplant rates among 22 152 patients initiating dialysis during 1995-2003 within 1800 ZIP codes in California, Hawaii and the US-Pacific Islands. Asians and whites on dialysis were distributed across the spectrum of poverty, while Pacific Islanders were clustered in the poorest areas. Overall, worsening neighborhood poverty was associated with lower relative rates of transplant (adjusted HR [95% CI] for areas with > or =20% vs. poverty, 0.41 [0.32-0.53], p poverty, Asians and Pacific Islanders experienced lower transplant rates compared with whites. The degree of disparity increased with worsening neighborhood poverty (adjusted HR [95% CI] for Asians-Pacific Islanders vs. whites, 0.64 [0.51-0.80], p or =20% residents living in poverty; race-poverty level interaction, p = 0.039). High levels of neighborhood poverty are associated with lower transplant rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders compared with whites. Our findings call for studies to identify cultural and local barriers to transplant among Asians and Pacific Islanders, particularly those residing in resource-poor neighborhoods.

  15. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discrimination—yet they excelled. Even in the darkness of the Exclusion Act and Japanese internment, Asian... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and... Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009 Proc. 8369 Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009By...

  16. Acculturation and Perceived Stress in HIV+ Immigrants: Depression Symptomatology in Asian & Pacific Islanders

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; WENG, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Emiko, Kamitani; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the United States, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between, 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management ...

  17. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Asian American and Pacific Islander Students' Transition to College: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic differences in the interpersonal factors that influence college access among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). Data on 1,460 AAPIs from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS: 02/06) were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings suggest that parental…

  19. A Critical Review of the Model Minority Myth in Selected Literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  1. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  2. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  4. Maternal Influences on Asian American–Pacific Islander Adolescents’ Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents’ sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American–Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and model. Maternal perceived connectedness and adolescents’ perceived maternal sexual expectations in sexual timing are found to be protective for delaying...

  5. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  6. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  7. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  8. Asian/Pacific islander youth violence prevention center: community mobilization efforts to reduce and prevent youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary H

    2008-03-01

    Although youth violence is a serious concern in the United States, Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth have generally been neglected as a demographic group for scholarly inquiry or community mobilization efforts. This lack of attention in the violence prevention field is indicative of two perceptual impediments with which AAPI communities have struggled for decades: (1) That AAPIs represent a relatively small portion of the United States population, and (2) That AAPIs are stereotyped as "model minorities" who do not encounter serious social obstacles and who lack ethnic heterogeneity. This paper challenges these concerns, and describes two community mobilization efforts to prevent youth violence in AAPI communities. Both of these efforts were carried out from 2000 to 2003 by the University of Hawaii, Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center. Findings from these mobilization efforts highlight the need for long-term university-community commitments, in which university entities take a leadership role in disaggregating AAPI juvenile justice data. Another critical need is to work with previously marginalized ethnic groups within the AAPI population.

  9. An Introductory Mixed-Methods Intersectionality Analysis of College Access and Equity: An Examination of First-Generation Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how researchers can use mixed-methods approaches and intersectional analyses to understand college access among first-generation Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). First, he discusses the utility of mixed-methods approaches and intersectionality research in studying college access. Then, he…

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  11. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  12. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  13. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  14. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  15. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... with their fellow citizens during the civil rights movement; they have served proudly in our Armed... is why my Administration reestablished both the White House Initiative and the President's...

  16. Are psychological consequences of stigma enduring or transitory? A longitudinal study of HIV stigma and distress among Asians and Pacific Islanders living with HIV illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Rapkin, Bruce D; DeAlmeida, Chrystianne

    2006-10-01

    Cross-sectional findings have shed considerable light on the relationships between illness stigma and psychological outcomes among persons living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. However, no studies have examined the possible long-term consequences of illness stigma on mental health among Asians and Pacific Islanders living with HIV/AIDS, a group particularly vulnerable to HIV stigma due to ingrained sociocultural norms. This 2-year longitudinal study examined the relationship between five HIV-stigma factors (social rejection, negative self-worth, perceived interpersonal insecurity, financial insecurity, discretionary disclosure) and changes in psychological distress dimensions (self-esteem, hopelessness, dread, confused thinking, sadness, anxiety) among a convenience sample of 44 HIV-seropositive Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City from 2002 to 2004. Undocumented Asians independently endorsed higher levels of perceived interpersonal insecurity and lower levels of self-esteem than documented participants at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that baseline social rejection and perceived interpersonal insecurity were significantly associated with changes in self-esteem at 2-year follow-up, controlling for baseline self-esteem and physical symptoms at follow-up. An interaction effect between baseline financial insecurity and discretionary disclosure was significantly associated with dread at 2-year follow-up. Findings highlight the importance of stigma reduction interventions that: (1) recognize multiple layers of stigma based sexual orientation, gender, and immigration status; and (2) address both individual and structural constraints that perpetuate HIV-stigma among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States.

  17. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  18. Psychosocial and Clinical Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Li, Dongmei; Davis, James; Arakaki, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. The objective was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life, general health perceptions, depressive symptoms, and glycemia in Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to diabetes education and support for six weekly sessions. Participants were recruited from two endocrinology practices; 207 were enrolled. The cognitive behavioral therapy group was provided self-management tools which included biofeedback, breathing exercises, and stress relievers, while the diabetes education and support group included diabetes education and group discussions. Assessments of psychosocial and clinical outcomes were obtained before and after sessions and 12 months PostSession. Differences between the two groups were examined using linear mixed-effects models with linear contrasts. The cognitive behavioral therapy group had improved depressive symptom scores from PreSession to EndSession compared to the diabetes education and support group (P < .03), but the improvement did not extend to 12 months PostSession. Similar results were observed with misguided support scores in the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (P < .03) and susceptibility in health beliefs (P < .01), but no significant differences in HbA1c improvement were found between the two groups. Both interventions improved outcomes from baseline but were not sustained for 1 year.

  19. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  20. Thirteen years of observations on biomass burning organic tracers over Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific: An outflow region of Asian aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing; Zhu, Chunmao

    2015-05-01

    East Asia is the world's greatest source region for the emission of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors due to the rapid industrialization and intensive biomass burning (BB) activities. BB emits specific organic tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and then transported downwind to the western North Pacific by westerly winds. Here we present long-term observations of BB tracers over the remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific (WNP) from 2001 to 2013. Elevated concentrations of BB tracers by an order of magnitude were found in midautumn to midspring with winter maxima, which are strongly involved with the atmospheric transport by westerly winds from the Asian continent to the WNP, as supported by backward trajectory analyses. Throughout the observations, we found an increase in the averaged concentrations of BB tracers from 2006 to 2013, which is mainly caused by enhanced BB events in Asian urban and rural areas, as supported by enhanced fire/hot spots in East Asia via satellite images. We also found that the period of the high concentrations was prolonged from 2006 to 2013. Comparison between monthly averaged concentrations of BB tracers and backward air mass trajectories clearly demonstrates that the winter/spring maxima over Chichijima are involved with the seasonal shifting of atmospheric circulation followed by downwind transport of BB aerosols to the WNP. High abundances of BB tracers over the WNP indicate that BB-laden air masses can be transported to remote marine environments.

  1. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian

  2. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  3. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  4. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  6. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  8. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  9. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  10. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  11. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  12. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  13. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  14. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  15. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  16. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  17. Sexual positioning and race-based attraction by preferences for social dominance among gay Asian/Pacific Islander men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Judy Y; Pratto, Felicia; Operario, Don; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-10-01

    For gay men in the United States, race/ethnicity has been demonstrated to factor importantly into sexual preferences, and race-based beliefs regarding certain racial groups are prevalent within the gay male community. For gay men of color, such beliefs may differentially influence their sexual preferences. Yet, little is known about the social-psychological factors underlying differences in sexual preferences among gay men of color. The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance may explain variations in sexual positioning preferences, and how this relationship may be further qualified by their race-based sexual attraction among gay Asian/Pacific Islander (API) men. A total of 141 API gay men were recruited to participate in an online survey. Measures assessed participants' sexual positioning preferences, race-based sexual attraction, and preferences for social hierarchy or social dominance orientation (SDO). Self-identified tops scored higher on SDO than bottoms or versatiles. Participants attracted to non-API men scored higher on SDO compared to participants attracted to API men and participants who reported no race-based attraction. Finally, a significant two-way interaction indicated that tops attracted to non-API men scored the highest on SDO, and bottoms with no race-based attraction in men scored the lowest. Race/ethnicity is a prominent factor in sexual attraction and sexual positioning preferences among gay men, and one's proclivity for social hierarchy and dominance explains differences in sexual preferences among API gay men. By demonstrating how API gay men negotiate sexual preferences, present findings help elucidate existing race-based sexual dynamics within gay male culture.

  18. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  19. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandra Bagley; Usman H Malabu

    2014-01-01

    Two-third of the world’s population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  1. Education Concerns of Asian and Pacific Americans. 1978 Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Barbara

    Five national issues considered to be the most important to Asian and Pacific Americans' (APA) education priorities are discussed in this report. These include the need to: (1) increase Federal assistance and improve access for APAs; (2) gather more data and research on APA education needs; (3) promote more Asian and Pacific American participation…

  2. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  3. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine APJTB Bimonthly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controUing the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  4. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  5. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  6. 1- HARPs of the Pacific Islands Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on acoustic recordings of cetaceans collected from areas within the Pacific Islands Region since 2006. In collaboration with...

  7. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  8. Bryophyte floras of tropical Pacific islands

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Harvey A.; Whittier, Henry O.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of bryological research in each of the nations, states or governmental units of southern Melanesia, Micronesia and tropical Polynesia shows the imperfect state of knowledge about the Pacific tropical islands. Best known overall are Hawaii and Micronesia with Wallis and Futuna, the Marquesas and the high mountains of Fiji seeming to be the least known potentially species rich areas. Involvement of residents from Pacific islands in botanical study and preservation of ecos...

  9. The Bakke Case and Asian/Pacific Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian and Pacific American Federal Employee Council, Washington, DC.

    Amidst much controversy, the United States Department of Justice has filed an amicus brief in the Supreme Court on behalf of the special minority admissions program at the University of California Medical School at Davis. This fact sheet is intended to show why Asian and Pacific Americans and those friendly toward Asians should pay careful…

  10. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  11. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/ ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times ...

  12. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  14. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  15. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to sel up an academic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of die world.Review articles based primarily on audiors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors are requested to submit

  17. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical.including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based

  18. Pacific Asian Business Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chuk C Y Kwok

    1986-01-01

    As Pacific Asia becomes increasingly important in the world economy, business programs are needed for preparing students who want to specialize in this region. This study develops a comprehensive listing of Pacific Asian business programs currently available in the U.S. It is found that the programs vary significantly in terms of length, structure and regional focus. Although there are a few programs of this kind available, the number may still be insufficient. The American business schools m...

  19. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  20. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30 years to build a health equity agenda. Learn More Action for Health Justice Free Health Insurance Glossaries Available in: English, Korean, Laotian, Marshallese, Tagalog, Traditional Chinese, Tongan, and Vietnamese. ...

  1. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver & IBD* 6.0 3.1 1.9 Stomach 4.4 1.8 2.4 Breast 11.2 21.5 0.5 *IBD = Intrahepatic Bile Duct Source: NCI 2016. Seer Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2013. Table 1.21. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/2013/sections.html Screening Breast Cancer Percent of women age 40 and ...

  2. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short

  3. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher.and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical bioiuedic-me and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedieine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on

  4. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims lo set up an acdcmic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles

  5. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acderaic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern.traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles

  6. Recent advances on thrombosis and haemostasis in Asian Pacific region: report of the Fourth Asian Pacific Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-yue

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Fourth Asian Pacific Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (APCTH) was held from September 21 to 23, 2006 in Suzhou, China and organized by the Asian Pacific Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis and the Chinese Society of Haematology with professor RUAN Chang-geng as the chairperson.

  7. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  8. Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollutants characterized by the Western Pacific (WP) pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Noh, Young Min; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-12-01

    Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian air pollutants has been investigated in many ways to figure out its mechanism. Based on the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, one of climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere known to be associated with the pattern of atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean, in this study, we characterize the pattern of springtime trans-Pacific transport using long-term satellite measurements and reanalysis datasets. A positive WP pattern is characterized by intensification of the dipole structure between the northern Aleutian Low and the southern Pacific High over the North Pacific. The TOMS/OMI Aerosol Index (AI) and MOPITT CO show the enhancement of Asian pollutant transport across the Pacific during periods of positive WP pattern, particularly between 40 and 50°N. This enhancement is confirmed by high correlations of WP index with AI and CO between 40 and 50°N. To evaluate the influence of the WP pattern, we examine several cases of trans-Pacific transport reported in previous research. Interestingly, most trans-Pacific transport cases are associated with the positive WP pattern. During the period of negative WP pattern, reinforced cyclonic wave breaking is consistently found over the western North Pacific, which obstructs zonal advection across the North Pacific. However, some cases show the trans-Pacific transport of CO in the period of negative WP pattern, implying that the WP pattern is more influential on the transport of particles mostly emitted near ∼40°N. This study reveals that the WP pattern can be utilized to diagnose the strength of air pollutant transport from East Asia to North America.

  9. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  11. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  13. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W Purcell

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of be...

  14. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  15. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  16. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  17. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Paeific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors

  18. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher.and aims to set up an acdcmic communicating platform for Chinese and scientist’s all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies.from any part of the world.Review articles based primarity on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors

  19. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to set up an academic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere(if accepted).This restriction does not apply to results published as

  20. Common Ground. Perspectives on Affirmative Action...and Its Impact on Asian Pacific Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gena A., Ed.

    This collection of policy papers is intended to educate and inform business and community leaders, policymakers, the Asian Pacific community, and the general public about the complex issues and far-reaching implications of the affirmative action debate on Asian Pacific Americans as well as all Americans. Essays are grouped into sections on…

  1. Diversity's Missing Minority: Asian Pacific American Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    Examined the impact of personal belief systems and the college experience on Asian Pacific American undergraduate college students' views of affirmative action in higher education. Survey results indicated that Asian Pacific American students' social interactions and perceptions, as well as their dominant ideology beliefs and racial/ethnic…

  2. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  3. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  4. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  5. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  6. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  7. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-11-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.

  8. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A.; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  9. Summer Asian-Pacific Oscillation and Its Relationship with Atmospheric Circulation and Monsoon Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; CHEN Junming; XIAO Dong; NAN Sulan; ZOU Yan; ZHOU Botao

    2008-01-01

    Using the ERA-40 data and numerical simulations, this study investigated the teleconnection over the extratropical Asian-Pacific region and its relationship with the Asian monsoon rainfall and the climatological characteristics of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific, and analyzed impacts of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) heating and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) on the teleconnection. The Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) is defined as a zonal seesaw of the tropospheric temperature in the midlatitudes of the Asian-Pacific region. When the troposphere is cooling in the midlatitudes of the Asian continent, it is warming in the midlatitudes of the central and eastern North Pacific; and vice versa. The APO also appears in the stratosphere, but with a reversed phase. Used as an index of the thermal contrast between Asia and the North Pacific, it provides a new way to explore interactions between the Asian and Pacific atmospheric circulations. The APO index exhibits the interannual and interdecadal variability. It shows a downward trend during 1958-2001, indicating a weakening of the thermal contrast, and shows a 5.5-yr oscillation period. The formation of the APO is associated with the zonal vertical circulation caused by a difference in the solar radiative heating between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. The numerical simulations further reveal that the summer TP heating enhances the local tropospheric temperature and upward motion, and then strengthens downward motion and decreases the tropospheric temperature over the central and eastern North Pacific. This leads to the formation of the APO. The Pacific decadal oscillation and El Nino/La Nina over the tropical eastern Pacific do not exert strong influences on the APO. When there is an anomaly in the summer APO, the South Asian high, the westerly jet over Eurasia, the tropical easterly jet over South Asia, and the subtropical high over the North Pacific change significantly, with anomalous Asian

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Wake Island, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. Precipitation Frequency for Northern Mariana Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  9. Lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By means of monthly mean NCEP/NCAR data analyses, this note investigates the lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon through the methods of composite, correlation and statistical confident test. The results indicate clearly that winter climate variations in the equatorial western Pacific would produce significant influences on the following South Asian summer monsoon, and with the lapse of time the lag influences show clearly moving northward and extending westward features. When winter positive (negative) sea level pressure anomalies occupy the equatorial western Pacific, there is an anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly appearing in the northwestern Pacific. With the lapse of time, the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly gradually moves to northeast, and its axis in the west-east directions also stretches, therefore, easterly (westerly) anomalies in the south part of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly continuously expand westward to the peninsula of India. Undoubtedly, the South Asian summer monsoon is weak (strong)

  10. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  14. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  15. Cultural Specific Training in Corruption Reporting for Pacific Island Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen; McCarthy, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Notes that very few journalists have formal training in corruption reporting. Discusses workshops held in 2000 and 2001 on the subject of corruption reporting for Pacific Island journalists. Explains the role of the media as an anti-corruption mechanism and the difficulty journalists face in identifying and sometimes stamping out corruption. Looks…

  16. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  17. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  18. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1988: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  19. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1989: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  20. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1987: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  1. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1986: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  2. Characterization of urban heat island effects over Asian megacities with hourly LST maps derived from Japanese geostationary satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.

    2009-12-01

    Asian countries are expected to continue economic growth with high rate and urban structure can be transformed dramatically. Urbanization and increase in anthropogenic energy consumption cause urban heat island effect. And, Heat island effect increases cooling cost in summer and induces health problem such as heat stroke. Remotely sensed data can be powerful tool to characterize urban area and measure urban thermal conditions, because it is able to capture spatio-temporal variations in urban environments. Japanese geostationary meteorological satellite, MTSAT which covers east Asia and the western Pacific region from 140 degrees East above the equator was launched in February 2005. MTSAT provides hourly visible and thermal infrared image, and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be retrieved. Therefore, compared to polar orbiting satellites such as MODIS or AVHRR, MTSAT is expected to characterize urban thermal conditions in much detailed temporal scale. In this study, in order to evaluate thermal conditions over Asian megacities with MTSAT data, we investigated methodology for monitoring urban LST with satellite data and characterize thermal conditions by using hourly LST data. Firstly, LST were retrieved from MTSAT thermal infrared data with split-window algorithm, and it was confirmed that MTSAT is able to capture hourly spatio-temporal changes and detect urban heat island effects. Then, we constructed LST database of Asian megacities and the database was open to public on the WWW (http://eiserv.uee.kyoto-u.ac.jp/MTSAT/LST/index_e.php). Finally, by using developed LST database, characteristics of hourly temperature changes of Asian megacities were compared and categorized. And it is found that these characteristics were depend on urban structure of each city. Near-real time land surface temperature (LST) monitoring system on the WWW. Latest LST images of Asian megacities are displayed on the top page.

  3. Caught in the Middle: Understanding Asian Pacific American Perspectives on Affirmative Action through Blumer's Group Position Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…

  4. Beyond Self-Interest: Asian Pacific Americans toward a Community of Justice. A Policy Analysis of Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gabriel; And Others

    In this policy analysis of affirmative action, four Asian Pacific American law professors make a case for affirmative action with a special focus on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs). It is asserted that affirmative action produces many benefits, such as reducing the harm of racism, promoting equal opportunity, and advancing racial justice. However,…

  5. Acute flaccid paralysis incidence and Zika virus surveillance, Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle T; Pastore, Roberta; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain–Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. Approach We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 years. Using a Poisson probability test, we tested the significance of unexpected increases in AFP in years correlating with Zika virus emergence. Data were analysed separately for each Pacific Island country and territory. Local setting In most Pacific Island countries, early warning surveillance for acute public health threats such as Zika virus is hampered by poor health infrastructure, insufficient human resources and geographical isolation. Relevant changes Only one example was found (Solomon Islands in 2015) of a significant increase in reported AFP cases correlating with Zika virus emergence. Lessons learnt We found no conclusive evidence that routinely reported AFP incidence data in children were useful for detecting emergence of Zika virus in this setting. More evidence may be needed from adult populations, who are more likely to be affected by Guillain–Barré syndrome. Reporting of AFP may be deficient in regions certified as polio-free. PMID:28053366

  6. Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950

    OpenAIRE

    M. Becker; Meyssignac, B.; Letetrel, C.; Llovel, W.; A. Cazenave; Delcroix, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The western tropical Pacific is usually considered as one of the most vulnerable regions of the world under present-day and future global warming. It is often reported that some islands of the region already suffer significant sea level rise. To clarify the latter concern, in the present study we estimate sea level rise and variability since 1950 in the western tropical Pacific region (20 degrees S-15 degrees N; 120 degrees E-135 degrees W). We estimate the total rate of sea level change at s...

  7. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY... Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. DATES: NMFS must receive... record and will generally be posted for public viewing on www.regulations.gov without change....

  8. Long range trans-Pacific transport and deposition of Asian dust aerosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yongxiang; FANG Xiaomin; ZHAO Tianliang; KANG Shichang

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of Asian dust aerosols during their trails-Pacific Uansport might cause significant marine phytoplankton biomass increases.However,the knowledge of the trans-Pacific dust transport,deposition,and spatial distribution is still poor due to a lack of continuous and simultaneous observations in the Asian subcontinent,the north Pacific Ocean,and North America.The severe Asian dust storm during 6 to 9 April 2001 provided an opportunity to gain a better understanding of trans-Pacific dust transport and deposition,using a comprehensive set of observations from satellites,ground-based light detection and ranging,aircraft,and surface observation networks.The observations and model simulations outline the general pattern of dust transport,deposition,vertical profile,and spatial distribution.The following points were observed:(1)the surface dust concentrations decreased exponentially with the increasing dust transport distance from 80°E to 120°W along the transport pathway;(2)the altitude of the dust concentration peak increased with increasing transport distance in the north Pacific region;and (3) the spatial distribution of dust deposition mainly depended on the trans-Pacific transport route.

  9. Arabian Peninsula-North Pacific Oscillation and its association with the Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using correlation and EOF analyses on sea level pressure from 57-year NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data, the Arabian Peninsula-North Pacific Oscillation (APNPO) is identified. The APNPO reflects the co-variability between the North Pacific high and South Asian summer monsoon low. This teleconnec- tion pattern is closely related to the Asian summer monsoon. On interannual timescale, it co-varies with both the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and South Asian summer monsoon (SASM); on decadal timescale, it co-varies with the EASM: both exhibit two abrupt climate changes in the middle 1960s and the late 1970s respectively. The possible physical process for the connections between the APNPO and Asian summer monsoon is then explored by analyzing the APNPO-related atmospheric circulations. The results show that with a strong APNPO, the Somali Jet, SASM flow, EASM flow, and South Asian high are all enhanced, and an anomalous anticyclone is produced at the upper level over northeast China via a zonal wave train. Meanwhile, the moisture transportation to the Asian monsoon regions is also strengthened in a strong APNPO year, leading to a strong moisture convergence over India and northern China. All these changes of circulations and moisture conditions finally result in an anoma- lous Asian summer monsoon and monsoon rainfall over India and northern China. In addition, the APNPO has a good persistence from spring to summer. The spring APNPO is also significantly corre- lated with Asian summer monsoon variability. The spring APNPO might therefore provide valuable in- formation for the prediction of Asian summer monsoon.

  10. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleo George

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The references were collated and categorized according to subject, Plasmodium species, and whether they contained original or derivative data. Results 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2009 related to malaria in the target countries. The annual output of malaria-related papers increased linearly whereas the overall biomedical output from these countries grew exponentially. The percentage of malaria-related publications was nearly 3% (111/3741 of all biomedical publications in 1992 and decreased to less than 1% (118/12171; p Conclusions The proportion of malaria-related publications out of the overall biomedical output from the 11 target Asian-Pacific countries is decreasing. The discovery and evaluation of new, safe and effective drugs and vaccines is paramount. In addition the elimination of malaria will require operational research to implement and scale up interventions.

  11. Increasing Visibility: The Racial Attitudes of Asian Pacific American Students. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    This study examined personal and collegiate influences on Asian Pacific American college students' attitudes toward three racial/ethnic diversity issues. The study's organizing framework was a combination of Astin's I-E-O (inputs, environments, and outputs) model and Weidman's model of undergraduate socialization. Data were drawn from a…

  12. Selected Experiences of Pacific/Asian Families with Developmentally Disabled Children in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Samuel Q.

    Pacific Asian families with developmentally disabled children have been subjected to many negative experiences in America which service providers as well as the general public often fail to consider. Events deriving from overtly hostile government policies (such as internment of Japanese Americans at the outbreak of World War II) and from…

  13. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda (

  14. A Study of the Teleconnections in the Asian-Pacific Monsoon Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yihui; LIU Yunyun

    2008-01-01

    The interactions among the Asian-Pacific monsoon subsystems have significant impacts on the climatic regimes in the monsoon region and even the whole world. Based on the domestic and foreign related research, an analysis is made of four different teleconnection modes found in the Asian-Pacific monsoon region, which reveal clearly the interactions among the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). The results show that: (1) In the period of the Asian monsoon onset, the date of ISM onset is two weeks earlier than the beginning of the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Basin, and a teleconnection mode is set up from the southwestern India via the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to the Yangtze River Basin and southern Japan, I.e., the "southern" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon. (2) In the Asian monsoon culmination period, the precipitation of the Yangtze River Basin is influenced significantly by the WNPSM through their teleconnection relationship, and is negatively related to the WNPSM rainfall, that is, when the WNPSM is weaker than normal, the precipitation of the Yangtze River Basin is too.re than normal. (3) In contrast to the rainfall over the Yangtze River Basin, the precipitation of northern China (from the 4th pentad of July to the 3rd pentad of August) is positively related to the WNPSM. When the WNPSM is stronger than normal, the position of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) becomes farther northeast than normal, the anomalous northeastward water vapor transport along the southwestern flank of WPSH is converged over northern China, providing adequate moisture for more rainfalls than normal there. (4) The summer rainfall in northern China has also a positive correlation with the ISM. During the peak period of ISM, a teleconnection pattern is formed from Northwest India via the Tibetan Plateau to northern China, I.e., the "northern" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon

  15. Relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation and the tropical cyclone frequency in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; CUI Xuan; ZHAO Ping

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) and the tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) in summer is preliminarily investigated through an analysis of observed data. The result has shown clearly that APO is significantly and positively correlated to the tropical cyclone frequency in the WNP. If APO is above (below) the normal in summer, more (less) tropical cyclones will tend to appear in the WNP. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the linkage between APO and the WNP tropical cyclone frequency. It follows that a positive phase of summer APO is concurrent with weakened as well as northward and eastward located western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), low-level convergence and high-level divergence, and reduced vertical zonal wind shear in the WNP, providing favorable environment for the tropical cyclone genesis, and thus more tropical cyclones will come into being, and vice versa.

  16. Relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation and the tropical cyclone frequency in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) and the tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) in summer is preliminarily investigated through an analysis of ob- served data. The result has shown clearly that APO is significantly and positively correlated to the tropical cyclone frequency in the WNP. If APO is above (below) the normal in summer, more (less) tropical cyclones will tend to appear in the WNP. The present study also addresses the large-scale at- mospheric general circulation changes underlying the linkage between APO and the WNP tropical cy- clone frequency. It follows that a positive phase of summer APO is concurrent with weakened as well as northward and eastward located western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), low-level convergence and high-level divergence, and reduced vertical zonal wind shear in the WNP, providing favorable envi- ronment for the tropical cyclone genesis, and thus more tropical cyclones will come into being, and vice versa.

  17. Depth Contours for select locations across the U.S. Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are depth contours (isobaths) derived at 50 meters for most islands and reefs in the Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  18. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1982: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  19. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1978-1980: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  20. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1977: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Huleia, James Campbell, Kakahaia, and...

  1. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1981: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  2. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1985: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  3. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1983-1984: Calendar Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  4. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1975: Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, Jarvis,...

  5. Dust transport from non-East Asian sources to the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.; Huh, C.; Lin, C.; Chen, W.; Mahowald, N. M.; Liu, S. C.; Chou, C. C.; Liang, M.; Tsai, C.; Lin, F.; Chen, J.; Huang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that East Asia dominates the supply of eolian dust to the North Pacific. Here we show the first data-based evidence of dust primarily from non-East Asian sources even during March 2010 when a super dust storm from East Asia struck the western Pacific. Chemical characteristics of aerosol samples collected at a high-mountain site in Taiwan show variable inputs from eolian dust and biomass burning. From backward trajectory analyses, satellite observation and model simulation, dust origins can be traced to the Middle East and North Africa, suggesting an integrated source from the global dust belt. Our global model results demonstrate that dust deposition in the North Pacific is primarily contributed by non-East Asian sources with an eastward decrease along the Westerlies. Time-series of aerosol composition at Mt. Lulin: (A) 210Pb and biomass burning potassium (KBB), (B) 7Be and aluminum. Also shown (in A) are daily mean O3 and CO , hourly relative humidity (gray curve/area) and (in B) daily rainfall (yellow bars) measured at Taiwan EPA's Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS), ~25 m southeast of our aerosol sampling site. Results from the MATCH model showing (A) total annual dust deposition fluxes, and (B) fraction of the total deposition attributable to East Asian sources over the North Pacific.

  6. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  7. East Asian monsoon variation and climate changes in Jeju Island, Korea, during the latest Pleistocene to early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyoun; Lee, Yong Il; Yoon, Ho Il; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul

    2008-09-01

    A 4.96-m-long sediment core from the Hanon paleo-maar in Jeju Island, Korea was studied to investigate the paleoclimatic change and East Asian monsoon variations during the latest Pleistocene to early Holocene (23,000-9000 cal yr BP). High-resolution TOC content, magnetic susceptibility, and major element composition data indicate that Jeju Island experienced the coldest climate around 18,000 cal yr BP, which corresponds to the last glacial maximum (LGM). Further, these multi-proxy data show an abrupt shift in climatic regime from cold and arid to warm and humid conditions at around 14,000 cal yr BP, which represents the commencement of the last major deglaciation. After the last major deglaciation, the TOC content decreased from 13,300 to 12,000 cal yr BP and from 11,500 to 9800 cal yr BP, thereby reflecting the weakening of the summer monsoon. The LGM in Jeju Island occurred later in comparison with the Chinese Loess Plateau. Such a disparity in climatic change events between central China and Jeju Island appears to be caused by the asynchrony between the coldest temperature event and the minimum precipitation event in central China and by the buffering effect of the Pacific Ocean.

  8. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  9. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Trauma Grants HIV/AIDS Grants Lupus Grants Justice and Health Grants State Partnership Grants Violence Prevention ... Vietnamese, 33.9 for Koreans, 23.3 for Chinese, 16.8 for Filipino and 9.3 for ...

  10. Role of Money in Smaller Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Jayaraman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacific island countries (PICs, which attained political independence, are open economies with very small manufacturing base and narrow range of exports of copra and tuna. They are highly dependent on imports ranging from food and mineral fuels to intermediate and capital goods and transport machinery. Four of the 14 PICs, namely Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu, have independent currencies with usual paraphernalia of central banks under fixed exchange rate regimes. Their financial sectors are small and with undeveloped money and capital markets. The nominal exchange rate as an anchor has served the four PICs well by keeping inflation low. The objective of the paper is to investigate whether money has played any significant part in output growth as well as determination of prices in PICs. The findings are that broad money (M2 and exchange rate have a long run as well as short-run casual relationship with both output and prices in all PICs.

  11. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  12. Present and future connection of Asian-Pacific Oscillation to large-scale atmospheric circulations and East Asian rainfall: results of CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Botao; Xu, Ying; Shi, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The summer Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO), one of the major modes of climate variability over the Asian-Pacific sector, has a pronounced effect on variations of large-scale atmospheric circulations and climate. This study evaluated the capability of 30 state-of-the-art climate models among the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating its association with the atmospheric circulations over the Asian-Pacific region and the precipitation over East Asia. Furthermore, their future connections under the RCP8.5 scenario were examined. The evaluation results show that 5 out of 30 climate models can well capture the observed APO-related features in a comprehensive way, including the strengthened South Asian high (SAH), deepened North Pacific trough (NPT) and northward East Asian jet (EAJ) in the upper troposphere; an intensification of the Asian low and the North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) as well as a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) in the lower troposphere; and a decrease in East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) under the positive APO phase. Based on the five CMIP5 models' simulations, the dynamic linkages of the APO to the SAH, NPT, AL, and NPSH are projected to maintain during the second half of the twenty-first century. However, its connection with the EASR tends to reduce significantly. Such a reduction might result from the weakening of the linkage of the APO to the meridional displacement of the EAJ and WPSH as a response to the warming scenario.

  13. Iron fertilisation by Asian dust influences North Pacific sardine regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-05-01

    Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100 years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing

  14. China and the Geopolitics of Oil in the Asian Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Bustelo

    2005-01-01

    China’s growing demand for oil is significantly changing the international geopolitics of energy, especially in the Asian Pacific region. The recent growth in oil consumption, combined with forecasts of increased oil imports (especially from the Middle East), have led to deep concern among Chinese leaders regarding their country’s energy security. They are responding in a number of different ways. In particular, they are determined to increase the security and reliability of oil imports by se...

  15. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.

  16. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  17. Impact of East Asian winter monsoon on MJO over the equatorial western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Li, Chongyin; Ling, Jian; Tan, Yanke

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the processes and mechanisms by which the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) affects the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) over the equatorial western Pacific in boreal winter (November-April). The results show that both the EAWM and MJO over the equatorial western Pacific have prominent interannual and interdecadal variabilities, and they are closely related, especially on the interannual timescales. The EAWM influences MJO via the feedback effect of convective heating, because the strong northerlies of EAWM can enhance the ascending motion and lead the convection to be strengthened over the equatorial western Pacific by reinforcing the convergence in the lower troposphere. Daily composite analysis in the phase 4 of MJO (i.e., strong MJO convection over the Maritime Continent and equatorial western Pacific) shows that the kinetic energy, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), moisture flux, vertical velocity, zonal wind, moist static energy, and atmospheric stability differ greatly between strong and weak EAWM processes over the western Pacific. The strong EAWM causes the intensity of MJO to increase, and the eastward propagation of MJO to become more persistent. MJO activities over the equatorial western Pacific have different modes. Furthermore, these modes have differing relationships with the EAWM, and other factors can also affect the activities of MJO; consequently, the relationship between the MJO and EAWM shows both interannual and interdecadal variabilities.

  18. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  19. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  20. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  1. Environmental Impact of Artificial Harbors in Tropic Pacific Oceanic Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting; Russell Howorth; HE Chaoxiong

    2004-01-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part-a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  2. Chemical composition of a saline lake on Enderbury Island, Phoenix Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Robert A.; Brown, David W.

    1973-01-01

    Ion activity products for the dissolution of calcite, aragonite, gypsum, monetite, brushite, dolomite, magnesite, hydroxyapatite, and fluorapatite were calculated for a South Pacific guano island brine with an ionic strength of 6.4. Environmental conditions for the brine at the time of analysis and of sampling indicated saturation with respect to calcite, aragonite, gypsum, hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite; a comparison of the ion activity products and equilibrium constants indicated saturation or supersaturation with respect to most minerals found in lake sediments or elsewhere on the island. The results suggest that chemical thermodynamic calculations for brines may have some usefulness despite the many assumptions and estimations that must be made.

  3. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations.

  4. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  5. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lyn N; Tulloch, Jim

    2008-09-15

    This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies--such as incentives--for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce. Decision-making factors and

  6. Changing epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Asian-Pacific region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K L

    2004-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease in the West, which now appears to be also increasing in prevalence in the Asian Pacific region. The reasons for this changing epidemiology are two-fold: an increased awareness among doctors and patients, and/or a true increase in the prevalence of the disease. Prevalence rates of reflux esophagitis (RE) of up to 16% and prevalence of GERD symptoms of up to 9% have been reported in the Asian population. However, the frequency of strictures and Barrett's esophagus remain very low. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) appears to be the most common form of GERD among Asian patients accounting for 50-70% of cases with GERD. Among Asian patients differences can also be discerned among different ethnic groups. For example, in Malaysia where a multiracial society exists, RE is significantly more common among Indians compared to Chinese and Malays whereas NERD is more frequently seen in the Indian and Malays compared to the Chinese. The reasons for these differences are not known but may indicate both genetic factors and environmental factors peculiar to the particular racial group. GERD has also been increasing in the region demonstrating a time-lag phenomenon compared to the West. Differing predisposition to GERD among different ethnic groups would mean that such an increase would be more prominent among certain racial groups.

  7. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  8. Asian-Pacific leadership: Implications for foreign economic policy of Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, the Western Pacific hemisphere ranging from Japan and the PR China to Australia and New Zealand has remained the growth pole of the world economy. Real per capita incomes of East and Southeast Asian developing economies grew even faster in this decade than in the 1970s [World Bank, 1990: Table 1.3] despite major disturbances in their global environment such as the world-wide recession in the early 1980s, increasing protectionism in the EC and the US, large exchange rate fluctuat...

  9. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  10. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1976: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Howland, Huleia, James Campbell, Jarvis, Kakahaia,...

  11. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  12. Precipitation Frequency for Yap, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  13. 10m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Pingelap, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  15. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  16. Precipitation Frequency for Woleai, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  17. Precipitation Frequency for Ulithi, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  18. Precipitation Frequency for Palau, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  19. Precipitation Frequency for Chuuk, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  20. Precipitation Frequency for Pohnpei, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  1. Precipitation Frequency for Kosrae, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  2. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  3. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. Precipitation Frequency for Nukuoro, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Guam, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  12. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)...

  14. The Relation of High School Academic Performance and Student Effort to Language Use and Recenty of Migration among Asian- and Pacific-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    This report, part of a larger study of the impact of family structures and processes on the social and academic performance of American high school students, focuses on Asian- and Pacific-American high school achievement. The following findings are reported: (1) Asian-Americans and Pacific-Americans exhibit very different patterns in school…

  15. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  16. Development of satellite-based drought monitoring and warning system in Asian Pacific countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, W.; Oyoshi, K.; Muraki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on a development of satellite-based drought monitoring warning system in Asian Pacific countries. Drought condition of cropland is evaluated by using Keeth-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) computed from rainfall measurements with GSMaP product, land surface temperature by MTSAT product and vegetation phenology by MODIS NDVI product at daily basis. The derived information is disseminated as a system for an application of space based technology (SBT) in the implementation of the Core Agriculture Support Program. The benefit of this system are to develop satellite-based drought monitoring and early warning system (DMEWS) for Asian Pacific counties using freely available data, and to develop capacity of policy makers in those countries to apply the developed system in policy making. A series of training program has been carried out in 2013 to officers and researchers of ministry of agriculture and relevant agencies in Greater Mekong Subregion countries including Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. This system is running as fully operational and can be accessed at http://webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/.

  17. INTERDECADAL VARIATIONS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN NORTH PACIFIC SSTA AND EAST ASIAN SUMMER MONSOON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 何金海

    2001-01-01

    Identification of key SST zones is essential in predicting the weather / climate systems in East Asia. With the SST data by the U.K. Meteorological Office and 40-year geopotential height and wind fields by NCAR / NCEP, the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and north Pacific SSTA is studied, which reveals their interactions are of interdecadal variation. Before mid-1970's, the north Pacific SSTA acts upon the summer monsoon in East Asia through a great circle wavetrain and results in more rainfall in the summer of the northern part of China. After 1976, the SSTA weakens the wavetrain and no longer influences the precipitation in North China due to loosened links with the East Asian summer monsoon. It can be drawn that the key SST zones having potential effects on the weather / climate systems in East Asia do not stay in one particular area of the ocean but rather shift elsewhere as governed by the interdecadal variations of the air-sea interactions. It is hoped that the study would help shed light on the prediction of drought / flood spans in China.

  18. A Dialogue with Lisa Chin: An Asian-American Feminist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The terms "Asian" and "Pacific Islanders" capture diverse historical relationships and a powerful cultural/linguistic diversity. Many Asian-Pacific Americans have succeeded despite monumental prejudices and obstacles, including the "model minority" myth promoted by conservatives to limit affirmative action. Chin's…

  19. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hoes, O. A. C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; R. J. van der Ent

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have been inconsistent and incomplete. In this study we identified all locations on East Asian islands (from Japan, Taiwan Phillipines to Indonesia) which are suitable for hydropower. For this we combin...

  20. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  1. Breastfeeding Practices among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Tanaka, Keiko; Polanin, Joshua R.; Koempel, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control trials. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% NHPI women initiated breastfeeding with 40.8% breastfeeding exclusively. These pooled analyses show that NHPI breastfeeding practices are below the recommended national and international goals and guidelines. Conclusion. Breastfeeding practices among NHPI are heterogeneous and critical disparities exist among certain NHPI subgroups and additional research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for the disparity. Future studies should work to disaggregate data for NHPI and the various subpopulations. Multicomponent, multilevel strategies are needed to support breastfeeding practices among NHPI. PMID:27774314

  2. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. 334.950 Section 334.950 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The... degrees true, 5.35 nautical miles; thence 040.4 degrees true to the beach. (3) The waters of the...

  3. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East area. All waters within a circle having a radius of one nautical mile centered at latitude 33°13′45... approximately 101°, 420 yards, from San Nicolas Island East End Light. (2) West area. Shoreward of a...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  5. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  7. Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

  8. Responses of the East Asian jet stream to the North Pacific subtropical front in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leying; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Deng, Jiechun

    2017-02-01

    This study concerns atmospheric responses to the North Pacific subtropical front (NPSTF) in boreal spring over the period 1982-2014. Statistical results show that a strong NPSTF in spring can significantly enhance the East Asian jet stream (EAJS). Both transient eddy activity and the atmospheric heat source play important roles in this process. The enhanced atmospheric temperature gradient due to a strong NPSTF increases atmospheric baroclinicity, resulting in an intensification of transient eddy and convection activities. On the one hand, the enhanced transient eddy activities can excite an anomalous cyclonic circulation with a quasi-baraotropical structure in the troposphere to the north of the NPSTF. Accordingly, the related westerly wind anomalies around 30°N can intensify the component of the EAJS over the Northeast Pacific. On the other hand, an enhanced atmospheric heat source over the NPSTF, which is related to increased rainfall, acts to excite an anomalous cyclonic circulation system in the troposphere to the northwest of the NPSTF, which can explain the enhanced component of the EAJS over the Northwest Pacific. The two mechanisms may combine to enhance the EAJS.

  9. A Content Analysis of Asian-Pacific Folk Songs in American Elementary Music Textbooks from 1967 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Edna Aurora C.

    2012-01-01

    In this quanto-historical study, the author conducted a content analysis of Asian-Pacific (AP) folk songs in 18 American elementary music textbooks published from 1967 to 2008. The researcher addressed the questions: (1) To what degree are AP folk songs included in the printed and recorded repertoire of elementary music textbook series published…

  10. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  11. Relative roles of land- and ocean-atmosphere interactions in Asian-Pacific thermal contrast variability at the precessional band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Xiao, Dong; Chen, JunMing

    2016-01-01

    In a 250-kyr transient simulation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we identified a precessional forced seesaw of the summer middle-upper tropospheric eddy temperature between Asia and the North Pacific as the paleo-APO (Asian-Pacific oscillation). The paleo-APO variability is out of phase with the precession parameter. Corresponding to a positive paleo-APO phase, both the subtropical anticyclonic circulation over the North Pacific and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strengthen. Summer anomalous sea surface temperature shows a western cold-eastern warm pattern over the extratropical North Pacific and a zonal positive-negative-positive pattern over the tropical Pacific. The variations in the simulated paleo-APO and East Asian southerly wind at the precessional band agree well with the geological proxies at the Dongge, Sanbao, Linzhu, and Hulu caves in China, which also implies that these proxies may well reflect the variability in the southerly wind over East Asia. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that the reduced precession parameter may enhance the positive paleo-APO phase and the associated EASM because of the response of the land-atmosphere interactions to the precessional insolation changes. The effect of the ocean-atmosphere interactions on the paleo-APO is secondary. PMID:27381940

  12. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Li, Jianping; Feng, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa.

  13. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  14. Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Jacobus Leen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and

  15. Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific plasma theory conference APPTC'97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Takaya [eds.

    1998-08-01

    This issue is the proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference (APPTC'97), which was held on September 24-26, 1997 at National Institute for Fusion Science (Toki, Japan) under the auspices of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research and the National Institute of Fusion Science. A part of APPTC'97 was a joint session with Japan-Australia fusion theory workshop and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas. The conference covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasmas, and dusty plasma, etc. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Health impacts of climate change and biosecurity in the Asian Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    Our climate is changing as a result of human activity, and such changes have the potential to have a significant impact on human health. The basic requirements for health--clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter--are all vulnerable to climate change. Low-income developing countries are especially vulnerable; no country, however, is totally immune. In Australia, we are already seeing evidence of the health effects of climate change with an increase in temperature-related food poisoning events and an increase in mosquito-borne infections, including Ross River virus and Dengue fever. In the Asian Pacific region the issues identified as most pressing vary from country to country, but a common theme is a lack of public understanding and education and lack of capacity for implementing mitigation strategies. Strategies addressing the health impacts of climate change must incorporate the principles of social justice and equity within the region.

  17. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... undertaken to maintain the capacity to deal with these impacts along with a range of other stresses. The results presented show that the widely held view that atoll islands are threatened by almost immediate flooding is not supported by evidence. Rather, more pressing stressors are those associated...

  18. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  19. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  20. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  1. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  2. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  3. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  4. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Pelagic Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The estimated millions of seabirds breeding at national wildlife refuges in the central Pacific Ocean are primarily pelagic feeders that obtain the fish and squid...

  5. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Fish Monitoring Brief: Pacific Remote Island Areas 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two-page summary outlines reef fish and benthic habitat survey efforts conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) at Howland Island, Baker Island,...

  6. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    OpenAIRE

    Taleo George; Mendis Kamini; Kusriastuti Rita; Hsiang Michelle S; Qi Gao; Galappaththy Gawrie; Bustos Dorina; Douglas Nick M; Andersen Finn; Whittaker Maxine; Price Ric N; von Seidlein Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippin...

  7. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  8. Impact of the quasi-biweekly oscillation over the western North Pacific on East Asian subtropical monsoon during early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaolong; Yang, Song

    2013-05-01

    The impact of quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO) over the western North Pacific on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated. The life cycle of QBWO is divided into eight phases defined by the two leading principal components (PC1 and PC2) of an empirical orthogonal function analysis. Subtropical rainfall shows significant changes, with a northwestward propagation of convection from equatorial regions to the South China Sea (SCS). The most significant variations occur in QBWO phases 3 and 4 (enhanced convection over SCS) and phases 7 and 8 (reduced convection over SCS). The East Asia Mei-yu significantly decreases in QBWO phases 3 and 4 but increases in phases 7 and 8. The QBWO influences EASM through modulating the subtropical monsoon flow and extratropical circulation. The response of lower tropospheric atmosphere to QBWO shows a northwestward propagation and a downstream wave train that extends northward into the western North Pacific, modulating the SCS monsoon trough and the EASM flow associated with moisture transportation. The mid-tropospheric extratropical circulation and the western Pacific subtropical high also show obvious changes accompanying QBWO evolution, resulting in circulation patterns associated with cold air activity. Moreover, changes with QBWO are found in the upper tropospheric East Asian westerly jet stream and the South Asian high, and these changes contribute to upper level divergence over subtropical East Asia.

  9. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  10. A Comparison of Mathematics Achievement Outcomes among Three Instruction Programs for Pacific Island Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Jonathan Christian Amor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mathematics achievement outcomes of 3rd grade students from some Pacific Island elementary schools that use 1 of 3 different modes of instruction: Direct Instruction (DI), Success for All (SFA), and noncomprehensive school reform (non-CSR). The need for this research stems from the large proportion of…

  11. 76 FR 22675 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Permit Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...) Pacific Islands Region (PIR) manages the U.S. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the...: Regular submission. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations; individuals or households... on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of...

  12. 75 FR 2158 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental...

  13. Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cvitanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a major threat to food security in Pacific Island countries, with declines in food production and increasing variability in food supplies already evident across the region. Such impacts have already led to observed consequences for human health, safety and economic prosperity. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island communities is one way to reduce vulnerability and is underpinned by the extent to which people can access, understand and use new knowledge to inform their decision-making processes. However, effective engagement of Pacific Island communities in climate adaption remains variable and is an ongoing and significant challenge. Here, we use a qualitative research approach to identify the impediments to engaging Pacific Island communities in the adaptations needed to safeguard food security. The main barriers include cultural differences between western science and cultural knowledge, a lack of trust among local communities and external scientists, inappropriate governance structures, and a lack of political and technical support. We identify the importance of adaptation science, local social networks, key actors (i.e., influential and trusted individuals, and relevant forms of knowledge exchange as being critical to overcoming these barriers. We also identify the importance of co-ordination with existing on-ground activities to effectively leverage, as opposed to duplicating, capacity.

  14. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the designated low-use... regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the...

  15. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  16. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) include: (1) Local Education Agencies (LEAs) With the Largest Number…

  17. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350 Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  19. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  20. Eden in Peril: Impact of Humans on Pacific Island Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Rapaport

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands have often been cited as models of human impact upon the environment. With high rates of endemism and other unique characteristics, island ecosystems are subject to dramatic perturbation. The arrival of humans in Near Oceania during the Pleistocene led swiftly to a series of fauna extinctions. In the New Guinea Highlands clearing and tending of wild plants gave rise to tree and root crop agriculture, intensive cultivation technology, and anthropogenic grasslands. By 3600 BP (Before Present, Lapita settlers had reached Remote Oceania, leading to deforestation and declines in birds and other species. European contact introduced new biota and new technology, with significant consequences for island environments and societies. Questions have been raised concerning the impact of climate change on island ecosystems. Population growth plays a significant role in environmental degradation, though not necessarily as a proximate cause. The Tikopian arboriculture system provides one of several Oceanic models of sustainability.

  1. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dalla Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.

  2. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  3. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  4. Asian Monsoon Variability from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) and Links to Indo-Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Hernandez, Manuel; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Drought patterns across monsoon and temperate Asia over the period 1877-2005 are linked to Indo-Pacific climate variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) composed of a high-resolution network of hydroclimatically sensitive tree-ring records with a focus on the June-August months, spatial drought patterns during El Niño and IOD events are assessed as to their agreement with an instrumental drought index and consistency in the drought response amongst ENSO/IOD events. Spatial characteristics in drought patterns are related to regional climate anomalies over the Indo-Pacific basin, using reanalysis products, including changes in the Asian monsoon systems, zonal Walker circulation, moisture fluxes, and precipitation. A weakening of the monsoon circulation over the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia during El Niño events, along with anomalous subsidence over monsoon Asia and reduced moisture flux, is reflected in anomalous drought conditions over India, Southeast Asia and Indonesia. When an IOD event co-occurs with an El Niño, severe drought conditions identified in the MADA for Southeast Asia, Indonesia, eastern China and central Asia are associated with a weakened South Asian monsoon, reduced moisture flux over China, and anomalous divergent flow and subsidence over Indonesia. Variations in the strength of the South Asian monsoon can also be linked to the Strange Parallels Drought (1756-1768) affecting much of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent in the mid-18th Century. Large-scale climate anomalies across the wider region during years with an anomalously strengthened/weakened South Asian monsoon are discussed with implications for severe droughts prior to the instrumental period. Insights into the relative influences of Pacific and Indian Ocean variability for Asian monsoon climate on interannual to decadal and longer timescales, as recorded in the

  5. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D'Arcy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  6. Ecological monitoring 2012-2013 - reef fishes and benthic habitats of the main Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and Pacific Remote Island Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a subset of the reef fish and benthic survey data collected by the NOAA Pacific islands Fisheries Science Center Coral Reef Ecosystem Division...

  7. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  8. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Hui-Wang; Shi, Guang-Yu; Yue, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the atmospheric deposition is commonly believed to exert less impact on coastal seas. Significant correlations existed between dust sources and many sea areas, suggesting a link between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in those seas. However, the correlation coefficients were highly variable. In general, the correlation coefficients (0.54-0.63) for the Sea of Japan were highest, except for that between the subarctic Pacific and the Taklimakan Desert, where it was as high as 0.7. For the >50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  9. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  10. Increasing synoptic scale variability in atmospheric CO2 at Hateruma Island associated with increasing East-Asian emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma Island (24.05° N, 123.80° E, 47 m a.s.l, Japan shows large synoptic scale variations during a 6-month period from November to April, when the sampled air is predominantly of continental origin due to the Asian winter monsoon. Synoptic scale variations are extracted from the daily averaged values for the years between 1996 and 2007, along with the annual standard deviations (σCO2 and σCH4 for CO2 and CH4, respectively for the relevant 6-month period. During this 6-month period the absolute mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma are also elevated compared to those at two sites in the central North Pacific Ocean. The temporal change in σCO2 shows a systematic increase over the 12-year period, with elevated excursions in 1998 and 2003; there is no clear increase in σCH4. We also find that the σCO2/σCH4 ratio increases gradually from 1996 to 2002 and rapidly after 2002 without any extreme deviations that characterised σCO2. The σCO2/σCH4 ratio correlates closely with the recent rapid increase in fossil carbon emissions from China, as indicated in the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC database. This methodology can be applied to multiple chemical tracers of sufficient lifetime, for tracking overall changes in regional emissions.

  11. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  12. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  13. A 12 year observation of water-soluble inorganic ions in TSP aerosols collected at a remote marine location in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. R. Boreddy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the long term trend of remote marine aerosols, a 12 year observation was conducted for water-soluble inorganic ions in TSP aerosols collected from 2001–2012 in the Asian outflow region at a Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific. We found a clear difference in chemical composition between the continentally affected and marine background air masses over the observation site. Asian continental air masses are delivered from late autumn to spring, whereas marine air masses were dominated in summer. Concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, nss-K+ and nss-Ca2+ are high in winter and spring and low in summer. On the other hand, MSA- exhibits higher concentrations during spring and winter, probably due to springtime dust bloom or due to the direct continental transport of MSA- to the observation site. We could not find any clear decadal trend for Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and nss-Ca2+ in all seasons, although there exists a clear seasonal trend. However, concentrations of nss-SO42- continuously decreased from 2007–2012, probably due to the decreased SO2 emissions in East Asia especially in China. In contrast, nss-K+ and MSA- concentrations continuously increased from 2001–2012 during winter and spring seasons, demonstrating that biomass burning and/or terrestrial biological emissions in East Asia are increasingly more transported from the Asian continent to the western North Pacific.

  14. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  15. Land surface thermal characterization of Asian-pacific region with Japanese geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant indicator of energy balance at the Earth's surface. It is required for a wide variety of climate, hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical studies. Although LST is highly variable both temporally and spatially, it is impossible for polar-orbiting satellite to detect hourly changes in LST, because the satellite is able to only collect data of the same area at most twice a day. On the other hand, geostationary satellite is able to collect hourly data and has a possibility to monitor hourly changes in LST, therefore hourly measurements of geostationary satellite enables us to characterize detailed thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and improve our understanding of the surface energy balance. Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) is a Japanese geostationary satellite launched in 2005 and covers Asia-Pacific region. MTSAT provides hourly data with 5 bands including two thermal infrared (TIR) bands in the 10.5-12.5 micron region. In this research, we have developed a methodology to retrieve hourly LST from thermal infrared data of MTSAT. We applied Generalized Split-window (GSW) equation to estimate LST from TIR data. First, the brightness temperatures measured at sensor on MTSAT was simulated by radiative transfer code (MODTRAN), and the numerical coefficients of GSW equation were optimized based on the simulation results with non-linear minimization algorithm. The standard deviation of derived GSW equation was less than or equal to 1.09K in the case of viewing zenith angle lower than 40 degree and 1.73K in 60 degree. Then, spatial distributions of LST have been mapped optimized GSW equation with brightness temperatures of MTSAT IR1 and IR2 and emissivity map from MODIS product. Finally, these maps were validated with MODIS LST product (MOD11A1) over four Asian-pacific regions such as Bangkok, Tokyo, UlanBator and Jakarta , It is found that RMSE of these regions were 4.57K, 2.22K, 2.71K and 3.92K

  16. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  17. A quantitative analysis of inter-island telephony traffic in the Pacific Basin Region (PBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. D.; Arth, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    As part of NASA's continuing assessment of future communication satellite requirements, a study was conducted to quantitatively scope current and future telecommunication traffic demand in the South Pacific Archipelagos. This demand was then converted to equivalent satellite transponder capacities. Only inter-island telephony traffic for the Pacific Basin Region was included. The results show that if all this traffic were carried by a satellite system, one-third of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the base-year (1976-1977) requirement and about two-thirds of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the forecasted 1985 requirement.

  18. Effects of Variations in East Asian Snow Cover on Modulating Atmospheric Circulation over the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-10-01

    At least four different modeling studies indicate that variability in snow cover over Asia may modulate atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean during winter. Here, satellite data on snow extent for east Asia for 1971-95 along with atmospheric fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis are used to examine whether the circulation signals seen in model results are actually observed in nature. Anomalies in snow extent over east Asia exhibit a distinct lack of persistence. This suggests that understanding the effects of east Asian snow cover is more germane for short- to medium-range weather forecasting applications than for problems on longer timescales. While it is impossible to attribute cause and effect in the empirical study, analyses of composite fields demonstrate relationships between snow cover extremes and atmospheric circulation downstream remarkably similar to those identified in model results. Positive snow cover extremes in midwinter are associated with a small decrease in air temperatures over the transient snow regions, a stronger east Asian jet, and negative geopotential height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. Opposing responses are observed for negative snow cover extremes. Diagnosis of storm track feedbacks shows that the action of high-frequency eddies does not reinforce circulation anomalies in positive snow cover extremes. However, in negative snow cover extremes, there are significant decreases in high-frequency eddy activity over the central North Pacific Ocean, and a corresponding decrease in the mean cyclonic effect of these eddies on the geopotential tendency, contributing to observed positive height anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. The circulation signals over the North Pacific Ocean are much more pronounced in midwinter (January-February) than in the transitional seasons (November-December and March-April).

  19. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. Food Security in Southwest Pacific Island Countries; Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Sydney, Australia, December 12-13, 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Pantjar; Fleming, Euan M.

    2001-01-01

    This proceedings is a record of a regional workshop on "Food Security in the Southwest Pacific Island Countries", convened to discuss the findings and strategies achieved in a two-year research project "Food Security Strategies for Selected South Pacific Island Countries". The national experts of the participating countries: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Vanuatu, presented reports of their country studies and the commentators from each country provided additional information.

  1. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  2. South Pacific Island Forum on Trade And Investment Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The 8th Western China International Economic and Trade Fair (WCIETF) was held in Chengdu,Sichuan Province from May 24 to 28. During the fair,the South Pacific Island Forum on Trade and Investment jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries was held successively in Chengdu and Yibing on May 26 and May 27. Invited by the CPAFFC,ambassadors or charge d affaires of Fiji,Papua New Guinea,Tonga and Vanuatu that had set up embassies in China and the representatives of the Trade Office of the Pacific Islands Forum attended the fair and the forum.

  3. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  5. Relationship of the South Asian Monsoon and Regional Drought with Distinct Equatorial Pacific SST Patterns on Interannual and Decadal Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Asian monsoon system influences the lives of over 60% of the planet's population, with widespread socioeconomic effects resulting from weakening or failure of monsoon rains. Spatially broad and temporally extended drought episodes have been known to dramatically influence human history, including the Strange Parallels Drought in the mid-18th century. Here, we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - a high-resolution network of hydro-climatically sensitive tree-ring records - and a 1300-year pre-industrial control run of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Spatial drought patterns in the instrumental and model-based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon are similar to those reconstructed during the Strange Parallels Drought in the MADA. We further explore how the large-scale Indo-Pacific climate during weakened South Asian monsoon differs between interannual and decadal timescales. The Strange Parallels Drought pattern is observed during March-April-May primarily over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and reduced moisture fluxes, while anomalies in June-July-August are confined to the Indian subcontinent during both individual and decadal events. Individual years with anomalous drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the eastern equatorial Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation, while decadal events appear to be related to anomalous warming around the dateline in the equatorial Pacific, typical of El Niño Modoki events. The results suggest different dynamical processes influence drought at different time scales through distinct remote ocean influences.

  6. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Statement are available from the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council), 1164 Bishop St... from http://www.regulations.gov , or Michael D. Tosatto, Regional Administrator, NMFS Pacific Islands... published proposed specifications that are finalized here, and a request for public comments (76 FR...

  7. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  8. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  9. 3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... colonies of precious and ancient gold coral up to 5,000 years old. The waters surrounding Baker, Howland... islands. These are three of only six islands in the entire Pacific Ocean where this phenomenon is possible... from population centers. The coral skeletons there have recorded the earth’s climatic history for...

  10. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. 334.960 Section 334.960 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. 334.961 Section 334.961 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone...

  12. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Dewi Thedja

    Full Text Available Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG. This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  13. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  14. Dental manpower development in the Pacific: case study in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Langidrik, Justina R; Milgrom, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    This case study reports the ongoing progress and results of a manpower development program to expand indigenous dental personnel at four levels in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program was designed to: 1) increase the number of Marshallese students who successfully complete dentistry training; 2) recruit and train a group of Marshallese high school graduates in dental assisting for service in new preventive outreach programs within the community; 3) enhance the dental training of health assistants providing primary medical care to outer islands away from the main population centers of Majuro and Ebeye; and 4) provide in-service training on tooth decay prevention for Head Start teachers. The program resulted in the training of one Marshallese dentist and two Marshallese dental therapist, 16 primary care health aides who received oral health training for work in the outer island dispensaries, and 200 Head Start and kindergarten teachers who completed in-service training in oral health. Additional expertise was shared with other United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to enhance the dental workforce throughout the Pacific.

  15. Causes of Land Loss in Tuvalu, a Small Island Nation in the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting

    2005-01-01

    Studies on land loss in Tuvalu reveal the following findings. Although both sea level rise and coastal erosion can cause land loss in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands, their mechanisms are different. When sea level rises, the low elevation coastal zone submerges and the erosion datum plane rises, the beach process progresses normally as always, resulting in no beach sediment coarsening. When the sea level is stable, coastal erosion removes finer sediment from reef flat, beach and land, resulting in beach sediment coarsening. The human-induced coastal erosion in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands has the following features. 1) Erosion occurs or intensifies immediately after inappropriate human activities. 2) It occurs near the places having human activities and places related to the above places in sediment supply. 3) It often occurs on original prograding or stable coasts (on lagoon coasts for atolls) because there are more coastal engineering projects and other human activities on such coasts. 4) It is chronic, covering a long period of time. The coastal geological events in Tuvalu islands do not accord with the features resulted from sea level rise but do accord with the features resulted from coastal erosion, particularly from human-induced erosion. The land loss in Tuvalu is mainly caused by inappropriate human activities including coastal engineering and aggregate mining, and partly caused by cyclones. Moreover, all recent measurements (satellite altimetry,thermosteric sea level data and tide observations) so far have not been able to verify any sea level rise around Tuvalu islands.

  16. Insurance mechanisms for tropical cyclones and droughts in Pacific Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baarsch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of locations significantly affected by climate-related losses and damage is the Small Island Developing States (SIDS. One mechanism aiming to reduce such adverse impacts is insurance, with a wide variety of products and models available. Insurance for climate-related hazards affecting Pacific SIDS has not been investigated in detail. This article contributes to filling this gap by exploring how insurance mechanisms might be implemented in the Pacific SIDS for tropical cyclones and droughts. The study examines opportunities and constraints or limitations of some existing insurance mechanisms and programmes as applied to the Pacific SIDS. Eight insurance mechanisms are compared and discussed regarding the premium cost compared to the gross domestic product per capita, the amount of payout compared to the damage cost, the reserve and reinsurance, and the disaster risk reduction incentives. As such, this article offers a decision-making tool on insurance development for the Pacific SIDS. Ultimately, implementing disaster insurance for the Pacific SIDS depends on political will and external technical and financial assistance.

  17. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  18. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates—East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific—were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-. PMID:26162099

  19. Characteristics of the Asian-Pacific oscillation in boreal summer simulated by BCC_CSM with different horizontal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yazhou; Liao, Zhijie; Zhang, Yaocun; Nie, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The summer Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO) is a major teleconnection pattern that reflects the zonal thermal contrast between East Asia and the North Pacific in the upper troposphere. The performance of Beijing Climate Center Climate System Models (BCC_CSMs) with different horizontal resolutions, i.e., BCC_CSM1.1 and BCC_CSM1.1(m), in reproducing APO interannual variability, APO-related precipitation anomalies, and associated atmospheric circulation anomalies, is evaluated. The results show that BCC_CSM1.1(m) can successfully capture the interannual variability of the summer APO index. It is also more capable in reproducing the APO's spatial pattern, compared to BCC_CSM1.1, due to its higher horizontal resolution. Associated with a positive APO index, the northward-shifted and intensified South Asian high, strengthened extratropical westerly jet, and tropical easterly jet in the upper troposphere, as well as the southwesterly monsoonal flow over North Africa and the Indian Ocean in the lower troposphere, are realistically represented by BCC_CSM1.1(m), leading to an improvement in reproducing the increased precipitation over tropical North Africa, South Asia, and East Asia, as well as the decreased precipitation over subtropical North Africa, Japan, and North America. In contrast, these features are less consistent with observations when simulated by BCC_CSM1.1. Regression analysis further indicates that surface temperature anomalies over the North Pacific and the southern and western flanks of the Tibetan Plateau are reasonably reproduced by BCC_CSM1.1(m), which contributes to the substantial improvement in the simulation of the characteristics of summer APO compared to that of BCC_CSM1.1.

  20. Episodes of reef growth at Lord Howe Island, the southernmost reef in the southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Dickson, M. E.; Brooke, B. P.; Kennedy, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Lord Howe Island lies at the present latitudinal limit to reef growth in the Pacific and preserves evidence of episodes of reef development over the Late Quaternary. A modern fringing reef flanks the western shore of Lord Howe Island, enclosing a Holocene lagoon, and Late Quaternary eolianites veneer the island. Coral-bearing beach and shallow-water calcarenites record a sea level around 2-3 m above present during the Last Interglacial. No reefs or subaerial carbonate deposits occur on, or around, Balls Pyramid, 25 km to the south. The results of chronostratigraphic studies of the modern Lord Howe Island reef and lagoon indicate prolific coral production during the mid-Holocene, but less extensive coral cover during the late Holocene. Whereas the prolific mid-Holocene reefs might appear to reflect warmer sea-surface temperatures, the pattern of dates and reef growth history are similar to those throughout the Great Barrier Reef and across much of the Indo-Pacific and are more likely correlated with availability of suitable substrate. Little direct evidence of a Last Interglacial reef is now preserved, and the only evidence for older periods of reef establishment comes from clasts of coral in a well-cemented limestone unit below a coral that has been dated to the Last Interglacial age in a core at the jetty. However, a massive reef structure occurs near the centre of the wide shelf around Lord Howe Island, veneered with Holocene coralline algae. Its base is 40-50 m deep and it rises to water depths of less than 30 m. This fossil reef is several times more extensive than either Holocene or Last Interglacial reefs appear to have been. Holocene give-up reef growth is inferred during the postglacial transgression, but an alternative interpretation is that this is a much older landform, indicating reefs that were much more extensive than modern reefs at this marginal site.

  1. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  2. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  3. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  4. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  5. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Félix, Fernando; Stevick, Peter T.; Secchi,Eduardo R; Allen, Judith M; Chater, Kim; Martin, Anthony R.; Basso, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60o54.5’S – 46o40.4’W and 60o42.6’S – 45o33’W). One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-d...

  6. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  7. Characteristics and mechanism of sub-seasonal zonal oscillation of western Pacific subtropical high and South Asian high

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuejuan

    2016-04-01

    The Asian monsoon circulations, like the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) at 500hPa and South Asian high (SAH) in the upper level, demonstrate sub-seasonal zonal oscillation. The WPSH is characterized by anomalously westward extension of its western edge with anomalous low-level anti-cyclonic circulation over the coastal region prior and eastward retreat with low-level cyclonic anomalies afterward, contributing persistent heavy rainfall over the Middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. The coastal SST anomalies linked with zonal movement of WPSH shows cooling phase to warming phase variations. A local air-sea interaction on sub-seasonal time-scale in the western North Pacific region, which may be responsible for generating WPSH's sub-seasonal zonal oscillation. The SAH's eastward extension is featured by eastward propagation of wavetrain across the Eurasian continent. When the SAH extends to its easternmost position, a strong negative PV (positive geopotential height) center prevails to the east of the Tibetan Plateau at 200hPa. The causes of SAH's eastward extension are examined by performing potential vorticity (PV) diagnosis with emphasis on the joint role of diabatic heating feedback/rainfall and midlatitude wavetrain. The PV diagnosis indicates that the anomalous heating/rainfall and ascending motion generate negative PV anomalies at 200hPa directly over north China-east Mongolia. While anomalous cooling and descending motion produce positive PV anomalies over south China. Those south/north dipolar structure of PV generation indicates large value of meridional gradient of PV anomalies. As a consequence, the negative PV anomalies over the north lobe are transported southwardly by the advection of climatological northerly located to the east and southeast of the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Measurements of the VLBI experiments during the first campaign of the Asian-Pacific space geodynamics (APSG) program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the first campaign of the Asian-Pacific space geodynamics(APSG) program in October 1997, two VLBI experiments were successfully organized and coordinated by the Astrometry and Geodesy VLBI Group of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, cooperated with geodetic VLBI group, GSFC, NASA, USA. Six VLBI stations participated in the experiments, including Seshan and Urumqi station of China, Gilcreek station in Alaska and Kokee station in Hawaii of USA, Kashima station of Japan and Hobart station at Tasmania of Australia. Baseline lengths are from 1 900 to 11 000 km and the mean relative uncertainty of the baseline length measurements is 1.0×10-9. In addition, the rates of the baseline lengths among the six stations and their three-dimensional velocities are solved out via global analysis of the two APSG sessions and the historical observations of the six stations as well as other VLBI observations from the global observation network. These results are appreciable to the studies of the modern crustal movement in the Asian-Pacific region. Especially,an 8 mm/a eastward motion and a 14 mm/a north by northeast motion are detected respectively for Seshan and Urumqi stations relative to the stable part of the Eurasian plate. The motions directly illustrate the effect of the northward movement of Indian plate on the modern crustal motions of the northwestern and the eastern part of China, which is of important significance to the study of the modern crustal motion of China.

  9. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Moreno, A.; Bao, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Hernández, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sedimentary architecture and paleoclimate for the last 34 000 cal years BP and human activity during the last 850 years have been reconstructed from the Raraku Lake sediments in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) using a high-resolution multiproxy study of 8 cores, 36 AMS radiocarbon dates and correlation with previous core studies. The Last Glacial period was characterized by cold and relatively humid conditions between 34 to 28 cal kyr BP. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake and a relatively open forest developed at that time. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major floods due to the erosion of littoral sediments. The Deglaciation Period (Termination 1) occurred between 17.3 and 12.5 cal kyr BP, characterized by an increase in lake productivity, a decrease in the terrigenous input and a rapid lake level recovery inaugurating a period of intermediate lake levels. During this period, the dominance of algal lamination is interpreted as a warmer climate. The timing and duration of this warming trend in Easter Island broadly agrees with other mid- and low latitude circum South Pacific terrestrial records. The early Holocene was characterized by low lake levels. The lake level dropped during the early Holocene (ca. 9.5 cal kyr BP) and peatbog and shallow lake conditions dominated till mid Holocene, partially caused by the colmatation of the lacustrine basin. During the mid Holocene an intense drought occurred that led to a persistent low water table period, subaerial exposure and erosion of some of the sediments, generating a sedimentary gap in the Raraku sequence, from 4.2 to 0.8 cal kyr BP. The palm deforestation of the Easter Island, attributed to the human colonization at about 850 cal yr

  10. An educational program for mental health nurses and community health workers from pacific island countries: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Trueman, Scott; Redman-Maclaren, Michelle; Casella, Evan; Woods, Cindy

    2014-05-01

    Delivery of mental health care relies upon professionals with the latest evidence upon which to base their care. This research reports on a pre-test/post-test evaluation of a four-week education program delivered to Pacific Island participants (n = 18) to enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The education program used a combination of formal lectures, tutorials, clinical visits, simulations, and laboratory sessions. The measure used was the Nurse Self Report (NSR) questionnaire. Results indicate an education intervention can be an effective tool for improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of Pacific Island people who care for persons experiencing mental health problems.

  11. Inter-annual Variations and Decadal Trends in Surface Equatorial Pacific Phosphate Concentrations: Coral Records from the Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; LaVigne, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Cobb, K.

    2011-12-01

    Coralline P/Ca is a newly-calibrated proxy for oceanic phosphate concentration (LaVigne et al. 2010, Anagnostuou et al. 2011). This proxy is an important tool for reconstructing tropical ocean nutrient dynamics, especially in remote regions, such as the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which are poorly covered by instrumental records. Here we present P/Ca records in 4 Porites corals from the Line Islands in the central Equatorial Pacific spanning the last ~ 30 years. The coral from Jarvis Island (0°22'S) has a significantly higher P/Ca concentration than two independent coral records from Christmas Island (1°53'N), and a coral from Fanning Island (3°51'N). This is consistent with the strong meridional gradient in surface phosphate in the central equatorial Pacific. All corals record a long-term 2-fold decrease in phosphate concentration from the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, in agreement with observed slowing of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation (McPhadden and Zhang 2002). On inter-annual time scales, the corals all capture strong El Niño events as a decrease in surface phosphate consistent with deepening of the eastern Pacific thermocline. The magnitude of this suppression is significantly larger in the Jarvis Island coral, again consistent with its location in the high phosphate tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The Jarvis Island coral record shows hints of a decadal oscillation in P which so far does not appear to be captured by the Christmas Island coral. Further analyses are underway to extend these records and to study P dynamics in other Line Island corals. Our preliminary results suggest that Porites corals are recording P variations in the central Pacific which accord with known oceanographic changes. This study demonstrates the potential for reconstructing nutrient dynamics at annual to multidecadal resolutions. Citations LaVigne M., Matthews K. A., Grottoli A. G., Cobb K. M., Anagnostou E., Cabioch G., and Sherrell R. M. (2010) Coral skeleton P

  12. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  13. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  14. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-08-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March-August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents' role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes' "risk and enabling environment" heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention.

  15. Aeolian contamination of Se and Ag in the North Pacific from Asian fossil fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranville, Mara A; Cutter, Gregory A; Buck, Clifton S; Landing, William M; Cutter, Lynda S; Resing, Joseph A; Flegal, A Russell

    2010-03-01

    Energy production from fossil fuels, and in particular the burning of coal in China, creates atmospheric contamination that is transported across the remote North Pacific with prevailing westerly winds. In recent years this pollution from within Asia has increased dramatically, as a consequence of vigorous economic growth and corresponding energy consumption. During the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission baseline contaminant survey in the western Pacific Ocean from May to June, 2002, surface waters and aerosol samples were measured to investigate whether atmospheric deposition of trace elements to the surface North Pacific was altering trace element biogeochemical cycling. Results show a presumably anthropogenic enrichment of Ag and of Se, which is a known tracer of coal combustion, in the North Pacific atmosphere and surface waters. Additionally, a strong correlation was seen between dissolved Ag and Se concentrations in surface waters. This suggests that Ag should now also be considered a geochemical tracer for coal combustion, and provides further evidence that Ag exhibits a disturbed biogeochemical cycle as the result of atmospheric deposition to the North Pacific.

  16. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  17. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003-08-22 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0129066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  18. Variability of Atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific: Influence of Asian outflow during March-April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Kiley, C.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Nolf, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    We report here tropospheric CO2 measurements made as part of the airborne component of NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission during March and April in 2001. CO2 mixing ratios, sampled in the subtropics (23.5-45.5° N) west of 150° E, exhibited a decreasing trend with height (0.5-12 km), were highly correlated with latitude showing a distinct north to south gradient, and peaked between 35-40° N within the planetary boundary layer. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 4 km contained up to 393.6 ppmv CO2 and were augmented with the combustion and industrial tracers CO, C2H6, C3H8, CH3Cl, C2Cl4, and C6H6. A chemically based air mass classification scheme using the combustion products CO and C2H2 as tracers of continental source emissions was employed in this analysis. Results show an excellent positive correlation for CO2 (r2=0.98) with respect to this ratio in the lower to mid free troposphere (4-8 km) providing evidence of continental outflow. South of the Tropic of Cancer, mean and median CO2 values derived from samples obtained below 8 km are less than those calculated for the subtropics. However, within the upper troposphere (UT) of both regions, similar values were determined and enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-12 km altitude range were observed. The relationship revealed between CO2 and the C2H2/CO ratio, particularly for the tropics, suggests recent inputs from the surface to the UT. In order to elucidate the processes determining the variations of CO2 in the Asian Pacific rim region during TRACE-P, a CO2 emissions data base developed for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5 day backward trajectories in an attempt to link CO2 enhancements observed in pollution plumes to source regions. From these data acquired downwind of the Asian continent when CO2 concentrations at the surface were approaching their seasonal maximum, we estimate a net export flux on the

  19. Spatial and temporal variabilities of spring Asian dust events and their impacts on chlorophyll-a concentrations in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joo-Eun; Kim, Kitae; Macdonald, Alison M.; Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yang, Eun Jin; Jung, Jinyoung; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Tae-Jun; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Il-Nam

    2017-02-01

    As the western North Pacific Ocean is located downwind of the source regions for spring Asian dust, it is an ideal location for determining the response of open waters to these events. Spatial analysis of spring Asian dust events from source regions to the western North Pacific, using long-term daily aerosol index data, revealed three different transport pathways supported by the westerly wind system: one passing across the northern East/Japan Sea (40°N-50°N), a second moving over the entire East/Japan Sea (35°N-55°N), and a third flowing predominantly over the Siberian continent (>50°N). Our results indicate that strong spring Asian dust events can increase ocean primary productivity by more than 70% (>2-fold increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations) compared to weak/nondust conditions. Therefore, attention should be paid to the recent downturn in the number of spring Asian dust events and to the response of primary production in the western North Pacific to this change.

  20. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided.

  1. Integrating Sustainability into Teaching and Research at the University of the South Pacific to Enhance Capacity for the Sustainable Development of Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayathu C. Koshy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pacific Island countries have been recognised globally as a ‘special case for environment and Sustainable Development (SD’ because of their extreme vulnerability to a host of both external and internal development challenges such as: Narrow range of resources, high population density, limited export volume, impacts of climate change and natural disasters, trade, ICT and globalisation pressures. As part of their strategic approach to address these threats, the island countries have become party to a number of international and regional multi-lateral agreements. However, there are severe capacity constraints, at all levels-individual, institutional and systemic-to the full-scale implementation of these agreements. Part of the problem is that the educational system in general and in particular the higher educational institutions have not yet mainstreamed sustainability into their curriculum. Thus there is a ‘campus-workplace’ mismatch for SD implementation that needs to be addressed urgently. Approach: This study addresses how the University of the South Pacific (USP and two other Pacific universities in the Pacific island region have been addressing these capacity issues using a ‘logical framework approach’ for the development and implementation of two on-going, multidisciplinary ESD projects. The first is a USP project, funded by the Asia-Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU-USP, the second may be seen as a much broader extension of the ACCU-USP project, in the form of a networked initiative involving USP, UPNG and NUS. Results: Within the limitations discussed elsewhere (ibid, the ACCU-USP and EDULINK-NIU (NIU: network of island universities projects are progressing well in establishing institutional structures for the promotion of ESD, developing new courses and resource materials, establishing new postgraduate programmes, enhancing community capacity to manage natural resources sustainably and contributing

  2. The First Asian-Pacific Forum on Translation and Inter-Cultural Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Jointly organized by China Association of Comparative Studies of English and Chinese (CACSEC) and Center for Translation and Interdisciplinary Studies of Tsinghua University, and sponsored by Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, the First Asia-Pacific Forum on Translation and Inter-Cultural Studies will be held at the West Lake in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province on Nov. 18-20, 2011.

  3. HIV Testing Behavior among Pacific Islanders in Southern California: Exploring the Importance of Race/Ethnicity, Knowledge, and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…

  4. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  5. 76 FR 24047 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory... directional manner to all potential rat territories within a short operational period. Special measures...

  6. 8 CFR 215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 215.6 Section 215.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROLS OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.6...

  7. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 1215.6 Section 1215.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROLS OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM...

  8. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 808-944-2108.... Objective 6. Promote responsible domestic fisheries development to provide long term economic growth and... quota utilization program to facilitate responsible fisheries. (c) Development of a fish marketing...

  9. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... amend its regulations to establish a new danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range... INFORMATION: Executive Summary The purpose of this regulatory action is to establish a new danger zone...

  10. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in

  11. Island-Arc Collision Dominates Japan's Sediment Flux to the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codilean, A. T.; Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Matsushi, Y.; Saito, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying volumes and rates of delivery of terrestrial sediment to subduction zones is indispensable for refining estimates of the thickness of trench fills that may eventually control the location and timing of submarine landslides and tsunami-generating mega-earthquakes. Despite these motivating insights, knowledge about the rates of erosion and sediment export from the Japanese islands to their Pacific subduction zones has somewhat stagnated despite the increasing availability of highly resolved data on surface deformation, climate, geology, and topography. Traditionally, natural erosion rates across the island arc have been estimated from catchment topographic predictors of reservoir sedimentation rates that were recorded over several years to decades. We correct for a systematic bias in these predictions, and present new estimates of decadal to millennial-scale erosion rates of the Japanese terrestrial inner forearc, drawing on several unprecedented inventories of mass wasting, reservoir sedimentation, and concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in river sands. Our data reveal that catchments draining Japan's eastern seaboard have distinctly different tectonic, lithological, topographic, and climatic characteristics, underscored by a marked asymmetric pattern of erosion rates along and across the island arc. Erosion rates are highest in the Japanese Alps that mark the collision of two subduction zones, where high topographic relief, hillslope and bedrock-channel steepness foster rapid denudation by mass wasting. Comparable, if slightly lower, rates characterize southwest Japan, most likely due to higher typhoon-driven rainfall totals and variability rather than the similarly high relief and contemporary uplift rates that are linked to subduction earthquake cycles, and outpace long-term Quaternary uplift. In contrast, our estimated erosion and flux rates are lowest in the inner forearc catchments that feed sediment into the Japan Trench. We conclude that

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of the San Félix-San Ambrosio islands, Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper Percker, Oliver; Lara, Luis E.

    2015-04-01

    The San Félix-San Ambrosio (SF-SA) islands, Eastern Pacific, are fragments of two volcanic sequences 20 km apart. Both represent the top of an eroded large shield-volcano which rises over the Nazca Plate. Here, new geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data are presented in order to understand magmatic evolution and source features. Two units are recognized on the SF island: (1) the Cerro Amarillo unit (CAU) (190±30 ka) formed by a hyaloclastic-tuff cone and basanitic lavas (Ba/Yb=519; Ba/Zr=2.19; La/Yb=49.88; Nb/Ta=17.96; Nb/Y=3.78; Nb/Zr=0.25) with absent or scarce modal content of plagioclase (20%). The hyaloclastic-tuff cone of the CAU contains aphanitic-trachytic lithic fragments of Na-augite and kaersutite, which correspond to the final product of fractional crystallization of olivine+clinopyroxene+Fe-Ti oxides+apatite±plagioclase from alkaline primitive liquids similar to SF-SA lavas. The geochemical data suggest that the islands represent different evolutive stages of a same volcanic intraplate complex. The alkaline to transitional SA lavas (Ba/Yb=249; Ba/Zr=1.60; La/Yb=24.62; Nb/Ta=16.55; Nb/Y=2.22; Nb/Zr=0.19) would represent the shield stage (ca 2.9 Ma), while the basanitic SF lavas the post-erosional stage (ca 0.2 Ma). Considering the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the SF-SA lavas, previous works have ruled out a genetic relationship between SF-SA islands and the nearby Nazca Ridge. An heterogeneous mantle plume with mantelic metasomatized recycled lithologies is hypothesized as a possible magmatic source capable of explaining the petrologic differences between the SF-SA islands and between the CAU and PU, in SF island. This research is supported by FONDECYT Project 1141303.

  13. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamrah, Sapna; Desmond, Edward; Ghosh, Smita; France, Anne Marie; Kammerer, J Steve; Cowan, Lauren S; Heetderks, Andrew; Forbes, Alstead; Moonan, Patrick K

    2014-01-01

    The United States-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are part of the US National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance System and use laboratory services contracted through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2004, the CDC established the National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service, a system to genotype 1 isolate from each culture-confirmed case of TB. To describe the molecular epidemiology of TB in the region, we examined all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates submitted for genotyping from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008. Over this time period, the USAPI jurisdictions reported 1339 verified TB cases to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System. Among 419 (31%) reported culture-confirmed TB cases, 352 (84%) had complete genotype results. Routine TB genotyping allowed, for the first time, an exploration of the molecular epidemiology of TB in the USAPI.

  15. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  16. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  17. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, John H.-O.; Eldholm, Vegard; Seligman, Stephen J.; Lundkvist, Åke; Falconar, Andrew K.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Musso, Didier; Nougairède, Antoine; Charrel, Remi; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS) (which includes microcephaly) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence. PMID:27729507

  18. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  19. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the current fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  20. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the last three fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We...

  1. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Social Security Disability Insurance Claimants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Disability insurance benefits from federal...

  2. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year...

  3. Social Security Administration Yearly Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Representation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Federal employees self-identify their race and ethnicity by completing OPM'S Standard Form 181, "Ethnicity and Race Identification". We input the information into...

  4. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hepatitis B carrier). Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): Tells if you are protected against HBV. Only ... edu » Get Vaccinated If both your HBsAg and anti-HBs blood tests are negative, then you are not ...

  5. Disassembling the Model Minority: Asian Pacific Islander Identities and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empleo, Arlene C.

    2006-01-01

    When I was in kindergarten, I was always in trouble. During recess I either sat on the benches or stood up against the wall. I had few friends; I always seemed to get into arguments with my classmates no matter if they were Filipino American like me, or European American, or African American, or Latinos. I always caused problems for my teacher.…

  6. 76 FR 18202 - Applications for New Awards; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... determined that it is appropriate to use regulatory requirements relating to the enrollment of needy students... subcontinent (including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine... discrimination in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance from the Department of...

  7. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... marked by lasting inequality and bitter wrongs. Immigrants seeking a better life were often excluded... outcomes in health and education. We are fighting for commonsense immigration reform so America...

  8. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It is ...

  9. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  10. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  11. Geomorphology and accommodation space as limiting factors on tsunami deposition: Chatham Island, southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, S. L.; Chagué-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Horrocks, M.; McFadgen, B. G.; Strotz, L. C.

    2010-07-01

    Chatham Island in the southwest Pacific Ocean is exposed on all sides to potential tsunami impact. In historical time, tsunamis are known to have inundated the coast on several occasions, with the largest event in 1868. Coastal dunes along the northeast coast of Chatham Island preserve sedimentary evidence of this and possibly earlier tsunami events, as localised gravel lags. However, these deposits lack a clear stratigraphic context and establishing their age is difficult. This study examines the sediment record in a freshwater wetland at Okawa Point, located directly landward of the dunes where apparent tsunami gravels occur. Sediment descriptions, pollen, foraminifera, chemical data and radiocarbon dates from cores are used to reconstruct the environmental history of the wetland. The record extends from ca. > 43 ka to the present and incorporates glacial, post-glacial and human-influenced phases. Throughout this time the wetland appears to have remained isolated from catastrophic marine inundation. The only evidence for saltwater intrusion is observed in the historic period, via geochemical, grain size and pollen data, which record a marine inundation event that forced the transport of a thin (cm-thick) deposit of dune and beach sand into the seaward edge of the wetland. This is interpreted as the signature of the 1868 tsunami. The lack of more widespread physical evidence for this and other tsunami events in the wetland is attributed to the morphological roughness afforded by coastal dunes and limited accommodation space for Holocene deposits.

  12. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuges; Units of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Howland Island, Baker...

  13. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  14. Risk posed by the Ebola epidemic to the Pacific islands: findings of a recent World Health Organization assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Craig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk posed by the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa to Pacific island countries and areas and to highlight priority risk management actions for preparedness and response. Method: The likelihood of EVD importation and the magnitude of public health impact in Pacific island countries and areas were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature about the hazard, epidemiology, exposure and contextual factors associated with EVD was collected and reviewed. Epidemiological information from the current EVD outbreak was assessed. Results: As of 11 March 2015, there have been more than 24 200 reported cases of EVD and at least 9976 deaths in six West African countries. Three EVD cases have been infected outside of the West African region, and all have epidemiological links to the outbreak in West Africa. Pacific island countries’ and areas’ relative geographic isolation and lack of travel or trade links between countries with transmission means that EVD importation is very unlikely. However, should a case be imported, the health and non-health consequences would be major. The capacity of Pacific island countries and areas to respond adequately varies greatly between (and within states but in general is limited. Discussion: This risk assessment highlights the needs to enhance preparedness for EVD in the Pacific by strengthening the capacities outlined in the World Health Organization Framework for Action on Ebola. Priority areas include the ability to detect and respond to suspected EVD cases quickly, isolation and management of cases in appropriately resourced facilities and the prevention of further cases through infection prevention and control. These efforts for Ebola should enhance all-hazards public health preparedness in line with the International Health Regulations (2005.

  15. Responses of the summer Asian-Pacific zonal thermal contrast and the associated evolution of atmospheric circulation to transient orbital changes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Xiuji

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the response of large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Asian-Pacific sector and precipitation over eastern China to transient orbital changes during the Holocene summer using an intermediate-complexity climate model. Corresponding to variations in the incoming solar radiation, the eddy sea level pressure (SLP) exhibited an out-of-phase relationship between the North Pacific and the Eurasian landmass that was similar to the present-day Asia-Pacific Oscillation (APO) pattern and was defined as the paleo-APO. Its index presented an increasing trend, which implies the enhancement of a zonal thermal contrast between Asia and the North Pacific. Associated with the strengthening of the paleo-APO was the westward shift in North Pacific high pressure. Accordingly, there was less/more summer precipitation over both the middle reach of the Yangtze River and Southwest China/over North China. The high-resolution stalagmite δ18O records further support this decrease in the model precipitation. Along with the strengthening of paleo-APO from the early Holocene to the present, the eddy SLP anomalies exhibited a decreasing/increasing trend over the Eurasian landmass/the North Pacific, with a phase change of approximately 4.5 ka BP, and they both moved westward. Meanwhile, a less rainfall belt over eastern China exhibited northward propagation from southern China. PMID:27779217

  16. Properties of organic matter in PM 2.5 at Changdao Island, China—A rural site in the transport path of the Asian continental outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang; Guo, Zhigang; Chan, Chak K.; Fang, Ming

    Fifty-five seasonal PM 2.5 samples were collected March 2003-January 2004 at Changdao, a resort island located at the demarcation line between Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea in Northern China. Changdao is in the transport path of the continental aerosols heading toward the Pacific Ocean in winter and spring due to the East Asia Monsoon. Solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analyzed for source identification based on molecular markers. This data set provides useful information for the downstream site researchers of the Asian continental outflow. Total carbon (TC, OC+EC) was ˜18 μg m -3 in winter, ˜9 μg m -3 in spring and autumn and a large part of the TC was WSOC (33% in winter, >45% in the other seasons). Winter and spring were the high SEOC seasons with n-fatty acids the highest at ˜290 and ˜170 ng m -3, respectively, followed by n-alkanes at ˜210 and ˜90 ng m -3, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also at high at ˜120 and ˜30 ng m -3. High WSOC/TC, low C 18:1/C 18 of fatty acids, and low concentrations of labile PAHs such as benzo(a)pyrene, together with back trajectory analysis suggested that the aerosols were aged and transported. PAHs, triterpane and sterane distributions provided evidence that coal burning was the main source of the continental outflow. The detection of levoglucosan and β-sitosterol in nearly all the samples showed the impact of biomass burning.

  17. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  18. NOAA/NMFS/CRED Deep CTD profiles from 15 cruises near islands, atolls and shoals in the central tropical Pacific 1999-2012 (NODC Accession 0115299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  19. Individuals of Pacific Asian origin with IgA nephropathy have an increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Sean J; Cattran, Daniel C; Kim, S Joseph; Levin, Adeera; Wald, Ron; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Reich, Heather N

    2013-11-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) accounts for a far higher proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Asia compared with North America. It is not known whether this is entirely because of differences in disease prevalence or a higher risk of disease progression. The lack of a racially diverse population cohort followed longitudinally has previously precluded the ability to address this question. To determine whether Asians in North America with IgAN are at higher risk for ESRD, we analyzed a cohort of 202 patients of self-reported Pacific Asian origin and 467 of other origin from the Toronto GN Registry followed up for a median of 46.4 months. The primary outcome of ESRD (dialysis, transplantation, or eGFR below 15) was analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Baseline eGFR was 59.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and median proteinuria was 1.8 g/day. ESRD occurred in 213 patients. By univariable analysis, the risk of ESRD was similar between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.73, 1.31); however, after adjusting for age, gender, eGFR, medication use, blood pressure, and proteinuria, the risk of ESRD was significantly higher in Pacific Asian individuals (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.10, 2.22). This was supported by a significant 1.62 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year faster rate of eGFR decline (95% CI -3.19, -0.5) and an increased risk of a reduction in eGFR by half (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.25, 2.62). Thus, in a large multiracial cohort of patients with IgAN, individuals of Pacific Asian origin have a higher risk of progression to ESRD.

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00807, Lat: -00.36902 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.40m; Data Date Range: 20100401-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00821, Lat: -00.36893 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 22.30m; Data Date Range: 20100401-20100405.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.48860, Lat: 00.19180 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.10m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120317.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00835, Lat: -00.36889 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.30m; Data Date Range: 20100401-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. [原著]An epidemiological survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis in the Southwest Islands, Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato,Yoshiya; Otsuru, Masamitsu; Asato, Ryuji; Yamashita, Takao; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health; Department of Parasitology, Yamagata University School of Medicine

    1981-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, primarilly a parasite of rodents, has attracted notice as an important agent of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis on many Pacific islands and in Southeast Asia. It is generally speculated in the pacific and Asian tropical and subtropical zones that the parasite has extended its geographic range to adjacent regions by introduction of the infected intermediate hosts, mainly Achatina fulica, or by the stowaway rats. The Southwest Islands are in an unique...

  6. Development and Use of Genetic Methods for Assessing Aquatic Environmental Condition and Recruitment Dynamics of Native Stream Fishes on Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    299: 107 – 109. Thacker, C. E., Hardman, M. A. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of basal gobioid fishes : Rhyacichthyidae, Odontobutidae, Xenisthmidae... Fishes on Pacific Islands SERDP Project RC-1646 APRIL 2014 Michael J. Blum Tulane University James F. Gilliam North...Dynamics of Native Stream Fishes on Pacific Islands 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  7. An Educational Program for Mental Health Nurses and Community Health Workers from Pacific Island Countries: Results from a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Trueman, Scott; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Casella, Evan; Woods, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of mental health care relies upon professionals with the latest evidence upon which to base their care. This research reports on a pre-test/post-test evaluation of a four-week education program delivered to Pacific Island participants (n = 18) to enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The education program used a combination of formal lectures, tutorials, clinical visits, simulations, and laboratory sessions. The measure used was the Nurse Self Report (NSR) questionnaire. R...

  8. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS CONTROL OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 46.6 Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory...

  9. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  10. Observations of heterogeneous reactions between Asian pollution and mineral dust over the Eastern North Pacific during INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. McNaughton

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In-situ airborne measurements of trace gases, aerosol size distributions, chemistry and optical properties were conducted over Mexico and the Eastern North Pacific during MILAGRO and INTEX-B. Heterogeneous reactions between secondary aerosol precursor gases and mineral dust during long-range transport lead to irreversible sequestration of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the supermicrometer particulate size range.

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions and weak-acid soluble calcium result in an estimate of 11 wt% of CaCO3 for Asian dust. During transport across the North Pacific, 10–30% of the CaCO3 is converted to CaSO4 or Ca(NO32 through reactions with trace gases. The 11-year record from the Mauna Loa Observatory confirm these findings, indicating that, on average, 16% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form CaSO4 and 14% has reacted to form Ca(NO32. Heterogeneous reactions resulting in ~3% increase in dust solubility is shown to have an insignificant effect on their optical properties compared to their variability in-situ. However, competition between supermicrometer dust and submicrometer primary aerosol for condensing secondary aerosol species led to a 25% smaller number median diameter for the accumulation mode aerosol. A 10–25% reduction of accumulation mode number median diameter results in a 30–70% reduction in submicrometer light scattering at relative humidities in the 80–95% range. At 80% RH submicrometer light scattering is only reduced ~3% due to a higher mass fraction of hydrophobic refractory components in the dust-affected accumulation mode aerosol. Thus reducing the geometric mean diameter of the submicrometer aerosol has a much larger effect on aerosol optics than changes to the hygroscopic:hydrophobic mass fractions of the aerosol.

    In the presence of dust, nitric acid concentrations are

  11. An interdecadal change in the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean and the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peilong; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhong, Quanjia

    2016-09-01

    This study reveals that the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean (WNPO; 0-55°N, 100-165°E) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experiences a well-defined interdecadal change in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The EASM-related WNPO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern changes from the dipole pattern [WNPO dipole (WNPOD)] that develops over the period between 1968 and 1987 (P1) to a tripole pattern [WNPO tripole (WNPOT)] between 1991 and 2010 (P2). The positive (negative) phase of the WNPOD is characterized by warm (cold) SSTAs in the Japan Sea and Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension region, and cold (warm) SSTAs in the subtropical WNPO, whereas the positive (negative) phase of the WNPOT shows warming (cooling) in the Kuroshio Extension region (KER), and cooling (warming) in the south of Kamchatka Peninsula (SKP) and Philippine Sea (PS). During P1 (P2), the WNPOD (WNPOT) can be regarded as the first (second) leading mode of summer WNPO SST variability, and its positive phase is associated with a weakened WNPO subtropical high and thereby the deficient summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, together with a strong EASM, and vice versa. The change in the WNPO-EASM relationship may be caused by interdecadal changes in the relationship of the equatorial central Pacific (ECP) with the WNPO and EASM, and an increase in summer KER SST variability. During P2, because the ECP warming-induced cyclonic anomalies move northwestwards and intensify, summertime ECP warming is able to generate a strong EASM and significant cooling over the two poles of the WNPOT (SKP and PS). These strengthened impacts of the ECP on the WNPOT and EASM contribute to the strengthened WNPOT-EASM relationship during P2. In addition, summer KER SST variability increases between 1991 and 2010, and this may have enhanced the impact of the KER on the EASM during P2. These two factors probably cause the EASM-related WNPO SSTA pattern to change from the WNPOD in P1 to the WNPOT in

  12. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  13. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  14. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  15. Pacific island tropical cyclones are more frequent and globally relevant, yet less studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in 2013 and illuminates the fact that the majority of tropical cyclone (TC research has focused on the Atlantic Basin, continental socio-ecological systems, affluent regions where the resilience attributes of the human element differ from that of the of majority the world’s population, and organized countries where research and relief capacities are among the best worldwide. I contend that this collective international bias minimizes the usefulness of global TC research in light of global change forecasts, which predict increased frequency of intense TCs. Moreover, paleoecological studies indicate ecosystem resilience following a TC is greatly increased within habitats that experienced a prior history of frequent TCs. When these retrospective and future visions are connected, science-based analysis of the influences of climate change on TC disturbance argues for an increase in contemporary research on TCs of developing island nations in the western Pacific where TCs are already relatively frequent. Otherwise the current research trajectory may further widen the disconnect between best available science and future management decisions.

  16. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.-O. Pettersson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS (which includes microcephaly and Guillain-BarrÅèôÉééééÅèé syndrome (GBS have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

  17. Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Evans-Locke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Forum has long held the title of the most dominant regional association with links in trade, politics and regional security. Following two political coups in the region the PIF was forced to shift its approach to regional governance opting for a more active and hands-on role with its first such mission being the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI. The role undertaken by the PIF within RAMSI is noteworthy for its shifts and changes with an initially minimalist role morphed into an intermediary role as tensions rose between the major funding donor, Australia, and the host state, Solomon Islands in 2006-07. Although the PIF acted in a mediator role in this instance this has not been the normal role for the institution. This article examines the role the PIF has adopted in managing regional democratic stability through targeted development activities, whether their adopted role is applicable on a wider regional-level scale, and further, through examining key human-security related challenges, such as climate change, where the PIF fits into regional power-sharing institutions in the Pacific Islands of the future.

  18. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  19. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  20. [The divergence of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma in Asian Northern Pacific populations inferred from the PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A

    2002-10-01

    Genetic differentiation of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum was studied in five populations from the western part of the Northern Pacific. Using restriction analysis (RFLP), we examined polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MtDNA haplotypes were shown to fall into two phylogenetic groups, which probably reflect the existence of two previously described subspecies of Asian dolly varden, S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi. The divergence of mtDNA nucleotide sequences in the dolly varden subspecies (about 4%) corresponds to the differences between the valid char species from the genus Salvelinus.

  1. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ASIAN DUSTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS IN TAIWAN DISTRICT- USING THE PENGHU ISLANDS AS AN EXAMPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Cheng-Chung Sau; Ming-Chung Chen

    2004-01-01

    Using the Penghu Islands as an example, this study investigates the influence of Asian dusts on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Taiwan District in the year of 2002. An aerosol-sampling site was established at Xiaumen, the Penghu Islands, to collect sea level atmospheric aerosols for further analysis of their physicochemical properties. This study revealed that, during the sampling campaign, three Asian dust storms were transported from North China and Mongolia to the Penghu Islands. The mass concentrations of atmospheric aerosols, particularly PM2.5~10, were generally 2~3 times higher than the regular level. An increase of coarse particle mode in the size distribution of atmospheric aerosols further validated the invasion of Asian dusts. Moreover, the comparison of water-soluble ionic species, carbonaceous content, and metallic content of atmospheric aerosols indicated that Asian dusts could significantly influence the chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Taiwan District. A significant increase of Cl-, Br-, Na+, K+, SO42-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration on coarse particle mode was observed. It suggested that not just natural soil dusts and oceanic spray, but also anthropogenic pollutants could accompany Asian dusts. Source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols indicated that the concentration (percentage) of aerosol particles contributed from soil dusts increased significantly from 20.98 μg·m-3 (29.2%) to 60.37 μg·m-3 (47.7%), and then decreased to the regular level of 22.44 μg·m-3 (28.2%).

  3. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... amendment to the regulation will not have a significant impact to the quality of the human environment and... activities, increases in force protection and other mission-essential evolutions without first obtaining...-essential evolutions. Residents and visitors who typically use these waters off Pacific Missile...

  4. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  5. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  6. Observations of heterogeneous reactions between Asian pollution and mineral dust over the Eastern North Pacific during INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Flocke

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In-situ airborne measurements of trace gases, aerosol size distributions, chemistry and optical properties were conducted over Mexico and the Eastern North Pacific during MILAGRO and INTEX-B. Heterogeneous reactions between secondary aerosol precursor gases and mineral dust lead to sequestration of sulfur, nitrogen and chlorine in the supermicrometer particulate size range.

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions and weak-acid soluble calcium result in an estimate of 11 wt% of CaCO3 for Asian dust. During transport across the North Pacific, ~5–30% of the CaCO3 is converted to CaSO4 or Ca(NO32 with an additional ~4% consumed through reactions with HCl. The 1996 to 2008 record from the Mauna Loa Observatory confirm these findings, indicating that, on average, 19% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form CaSO4 and 7% has reacted to form Ca(NO32 and ~2% has reacted with HCl. In the nitrogen-oxide rich boundary layer near Mexico City up to 30% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form Ca(NO32 while an additional 8% has reacted with HCl.

    These heterogeneous reactions can result in a ~3% increase in dust solubility which has an insignificant effect on their optical properties compared to their variability in-situ. However, competition between supermicrometer dust and submicrometer primary aerosol for condensing secondary aerosol species led to a 25% smaller number median diameter for the accumulation mode aerosol. A 10–25% reduction of accumulation mode number median diameter results in a 30–70% reduction in submicrometer light scattering at relative humidities in the 80–95% range. At 80% RH submicrometer light scattering is only reduced ~3% due to a higher mass fraction of hydrophobic refractory components in the dust-affected accumulation mode aerosol. Thus reducing the geometric mean diameter of

  7. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  8. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  9. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in the SE Pacific. The Raraku Lake sedimentary record (Easter Island, 27°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Pueyo, Juan J.; Hernández, Armand; Casas, David

    2009-12-01

    Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate changes in the South Pacific region based on terrestrial archives. Although the general climate evolution of the south Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is coherent with terrestrial records in southern South America and Polynesia, the details of the dynamics of the shifting Westerlies, the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Anticyclone during the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene, and the large scale controls on precipitation in tropical and extratropical regions remain elusive. Here we present a high-resolution reconstruction of lake dynamics, watershed processes and paleohydrology for the last 34 000 cal yrs BP based on a sedimentological and geochemical multiproxy study of 8 cores from the Raraku Lake sediments constrained by 22 AMS radiocarbon dates. This multicore strategy has reconstructed the sedimentary architecture of the lake infilling and provided a stratigraphic framework to integrate and correlate previous core and vegetation studies conducted in the lake. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake between 34 and 28 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical evidences support previously reported pollen data showing a relatively open forest and a cold and relatively humid climate during the Glacial period. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including the LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The coherent climate patterns in subtropical and mid latitudes of Chile and Eastern Island for the LGM (more humid conditions) suggest stronger influence of the Antarctic circumpolar current and an enhancement of the Westerlies. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major flood events and erosion of littoral sediments. Deglaciation (Termination

  10. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. from the Miyako Islands, Japan: the first record of Neostygarctidae (Heterotardigrada: Arthrotardigrada) from the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2013-05-01

    A new species of the previously monospecific marine tardigrade family Neostygarctidae is described. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. was found from a submarine cave in Miyako Islands, Japan. This is the first record of Neostygarctidae from the Pacific. The new species is easily distinguished from the previously known N. acanthophorus by its number of dorsal spines, as N. lovedeluxe has two spines each on the three dorsal body plates in contrast to one in N. acanthophorus. Furthermore the morphology of the two clawed juvenile is reported for the first time in Neostygarctidae, providing new insights into the common sequence in some ontogenic traits.

  11. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  12. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  13. Regionalism Cycle in Asia (-Pacific): A Game Theory Approach to the Rise and Fall of Asian Regional Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    Despite a commonplace view that Asian regionalism lacks institutions, Asia, in fact, is full of regional institutions and frameworks in various forms. The rise and fall of regional institutions in Asia is an extremely dynamic process. Using a game theory approach, this paper hypothesizes that the dynamic nature of Asian regionalism can be explained by a "regionalism cycle." The institutional outcome of regionalism in Asia has been cyclical because the game played by Japan and the United State...

  14. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  15. Processing and Analysis of Near-Seafloor Magnetic Anomalies around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2010, cruise Futuna of R/V L'Atalante collected near-seafloor magnetic data with AUV Aster-X (70 m asf) and Deep-Sea Submersible (DSS) Nautile (2-20 m asf) on several volcanic systems around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean. Here we present the data, the method of analysis, and a first geological interpretation. Unlike a ship, a submersible (or an AUV) cannot tow a magnetometer due to the close proximity of the seafloor. Instead, the magnetometer is rigidly fixed on the submersible, which magnetization affects the magnetic measurements. A vector magnetometer (i.e. three orthogonal fluxgate sensors) measures the field three components in a referential linked to the submarine, a requirement to determine and correct the magnetization of the submersible, The remanent magnetization vector (3 components) and the magnetic susceptibility tensor (9 coefficients) of the submersible are estimated by inverting magnetic data collected on calibration loops, far from both the ship and the seafloor, during the descent (ascent) of the submersible at the beginning (end) of the dives. For this estimation, the ambient field is assumed to be the IGRF, the departures from this assumption reflecting the magnetization of the submersible. The twelve coefficients are inverted from the loop data by a least square method, regularized by a dumping factor to account for the limited pitch and roll values sampled by the submersible. Once determined, these coefficients are used to reduce the magnetic data acquired during the whole dive for the magnetic effect of the submersible, the resulting three component anomalies being rotated to the geographic reference frame as well. The resulting anomalies acquired by the AUV on regularly-spaced tracks are gridded and reduced to the pole such as the resulting anomalies are located on the top of their causative sources. They are further inverted to equivalent magnetization using the high-resolution topography acquired by the AUV. The anomalies

  16. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  17. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  18. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  19. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  20. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs) in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake in the Pacific...

  1. 1984 Pacific walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Little Diomede Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress update on the Pacific walrus harvest study that has been conducted in Diomede, Alaska in previous years. Study methods and results are...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  3. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  5. Biogeographic kinetics: estimation of relaxation times for avifaunas of southwest pacific islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J M

    1972-11-01

    When species diversity S on an island is displaced from the equilibrium value by injection or removal of species, S relaxes to equilibrium by an imbalance between immigration and extinction rates. Estimates of exponential relaxation times, t(r), for avifaunas of New Guinea satellite islands are calculated from analysis of four "experiments of nature": recolonization of exploded volcanoes, contraction in island area due to rising sea level, severing of land bridges, and disappearance of landbridge relict species. t(r) is in the range 3,000-18,000 years for avifaunas of islands of 50-3000 square miles (130-7800 km(2)), and increases with island area. Immigration coefficients decrease and extinction coefficients increase with increasing S. The results may be relevant to the design of rainforest preserves.

  6. Prediction of daily modes of South Asian monsoon variability and its association with Indian and Pacific Ocean SST in the NCEP CFS V2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Pandey, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The prediction capability of daily modes of variability for South Asian monsoon from climate forecast system version 2 of national centers for environmental prediction with respect to observed precipitation has been assessed. The space-time structure of the daily modes for summer monsoon rainfall has been identified by using multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). The MSSA is applied on daily anomalies of rainfall data over the South Asian monsoon region (40°E-160°E, 30°S-35°N) for the period of 2001-2013 with a lag window of 61 days for June-July-August-September season. The broad spectrum around 45 and 50 days was obtained from the observed and model data during the time domain of our study. The space-time structure of the modes obtained from the model shows good resemblance with respect to the observation. The observed northeastward propagation of oscillatory mode is well simulated by the model. The significant improvement in the space-time structure, period of oscillation, and propagation of oscillatory modes was found in the model. The observed connectivity of oscillatory and persisting modes with the sea surface temperature of Indian and Pacific Ocean has also been investigated and it was found that the model is able to predict it reasonably well.

  7. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  8. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  9. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery...

  10. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Plant Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the terrestrial plant observations survey is to document vegetation species presence/absence and distribution on the island unit of the refuge. The...

  11. USING A PROBLEM SITUATION IN A COMPREHENSIVE TEST (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF PREPARATION FOR INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE ASIAN PACIFIC RIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina G. Dolgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: nowadays Russian people are proactively seeking cooperation with the Asian Pacific Rim. Considering this the author has developed a curricular for institutions of higher learning training students in intercultural business interaction in this region within such disciplines as “Foreign language” and “Professional foreign language”. Materials and Methods: the author puts forward a comprehensive test as a way to define the level of students’ preparedness for business interaction within the Asian Pacific Rim, to test that they understand what they learn and to identify qualitative indicators attending to acquisition of content, and development of communicative and linguistic competences, as well as such necessary characteristics as pragmatism and tolerance. The comprehensive test elaboration was based on A. A. Verbitskiy and E. E. Kreslavskaya’s method of assessing the students’ understanding of meaning and significance of information. Results: drawing upon ideas of researchers studying intercultural communication, East Asian peoples’ values, region’s social, cultural and economic problems, the author proposes some special direction for the learning process – it should orient the Far Eastern students to take into consideration values, behaviours, mental and cultural specifics of partners from China, Korea, Japan and other neighboring countries in the business interaction. It is impossible to subdivide such interaction into professional and social spheres, so the author has chosen a problem situation to be a basic form for organising the learning process. The prob- lem situations of the social and professional character have been taken from East Asia business practices. Discussion and Conclusions: to solve the problem how to check students’ understanding of the learning information, the author has developed a comprehensive test where a problem situation is also used. The paper’s objective is to show how these

  12. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  13. Policy and Financing – Why is Sea Transport Currently Invisible in the Search for a Low Carbon Future for Pacific Island Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roger Nuttall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of financing and policy in research, development, trialling and introduction of renewable energy technologies in the Pacific maritime sector is considered. Key research and trials of renewable energy technologies for sea transport in the Pacific from the 1980s and the critical role played by agencies such as the United Nations in leveraging support from funders such as the Asian Development Bank and European Union are reviewed. The lack of current policy on potential renewable energy technology use in sea transport at national, regional and development agency levels is discussed with the Asian Development Bank used as a case study. The urgent need for such technology to be commercially trialled as a means of reducing the region’s dependency on fossil fuels given the importance of sea transport to socio-economic development in the Pacific is outlined in light of the proportion of fossil fuel currently used by the maritime sector. The paper concludes that review of current funding strategies and policies to include both sea transport and the potential for use of renewable energy technologies in the maritime sector in the Pacific is a priority and current reliance on the private sector acting alone needs review.

  14. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.

  15. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. (Draconematidae: Nematoda) from a seagrass bed ( Zostera spp.) in Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, Central Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wongi; Kim, Dongsung; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Rho, Hyun Soo

    2016-09-01

    A new species of free-living marine draconematid nematode, Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov., is described based on the specimens collected from the sediments of a intertidal seagrass bed from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: the presence of numerous minute spiny ornamented body cuticular annules in both sexes, eight cephalic adhesion tubes inserted on the head capsule in both sexes, the presence of stiff posteriorly directed setae anterior to posterior adhesion tubes in both sexes, the shape (large, elongated, open loop-shaped in male and large, elongated, closed loop-shaped in female) and position (longer ventral arm extending to the first body annule in male) of amphideal fovea, shorter spicule length (34-42 μm), the presence of sexual dimorphism in shape and length of the non-annulated tail terminus, and number of posterior sublateral adhesion tubes (10 in male and 13-15 in female) and posterior subventral adhesion tubes (8-10 in male and 9-11 in female). A comparative table on the biogeographical and ecological characteristics of the species of Dracograllus is presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the genus Dracograllus from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, central western Pacific Ocean.

  16. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.

  17. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie A.

    2016-06-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976-2005), mid-century, and end-century time periods for the December-February and June-August seasons. The December-February regional wave climate is dominated by strong winds and large swell from extratropical cyclones in the north Pacific while the June-August season brings smaller waves generated by the trade winds and swell from Southern Hemisphere extratropical storms. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~ 10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing RCP 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing RCP 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-century June-August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December-February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June-August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell. The results of this study underscore that December-February large wave events will become smaller and less frequent in most regions, reducing the likelihood and magnitude of wave

  18. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef... the logbooks is used to obtain fish catch/fishing effort data on coral reef fishes and...

  19. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E.; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  20. The human bioclimates of Western and South Pacific islands and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, G R

    1995-08-01

    The current bioclimates of equatorial Western and tropical South Pacific have been assessed, using the concepts of effective temperature and relative strain as a basis for evaluating likely changes in human comfort regimes as a consequence of global warming. Current bioclimates may be considered marginally stressful for indigenous populations. Global warming will result in changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of physioclimatically stressful conditions.

  1. Macrophthalmus graeffei A. Milne Edwards, 1873 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae: a new Indo-Pacific guest off Rhodes Island (SE Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. PANCUCCI-PAPADOPOULOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new alien crab, the macrophthalmid Macrophthalmus graeffei, is reported from the eastern coastline of Rhodes Island. The species, of Indo-West Pacific origin, is known from muddy sediments up to about 80 m depth. In the Mediterranean, its presence has been observed along Levantine coasts as well as along the Turkish coast of the Aegean Sea.Macrophthalmus graeffei increases to twelve the number of alien brachyurans present in the Hellenic SE Aegean Sea, ten of them having Indo-Pacific origin.

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.35927, Lat: 06.38269 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.70m; Data Date Range: 20100417-20120511.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.11363, Lat: 05.86645 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.50m; Data Date Range: 20100408-20120515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12698, Lat: 05.86414 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.50m; Data Date Range: 20100407-20120514.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.00237, Lat: 05.87611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.70m; Data Date Range: 20100413-20120515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.37740, Lat: 06.38553 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.70m; Data Date Range: 20100415-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -169.52672, Lat: 16.74807 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.70m; Data Date Range: 20100126-20120304.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  8. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62730, Lat: 19.31588 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series...

  9. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12831, Lat: 05.89711 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 21.00m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20110516.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.43914, Lat: 06.41887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.50m; Data Date Range: 20100417-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12811, Lat: 05.89639 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.30m; Data Date Range: 20100408-20110823.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12724, Lat: 05.89642 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100408-20100724.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62847, Lat: 19.28011 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -169.54667, Lat: 16.73276 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.80m; Data Date Range: 20100127-20120305.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.38522, Lat: 06.40219 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20120509.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03178, Lat: 05.86445 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20111101.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03070, Lat: 05.86426 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20120515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  18. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.60979, Lat: 19.32583 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20100308.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.00206, Lat: 05.87637 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.60m; Data Date Range: 20100412-20120327.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  1. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  2. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  3. Responding to a measles outbreak in a Pacific island community in western Sydney: community interviews led to church-based immunization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are large Pacific island communities in western and south-western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2011 and 2012, measles outbreaks disproportionally affected children and youth within these communities. The objectives of this study were to explore barriers to immunization in a Pacific island community from the perspectives of community members and health professionals and to conduct a pilot programme whereby immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. Methods: Interviews were conducted with Pacific island community members (N = 12 and health professionals connected with the Pacific island community (N = 7 in 2013. A partnership with a local Samoan church was established to provide an accessible venue for immunization catch-up clinics. Results: Among the community members there were high levels of belief in the importance of immunization and a positive view regarding the protection offered by immunization. A key barrier reported by community members was being busy and therefore having limited time to get children immunized. The important role of the church within the community was emphasized in the interviews, and as a result, two immunization catch-up clinics were held in a Samoan church in western Sydney. The age range of attendees was 7–33 years. A total of 31 measles, mumps and rubella doses and 19 meningococcal C doses were given during the two clinics. Discussion: The outcomes of the interviews and the subsequent clinics highlighted the potential of churches as a venue for providing public health interventions such as catch-up immunization.

  4. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence andprevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problemamong Asian Americans. Based on the Centers forDisease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DMfor Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at "moderaterisk". However differential patterns of disease burdenemerge when examining disaggregated data acrossAsian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, PacificIslander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistentlydescribed as having the highest prevalence of T2DM.Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vitalfor on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidencecurrently available to guide the prevention of T2DMin the United States comes from a large multicenterrandomized clinical control trial called the DiabetesPrevention Program, which targets individual lifestylebehavior changes. It has been translated and adoptedfor some Asian American groups, and shows promise.However stronger study designs and attention toseveral key methodological considerations will improvethe science. Increased attention has also been directedtoward population level downstream prevention efforts.Building an infrastructure that includes both individualand population approaches is needed to prevent T2DMamong Asian American populations, and is essential forreducing health disparities.

  5. Quarterly Data for Asian and Pacific Islander Languages, Social Security Disability Insurance Initial Claims (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of the Social Security Disability initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two...

  6. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Social Security Disability Insurance Claimants (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Disability insurance benefits for federal...

  7. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits for federal fiscal year...

  8. Quarterly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences, End Stage Renal Disease Medicare Claims (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of the Medicare claims based solely on ESRD at the national level for fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two ways—we base...

  9. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of End Stage Renal Disease Medicare Claimants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits from federal fiscal...

  10. Quarterly Data for Asian and Pacific Islander Languages, Supplemental Security Income (aged) Initial Claims (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two ways—we base one on a...

  11. Libraries, Archives and Museums: What's in Them for Us? PIALA '98. Selected Papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (8th, Tofol, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-20, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from the 1998 annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives (PIALA). After welcoming remarks from Henry Robert and Isabel Rungrad, the following papers are included: "Sharing Our Successes, Discussing Our Future: A Survey of Pacific Collections Activities--Report from the…

  12. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: minorusakama@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  13. Deposits, flow characteristics, and landscape change resulting from the September 2009 South Pacific tsunami in the Samoan islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M; Buckley, Mark; Etienne, Samuel; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Clark, Kate; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-07-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread coastal modification within the islands of Samoa and northern Tonga in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 17 m (Okal et al., 2010) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 620 m (Jaffe et al., 2010). Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted as part of an UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team survey within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Data collected included: a) general morphology and geological characteristics of the coast, b) evidence of tsunami flow (inundation, flow depth and direction, wave height and runup), c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples including deposit thickness and extent, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Four main types of sedimentary deposits were identified: a) gravel fields consisting mostly of isolated cobbles and boulders, b) sand sheets from a few to ~ 25 cm thick, c) piles of organic (mostly vegetation) and man-made material forming debris ramparts, and d) surface mud deposits that settled from suspension from standing water in the tsunami aftermath. Tsunami deposits within the reef system were not widespread, however, surficial changes to the reefs were observed.

  14. Reducing Environmental Impact of Aggregate Excavation in Small Tropic Pacific Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春汀

    2004-01-01

    Excavating sands and gravel on land in combination with constructing reservoirs for storing fresh water is an ideal approach in atolls. Appropriate mining of gravel from the prograding gravel beach is acceptable. Digging reef rock close to the edge of the wide ocean reef flat without surface loose sediments on it or sand beach can be accepted. Excavating sand from some depths in lagoon is a scientific approachparticularly important for urbanized atolls. However, selecting appropriate sites for mining sand other than at some depths in lagoon is suitable to rural islands without dense populations. These sites include up drift side of long groin on the reef fiat,partly filled access channel-port, outlet of artificial channel and lagoon margin on the prograding coast.

  15. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  16. Low serum insulin in traditional Pacific Islanders--the Kitava Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Eliasson, M; Lindahl, B; Ahrén, B

    1999-10-01

    Increased serum insulin is related to abdominal obesity and high blood pressure in affluent societies where insulin, weight, and blood pressure typically increase with age. The increased insulin level has been thought to reflect insulin resistance, a well-known associated factor in the metabolic syndrome. In most nonwesternized populations, body weight and blood pressure do not increase with age and abdominal obesity is absent. However, it is not known whether serum insulin likewise does not increase with age in nonwesternized societies. Fasting levels of serum insulin were measured cross-sectionally in 164 subsistence horticulturalists aged 20 to 86 years in the tropical island of Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea, and in 472 randomly selected Swedish controls aged 25 to 74 years from the Northern Sweden WHO Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases (MONICA) Study. In Kitava, the intake of Western food is negligible and stroke and ischemic heart disease are absent or rare. The body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure are low in Kitavans. The main outcome measures in this study were the means, distributions, and age relations of serum insulin in males and females of the two populations. Serum fasting insulin levels were lower in Kitava than in Sweden for all ages (P < .001). For example, the mean insulin concentration in 50- to 74-year-old Kitavans was only 50% of that in Swedish subjects. Furthermore, serum insulin decreased with age in Kitava, while it increased in Sweden in subjects over 50 years of age. Moreover, the age, BMI, and, in females, waist circumference predicted Kitavan insulin levels at age 50 to 74 years remarkably well when applied to multiple linear regression equations defined to predict the levels in Sweden. The low serum insulin that decreases with age in Kitavans adds to the evidence that a Western lifestyle is a primary cause of insulin resistance. Low serum insulin may partly explain the low

  17. Ecology and reproductive patterns of the agamid lizard Japalura swinhonis on an east Asian island, with comments on the small clutch sizes of island lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-San

    2007-02-01

    I describe the habitat use, diet, and the male and female reproductive cycles of Japalura swinhonis, an oviparous agamid lizard inhabiting Orchid Island, a tropical island off the southeastern coast of Taiwan. Ninety percent of lizards (n=126) were observed on tree trunks or at the forest edge. The diet of J. swinhonis on Orchid Island consisted mostly of hymenopterans (53.33%) and orthopterans (16.67%). The mean snout-vent length (SVL) of adult males was 74.58 (n=89) and that of females was 69.31 (n=37) mm. Females exhibited a long vitellogenic period from November to February, with parturition occurring from March to October. The onset of vitellogenesis did not correlate with the mass of the female fat bodies. Females produced two to five eggs per clutch, and clutch size was not correlated with SVL. Two clutches were recorded during a single year in some individuals. Clutch size in J. swinhonis was compared with that in other Japalura species. Clutch sizes of Japalura species are larger in mainland China than on insular Taiwan. Clutch size is also mainly affected by environmental constraints, and smaller clutch sizes are probably affected by predators on Orchid Island.

  18. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  19. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Margalef

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4–27.8 kyr BP is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles (DO and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA, the Southern Westerlies (SW, and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ. The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard–Oeschger stadials.

  20. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  1. Economic growth, energy conservation and emissions reduction: A comparative analysis based on panel data for 8 Asian-Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Shuwen, E-mail: shuwenn@lzu.edu.c [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environment Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ding Yongxia; Niu Yunzhu; Li Yixin; Luo Guanghua [College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the causality between energy consumption, GDP growth and carbon emissions for eight Asia-Pacific countries from 1971 to 2005 using the panel data. The results indicate that there are long-run equilibrium relationships between these variables. Additionally, causality from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions was observed generally, but there were some opposite relationships also. Parameter estimations of the panel data model indicate that there are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. The base carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption and efficiency of energy use in developing countries are far lower than in developed countries; however, the CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of energy use is higher. Although developing countries may reduce their CO{sub 2} emission per unit energy use, total energy consumption will rise rapidly with economic development. Thus, developing countries must determine how to undergo economic growth while conserving energy and reducing emissions. To respond to global climate change, it is necessary to develop innovative technology for energy use, transform the energy structure and conduct the clean development mechanism. - Research highlights: {yields} There is a complex nexus between GDP-energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, the causalities from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions are observed generally, but there are some opposite relationships also. {yields} There are great differences in the carbon emissions, the efficiencies of energy use, carbon emissions of unit GDP and unit energy consumption between developed and developing countries. {yields} There is a large potential for carbon emission reduction in the developing countries through transforming the energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and controlling the total energy

  2. Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Lowe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the limited genetic diversity and reduced allelic heterogeneity observed in isolated founder populations facilitates discovery of loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease. A strong founder effect, severe isolation, and substantial inbreeding have dramatically reduced genetic diversity in natives from the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, who exhibit a high prevalence of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that genetic drift and possibly natural selection on Kosrae might have increased the frequency of previously rare genetic variants with relatively large effects, making these alleles readily detectable in genome-wide association analysis. However, mapping in large, inbred cohorts introduces analytic challenges, as extensive relatedness between subjects violates the assumptions of independence upon which traditional association test statistics are based. We performed genome-wide association analysis for 15 quantitative traits in 2,906 members of the Kosrae population, using novel approaches to manage the extreme relatedness in the sample. As positive controls, we observe association to known loci for plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein and to a compelling candidate loci for thyroid stimulating hormone and fasting plasma glucose. We show that our study is well powered to detect common alleles explaining >/=5% phenotypic variance. However, no such large effects were observed with genome-wide significance, arguing that even in such a severely inbred population, common alleles typically have modest effects. Finally, we show that a majority of common variants discovered in Caucasians have indistinguishable effect sizes on Kosrae, despite the major differences in population genetics and environment.

  3. Biodiversity and density of subtidal benthos of an oceanic tropical island (a comparison within the Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A.; Troncoso, Jesús S.; Cortés, Jorge; Moreira, Juan; Vargas, José A.; Benavides-Varela, Catalina

    2016-09-01

    The marine macrofauna of the shallow sandy bottom of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica (5°32‧N-87°04‧W) was assessed in April 2010. Comparisons of richness, density and diversity between levels of exposure to ocean influence were carried out. During this study 15,407 specimens with a mean density of 1826 ind m- 2 were found between 3-75 m depth. The specimens were distributed in 267 taxa (29% new additions) with a mean of 55 ± 14 expected taxa m- 2. The values of density, richness and diversity were higher at the exposed coast, whereas they decreased at inner bays due to the influence of freshwater input. These estimates were compared with 40 studies in the Tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO). Taxa and density previously reported from the TPO were dependent on the area and depth range studied. Additionally, these parameters varied according to the sampling gear used. For example, higher densities were reported by using corers or boxcorers. The Shannon-Wiener index was most effective in identifying sediment and geographical patterns of variation along the TPO. Differences in these diversity parameters were also found between islands and mainland studies. Moreover, richness and density values from Isla del Coco were higher than the same parameters reported in studies using grabs in the TPO. At Isla del Coco annelids were dominant in terms of relative abundance (49.6%), followed by crustaceans (10.1%), mollusks (2.8%), and others faunal groups (37.5%). The faunistic composition at Isla del Coco differed when compared to the rest of localities of TPO due to the higher contribution of miscellaneous groups. In conclusion, the comparison with previous studies in the TPO indicate that islands like Isla del Coco have high numbers of taxa and diversity than those of the mainland, but lower density. However, this value is influenced by the sampling methodology. The taxa accumulation curve at Isla del Coco did not reach the asymptote, suggesting that an intensive sampling, especially

  4. Evidence of Arid to Semi-arid Climate Near Western Pacific Warm Pool During Sea-Level Lowstands: Caliche Surfaces in Late Cenozoic Carbonates of Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, S.; Mii, H.; Horng, C.; Huang, F.; Chi, W.; Yui, T.; Torng, P.; Huang, S.; Wang, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, K.

    2003-12-01

    Whether the climate of tropical seas during glacial periods became cold and dry has been an open debate. Models by different authors proposed the tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to be about 2\\deg lower, or 5-6\\deg lower than present. The controversy partly arise from disparate reconstructions of temperature from stable oxygen isotope archives of marine sediments. In this paper, we provide field evidence of semi-arid or arid climate during late Cenozoic sea-level lowstands from an atoll located in central South China Sea near the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Lower rainfall and higher evaporation associated with the dry conditions might have resulted in less meteoric water component in the surface sea-water, and this factor should be taken into considerations in deciphering temperature from isotopic records. Taiping Islet (Itu Aba), located at N10\\deg 23' and E114\\deg 22' is part of the Nansha (Spratly) Islands near the northwestern margin of the Western Pacific Warm Pool. Rock cores of a borehole at Taiping became accessible to the authors in the recent years. We identified at least four subaerial exposure surfaces (SES) in the late Cenozoic carbonates. Caliche deposits are recognized on each of the four surfaces on the basis of alveolar texture, micro-rhizolith, caliche glaebules and corroded limestone nodules in reddish matrix (terra-rossa). Caliche developed on limestones typically forms in semi-arid to arid areas with annual precipitation from about 500 to 1000mm, while the modern annual rainfall of Nansha Island is 1800-2100mm. The occurrence of the Nansha caliche suggests the climate was much drier than present during the sea-level lowstands represented by the four SES. During the sea-level falls, reduced surface area of South China Sea with continental shelves exposed might have resulted in less moistures in the atmosphere and therefore less precipitation and higher evaporation rates. As a result, the

  5. 2000 years of sustainable use of watersheds and coral reefs in Pacific Islands: A review for Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Shirley; Besebes, Meked; Soaladaob, Kiblas; Ngiraingas, Madelsar; Isechal, Adelle Lukes; Victor, Steven; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2014-05-01

    In Palau and everywhere in the world, coastal coral reefs are threatened by sedimentation resulting from land clearing in the watersheds. Palau's largest island of Babeldaob is particularly susceptible to significant erosion due to its steep topography, high rainfall, and highly erodible volcanic soil. Previous studies have shown the damaging impacts of sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. Related studies conducted in Micronesia have also documented that mangroves can trap about 30% of the fine eroded sediment from land. This paper examines the sediment trapping capability of cultivated wetlands, in particular taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields, which are natural wetlands used to grow taro, a main staple crop for the population. A 7-months long field study was undertaken to quantify the sediment accumulation rate for taro fields and to determine their sediment trapping efficiency. The results showed that the taro fields were able to trap on average 90% of sediment, therefore sheltering coastal coral reefs and their fisheries from the negative impacts of terrestrial runoff. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that the combined sediment trapping capacity of taro fields and mangroves helped reduce sedimentation on coral reefs around Babeldaob Island. This enabled human settlement for over 2000 years on a small Pacific Island with the main staple food being taro for starch and reef fish for protein. Even with a population of 30,000 people over Babeldaob Island, the living was sustainable for at least 1000 years, implying that the population was able to survive and prosper with its main food being the starch from taro fields and protein from reef fish. While there was intensive cultivation on land the sustainability of reef fisheries must have required that the reef be sheltered from excessive soil erosion.The structure of the taro field (mesei) initialized by the Palauan ancestors, has been maintained to this day. Their development, probably

  6. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  7. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in blubber of 16 species of cetaceans stranded in the Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Melannie J; Keller, Jennifer M; West, Kristi L; Jensen, Brenda A

    2014-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic man-made chemicals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food webs, making them a ubiquitous threat to the marine environment. Although many studies have determined concentrations of POPs in top predators, no studies have quantified POPs in stranded cetaceans within the last 30 years around the Hawaiian Islands. A suite of POPs was measured in the blubber of 16 cetacean species that stranded in the tropical Pacific, including Hawai'i from 1997 to 2011. The sample set includes odontocetes (n=39) and mysticetes (n=3). Median (range) contaminant concentrations in ng/g lipid for the most representative species category (delphinids excluding killer whales [n=27]) are: 9650 (44.4-99,100) for ∑DDTs, 6240 (40.8-50,200) for ∑PCBs, 1380 (6.73-9520) for ∑chlordanes, 1230 (13.4-5510) for ∑toxaphenes, 269 (1.99-10,100) for ∑PBDEs, 280 (2.14-4190) for mirex, 176 (5.43-857) for HCB, 48.1 (0.063), but sex/age class influences were evident with adult males exhibiting greater contaminant loads than adult females and juveniles for ∑DDT, ∑PCBs, ∑CHLs, and mirex (p≤0.036). POP concentrations were lower in mysticetes than odontocetes for many compound classes (p≤0.003). p,p'-DDE/∑DDTs ratios were greater than 0.6 for all species except humpback whales, suggesting exposure to an old DDT source. These POP levels are high enough to warrant concern and continued monitoring.

  8. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and “low-wet” seasons, and reduced AMD during the “true” wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  9. Comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the Pacific hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Okuyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masato; Abe, Osamu; Arai, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. In this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. Phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and green turtles in the Pacific probably underwent very similar patterns and processes of population dynamics over the last million years, with population subdivision during the early Pleistocene and population expansion after the last glacial maximum. These significant contemporary historical events were suggested to have been caused by climatic and sea-level fluctuations. On the other hand, comparing our results to long-term population dynamics in the Atlantic, population subdivisions during the early Pleistocene were specific to Pacific hawksbill and green turtles. Therefore, regional differences in historical population dynamics are suggested. Despite limited sampling locations, these results are the first step in estimating the historical trends in Pacific sea turtles by using phylogenetics and population genetics.

  10. 2006 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI-06-01 - Pacific Remote Island Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected from 15 Jan - 6 Feb aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Johnston Island, Howland Island, and...

  11. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  12. Long term sea surface temperature trends in US Affiliated Pacific Islands from satellite data, 1982-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monthly average NOAA satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) values from 1982-2003 and their long-term trends are presented for sixteen US affiliated Pacific...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi

    2015-08-05

    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  18. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Island mass effect in the Juan Fernández Archipelago (33°S), Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabel; Sangrà, Pablo; Hormazabal, Samuel; Correa-Ramirez, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the island mass effect (IME; defined as local increases of phytoplankton associated with the presence of islands) at the Juan Fernández Archipelago (JFA) is analyzed using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) satellite data, altimetry, sea surface temperature, wind, geostrophic currents and net heat flux over a ten year period (2002-2012). The the JFA islands (Robinson Crusoe-Santa Clara (RC-SC) and Alejandro Selkirk (AS)) present wakes with significant Chl-a increases, mainly during spring time. These wakes can reach Chl-a values of one order of magnitude higher (~1 mg m-3) than the surrounding oligotrophic waters (<0.1 mg m-3). The wakes are similar to von Kármán vortex streets which have been used to explain the impact of IME on Chl-a increases in numerical models. The wakes are formed from a high productivity area in the lee of the island, extending to the oceanic region as high Chl-a patches associated with submesoscale eddies that are detached from the islands and connected by less-productive zones. This pattern coincides with previous models that predict the effects of island-generated flow perturbations on biological production variability. The IME is a recurrent feature of islands that has even been observed in decadal average fields. In such average fields, the Chl-a values in RC-SC and AS islands can exceed values found in a Control Zone (a zone without islands) by ~50% and 30%, respectively. Seasonal and interannual variability reveals that, as a consequence of the IME, the winter Chl-a maximum associated with the development of winter convection and mesoscale eddies that propagate from the continental zone, promote that the Chl-a maximum extends towards spring. The IME has an impact on the island on both a local as well as a more regional scale that affects an area of ~40,000 km2 (1°Latitude×4°Longitude) centered on the islands. The transport of high productivity patches associated with submesoscale eddies may be responsible

  20. New Beginnings: The Library as an Information and Resource Basket. Selected Papers from PIALA 2008: Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (18th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-21, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2008 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Schedule of Events and a…

  1. Discover the Hidden Jewels in Your Library and Sharing the Wealth through Collaboration. Selected Papers from PIALA 2011, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (21st, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 21st annual conference was held in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2011 Planning…

  2. Manta rays in the Marquesas Islands: first records of Manta birostris in French Polynesia and most easterly location of Manta alfredi in the Pacific Ocean, with notes on their distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, J

    2012-11-01

    Based on direct observations of free-ranging specimens, the giant manta ray Manta birostris is reported from the Marquesas Islands, the first sighting in French Polynesia. Sightings of its sister species, the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, are also reported at the most easterly location in the Pacific Ocean. Preliminary individual identification as well as notes on their distribution are also reported.

  3. Millennial scale precipitation changes over Easter Island (Southern Pacific) during MIS 3: Inter-hemispheric connections during North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Olga; Cacho, Isabel; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 climate has been globally characterized by the occurrence of millennial-scale climate variations defined over North Atlantic as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Despite climate variability has been broadly explored over North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains as a matter of debate. Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, Chile, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to understand Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic changes during these stadial-interstadial transitions because of its exceptional location on the interplay of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) and the Southern Westerlies (SW). Rano Aroi record contains 8 main enhanced precipitation events between 70 and 40 kyr BP that can be correlated with the timing of Heinrich events 5, 5a and 6 as well as other cold stadials. These humid events are also present in other Southern Hemisphere continental sites and correspond to dry periods on Northern Hemisphere records. This opposite hydrologic trend has been explained by the latitudinal migration of ITCZ and has been supported by several climatic models. As Easter Island precipitation is mainly dependent on SPCZ storm track belt activity, we suggest that the southern migration of the ITCZ is associated to an expansion of SPCZ to the east. This process should be intimately related to a weakening of the Walker circulation, which is further supported by an estimation of d18Osw gradient along the equator for the same time period. Consequently, atmospheric and oceanic responses during these cold stadials and Heinrich events might lead to a configuration that resembles the warm ENSO state over Southern Pacific, as previously suggested by some global climatic models. Rano Aroi record clearly points out that shifts in hydrological cycle in tropical Southern

  4. A STUDY ON VARIABILITY OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL PACIFIC, INDIAN OCEAN AND RELATED AIR CIRCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Mao-chang; Qiao Fang-li; Mo Jun

    2003-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was adopted in the present paper to study the of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean and related air circulation.The results show that on the seasonal time scale, E1 Nio events can be divided into two types: the east one and the middle one.For the middle type the SST variations appear contrarily in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, and the anomalous SST decreases in the east but increases in the northwest and south-middle of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the east of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.On annual time scale, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and the deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, both of them trigger an onset of the E1 Nio events.Contrarily, the La Nia events take place.On decadal time scale, there are two basic modes of air-sea system over the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean.Firstly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, the anomalous SST increases in the middle and east of the proical Pacific, extending to the subtropical regions, and so in most of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the northeast of Madagascar Island and nearby.And vice versa.Secondly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger in the north and the Aleutian low decreases fixedly or even disappears, the anomalous SST decreases slightly in middle of the tropical Pacific and the temperate northern Pacific but increases weakly in other regions, the anomalous SST increases in the south but decreases in the north of the tropical Indian Ocean, and the SST increases more obviously in southeast of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.The linear trends of global warming seems to play a certain role for the E1 Nio onsets.

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in the southern Colombian Pacific Basin and a proposal to regenerate a previous barrier island as protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Otero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the tsunami hazard posed to 120 000 inhabitants of Tumaco (Colombia is assessed, and an evaluation and analysis of regenerating the previous El Guano Island for tsunami protection is conducted. El Guano Island was a sandy barrier island in front of the city of Tumaco until its disappearance during the tsunami of 1979; the island is believed to have played a protective role, substantially reducing the scale of the disaster. The analysis is conducted by identifying seismotectonic parameters and focal mechanisms of tsunami generation in the area, determining seven potential generation sources, applying a numerical model for tsunami generation and propagation, and evaluating the effect of tsunamis on Tumaco. The results show that in the current situation, this area is vulnerable to impact and flooding by tsunamis originating nearby. El Guano Island was found to markedly reduce flood levels and the energy flux of tsunami waves in Tumaco during the 1979 tsunami. To reduce the risk of flooding due to tsunamis, the regeneration and morphological modification of El Guano Island would help to protect Tumaco.

  6. Do geological field survey and remote sensing record the same fractures? The case of the corallian Loyalty Islands (SW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thovert, J.; Huaman, D.; Genthon, P.; Adler, P. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Loyalty Islands are a series of corallian islands uplifted on the elastic bulge of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction at the Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) Trench. They are located on the non seismic Loyalty Ridge, which is starting colliding the Vanuatu Trench. The interiors of the islands are covered with dense forests and devoid of outcrops. Lineaments seen on remote sensing data (aerial photos, SPOT 3 and 4, Envisat) are compared with fractures and joints measured on a geological survey near the coasts, where corallian limestones outcrop. Lineaments observed by remote sensing in the inner Islands correspond to one main N110 direction with a large variance of nearly 15° in rms, two minor directions nearly 45° apart (N150 and N60) and no systematic evolution with distance to coasts. The three lineament families are seen near coasts as centimetric to decimetric aperture cracks without evidence of any displacement. However, an extensive geological survey of the fractures near the coast of the islands reveals a clear N135 direction and possibly an EW direction in the Lifou Island, while in the Maré island fractures present a large variance with a single N70 direction. The directions N 135, N110 and N60 are also observed regionally on the seafloor and are presumably present in the basement of the islands. It is shown that lineaments longer than 2000 m are close to the N110 direction and that the mean orientation shifts progressively to reach the N125 direction for L<400 m. Therefore, it is likely that the progressive shift in orientation continues up to the N135 direction observed in the field at the 10-50 m scale. The origin of this apparent difference between field data and remote sensing lineaments is discussed, considering (i) the intense karstification of these islands, where dissolution occurs during infiltration of rainwater, but also due to corrosion mixing at the top and the bottom of the freshwater lens and at its tips near coast. This

  7. A community-based participatory research study of HIV and HPV vulnerabilities and prevention in two Pacific Islander communities: ethical challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Anthony; Peters, Ruth; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Quitugua, Lourdes; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Vunileva, 'Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois

    2013-02-01

    We describe ethical issues that emerged during a one-year CBPR study of HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) vulnerabilities and prevention in two Pacific Islander (PI) communities, and the collaborative solutions to these challenges reached by academic and community partners. In our project case study analysis, we found that ethical tensions were linked mainly to issues of mutual trust and credibility in PI communities; cultural taboos associated with the nexus of religiosity and traditional PI culture; fears of privacy breaches in small, interconnected PI communities; and competing priorities of scientific rigor versus direct community services. Mutual capacity building and linking CBPR practice to PI social protocols are required for effective solutions and progress toward social justice outcomes.

  8. Assessing the system of services for chronic diseases prevention and control in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: introduction and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Chronic diseases are among the most costly and, in part, preventable health problems that share common behavioral risk factors. Data related to the prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, their risk factors, and the description of the capacity of the health and medical care system to address these problems are limited in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). This paper presents the background and methods used in conducting comprehensive assessments of the health care systems in ten sites across the USAPI. The principles used as the basis for conducting these assessments included capacity building and skills training. The methods included identifying the on-site Needs Assessment Team (NAT), developing the conceptual model; archival data collection; key informant interviews; reviewing data and documents to identify the key problems and issues to be prioritized; and reviewing and prioritizing the problems and issues.

  9. Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Australia and the Pacific Islands attacking Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)--a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Naumann, I D; De Barro, P J

    2001-10-01

    After the recent introduction of the pest whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B into Australia, research was undertaken to study the parasitoids of the long established native B. tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The genus Encarsia contains species which are important biological control agents of whiteflies and hard scales. The taxonomy of the Encarsia species attacking B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in Australia and the Pacific Islands is revised. DNA sequencing of the 28S D2 ribosomal DNA was used to characterize species. Sixteen species are recognized, with 12 occurring in Australia, eight in the Pacific region, and four in both regions. All except one species (E. formosa Gahan) are new records for Australia. Four species are described as new from Australia: E. accenta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. adusta Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., E. oakeyensis Schmidt & Naumann sp. n., and E. ustulata Schmidt & Naumann sp. n. Diagnostic descriptions are given for all species and each species is illustrated. A pictorial key is provided to allow the identification of species by non-specialists.

  10. Using cytochrome P4501A1 expression in liver and blubber to understand effects of persistent organic pollutant exposure in stranded Pacific Island cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Melannie J; Foltz, Kerry M; Lynch, Jennifer M; West, Kristi L; Jensen, Brenda A

    2015-09-01

    Elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been reported in tropical Pacific Island cetaceans and their environment. In addition, recent health concerns in cetacean populations have warranted investigation into potential physiological effects from POP exposure for this region. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is a candidate for examining such effects. This well-studied biomarker of exposure and effect was examined in stranded cetacean liver using immunoblot (n = 39, 16 species) and blubber using immunohistochemistry (n = 23, 10 species). Paired tissue samples allowed for CYP1A1 comparisons not only between species but also within each individual animal to examine differences between tissue types. Liver CYP1A1 expression correlated positively and significantly with blubber concentrations of all POP categories (n = 39, p 0.100). Among Stenella species, liver CYP1A1 tissue expression was correlated negatively with the sum of all blubber layer endothelial cell CYP1A1 expression (n = 14, p = 0.049). Overall, elevated expression of liver CYP1A1 confirms its use as a biomarker of POP exposure to cetaceans stranded in the tropical Pacific basin.

  11. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  12. The association between church attendance and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours among New Zealand adolescents from different Pacific Island ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewes O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is disproportionately prevalent among Pacific population groups in New Zealand. Lifestyle behaviours of excessive consumption of high energy, unhealthy foods and inadequate physical activity are risk factors for obesity that can be modified. AIM: To identify and describe the risk factors for and protective factors against obesity among Pacific Island (PI adolescents who attend church and compare them with PI adolescents who do not attend church. METHODS: We investigated the lifestyle behaviours of 2495 PI adolescents at six secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ, 77% of whom attend a church or other place of worship. The cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2005. Structured individual interviews and anthropometric measurements were undertaken. RESULTS: Church attendees had a higher mean body mass index (BMI compared with non-attendees (BMI 27.4 vs BMI 26.6, adjusted for age, gender and PI ethnicity (p=0.01. The weight status of attendees was associated with less healthy breakfast and lunch sources, lower levels of physical activity, and limited knowledge of the risk factors for obesity (p<0.05 DISCUSSION: Culturally appropriate and ethnic-specific weight management interventions, including monitoring and policy development programmes, are needed urgently to change pro-obesity lifestyle behaviours in PI adolescents and to avoid the burgeoning future obesity-related illnesses that would otherwise result. The church may be an important venue and change agent in the prevention of obesity for this population.

  13. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  14. Scale interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and associated remote effects during the Baiu/Meiyu season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawamura, Ryuichi

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and the associated remote impact on East Asian and North Pacific anomalous weather during the Baiu/Meiyu season have been investigated using the Japanese long-term Reanalysis project data aided by the Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System. The typhoons that appeared in July have been categorized into two primary tracks, the Hainan Island course (HC) and the Okinawa Island course (OC). A typhoon gives rise to negative absolute vorticity advection along its eastern periphery, which locally reinforces the western ridge of the North Pacific subtropical high, whereas the resultant anomalous high stimulates the westward (northward) migration of the HC (OC) typhoon through its combination with the background flow. A combined effect of the typhoon and its induced anomalous anticyclonic circulation increases the transportation of moisture into the Baiu/Meiyu frontal zone in the vicinity of Japan. Over the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, northward or northeastward moisture flux is pronounced along the western periphery of the typhoon-induced anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the HC category, triggering heavy rainfall on central Japan's Sea of Japan coast. Similar remote effects also operate in the OC category, which is responsible for the occurrence of extremely heavy rainfall along the Pacific coast of western Japan. When an OC typhoon approaches the Asian jet, it is capable of giving rise to anticyclonic vorticity within the jet, leading to the downstream development of stationary Rossby wave packets via the North Pacific waveguide.

  15. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and..., Makai Undersea Test Range. (a) The restricted area. The waters within an area beginning at a point in..., the operating officials of the Makai Test Range will mark in a conspicuous manner the location of...

  16. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  17. What do we know of consumers’ preferences and food choices in the islands of the South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Kate M.

    1999-01-01

    Governments in developing countries have tended to focus on the production end of their food systems. However, there is increasing recognition of the need to understand the nature of post-harvest marketing and consumers' behaviour in order to develop effective policies for food marketing initiatives and nutrition security. This paper presents an examination of the available research into consumer preferences in the South Pacific region and the contexts in which the research was conducted. Of ...

  18. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  19. 浅析“亚太再平衡”战略下美国与南太岛国关系的新发展%Brief Analysis on the New Development of the Relation between the U.S.and the South Pacific Islands under the Background of“Asia Pacific Rebalancing Strategy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀琚; 叶圣萱

    2016-01-01

    历史上,美国与南太平洋岛国(以下简称“南太岛国”)有着长期而复杂的关系。自新世纪奥巴马政府实施“亚太再平衡”战略以来,美国重新提升了南太地区在其全球地缘政治安全战略中的地位,将其确立为“亚太再平衡”战略的第二道战线。美国增进了与该地区岛国的政治、安全关系,同时在经济援助、文化交流、气候变化、环境保护等方面,也加大了与南太岛国的合作。本文阐述了“亚太再平衡”战略背景下美国对南太岛国的重新定位,并探析了美国与南太岛国关系的新发展,进而提出中国的应对策略。%Historically,there was a long and complex relationship between the United States and the South Pacific islands.Since the Obama administration implemented “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”in the new century,the United States has newly promoted the status of the South Pacific region in its global geopo-litical and security strategy,and regarded this region as its second frontline of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”.The US enhances political and security relations with the islands in this region,and in the as-pects of economic assistance,cultural exchanges,climate change,and environmental protection.The Unit-ed States pushes forward cooperation with the South Pacific islands.This paper illustrates American reloca-tion towards the South Pacific islands under the background of “Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy”,discus-ses the new development of the relation between the United States and the South Pacific islands,and then puts forward China’s replying strategies.

  20. Source, route and effect of Asian sand dust on environment and the oceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Zhang; Fahe Chai; Renjian Zhang; Zhigang Xue

    2010-01-01

    We summarize in this overview achievements in current research frontiers in Asian sand dust with emphasis on the method for sand dust research,the sources of sand dust aerosols,emission of sand dust,mechanism of sand dust weather,chemical transformation during transport,and influences on climatic environment and oceans.Our main results show that most of Asian sand dust comes from Mongolia,the Gobi Desert,arid and semiarid desert areas in northwest China,which is divided into initial sources and enhanced sources.Half of the global production of dust originates from Asian dust source regions.Asian dust weather is so immense that it can cover a 5-7-day journey from the sources to the Korean Peninsula,Japan Islands,and the Pacific Ocean to even impact North America.Asian dust weather plays an active role in the biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere.