WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian pacific islanders

  1. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  2. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  3. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  4. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  5. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  6. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  7. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  8. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  9. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  10. Atypical antipsychotic usage among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junji; Goebert, Deborah; Else, Iwalani; Carlton, Barry; Matsu, Courtenay; Guerrero, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown significant ethnic differences in prescribing patterns of two or more antipsychotics. This study examined changes in atypical and typical antipsychotic prescriptions among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Five hundred consecutive charts were reviewed for antipsychotics at the time of admission and discharge from each of two inpatient psychiatric facilities in Hawai'i. Multiple antipsychotic prescription rates were 9% at intake and 6% at discharge. For the ethnic groups studied, there were no statistically significant differences by patient ethnicity regarding antipsychotics at intake (χ(2) = 29.2, df = 21, P = .110) or discharge (χ(2) = 20.5, df = 24, P = .667). There were no significant differences in prescription and polypharmacy patterns among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders ethnic groups in this study.

  11. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  12. Census Snapshot: California's Asian/Pacific Islander LGB Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Gates, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders (API) in same-sex couples as well as the broader API lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in California. We use data from the 2005/2006 American Community Survey (ACS), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, to compare the characteristics of APIs in same-sex couples to their different-sex married counterparts. In all cases, when this report describes characteristics of couples, the data source is the ACS. Whi...

  13. The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Nakajima, G A; Kanouse, D E

    1998-10-01

    To describe the sexual behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes of Asian and Pacific Islander California high school students and to compare them to other racial/ethnic groups. Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 ninth to 12th graders in a Los Angeles County school district; 186 of the respondents described themselves as Asian and Pacific Islander. The survey was conducted in April 1992. A higher percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents (73%) compared with African-American (28%, p masturbation of or by a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse. Few students in any group reported homosexual genital sexual activities. Asians and Pacific Islanders who had had vaginal intercourse were more likely than most other groups to have used a condom at first vaginal intercourse, but Asians and Pacific Islanders had not used condoms more consistently over the prior year. Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely to expect parental disapproval if they had vaginal intercourse and less likely to think that their peers had had vaginal intercourse. Asian and Pacific Islander high school students in one California school district appear to be at lower sexual risk than other racial/ethnic groups. However, a large minority are engaging in activities that can transmit disease and lead to unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, current efforts to develop culturally sensitive clinical and community-based approaches to sexual risk prevention should include Asians and Pacific Islanders.

  14. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  15. The Racialized Experiences of Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: An Examination of Campus Racial Climate at the University of California, Los Angeles. iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Chan, Jason; Teranishi, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE) launched iCount: A Data Quality Movement for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education, a collaborative effort with the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI) and with generous support from the…

  16. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Proclamation 8810--Law Day, U.S.A., 2012 Proclamation 8811--Loyalty Day, 2012 Proclamation 8812--National Day... AAPI communities by improving access to Federal programs where Asian American and Pacific Islanders are... Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe this month with appropriate programs and activities. IN...

  17. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  18. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  19. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and... Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009 Proc. 8369 Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009By the... cultural traditions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders continues to strengthen the fabric of American...

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    in the Asian American and Pacific Islander community waiting to sworn into the President's Advisory Command's first dedicated campaign geared towards the Asian-American community, 'A Warriors' Education,' is Northwestern University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology in 2005. After college, Lt. Sham attended

  1. The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

    1999-01-01

    Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

  2. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  3. A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Reduction for Asian and Pacific Islander American Women With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  5. 76 FR 11227 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... improve the economic and community development of AAPI businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public... White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  6. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.

    2005-01-01

    Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…

  7. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...

  8. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  9. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  10. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... opportunities, and weaving their rich heritage into our cultural tapestry. During Asian American and Pacific... 100th anniversary of the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay, a milestone that reminds..., unsanitary barracks. Many who were not turned back by racially prejudiced immigration laws endured hardship...

  11. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  12. Gender Differences in the Use of Drug Resistance Strategies: An Analysis of Rural Asian/Pacific Islander Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Pel, Suzanne; Helm, Susana; Valdez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the use of drug resistance strategies for rural Asian/Pacific Islander youth. Multi-ethnic Asian/Pacific Islander youth (N = 213) from 6 middle/intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai’i participated in the study, and gender differences in their real-world use of specific strategies (e.g., refuse, explain, avoid, leave) were examined. Despite similar levels of exposure to situations where drugs and/or alcohol were offered, girls indicated significa...

  13. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  14. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  16. Ethnic and Gender Subgroup Differences in Education, Employment, and Incarceration in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The stratification of opportunities and disparate outcomes for Black and Latino boys and men has been well documented. However, there remains a lack of awareness about the extent to which these issues are relevant for the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. This brief focuses on key status and leading indicators for the mobility…

  17. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  19. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  20. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  1. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  2. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  3. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  5. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Gender Comparisons Among Asian American and Pacific Islander Patients in Drug Dependency Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Lin, Veronique; Wu, Fei; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-05-11

    Few studies have focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), despite indications of increasing substance abuse among AAPIs in recent years. This prospective longitudinal study examined gender differences among AAPIs in treatment. The study included 567 (177 women, 390 men) AAPI patients drawn from two prior studies, one with 32 community treatment programs in 13 California counties (CalTOP, 3, 9 months), and another project including 36 treatment sites in 5 California counties (TSI, 3, 12 months). Baseline and follow-up assessments utilized the Addiction Severity Index(ASI). A subset of patients was assessed at 3 and 9/12 months (n = 106). Significant gender-related differences were observed at baseline: fewer women than men were employed or never married. More women were living with someone having alcohol and drug problems. Methamphetamine was the primary drug for women and men, followed by alcohol and heroin. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women reported greater problem severity in family/social relationships (0.18 vs. 0.11, p drug, and legal domains for both genders, and in mental health for men only. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women demonstrated significantly greater improvements in drug problems (ΔASI = 0.07, p drug use problems for AAPI men.

  7. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumatalolo was named head coach of the U.S. Naval Academy's football team, making him the first Samoan Heritage Month History U.S. Army Military District of Washington Bases Hold Educational, Cultural Events Veterans History Project: Stories of Asian Pacific Americans Department of Veterans Affairs- Center for

  8. Increasing Awareness of Gynecologic Cancer Risks and Symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-Associated Pacific Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinson, Daniel; Puckett, Mary; Townsend, Julie; Reichhardt, Martina; Tareg, Aileen; Palemar, Jennifer; Wichilib, Ritchie; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-08-27

    Background: Gynecologic cancers are common among Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (A/NH/PI) women. Prevention is important in United States associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPIJ) because there are limited resources to treat cancer. The objective of this study was to educate A/NH/PI women and providers about evidence-based interventions to prevent and control gynecologic cancers in Yap, one of four major islands comprising the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This was done through a partnership between Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer national campaign and the Yap comprehensive cancer control program, both funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods: Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer. Results: Twenty-nine providers and 326 adult women participated in sessions. All participants demonstrated significant increases in knowledge across all measured domains post-session. Public knowledge that HPV causes cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer increased from 4.9% pre-session to 51.4% post-session (pgynecologic cancer knowledge pre-session compared to 91.7% post-session. Conclusion: Targeted education about gynecologic cancer symptoms and risk factors can be effective at increasing awareness, behavioral intention, confidence and knowledge. These increases can lead to more widespread prevention of these five cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Americans and Pacific Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as... order to attend the meeting (e.g., interpreting services, assistive listening devices, or material in...

  10. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... generations of striving immigrants who shaped our history--reaching and sweating and scraping to give their... Islanders have prevailed over adversity and risen to the top of their fields--from medicine to business to..., including Asia and the Pacific. Meeting those challenges will not be easy. But the history of the AAPI...

  11. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  12. Low health literacy and poor health status in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Baker, Kay Kromer; Onaka, Alvin; Braun, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AA/PI). We used a population-based sample in Hawai'i to consider if low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes in Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiians, and other AA/PI groups compared with Whites. In data weighted and adjusted for population undercounts and complex survey design, low health literacy varied significantly by group, from 23.9% among Filipinos, 20.6% in Other AA/PI, 16.0% in Japanese, 15.9% in Native Hawaiians, and 13.2% in Whites (χ(2) (4) = 52.22; p culture, and health outcomes.

  13. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.

  14. Exploring the hypothesis of ethnic practice as social capital: violence among Asian/Pacific Islander youth in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Irwin, Katherine; Umemoto, Karen N; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Choi-Misailidis, Soojean

    2009-11-01

    Studies of youth violence have usually examined social capital using qualitative methods, but remain limited by small sample sizes. In addition, few studies examine violence among Asian/Pacific Islander (API) youth, even though they are one of the fastest-growing youth populations in the USA. To contribute to a better understanding of culture and ethnicity in youth violence among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by quantifying ethnic forms of social capital. We use an n = 326 sample of three API groups from Oahu, Hawaii. Defining social capital as ethnic practice, we test Filipino, Hawaiian and Samoan forms of youth social capital on intimate and non-intimate violence. Bivariate findings associate lower violence with language ability among Filipinos, coming-of-age practices among Hawaiians, and community leader engagement among Samoans. Multivariate tests showed language to be the strongest correlation. Bivariate tests also suggested potentially risky forms of social capital. results lead us to hypothesize that social capital that deliberately places individuals within their respective ethnic communities are risk-reducing, as are those that promote formal ethnic community structures. Those that formalize ethnic practice and social capital into commercial activities may be associated with higher risk of violence. Given the relatively small sample size and the exploratory approach for the present investigation, further research is needed to determine whether the findings can be replicated and to extend the findings of the present preliminary study.

  15. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  16. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  17. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  18. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  1. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  2. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  3. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  4. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  5. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  6. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... life, thriving as athletes and public servants, entrepreneurs and artists. Whether as small business... Federal Government to promote increased access to and participation in Federal programs for Asian...

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  8. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  9. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  10. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (PAsian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  11. Dreams deferred: Contextualizing the health and psychosocial needs of undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ling, Irving; To, Tu My; Melo, Jason; Quach, Thu

    2017-07-01

    There are currently 1.5 million undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the US. Undocumented API young adults, in particular, come of age in a challenging political and social climate, but little is known about their health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the psychosocial needs and health status of API undocumented young adults. Guided by social capital theory, this qualitative study describes the social context of API undocumented young adults (ages 18-31), including community and government perceptions, and how social relationships influence health. This study was conducted in Northern California and included four focus group discussions (FGDs) and 24 in-depth interviews (IDIs), with 32 unique participants total. FGDs used purposeful sampling by gender (two male and two female discussions) and education status (in school and out-of-school). Findings suggest low bonding and bridging social capital. Results indicate that community distrust is high, even within the API community, due to high levels of exploitation, discrimination, and threats of deportation. Participants described how documentation status is a barrier in accessing health services, particularly mental health and sexual and reproductive health services. This study identifies trusted community groups and discusses recommendations for future research, programs, and policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Validating Stages of Change for Obesogenic Behaviors Across Filipino and Other Asian-American and Pacific Islander Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A; Tagorda, M; Kim, S; Rathke, M; Nigg, C R

    2018-06-01

    Filipino adolescents are underrepresented in obesity research, although Filipinos are the second largest Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulation in the USA. An understanding of how well the theories of behavior change apply to Filipino and other AAPI adolescents is critical to addressing obesogenic behaviors in these groups. This study aimed to validate the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake (FV) among a majority Filipino adolescent population. Adolescents in grades 9-11 (N = 159, 82.4% female) completed measures of PA and FV behaviors and PA and FV stages of change. One-way ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were computed to assess the validity of the PA and FV stages of change with the respective behaviors. There was a significant effect for fruit (action > contemplation, preparation) and vegetable (maintenance, action > contemplation) intakes across the FV stages of change. There was a significant effect of strenuous PA (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation Filipino and other AAPI adolescents. This validation, in turn, extends the generalizability of the stages of change construct to include this ethnic group and replicates other adolescent studies.

  13. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  14. Out and Asian: How Undocu/DACAmented Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Youth Navigate Dual Liminality in the Immigrant Rights Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Thi Dao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI represent the fastest-growing racial category in the U.S., largely due to its increasing immigration from the Asia-Pacific region (AAJC 2015. Of the 10.9 million undocumented immigrants residing in the U.S., 14% (1.5 million are from Asia (Migration Policy Institute 2014. In response to immigrant youth organizing, President Barack Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation to approximately 2 million undocumented childhood arrivals (Ibid. Yet, the unique perspectives of AAPI youth have gone unheard, and their political activities have been rendered invisible in public discourse on undocu/DACAmented youth in the immigrant rights movement. This study aims to capture political identity formation through what I coin “dual liminality” that leads to political participation for undocu/DACAmented AAPI youth. It considers how their status as undocumented or DACA, as being marginalized from both mainstream and co-ethnic claims to belonging, helped them form a collective political identity and engage in political activities. The use of strategic storytelling (Polletta 2006 throughout the process of their political development also led to their return to organize co-ethnic communities against internalized stereotypes of both “Model Minority” and “Yellow Peril”. This study involves 12 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with politically active AAPI, ages 20–26, from four major cities on the East Coast, conducted between 2014 and 2015. The interviews demonstrate how these youths’ choices to reveal their status shape their collective identity formation that leads to their political engagement. Through strategic storytelling, they use their dual liminality to shape their narrative framing in both the immigrant rights and in AAPI communities, enhancing their political participation across inter-racial boundaries.

  15. 77 FR 22771 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community... Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  16. 75 FR 54858 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Islanders. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The notice sets forth the schedule and agenda of the... attend. Date: September 20, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EDT. Date: September 21, 2010. Time: 9 a.m.-5:30... meeting because of issues related to scheduling the meeting. Agenda The purpose of the meeting is review...

  17. Conceptual parameters of acculturation within the Asian and Pacific Islander American populations: applications for nursing practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (A&PIAs) are experiencing health inequities. For example, A&PIA is the only racial/ethnic group in America to experience cancer as their leading cause of death. Several studies within the A&PIA population have pointed to acculturation as a significant variable to explain their health and health-seeking behaviors. Acculturation is a key construct in understanding the health of the A&PIA population. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide a current conceptual understanding of the relationship between acculturation and health, especially within the A&PIA populations, which will serve as a pragmatic guideline for nursing practice and research. Understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the conceptual application of acculturation will aid in the development of appropriate programs to reduce health inequities. Acculturation was explored using the Morse method of concept analysis. An iterative historical and contemporary literature review across the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, and nursing was completed. Analytical questions asked of the resultant data provided the theoretical definition, antecedents, key attributes, outcomes, and implications. The concept analysis resulted in a new theoretical definition that includes multidimensional concepts of acculturation. Dilemmas in the measurement of key attributes of acculturation include unidirectional and bidirectional analysis, psychometric issues, and the appropriateness of proxy measurements. Outcomes of acculturation on health can be positive or negative and depend on an individual's or group's ability to navigate freely with necessary supports. Results of the conceptual analysis resulted in recommendations for nursing practice and future acculturation research. While debate continues about the appropriate use and definition of acculturation, researchers agree that it is an important construct in understanding the health of migrating

  18. Key Factors in Obstetric Delivery Decision-Making among Asian and Pacific Islander Women by English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-10-01

    Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.

  19. Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Judy Y; Xu, Lucy J; Lopez, Fanny Y; Jia, Justin L; Pho, Mai T; Kim, Karen E; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered.

  20. Psychosocial and Clinical Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Li, Dongmei; Davis, James; Arakaki, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. The objective was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life, general health perceptions, depressive symptoms, and glycemia in Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to diabetes education and support for six weekly sessions. Participants were recruited from two endocrinology practices; 207 were enrolled. The cognitive behavioral therapy group was provided self-management tools which included biofeedback, breathing exercises, and stress relievers, while the diabetes education and support group included diabetes education and group discussions. Assessments of psychosocial and clinical outcomes were obtained before and after sessions and 12 months PostSession. Differences between the two groups were examined using linear mixed-effects models with linear contrasts. The cognitive behavioral therapy group had improved depressive symptom scores from PreSession to EndSession compared to the diabetes education and support group (P < .03), but the improvement did not extend to 12 months PostSession. Similar results were observed with misguided support scores in the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (P < .03) and susceptibility in health beliefs (P < .01), but no significant differences in HbA1c improvement were found between the two groups. Both interventions improved outcomes from baseline but were not sustained for 1 year.

  1. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  2. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  3. Perceived discrimination and its associations with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.

  4. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  5. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  6. US acculturation is associated with health behaviors and obesity, but not their change, with a hotel-based intervention among Asian-Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Chen, Chuhe; Williams, Andrew E; Albright, Cheryl L; Nigg, Claudio R; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Stevens, Victor J

    2012-05-01

    Immigration to the United States has been associated with obesity, yet the relationship of acculturation to obesity and energy balance (ie, physical activity/dietary intake) in adults is a complex issue. Limited longitudinal data are available on immigrant Asians and Pacific Islanders. Analyses were conducted on baseline data and change data from baseline to 24 months in the hotel-based cluster-randomized Work, Weight and Wellness trial involving 15 control and 15 intervention hotels on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Participants were adult employees of predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander ancestry who were assessed one or more times over the course of 24 months. The full sample consisted of 4,236 hotel workers (about 40% of hotel workforce) at baseline, 3,502 hotel workers at Year 1 and 2,963 hotel workers at the 24-month follow up. One thousand one hundred fifteen hotel workers had at least two measurements, and were included in the analysis. The Work, Weight, and Wellness trial was designed to promote weight loss via motivation and support for increases in physical activity and increased access to and consumption of healthy low-fat/low-energy foods. The measure of acculturation consisted of a score that was a compilation of a participant's age when he or she immigrated to the United States, country of birth, language spoken at home, and years of education. We used mixed effect regression models for cross-sectional baseline models and longitudinal multilevel regression analysis of change in diet and physical activity behaviors and obesity over time using a random intercept. Estimates of the intervention effect are expressed as an annual rate of change for all study outcomes. At baseline acculturation was positively associated with body mass index; physical activity level; and fruit, meat, and sweetened drink intake level. In analyses of change across 24 months, acculturation did not significantly influence change in dietary intake or indexes of obesity (ie, body

  7. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  8. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  9. STRIVE, San Diego! Methodology of a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Enhance Healthy Dining at Asian and Pacific Islander Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, Sarah; Sadile, Mary Grace; Phung, Chantine Nguyen; Cabiles, Moana; Spackman, Sandy; Abuan, Myleen; Seligman, Fe; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2018-03-01

    Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) populations have elevated prevalence of dietary-related chronic conditions; however, culturally relevant dietary interventions are lacking. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity, San Diego! aims to increase access to healthy food in AANHPI restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors. AANHPI restaurants in San Diego County, CA. Twenty restaurants and 600 diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1,800 diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including (1) analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; (2) providing nutrition labels on selected food items; (3) marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and (4) offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments. Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Program evaluation consists of assessment of the nutritional environment in 20 participating restaurants and surveys of customers' opinions and behaviors at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention. Fifteen restaurants have been recruited to date. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E

    2013-05-01

    We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men's Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM.

  11. Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Clinico pathologic Features and Survival Outcomes in Asian Pacific Islanders Residing in the United States: A SEER Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M. S.; Shameem, R.; Gafoor, K.; George, J.; Mina, B.; Sullivan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to ascertain racial/ethnic disparities in Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinico pathologic features and survival outcomes based on various tumor characteristics and treatment modalities. Method. SEER database identified invasive NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2010. Variables included American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 7, tumor grade, tumor size, histology, age, marital status, radiation, surgery, and reason for no surgery. The Kruskall-Wallis test and the Z test were used to examine differences between races/ethnicities and the referent, non-Hispanic white (NHW). Multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to establish the weight of the prognostic significance contributing to disease-specific survival (DSS) in each AJCC stage. Result. Improved DSS was seen in API across stage I (HR: 0.78), stage II (HR: 0.79), and stage IV (HR: 0.86), respectively, compared to the referent NHW (P<0.01). being female gender, AIS histology, and birth outside the US (P<0.01). Conclusion. We have demonstrated improved survival among API in early stage and stage IV NSCLC. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of lifestyle and tumor biology for these differences.

  12. The Influence of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander Young Adults: Through a Social Determinants of Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; To, Tu My; Ling, Irving; Melo, Jason; Chavarin, Josue

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based policies to address the health of the 11.7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) offers temporary relief to qualified undocumented immigrants. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs), in particular, are the fastest growing immigrant population; yet, little is known about their health challenges. This article examines the influence of DACA on the health of API undocumented young adults. In total, 32 unique participants participated in 24 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions. Participants were aged 18-31 years and identified as undocumented API. DACA potentially improves health outcomes through four potential social determinants: economic stability, educational opportunities, social and community contexts, and access to health care. These determinants improve the mental health and sense of well-being among undocumented young adults. Targeted outreach and education in communities should be informed by these research findings with an eye toward promoting the economic, education, and health benefits of enrolling in DACA. Social policies that address the social determinants of health have significant potential to address health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  14. Prospective Effects of Parenting on Substance Use and Problems Across Asian/Pacific Islander and European American Youth: Tests of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.

  15. Physician visits and preventive care among Asian American and Pacific Islander long-term survivors of colorectal cancer, USA, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Townsend, Julie S; Tai, Eric; Thomas, Cheryll C

    2014-03-01

    Published literature on receipt of preventive healthcare services among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) cancer survivors is scarce. We describe patterns in receipt of preventive services among API long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry-Medicare data were used to identify 9,737 API and white patients who were diagnosed with CRC during 1996-2000 and who survived 5 or more years beyond their diagnoses. We examined receipt of vaccines, mammography (females), bone densitometry (females), and cholesterol screening among the survivors and how the physician specialties they visited for follow-up care correlated to services received. APIs were less likely than whites to receive mammography (52.0 vs. 69.3 %, respectively; P Women who visited both PCPs and oncologists compared with PCPs only were more likely to receive mammography (odds ratio = 1.40; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05-1.86). Visits to both PCPs and oncologists were associated with increased use of mammography. Although API survivors visited these specialties more frequently than white survivors, API women may need culturally appropriate outreach to increase their use of this test. Long-term cancer survivors need to be aware of recommended preventive healthcare services, as well as who will manage their primary care and cancer surveillance follow-up.

  16. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Stress and Coping with Racism and Their Role on Sexual Risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, is well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (n = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 393), and Latino (n = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008–2009. Almost two-thirds (65%) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51% of the sample reported having UAI in the prior six months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI. PMID:25060122

  18. Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: a study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri

    2011-10-01

    Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy.

  19. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  20. 78 FR 24401 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders; Notice of an Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... improve the economic and community development of AAPI businesses; and (iv) strategies to increase public... Islanders; and determine key strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515..., assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at (202) 453-7277...

  1. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  2. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  3. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  4. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Length of Stay and Deaths in Diabetes-Related Preventable Hospitalizations Among Asian American, Pacific Islander, and White Older Adults on Medicare, Hawai'i, December 2006-December 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mary W; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Juarez, Deborah T; Miyamura, Jill; Sentell, Tetine L

    2015-08-06

    The objective of this study was to compare in-hospital deaths and length of stays for diabetes-related preventable hospitalizations (D-RPHs) in Hawai'i for Asian American, Pacific Islander, and white Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older. We considered all hospitalizations of older (>65 years) Japanese, Chinese, Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and whites living in Hawai'i with Medicare as the primary insurer from December 2006 through December 2010 (n = 127,079). We used International Classification of Diseases - 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify D-RPHs as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Length of stays and deaths during hospitalization were compared for Asian American and Pacific Islander versus whites in multivariable regression models, adjusting for age, sex, location of residence (Oahu, y/n), and comorbidity. Among the group studied, 1,700 hospitalizations of 1,424 patients were D-RPHs. Native Hawaiians were significantly more likely to die during a D-RPH (odds ratio [OR], 3.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-10.87) than whites. Filipinos had a significantly shorter length of stay (relative risk [RR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.95) for D-RPH than whites. Among Native Hawaiians with a D-RPH, 59% were in the youngest age group (65-75 y) whereas only 6.3% were in the oldest (≥85 y). By contrast, 23.2% of Japanese were in the youngest age group, and 32.2% were in the oldest. This statewide study found significant differences in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of D-RPHs for Asian American and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i. Native Hawaiians were more likely to die during a D-RPH and were hospitalized at a younger age for a D-RPH than other studied racial/ethnic groups. Focused interventions targeting Native Hawaiians are needed to avoid these outcomes.

  6. Long-term (2001-2012) trends of carbonaceous aerosols from a remote island in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mozammel Haque, M.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports on long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected at Chichijima in the western North Pacific during 2001-2012. Seasonal variations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations showed maxima in winter to spring and minima in summer. These seasonal differences in the concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were associated with the outflows of polluted air masses from East Asia, which are clearly distinguishable from pristine air masses from the central Pacific. The higher concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols during winter to spring are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of East Asian continental polluted air masses, whereas lower concentrations may be due to pristine air masses from the central Pacific in summer. The annual trends of OC / EC (+0.46 % yr-1), WSOC (+0.18 % yr-1) and WSOC / OC (+0.08 % yr-1) showed significant (p Asia.

  7. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  8. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  9. The Asian-Pacific world in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzing the modern situation in the Asian-Pacific Region, with account for strategic concerns on the part of China, Japan, USSR and USA the author considers prospects for meaningful disarmament or arms-control (including nuclear weapons) negotiations in the region

  10. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  11. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  12. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  13. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  14. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  15. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  16. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  17. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  18. Education for, by, and of Asian/Pacific Americans, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokawa, Donald T.; Morishima, James K.

    1980-01-01

    This report discusses several perspectives on Asian/Pacific Americans and the educational issues that relate to them. It begins by providing a definition of "Asian/Pacific American," an historical account of their immigration, and a discussion of minority status and cultural relativism. A number of studies and personal experiences that…

  19. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  20. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean:Present situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016) of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  1. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  2. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  3. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  6. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  7. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  8. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  9. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  10. Asian Pacific Basin: Ushering in the age of global technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The one-way transfer of nuclear technology from the United States to the Asian countries now no longer applies. Technology transfer in the Asian Pacific Basin is now flowing both ways. This reversing of the flow of technology is discussed and the marketing of new technologies in the USA is considered. (U.K.)

  11. Do HMO market level factors lead to racial/ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer screening? A comparison between high-risk Asian and Pacific Islander Americans and high-risk whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez A; Huh, Soonim; Bastani, Roshan

    2005-11-01

    Few studies have explored health care market structure and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test use, and little is known whether market factors contribute to racial/ethnic screening disparities. We investigated whether HMO market level factors, controlling for individual covariates, differentially impact Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subjects' access to CRC screening compared with white subjects. We used random intercept hierarchical models to predict CRC test use. Individual-level survey data was linked to market data by metropolitan statistical areas from InterStudy. Insured first-degree relatives, ages 40-80, of a random sample of colorectal cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry: 515 white subjects and 396 AAPI subjects residing in 36 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Dependent variables were receipt of (1) annual fecal occult blood test only; (2) sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years; (3) colonoscopy in the past 10 years; and (4) any of these tests over the recommended time interval. Market characteristics were HMO penetration, HMO competition, and proportion of staff/group/network HMOs. Market characteristics were as important as individual-level characteristics for AAPI but not for white subjects. Among AAPI subjects, a 10% increase in the percent of group/staff/network model HMO was associated with a reduction in colonoscopy use (28.9% to 20.5%) and in receipt of any of the CRC tests (53.2% to 45.4%). The prevailing organizational structure of a health care market confers a penalty on access to CRC test use among high-risk AAPI subjects but not among high-risk white subjects. Identifying the differential effect of market structure on race/ethnicity can potentially reduce the cancer burden among disadvantaged racial groups.

  12. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in prehistoric Pacific islanders determined by analysis of ancient bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, E; Clegg, J B

    1993-05-22

    A previously characterized Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length mutation has been detected in DNA isolated from prehistoric human bones from Polynesia, including Hawaii, Chatham Islands and Society Islands. In contrast, the Asian mutation was absent in skeletal samples from the Melanesian archipelagos of New Britain and Vanuatu and in the oldest samples from Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in the central Pacific (2700-1600 years BP) although it was present in a more recent prehistoric sample from Tonga. These results, augmented by informative DNA sequence data from the hypervariable region of mtDNA, fail to support current views that the central Pacific was settled directly by voyagers from island Southeast Asia, the putative ancestors of modern Polynesians. An earlier occupation by peoples from the neighbouring Melanesian archipelagos seems more likely.

  14. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  15. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  16. Nuclear activities and the Pacific islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, J. Van; Smith, K.R.; Siwatibau, S.

    1984-01-01

    Although to outsiders the Pacific islands may seem far removed from the center of activities and controversies related to nuclear energy, this area has had more direct and negative experiences with nuclear issues than any other area in the world. These experiences have led to a deep-rooted skepticism of all nuclear activities in which distinctions between civilian and military activities, weapons and power, and low-and high-level waste bear little relation to the important Pacific concerns. Antinuclear sentiments are intimately linked to anticolonialism, growing regionalism and emerging cultural pride. Opposition and concern have been expressed in a number of international, regional, national and nongovernmental forums. In this climate, arguments about the relative safety of various waste disposal operations and other nuclear activities are not likely to be meaningful. (author)

  17. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data Cultural Competency Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff ... Health Initiatives Reentry Resources Trauma Resources Zika Resources Center for Linguistic and Cultural Competency in Health Care National CLAS Standards Think ...

  18. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data and Issue Briefs BRFSS Health Survey NHPI NHIS Data Hep B & C Phase 2 Study Justice ... Diagnosed Cases of Diabetes: National Health Interview Survey, NHIS Age-adjusted percentages of persons 18 years of ...

  19. Asian Pacific Americans in Cambridge. Community Profiles in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Boston. Inst. for Asian American Studies.

    The Community Profiles Project uses data from the 1990 U.S. Census to describe some of the population characteristics of Asian Pacific Americans in selected Massachusetts cities and towns. The profiles include basic statistics relating to income, employment, education, and housing. This information can assist policy makers and practitioners in…

  20. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  1. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  2. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  3. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  4. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  5. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  6. Characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L; Young, Lisa M; Hopkins, Raewyn; Cornere, Megan

    2017-02-01

    Ethnicity is strongly associated with variable clinical presentation in sarcoidosis but the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics has not previously been described in patients of Polynesian ancestry, Maori and Pacific Islander (PI). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and PI patients and determine if those were different to European patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 406 patients (69 Maori/PI) attending a specialist interstitial lung disease (ILD) clinic. The population (207 females, mean age at presentation: 36) reflected the current New Zealand census data (2013) with only people of Indian ethnicity over-represented. Parenchymal lung involvement was uncommon in Maori and PI patients (21% Scadding stage 2, 2% stage 3), and no patient had extensive pulmonary fibrosis (stage 4). Computed tomography (CT) patterns of sarcoid parenchymal lung involvement were less commonly reported for Maori/PI. There were no differences in respect of baseline lung function or requirement for treatment. Ocular and skin involvement occurred more frequently in Maori and PI (P = 0.0045, P = 0.03), and erythema nodosum was more common in Caucasians (P = 0.0008). People of Polynesian ancestry appear to have less pulmonary and more extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis. This adds to our knowledge that sarcoidosis heterogeneity is influenced by ethnicity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Issues of College Persistence between Asian and Asian Pacific American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Theresa Ling

    2004-01-01

    This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…

  8. Making to Taste: Culinary Experimentalism in Asian Pacific American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Stephanie H.

    2014-01-01

    This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...

  9. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  10. Cancer Epidemiology in the Pacific Islands - Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen JD; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but i...

  11. Recent progress in Pacific-Asian Marginal Seas (PAMS) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Takeshi; Hirose, Naoki; Zhang, Jing; Cho, Yang-Ki; Chen, Dake; Yuan, Dongliang; Hung, Chin-Chang; Jan, Sen

    2017-07-01

    Marginal seas which represent the buffer zones between land and the pelagic ocean are being increasingly influenced by human activity. The role of the marginal seas is important for many reasons, among which are biological resources and climate change. In East Asia, we have marginal seas between the Asian Continent and the Pacific Ocean, where various countries and areas form complicated territories and EEZ. To understand the marine environment of marginal seas, international cooperative scientific activities are necessary, and it is essential to share the latest information and knowledge.

  12. RCA activities in the Asian and Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1984-01-01

    So-called ''RCA'' activities - practical work undertaken within the framework of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asian and Pacific region - are widely regarded as an example of successful co-operative effort in the application of nuclear techniques at a regional level. Activities undertaken to promote the transfer of nuclear technology within the framework of the RCA cover a large spectrum of nuclear applications in agriculture and food production, medicine, study of the environment, industry, and physics. Fourteen projects are operational this year (1984)

  13. Cardiac surgery in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip John; Wainer, Zoe; O'Keefe, Michael; Nand, Parma

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease constitutes a significant disease burden in under-resourced communities. Recognition of the devastating impact of rheumatic heart disease has resulted in volunteer cardiac teams from Australasia providing surgical services to regions of need. The primary objective of this study was to compare New Zealand hospitals' volunteer cardiac surgical operative results in Samoa and Fiji with the accepted surgical mortality and morbidity rates for Australasia. A retrospective review from seven volunteer cardiac surgical trips to Samoa and Fiji from 2003 to 2009 was conducted. Patient data were retrospectively and prospectively collected. Preoperative morbidity and mortality risk were calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE). Audit data were collated in line with the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. One hundred and three operations were performed over 6 years. EuroSCORE predicted an operative mortality of 3.32%. In-hospital mortality was 0.97% and post-discharge mortality was 2.91%, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 3.88%. This study demonstrated that performing cardiac surgery in Fiji and Samoa is viable and safe. However, the mortality was slightly higher than predicted by euroSCORE. Difficulties exist in predicting mortality rates in patients with rheumatic heart disease from Pacific Island nations as known risk scoring models fail to be disease, ethnically or culturally inclusive. Audit processes and risk model development and assessment are an essential part of this complex surgical charity work and will result in improved patient selection and outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  15. Asian-Pacific markets : a new strategy for Alberta oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureshen, C.J.; Du Plessis, D.; Xu, C.M.; Chung, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's oil sands contain an estimated crude bitumen-in-place of nearly 2.5 trillion barrels. Production has increased to the point where it has overtaken non-conventional sources, and is expected to reach more than 2 million barrels per day by 2012, and over 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Although it is assumed that most of this production will be marketed in the United States, the industry is facing many constraints that could affect potential crude oil production and existing market share. The Asian-Pacific region is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in that region and the potential for reaching the California market with the same pipeline. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply of crude from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The feasibility of marketing Alberta heavy oil and bitumen to Asia was also discussed. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. Precipitation Frequency for Wake Island, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  11. Mesozoic possibilities seen on Tonga islands in Southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helu, S.P.; Khanna, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Kingdom of Tonga in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprises 171 islands of which only 37 are inhabited. There are four main groups of islands: Tongatapu, H'apai, Vava'u, and the Niuas. The total land area is 700 sq km, and the territorial waters extend to 700,000 sq km. The kingdom is bordered by New Zealand, Fiji, Walhis and Fortuna, the Samoas, and Niue

  12. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  13. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  14. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  15. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  16. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands.

  17. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  19. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  20. [Trauma surgery in Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, H; Martin, C

    2017-10-01

    The small developing countries in the Pacific are grouped together as Small Island Development States (SIDS) because they face similar problems which they cannot cope with nationally. They are developing countries, so-called low and lower middle income countries (LMIC), are economically weak and the islands of the different nations are widely scattered. Approximately 80% of the 10 million inhabitants live in rural regions. Over 40% of patients in the surgical departments of hospitals are hospitalized for injuries, and this tendency is increasing. Fractures of the upper extremities are relatively more frequent in the Pacific than in the countries of the North. Long distances, lack of possibilities for treatment and lack of transport often cause complications, such as infected open fractures, pseudarthrosis and posttraumatic malformations. There are too few hospitals with sufficiently competent surgeons, anesthetists and obstetricians (SAO) and appropriate equipment. The PIOA was founded in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and offers surgeons of the Pacific SIDS a comprehensive, structured trauma and orthopedic surgery training in their own countries. It lasts 4 years and leads to an M‑Med (orthopaedic surgery) diploma and to a Fellowship of the International College of Surgeons (FICS), which are both recognized by the participating hospitals. It is free for participants. The AOAF is an independent organization with the only aim to enhance trauma surgery capacity in LMICs. The AOAF supports the PIOA program together with the Wyss Medical Foundation. Currently, 18 trainees from 8 Pacific SIDS are participating in the PIOA training program.

  1. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  2. Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chan, Lo Yin; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Harris, Joyce M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2002-11-01

    The sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong and Japanese ozonesonde observations with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. Particular focus is placed on the extensive observations available from Hong Kong in 1996. In the middle-upper troposphere (MT-UT), maximum Asian pollution influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution. In the lower troposphere (LT) the season of maximum Asian pollution influence shifts to summer at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability observed over Hong Kong in winter reflects frequent tropical intrusions alternating with stratospheric intrusions. Asian biomass burning makes a major contribution to ozone at pollution influence (pollution influence exceeds European influence in the UT-MT, reflecting the uplift from convection and the warm conveyor belts over the eastern seaboard of North America. African outflow makes a major contribution to ozone in the low-latitude MT-UT over the Pacific Rim during November-April. Lightning influence over the Pacific Rim is minimum in summer due to westward UT transport at low latitudes associated with the Tibetan anticyclone. The Asian outflow flux of ozone to the Pacific is maximum in spring and fall and includes a major contribution from Asian anthropogenic sources year-round.

  3. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  4. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone. AGENCY: U.S... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts weapon systems testing and other military... Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal...

  5. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  6. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  7. Depth Contours for select locations across the U.S. Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are depth contours (isobaths) derived at 50 meters for most islands and reefs in the Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  8. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  9. Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dominic Crewe

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.

  10. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously.

  11. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  12. Caught in the Middle: Understanding Asian Pacific American Perspectives on Affirmative Action through Blumer's Group Position Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…

  13. Background issues of oil supply trading in Pacific island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1980s has been a decade of considerable change within the petroleum industry resulting in new supply arrangements and continued uncertainty within the island countries about reasonable supply and pricing terms. Formulating an effective response is all the more challenging for small countries which have only recently become independent, which have miniscule public sector organizations responsible for energy policy and which occupy a region where petroleum dominates commercial energy use to a greater extent, well over 90 per cent, than any other part of the world. During the past five years the Energy Resources Section of ESCAP, and staff members of the Energy Program within the East West Center in Honolulu have frequently worked closely with the Pacific Energy Development Programme (PEDP) to advise Pacific island Governments on a wide range of petroleum policy and administration issues, including shipping, overall supply arrangements, contracts for refined products, price control and monitoring, regional co-operation, and storage options. They have also organized a number of formal and informal training activities within the petroleum sector and worked closely with a World Bank team which investigated regional bulk oil purchase in 1986. This report is of interest to readers concerned with options facing small countries, from both national and regional perspectives, for dealing with petroleum policy. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Brewer, Tom D; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E; Lewis, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  16. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The proposed rule is intended to...). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577...

  17. Exploratory Study of Asian Pacific American Female Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Hazel Roca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the model minority myth prevents "Asian Pacific American" ("APA") women from achieving the president or chancellor position in higher education institutions. This study explored the experiences of APA female leaders who are presidents and chancellors to discover…

  18. Reasons for Attending, Expected Obstacles, and Degree Aspirations of Asian Pacific American Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…

  19. Reconstruction of Northeast Asian Deformation Integrated with Western Pacific Plate Subduction since 200 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Gurnis, M.; Ma, P.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The configuration and kinematics of continental deformation and its marginal plate tectonics on the Earth's surface are intrinsic manifestations of plate-mantle coupling. The complex interactions of plate boundary forces result in plate motions that are dominated by slab pull and ridge push forces and the effects of mantle drag; these interactions also result in continental deformation with a complex basin-mountain architecture and evolution. The kinematics and evolution of the western Pacific subduction and northeast Asian continental-margin deformation are a first-order tectonic process whose nature and chronology remains controversial. This paper implements a "deep-time" reconstruction of the western Pacific subduction, continental accretion or collision and basin-mountain deformation in northeast Asia since 200 Ma based on a newly revised global plate model. The results demonstrate a NW-SE-oriented shortening from 200-137 Ma, a NWW-SEE-oriented extension from 136-101 Ma, a nearly N-S-oriented extension and uplift with a short-term NWW-SEE-oriented compressional inversion in northeast China from 100-67 Ma, and a NW-SE- and nearly N-S-oriented extension from 66 Ma to the present day. The western Pacific oceanic plate subducted forward under East Asia along Mudanjiang-Honshu Island during the Jurassic, and the trenches retreated to the Sikhote-Alin, North Shimanto, and South Shimanto zones from ca. 137-128 Ma, ca. 130-90 Ma, and in ca. 60 Ma, respectively. Our time-dependent analysis of plate motion and continental deformation coupling suggests that the multi-plate convergent motion and ocean-continent convergent orogeny were induced by advance subduction during the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous. Our analysis also indicates that the intra-continent rifting and back-arc extension were triggered by trench retreat during the Cretaceous and that the subduction of oceanic ridge and arc were triggered by trench retreat during the Cenozoic. Therefore, reconstructing

  20. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  1. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  2. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14?15?years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland...

  3. Yearly Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Representation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Federal employees self-identify their race and ethnicity by completing OPM'S Standard Form 181, "Ethnicity and Race Identification". We input the information into...

  4. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  5. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  6. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  7. Energy expenditure and metabolism in Maori, Pacific Island and New Zealand European men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for many diseases that contribute to premature death and illness. Particularly for Maori and Pacific Island people in New Zealand, death rates from diabetes, stroke and coronary heart disease are much higher than those of other New Zealanders. We hypothesise that the greater prevalence of obesity in Pacific Island and Maori groups compared to NZ European is related to metabolic differences. We have already shown significant differences in body composition and metabolism in young NZ European and Polynesian women. The goal of the proposed study is to determine whether such differences are also present among young NZ European, Pacific Island and Maori males. (author)

  8. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  9. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  10. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  11. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Pohnpei, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  15. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  16. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  17. Precipitation Frequency for Kosrae, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  18. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  19. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  2. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. Lessons from Principal-Agent Theory for Public Expenditure Management in Pacific Island Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses how the principal-agent theory of economics may provide a suitable analytical framework and interesting lessons for the targeting of public expenditure management reforms in Pacific island economies Peer reviewed

  5. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  6. Environmental challenges for Asian-Pacific energy systems in the 1991s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, Adam; Ramani, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main issues addressed and conclusions arrived at by the Regional Conference on Environmental Challenges for Asian and Pacific Energy Systems in the 1990s', jointly organized by the Asian and Pacific Development Centre and the World Wide Fund for Nature during 14-18 January 1991 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The first part of the paper focuses on the regional and global context of the conference. This is followed by a review of the key issues that are considered relevant to the shaping of a new energy policy for the region to ensure environmental sustainability. The concluding part provides some cautionary notes and suggestions for the immediate future. (author)

  7. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  8. Uranium deposits of the Asian sector of Pacific ocean ore belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskij, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Brief description of three basic types of uranium ore deposits in the Asian sector of the Pacific Ocean ore belt, namely uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the continental volcanic depressions, proper uranium-molybdenum vein deposits in the mesozoic granites and gold-brannerite deposits of the rejuvenated early-proterosoic fractures is given. Schemes of various deposits are presented, petrological and isotope data (K-Ar method) are considered and petro- and oregenesis are analyzed. refs., 9 figs

  9. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.

  10. Biology and impacts of Pacific Islands invasive species. 14. Sus scrofa the feral pig (Artiodactyla: Suidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Nathaniel H.; Hess, Steven C.; Litton, Creighton M.

    2018-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa L.) are perhaps the most abundant, widespread, and economically significant large introduced vertebrate across the Pacific island region. Unlike many other nonnative invasive species, feral pigs have both cultural and recreational importance in the region, complicating their management. Today, Pacific island feral pigs are a mixture of several strains of domestic swine, Asiatic wild boar, and European wild boar. Due to their generalist diet and rooting behavior, feral pigs alter soils and watersheds and negatively impact native and nonnative flora and fauna. As a result, feral pigs have played a role in the extinction of several species of plants and animals on Pacific islands and have negative effects on both ecotourism and agricultural industries in the region. Despite numerous published studies on feral pigs in the Pacific island region, of which the majority include systematic analyses of original empirical data, some fundamental aspects of feral pig ecology remain poorly characterized, at least partly due to the remote and inaccessible environments that they often inhabit. To address these knowledge gaps, effort should be made to integrate research conducted outside the Pacific island region into local management strategies. This review summarizes the origins, history, ecology, environmental effects, and current management of feral pigs in the Pacific island region; integrates regional scientific findings with those of other insular and continental systems; and identifies current knowledge gaps requiring further research to inform the ecology and management of this impactful invasive species.

  11. Present and future connection of Asian-Pacific Oscillation to large-scale atmospheric circulations and East Asian rainfall: results of CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Botao; Xu, Ying; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    The summer Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO), one of the major modes of climate variability over the Asian-Pacific sector, has a pronounced effect on variations of large-scale atmospheric circulations and climate. This study evaluated the capability of 30 state-of-the-art climate models among the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating its association with the atmospheric circulations over the Asian-Pacific region and the precipitation over East Asia. Furthermore, their future connections under the RCP8.5 scenario were examined. The evaluation results show that 5 out of 30 climate models can well capture the observed APO-related features in a comprehensive way, including the strengthened South Asian high (SAH), deepened North Pacific trough (NPT) and northward East Asian jet (EAJ) in the upper troposphere; an intensification of the Asian low and the North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) as well as a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) in the lower troposphere; and a decrease in East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) under the positive APO phase. Based on the five CMIP5 models' simulations, the dynamic linkages of the APO to the SAH, NPT, AL, and NPSH are projected to maintain during the second half of the twenty-first century. However, its connection with the EASR tends to reduce significantly. Such a reduction might result from the weakening of the linkage of the APO to the meridional displacement of the EAJ and WPSH as a response to the warming scenario.

  12. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY... with, or any U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region), to complete...

  13. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National... using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the... allowed in the regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef...

  14. Using Indicators as a Catalyst for Inclusive Education in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris; Marella, Manjula; Jitoko, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are committed to promoting disability-inclusive education through enactment of the Pacific Education Development Framework. To support this move, key stakeholders have identified the need for developing local and contextually appropriate indicators for measuring progress of disability-inclusive education. This paper…

  15. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  16. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  17. Overview of a public health approach to pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Annette; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Swanepoel, De Wet; Goulios, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Childhood hearing impairment is a significant cause of disability in developing countries. Otitis media and meningitis are leading infectious causes of preventable hearing loss in children. It is estimated that the Pacific Islands have among the greatest global burden of childhood hearing impairment due to infectious causes, and yet there is currently very little in the research literature on pediatric hearing disorders in this region. (1) To review existing research literature on pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands, and (2) to present a public health approach to the development and improvement of childhood hearing services in the Pacific Islands. The primary tool was a comprehensive literature review. MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant journal articles. There was no limit on the date of publication. Any article reporting on hearing impairment in the Pacific Region was included. A total of 23 journal articles were found that satisfied the above inclusion criteria. The limited information available in the literature suggests that otitis media and vaccine-preventable infections are a significant cause of avoidable childhood hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands. Pediatric audiology services are limited in this region. Further research is required to develop effective public health programs that should reduce the burden of preventable childhood hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. There is limited information in the research literature on pediatric hearing impairment and audiology services in the Pacific Islands. Epidemiological data based on the WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol are urgently needed, and the development of audiology services within the existing public and primary health care framework should reduce the burden of preventable hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach

  19. Chemical Evolution of Ozone and Its Precursors in Asian Pacific Rim Outflow During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, A.; Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Pippin, M.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.; Blake, D.; Tan, D.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Singh, H.; Eisele, F.; Zondlo, M.; Flocke, F.; Talbot, R.

    2002-12-01

    During NASA's GTE/TRACE-P (Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) mission, a widespread stagnant pollution layer was observed between 2 and 4 km over the central Pacific. In this region, high levels of O3 (70~ppbv), CO (210~ppbv), and NOx (130~pptv) were observed. Back trajectories suggest this airmass had been rapidly transported from the Asian coast near the Yellow Sea to the central Pacific where it underwent subsidence. The chemical evolution of ozone and its precursors for this airmass is examined using lagrangian photochemical box model calculations. Simulations are conducted along trajectories which intersect the flight path where predicted mixing ratios are compared to measurements. An analysis of the photochemical processes controlling the cycling of nitrogen oxides and ozone production and destruction during transport will be presented.

  20. Lagrangian Photochemical Box-Model Calculations of Asian Pacific Rim Outflow During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, A.; Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.; Blake, D.; Tan, D.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Singh, H.; Eisele, F.; Zondlo, M.; Flocke, F.; Talbot, R.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's TRACE-P (TRAnsport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) mission was conducted over the northwestern Pacific February-April, 2001. During two transit flights across the Pacific, extensive pollution was observed from an Asian outflow event that split into two branches over the central Pacific, one subsiding and moving southward over the central Pacific and the other continuing eastward in the upper troposphere. The subsiding branch was observed as a widespread stagnant pollution layer between 2 and 4 km over the central Pacific during transit flights from Kona, HI to Guam. In this region, high levels of O3 (70 ppbv), CO (217 ppbv), and NOx (114 pptv) were well in excess of typical values observed during TRACE-P along the Asian coast. Evidence suggests that the subsiding branch experienced extensive photochemical processing compared to the branch that remained at altitude. To examine the processes controlling the chemical evolution of ozone and its precursors in this outflow event, data collected during the TRACE-P mission have been combined with lagrangian photochemical box model calculations. One of the largest sources of uncertainty in these calculations was associated with predicted water vapor levels along the transport trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Water vapor levels predicted by HYSPLIT trajectory calculations in the subsiding layer ranged from 3390 to 4880 ppm, while the median level observed in the pollution layer was only 637 ppm. Simulations of ozone production and associated radical chemistry differed dramatically when using water vapor levels based on trajectory calculations versus observed water vapor levels. Levels of PAN and HO2NO2, NOx reservoir species, are also influenced by uncertainties in temperature along the trajectories. These results highlight the importance of accurately representing the humidification and warming of subsiding air masses in 3-D chemical- transport models.

  1. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  2. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  3. How do the optical properties of Asian aerosols change when they cross the Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jaffe, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Primary and secondary aerosols from Asia may have important climate implications. These aerosols are emitted locally, but can then be lofted into the free troposphere and advected across the Pacific. In this analysis we used observations from the Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) in conjunction with satellite data to identify the dominant aerosol types in specific Asian plumes that crossed the Pacific. In situ data from MBO is used to understand the observed changes in radiative properties. A suite of gas phase and aerosol measurements were made during spring 2008 and spring 2009 at MBO (2763 masl), located in central Oregon. Here we focus on observations of dry sub-μm aerosol scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap), made with an integrating nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). Using a combination of backward trajectory calculations and satellite observations, we identified 7 well defined plumes of Asian origin. These plumes included the highest σsp (34.8 Mm-1 hourly average) and σap (4.8 Mm-1 hourly average) observed at MBO over the 2008 and 2009 spring campaigns. Of interest in this analysis is 1) whether the intensive optical properties differ between these 7 Asian events, 2) whether these differences can be linked to differences in composition, and 3) whether the intensive optical properties differ from those observed closer to the Asian source region. Preliminary results show that the plumes clustered in terms of their optical properties; plumes hypothesized to contain a large fraction of mineral dust were the most distinct. We also observed larger variability in the average scattering Ångstrom exponent of the plumes and a higher average single scatter albedo than observations closer to the Asian coast. This work will be extended to compare observations at MBO with the most recent observations from Asia as they become available.

  4. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyi, Lwin [Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region`s vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  5. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  6. Predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP CFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jianyin [CMA Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Song; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Climate Dynamics, Fairfax, VA (United States); Zhang, Zuqiang [CMA National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    The predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS) are depicted by applying a maximized signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis. The CFS captures the two most dominant modes of observed climate patterns. The first most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the onset years of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with strong precipitation signals over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, Southeast Asia, and tropical Asian monsoon regions including the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The second most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the decay years of ENSO, with weakening signals over the western-central Pacific and strengthening signals over the Indian Ocean. The CFS is capable of predicting the most dominant modes several months in advance. It is also highly skillful in capturing the air-sea interaction processes associated with the precipitation features, as demonstrated in sea surface temperature and wind patterns. (orig.)

  7. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  8. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowasch, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in the vast mineral resources in the Pacific Island region, visible in increasing investment. Nevertheless, Australia remains the principal economic and key security partner for most of the Island states. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements. Besides a painful colonial history, unequal distribution of mining benefits and social disparities are reasons for independence movements that are another issue in Pacific Island politics.

  10. Asian-Pacific leadership: Implications for foreign economic policy of Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, the Western Pacific hemisphere ranging from Japan and the PR China to Australia and New Zealand has remained the growth pole of the world economy. Real per capita incomes of East and Southeast Asian developing economies grew even faster in this decade than in the 1970s [World Bank, 1990: Table 1.3] despite major disturbances in their global environment such as the world-wide recession in the early 1980s, increasing protectionism in the EC and the US, large exchange rate fluctuat...

  11. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison in the Asian and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Minami, K.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the Regional Co-operative Agreement project for strengthening the radiation protection infrastructure in the Asian and Pacific region. One component of the initial programme was a regional personal dosimetry intercomparison, which was subsequently conducted in three phases over three years during the period 1990 to 1992. Seventeen organisations of all 14 member states participated in the programmes. Irradiations and data compilation were conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the results of the intercomparison programmes and discusses some features and personal dosimetry problems in the RCA member states. (author)

  12. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  13. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  14. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  15. Observation of Asian dust properties by using multi-wavelength LIDAR system at anmyeon island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Chul; Ko, Do Kyeoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Joon; Noh, Young Min

    2004-01-01

    The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio

  16. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-10-16

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use.

  17. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  18. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  19. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: Revised Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    2014-01-01

    The MIRAB model of Pacific island micro-economies was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations and economies until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model i...

  20. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  1. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  2. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  3. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  4. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  5. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  6. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  7. The Potential for Soviet Penetration of the Pacific Islands: An Assessment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    economies also implies diseconornies of 0 scale in both the public and private sectors. Investments in econmic and social infrastructures such as...source) was less to be feared by the Pacific Islands under current circunstances than econmic dcmination (again, whatever the source). Econacnic

  8. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  9. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY... and gear, as specified in 50 CFR 665 and 50 CFR 300. Vessels registered for use with a permit issued... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel operator...

  10. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  11. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  12. Long-range transport of Asian pollution to the northeast Pacific: Seasonal variations and transport pathways of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Heckman, Anna; Snow, Julie A.

    2004-12-01

    Continuous CO measurements were obtained at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO, 48.3°N, 124.6°W, 480 m), a coastal site in Washington state, between 9 March 2001 and 31 May 2002. We analyze these observations as well as CO observations at ground sites throughout the North Pacific using the GEOS-CHEM global tropospheric chemistry model to examine the seasonal variations of Asian long-range transport. The model reproduces the observed CO levels, their seasonal cycle and day-to-day variability, with a 5-20 ppbv negative bias in winter/spring and 5-10 ppbv positive bias during summer. Asian influence on CO levels in the North Pacific troposphere maximizes during spring and minimizes during summer, ranging from 91 ppbv (44% of total CO) to 52 ppbv (39%) along the Asian Pacific Rim and from 44 ppbv (30%) to 24 ppbv (23%) at CPO. Maximum export of Asian pollution to the western Pacific occurs at 20°-50°N during spring throughout the tropospheric column, shifting to 30°-60°N during summer, mostly in the upper troposphere. The model captures five particularly strong transpacific transport events reaching CPO (four in spring, one in winter) resulting in 20-40 ppbv increases in observed CO levels. Episodic long-range transport of pollutants from Asia to the NE Pacific occurs throughout the year every 10, 15, and 30 days in the upper, middle, and lower troposphere, respectively. Lifting ahead of cold fronts followed by transport in midlatitude westerlies accounts for 78% of long-range transport events reaching the NE Pacific middle and upper troposphere. During summer, convective injection into the upper troposphere competes with frontal mechanisms in this export. Most events reaching the NE Pacific lower troposphere below 2 km altitude result from boundary layer outflow behind cold fronts (for spring) or ahead of cold fronts (for other seasons) followed by low-level transpacific transport.

  13. Development on the periphery: monitoring science, technology and innovation for sustainable development among Pacific Island Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaradasa, R.; Turpin, T

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of science, technology and innovation indicators in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries. Data are drawn from interviews with senior officials in Fiji, regional policy documents, and data held at the University of the South Pacific. The limited data available is mostly held in separate national agencies with little national or regional collaboration. The paper argues that the paucity of S&T data available for policy making or analysis is symptomatic of the nature of development in the region and the inappropriateness of indicators designed primarily for industrialised economies. It concludes with an observation that the drive toward sustainable development is steering a regional move toward development of an S,T&I indicator hub located across one or more Pacific Island countries. (Author)

  14. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... Islands and Ontong Java, have been and will be affected, and what adaptation strategies they may employ. An attempt is made to cover a wide range of aspects of this problem field, spanning from climate change itself and its impacts on livelihood activities to decision-making processes and sets of actions......, while current voluntary migration may be claimed to have positive effects on island communities. In order for migration to constitute a viable ‘adaptation option’ in a future situation of increased rate of sea-level rise, certain barriers to migration need to be overcome, however. Theses barriers...

  15. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  16. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  17. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  18. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)

  19. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  20. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  1. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  2. Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific plasma theory conference APPTC'97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Takaya [eds.

    1998-08-01

    This issue is the proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference (APPTC'97), which was held on September 24-26, 1997 at National Institute for Fusion Science (Toki, Japan) under the auspices of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research and the National Institute of Fusion Science. A part of APPTC'97 was a joint session with Japan-Australia fusion theory workshop and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas. The conference covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasmas, and dusty plasma, etc. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific plasma theory conference APPTC'97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Takaya [eds.

    1998-08-01

    This issue is the proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference (APPTC'97), which was held on September 24-26, 1997 at National Institute for Fusion Science (Toki, Japan) under the auspices of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research and the National Institute of Fusion Science. A part of APPTC'97 was a joint session with Japan-Australia fusion theory workshop and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas. The conference covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasmas, and dusty plasma, etc. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  5. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    OpenAIRE

    Kowasch, Matthias; Lindenmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in t...

  6. Barriers, Springboards and Benchmarks: China Conceptualizes the Pacific Island Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    similarly prescient predictions by 1921 before dying on Japanese Palau in 1923. Friedman 2015. For theatre geometry and island chains descriptions, see...Zhongguo de ‘ni huo’ he ‘xiong’” ([ Russian ] “Backfire” and “Bear” [Strategic Bombers] to fly to China). Jianzai wuqi March, 12–16. Ding, Zhaolun. 2011

  7. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. Flint; Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  8. Day of two suns. US nuclear testing and the Pacific Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblin, Jane.

    1988-01-01

    The book focuses on two Pacific communities affected by nuclear testing, the people of Rongelap atoll irradiated by fallout, and the people of Kwajalein atoll forced to leave their islands so it could be used as a target area for missiles launched from the western USA. Both atolls are part of the Marshall Islands which are on the eastern side of the groups of islands known as Micronesia. The USA conducted 66 nuclear tests in the period 1946-1958, one on Bikini Island, codenamed Bravo, causing the contamination of Rongelap. Following the halting of atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1958 the area became a missile testing target area. The reasons why the Marshall Islands were used, the effects of the fallout and destruction of the islanders way of life when they were moved from their homes is described. It draws widely on experience of the Marshall Islanders themselves. One of the appendices lists the tests and displacement in the Marshall Islands in chronological order. (U.K.)

  9. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  10. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  11. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  12. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  13. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  14. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  15. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  16. Tomographic imaging of subducted lithosphere below northwest Pacific island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hilst, R.; Engdahl, R.; Spakman, W.; Nolet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The seismic tomography problem does not have a unique solution, and published tomographic images have been equivocal with regard to the deep structure of subducting slabs. An improved tomographic method, using a more realistic background Earth model and surf ace-reflected as well as direct seismic phases, shows that slabs beneath the Japan and Izu Bonin island arcs are deflected at the boundary between upper and lower mantle, whereas those beneath the northern Kuril and Mariana arcs sink into the lower mantle.

  17. Holocene emergence in the Cook Islands, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Stoddart, D. R.; Spencer, T.; Scoffin, T. P.; Tudhope, A. W.

    1990-03-01

    There is evidence of Holocene emergence on several of the Cook Islands. On Suwarrow Atoll there are extensive outcrops of emergent, but truncated, reef on the northern atoll rim, radiocarbon-dated 4680 4310 years B. P., overlain by younger cemented boulder conglomerates. On the northeast of the atoll there are fossil algal ridges indicating up to 1 m of emergence; the landwardmost has been dated 4220 years B. P., the intermediate one 3420 years B. P. and the present one 1250 years B. P. On Mitiaro, a makatea island in the Southern Cooks, there are emergent reefal deposits in the centre of the reef flat dated 5140 3620 years B. P. Similar thought poorly preserved deposits occur on Mauke, and an erosional bench and notch occurs on Atiu. Emergence on all islands appears synchronous with that reported on Mangaia, where a relative fall of sea level of at least 1.7 m in the last 3400 years has been reported. The evidence for emergence is broadly similar to that described from French Polynesia, though timing of emergence appears to differ.

  18. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew J; Ambrose, Luke; Cooper, Robert D; Chow, Weng K; Davis, Joseph B; Muzari, Mutizwa O; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Burkot, Thomas R; Bangs, Michael J; Reimer, Lisa J; Butafa, Charles; Lobo, Neil F; Syafruddin, Din; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Ahmad, Rohani; Beebe, Nigel W

    2017-04-01

    Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian

  19. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 in the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Maynard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range.We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source.There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the

  20. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.

  1. Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

    2014-02-01

    The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

  2. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  3. Comparing metabolic control and complications in type 2 diabetes in two Pacific Islands at baseline and following diabetes care intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Thu Win Tin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates improved metabolic control but little change in diabetes complications 15 months after intervention. Efforts to improve and evaluate the ongoing quality and accessibility of diabetes care in Pacific Island settings need to be further strengthened.

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  5. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  6. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  7. Pliocene-Quaternary history of Futuna island, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; McCulloch, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium-series ages from thermal ionisation mass spectrometry are reported here for the raised coral reefs of Futuna Island, which lies adjacent to the eastern margin of the backarc Futuna Trough in south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. U-series ages from coral from the lowest raised reef indicate that its upper part is most likely to be ca 210 ka, whereas the most elevated raised reef has a likely age of ca 520 ka (range 600-440 ka). The inferred Pliocene-Quaternary history for Futuna Island and the adjacent Futuna Trough is: (i) formation of the Pliocene - Early Quaternary basaltic-andesite cone in a southeast part of the Vanuatu Island Arc; (ii) inception of the Futuna Trough (adjacent to the west margin of Futuna Island) since 1.8Ma; (iii) subsequent uplift of the volcanic cone above sea-level caused ∼ 500 m of its upper part to be removed by marine erosion; (iv) the island then subsided and at least 160 m of limestone was deposited on the truncated cone; and (v) during the period 520 ka to ca 210 ka seven fringing reefs formed at the margin of the cone as the island was uplifted. Since ca 210 ka Futuna further subsided and, as a result, the post ca 210 ka history of the island is obscure. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  8. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Sharma, Susan; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands.

  10. Are fluctuations in energy consumption per capita transitory? Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Vinod [Department of Economics, Monash University, Clyde Road Berwick, VIC. 3086 (Australia); Sharma, Susan [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, VIC. 3145 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This study applies the panel stationarity test developed by [Carrion-i-Silvestre et al 2005. Breaking the panels: An application to GDP per capita. Econometrics Journal 8, 159-175] to examine the stationarity of energy consumption per capita for a panel of 13 Pacific Island countries over the period 1980-2005. This test has the advantage that it allows for multiple structural breaks at unknown dates that can differ across countries and can account for all forms of cross-sectional correlation between countries. The conclusion from the study is that energy consumption per capita in approximately 60% of countries is stationary and that energy consumption per capita for the panel as a whole is stationary. The study offers several suggestions for modelling energy consumption and policy-making in the Pacific Islands. (author)

  11. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  12. A 3-D Model Analysis of The Impact of Asian Anthropogenic Emissions on the Sulfur Cycle Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Thornton, Donald; Bandy, Alan; Huebert, Barry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on the SO2 and sulfate aerosol levels over the Pacific region is examined in the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. We focus on the analysis of the data from the NASA Pacific Exploratory Missions (PEM) over the western North Pacific and the tropical Pacific. These missions include PEM-West A in September-October 1991, when the Asian outflow was at the minimum but the upper atmosphere was heavily influenced by the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, and PEM-West B in March-April 1994 when the Asian outflow was at the maximum, and PEM-Tropics A in August-September at a region relatively free of direct anthropogenic influences. Specifically, we will examine the relative importance of anthropogenic, volcanic and biogenic sources to the SO2 and sulfate concentrations over the Pacific, and quantify the processes controlling the distributions of SO2 and sulfate in both the boundary layer and the free troposphere. We will also assess the global impact of SO2 emission in Asia on the sulfate aerosol loading.

  13. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Chun Tan

    Full Text Available A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the 50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36. These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  14. Labour market institutions in small Pacific island countries: Main guidelines for labour market reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, Miguel Á.

    2017-01-01

    This report consists of a comprehensive overview of labour market institutions in the small Pacific island countries in order to propose recommendations to improve the performance of their labour markets. We pay particular attention to three countries: Fiji, Palau and Papua New Guinea. We focus on the main pillars of labour market institutions, as employment protection legislation, minimum wage, and labour organization. The analysis considers the possibilities for institutional change in the ...

  15. Uranium geochemistry and dating of Pacific island apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, K K; Burnett, W C [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    1985-07-01

    Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of island phosphate deposits is evaluated in terms of known associated coral ages, uranium geochemistry, and stratigraphic sequences as well as the concordance between the geochronometers /sup 234/U//sup 238/U, /sup 230/Th//sup 234/U and /sup 226/Ra//sup 238/U. U(VI) is the predominant oxidation state of uranium in island phosphorites and by analogy to the youngest surficial deposits, most of the uranium initially bound is in the form of U(VI) sorbed by surfaces from seawater. Insular deposits contain more organic matter than even very young ocean floor samples and this leads to a greater probability of reduction of available recoil uranium than occurs in marine deposits. As a consequence, R(VI) <= R(T) <= R(VI), where R represents the /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio. This situation is completely opposite from that observed for marine-origin phosphorites. We determined that a fraction of U(VI) in ancient insular phosphorites is very labile and lost to alkaline carbonate solutions with a uranium activity ratio even more depleted in /sup 234/U than the bulk R(VI). The results are discussed.

  16. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  17. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Anderson, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  19. Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho EJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eun Joo Cho,1 Jae Hyung Kim,1 Santosh Sutradhar,2 Carla Yunis,2 Mogens Westergaard2On behalf of the CRUCIAL trial investigators1Department of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USABackground: Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk compared with usual care (UC among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.Methods: This subanalysis of the CRUCIAL trial compared treatment-related changes in calculated CHD risk among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Sensitivity analyses were conducted among men and women and those with and without diabetes.Results: Overall, 448 patients (31.6% resided in the PA region and 969 patients (68.4% resided in non-PA regions. The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated CHD risk versus UC in both PA (−37.1% versus −3.5%; P<0.001 and non-PA regions (−31.1% versus −4.2%; P<0.001; region interaction P=0.131. PA patients had slightly greater reductions in total cholesterol compared with non-PA patients. PA patients without diabetes had slightly greater reductions in CHD risk compared with non-PA patients. Treatment effects were similar in men and women and those with diabetes.Conclusion: The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk compared with UC among men and

  20. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Dental manpower development in the Pacific: case study in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Langidrik, Justina R; Milgrom, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    This case study reports the ongoing progress and results of a manpower development program to expand indigenous dental personnel at four levels in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program was designed to: 1) increase the number of Marshallese students who successfully complete dentistry training; 2) recruit and train a group of Marshallese high school graduates in dental assisting for service in new preventive outreach programs within the community; 3) enhance the dental training of health assistants providing primary medical care to outer islands away from the main population centers of Majuro and Ebeye; and 4) provide in-service training on tooth decay prevention for Head Start teachers. The program resulted in the training of one Marshallese dentist and two Marshallese dental therapist, 16 primary care health aides who received oral health training for work in the outer island dispensaries, and 200 Head Start and kindergarten teachers who completed in-service training in oral health. Additional expertise was shared with other United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) to enhance the dental workforce throughout the Pacific.

  2. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  3. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  4. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands o Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Krauss; D.R. Cahoon; J.A. Allen; K.C. Ewel; J.C. Lynch; N. Cormier

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marinecommunities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer...

  5. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed.

  6. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  7. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  8. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma update (ARIA 2008)--western and Asian-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawankar, Ruby; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Chen, Yuzhi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kim, You-Young; Le, Lan Thi Tuyet; Huong, Le Thi Thu; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Ohta, Ken; Vichyanond, Pakit; Wang, De-Yun; Zhong, Nanshan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma is markedly increasing worldwide as societies adopt western life styles. Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma and AR, and asthma often co-exists with AR. An estimated 300 million people worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries and about 400 million people suffer from AR. Yet, AR is often under-diagnosed and under-treated due to a lack of appreciation of the disease burden and its impact on quality of life, as well as its social impact at school and at the workplace. However, AR with or without asthma is a huge economic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based document which would highlight the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art guideline for the specialist, the general practitioner and other health care professionals. Subsequent new evidence regarding the pathomechanisms, new drugs and increased knowledge have resulted in the publication of the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in the Asia-Pacific region and discusses the Western and Asian perspective.

  9. E-Cigarettes: Implications for Health Promotion in the Asian Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine; Maycock, Bruce; McCausland, Kahlia; Howat, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in 2007, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has grown exponentially. This rapid growth in e-cigarette use has been heralded by some as a potential important public health measure that could ultimately replace tobacco cigarettes, while others recommend a cautionary approach until there is clear evidence they will not become "new tobacco" bringing a possible myriad of other problems. E-cigarettes may have real benefits, however they do expose users and those nearby to organic compounds, solvents and particulate matter, with there being limited data relating to their health impact. It is unclear as to whether this relatively new device has the potential to exacerbate nicotine addictions, or play a part in reducing harm and smoking cessation. The fundamental requirement of public health practice is to do no harm and from the inconclusive evidence we have to date on e-cigarettes, it appears a cautious approach is warranted. This commentary reviews evidence that supports a cautious approach to e-cigarette availability in Australia and the Asian Pacific region.

  10. Renewable Energy in the Pacific Islands: An overview and exemplary projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcourigaray, Jean; Wary, David; Bitot, Stephane; Audras, Frederic; Riviere, Francoise

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an objective documentary source, relevant and usable for institutional and economic players at a regional colloquium on renewable energies which was to be organized by the French Polynesian community and the High Commission of the Republic in the second quarter of 2014. However, the date was put back due to local political changes which occurred following the last territorial elections (mid-2013). More largely, in the context of the fight against climate change, the subject of renewable energies takes on considerable importance. A large number of island States in the Pacific zone are extremely dependent on fossil fuels, and in the coming years, will face major impacts related to climate change (biodiversity, rising sea level, food security,...). It should be noted here that the small island countries (notably those of the Pacific) which belong to the intergovernmental organization AOSIS (Alliance of Small Island States), constitute a real lobbying force in the face of large industrialized countries at climate negotiations. Images of the Maldives' Council of Ministers meeting underwater demonstrate the will of small island States to make themselves heard at the highest levels. The notion of 'climate refugees' is not a mere idea; it could soon become a veritable legal concept. This study in no way claims to meet these challenges, but strives to highlight some solutions which are working ('good practices' in donors' terms), in order to propose adapting or replicating them. The accepted approach is thus above all positive and constructive: solutions exist, sometimes at low cost, and the projects help give Pacific peoples the feeling that they belong to wider global community, not to mention a sometimes small but important part of their harmony

  11. The Southwest Pacific: U.S. Interests and China’s Growing Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-06

    Pacific Island countries plus Australia and New Zealand. 22 Asian Development Bank, A Pacific Strategy for the New Millennium, September 2000. 23...Glance Region, Country and Date of Independence Former Colonial Ruler or Administrator Land Area (sq. kilo) Population GDP per capita (PPP) HDI Major...Order Code RL34086 The Southwest Pacific: U.S. Interests and China’s Growing Influence July 6, 2007 Thomas Lum Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign

  12. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  13. Interannual and Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the Subtropical Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.-P.; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Pacific SSTs is studied using rainfall data in the Yangtze River Valley and the NCEP reanalysis for 1951–96. The datasets are also partitioned into two periods, 1951–77 and 1978–96, to study the interdecadal variations of this relationship. A wet summer monsoon is preceded by a warm equatorial eastern Pacific in the previous winter and followed by a cold equatorial eastern Pacific in the following fa...

  14. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Mapping the Forgotten Colony: The Ogasawara Islands and the Tokugawa Pivot to the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rüegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1862, Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate claimed the Ogasawara Islands, a small archipelago between Honshu and Guam, as a part of Japan. In the manageable setting of the islands, the shogunate undertook a colonial experiment that revealed changing attitudes toward non-Japanese ethnicities, modern technologies, and maritime space. Through an examination of four maps, this article shows that Japanese intellectuals had been discussing plans for settler colonialism in the Pacific almost a century before Tokugawa leaders began exploring the open sea as an economic space. In the shogunate’s two-tiered strategy, agriculture assimilated the land, and law subjected its earlier settlers. This approach provided a foothold for offshore whaling, which transformed the surrounding seas into a space of production. However, expanding the sphere of Tokugawa influence necessitated a redefinition of the Japanese realm. Geographical notions were reshaped to make the overseas territory a part of the Izu archipelago some 700 kilometers farther north, and the presence of Western settlers was countered with narratives of earlier possession and relocation of Japanese individuals. Officials were particularly intrigued by formerly unknown plant and animal species found on the islands. Exploring economic opportunities in the Pacific sphere, they prepared a geopolitical shift that is often associated with Japan’s modern empire. This article, by contrast, locates the origins of modern Japan’s “pelagic empire” well before the Meiji Reform and shows how expansionism was reconciled with earlier perceptions of geography.

  16. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  17. A Framework for Disaster Vulnerability in a Small Island in the Southwest Pacific: A Case Study of Emae Island, Vanuatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Jackson; Karen McNamara; Bradd Witt

    2017-01-01

    The societal costs of disasters around the world are continuing to increase and Pacific Island countries are considered some of the most vulnerable.This is primarily due to a combination of high hazard exposure coupled with a range of social,economic,physical,and political vulnerabilities.This article contributes to the growing body of work that aims to understand the causal factors of disaster vulnerability,but with a specific focus on small island developing states.The article first develops a framework for understanding disaster vulnerability,drawing on extensive literature and the well-established Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability in Europe (MOVE) framework,and second,applies this adapted framework using empirically-derived data from fieldwork on Emae Island,Vanuatu to provide a working understanding of the causal elements of disaster vulnerability.Drawn from a significant body of scholarship at the time,the MOVE framework was primarily developed as a heuristic tool in which disaster vulnerability is considered to be a function of exposure,susceptibility (socially,economically,physically,culturally,environmentally,institutionally),and a lack of resilience.We posit that this adapted framework for small islands should also include historical susceptibility,and we prefer livelihood resilience (as capabilities,social capital,knowledge,participation,and human rights) over lack of resilience.We maintain that understanding disaster vulnerability holistically,which is inclusive of both strengths and drawbacks,is crucial to ensure that limited resources can target the causal factors that produce vulnerability and help safeguard and improve livelihoods in both the short and long term.

  18. Spring Arctic Oscillation-East Asian summer monsoon connection through circulation changes over the western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Yang, Jing; Hu, Miao [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Kim, Seong-Joong [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Yongqi [Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center/Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Guo, Dong [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Zhou, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), IAP/CAS, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-15

    In the present study the links between spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was investigated with focus on the importance of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (SST). To reduce the statistical uncertainty, we analyzed high-pass filtered data with the inter-annual time scales, and excluded the El Nino/Southern Oscillation signals in the climate fields using a linear fitting method. The significant relationship between spring AO and EASM are supported by the changes of multi-monsoon components, including monsoon indices, precipitation, and three-dimensional atmospheric circulations. Following a stronger positive spring AO, an anomalous cyclonic circulation at 850 hPa appears in southeastern Asia and the western North Pacific in summer, with the easterly anomalies spanning from the Pacific to Asian continent along 25 N-30 N and the westerly anomalies south of 15 N. At the same time, the summer western North Pacific subtropical high becomes weaker. Consistently, the positive precipitation anomalies are developed over a broad region south of 30 N stretching from southern China to the western Pacific and the negative precipitation anomalies appear in the lower valley of the Yangtze River and southern Japan. The anomalous cyclone in the western North Pacific persisting from spring to summer plays a key role in modulating EASM and monsoon precipitation by a positive air-sea feedback mechanism. During spring the AO-associated atmospheric circulation change produces warmer SSTs between 150 E-180 near the equator. The anomalous sensible and latent heating, in turn, intensifies the cyclone through a Gill-type response of the atmosphere. Through this positive feedback, the tropical atmosphere and SST patterns sustain their strength from spring to summer, that consequently modifies the monsoon trough and the western North Pacific subtropical high and eventually the EASM precipitation. Moreover, the SST response to

  19. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  20. The late Quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    People have lived on tropical Pacific islands over the past 30,000 years (Bismarcks, Solomons) or 3000 to 1000 years (the rest of Oceania). Their activities have led to the loss of many thousands of populations and as many as 2000 species of birds that probably otherwise would exist today. This extinction event is documented by avian fossils from archaeological (cultural) and paleontological (noncultural) sites from nearly 70 islands in 19 island groups. Extinction of birds in Oceania rivals the late Pleistocene loss of large mammals in North America as the best substantiated rapid extinction episode in the vertebrate fossil record. Some avian extinctions in Oceania occurred within a century or less after human arrival, while others required millennia or even tens of millennia. Any of these time frames is rapid in an evolutionary or geochronological sense. Inter-island differences in the speed and extent of extinction can be explained by variation in abiotic (A), biotic (B), and cultural (C) factors. Levels of extinction on large, near islands can be comparable to those on small, remote islands when C factors (such as high human population density and introduction of invasive plants and animals) override A factors (such as large land area or little isolation) or B factors (such as rich indigenous floras and faunas). An innovative, proactive conservation strategy is needed not only to prevent further extinctions of birds in Oceania, but also to restart evolution of some of the lineages that have suffered the most loss, such as flightless rails. This strategy should focus on islands with ABC traits that retard rather than enhance extinction.

  1. A 12-year observation of water-soluble ions in TSP aerosols collected at a remote marine location in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S. K. R.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-06-01

    In order to characterize the long-term trend of remote marine aerosols, a 12-year observation was conducted for water-soluble ions in TSP (total suspended particulate) aerosols collected from 2001 to 2012 in the Asian outflow region at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific. We found a clear difference in chemical composition between the continentally affected and marine background air masses over the observation site. Asian continental air masses are delivered from late autumn to spring, whereas marine air masses were dominated in summer. Concentrations of non-sea salt (nss-) SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, nss-K+ and nss-Ca2+ are high in winter and spring and low in summer. On the other hand, MSA- (methanesulfonate) exhibits higher concentrations during spring and winter, probably due to springtime dust bloom or due to the direct continental transport of MSA- to the observation site. We could not find any clear decadal trend for Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and nss-Ca2+ in all seasons, although there exists a clear seasonal trend. However, concentrations of nss-SO42- continuously decreased from 2007 to 2012, probably due to the decreased SO2 emissions in East Asia especially in China. In contrast, nss-K+ and MSA- concentrations continuously increased from 2001 to 2012 during winter and spring seasons, demonstrating that biomass burning and/or terrestrial biological emissions in East Asia are being increasingly transported from the Asian continent to the western North Pacific. This study also demonstrates that Asian dusts can act as an important source of nutrients for phytoplankton and thus sea-to-air emission of dimethyl sulfide over the western North Pacific.

  2. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  3. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring-time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  4. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos

    2018-07-01

    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  6. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    OpenAIRE

    Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...

  7. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  8. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  9. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  10. Regional approach to the management of fruit flies in the Pacific Island countries and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwood, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Of the 4,500 species of fruit flies (family Tephritidae) world-wide, over 350 species occur in the Pacific region. Of these, at least 25 species are regarded as being of major economic importance to fruit and vegetable production and to international trade within the region. Recognition of the economic importance of fruit flies to horticultural production and trade increased markedly in the 1980s due to the imposition of restrictions on the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) fumigation by trading partners. This treatment was the mainstay of quarantine treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables susceptible to fruit fly infestations and destined for markets in Australia, New Zealand, USA, Japan and Canada. Small, but economically significant, markets for fresh fruits and vegetables in the Pacific rim countries disappeared because alternative quarantine treatments for EDB fumigation were not available. Countries, such as Cook Islands, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, looked for modern technologies to overcome these constraints to export. As well as quarantine treatment technologies, procedures new to the Pacific Island countries, such as quality assurance systems and quarantine pathways, had to be included into the production and marketing chains. Quarantine surveillance, particularly for exotic fruit flies, became a prerequisite for trade in fresh fruits and vegetables. The emphasis on fruit flies also regionally increased because of the increasing number of incursions of exotic fruit flies into the region over the past 10-12 years. Outbreaks of exotic fruit flies in the Solomon Islands (1984-85), Nauru (1984-85), Northern Australia (1995 and 1998), New Zealand (1996), French Polynesia (1995-96), and Palau (1995-96) demonstrated the vulnerability of the Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) to these incursions. To address the increased threat of introduction of exotic fruit flies through increased tourism and regional travellers, a regional approach to the management

  11. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  12. Integration of Russia in Asian Pacific Educational Space (the Case of Russian-Chinese Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Leonidovna Guruleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the formational processes of APR educational space and role of Russia in educational integration of the region. Participation of Russia in cooperation of Asia-Pacific countries in the higher education is studied. The author proves the formation of the new international polycultural educational region of Siberia and the Far East of Russia and the Northeast provinces of China, and investigates prerequisites of its formation. The author identifies the following prerequisites specificity of the modern education system in China, the similarity of the higher education systems of Russia and China, China's interest in the study and use the experience of Russia in the organization of higher education, the desire and the willingness of the Russian and Chinese counterparts to identify and solve the problems arising in the process of international educational cooperation, the strategic interest of Russia and China in the economic recovery and development of Siberia and the Russian Far East and north-eastern provinces of China. Particular attention is paid to the role of the Forum of rectors of higher educational institutions of the Far East and Siberia of Russia and north-eastern provinces of China. The author concludes that currently there are processes of convergence of the EHEA and educational area of APR. This can be illustrated by the initiative of establishing a bridge between the countries of the EHEA and the participating countries of the Tokyo Convention on the recognition, which was approved by the political and economic forum of European and Asian countries (Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM.

  13. Changes in the influence of the western Pacific subtropical high on Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    The Year-to-year variability of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is primarily controlled by atmosphere-ocean interaction (AOI) between the WPSH and the Indo-Pacific warm pool dipole SST anomalies (AOI mode) and the anomalous SST forcing from the equatorial central Pacific (the CP forcing mode). In this study, we show that the impacts of the WPSH variability on Asian summer monsoon rainfall have changed after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s (the PRE epoch), the WPSH primarily affects East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and had little influence on Indian summer monsoon (ISM), whereas after the late 1990s (the POST epoch), the WPSH has strengthened its linkage to the ISM while weakened its relationship with the EASM. This epochal change is associated with a change in the leading circulation mode in the Asia-WP region. During the PRE (POST) epoch the WPSH variation is mainly controlled by the AOI (CP forcing) that mainly affects EASM (ISM). The epochal change of the leading mode may be attributed to the change of the ENSO properties in late 1990s: the CP types of El Nino become a leading ENSO mode in the POST epoch. This work provides a new perspective for understanding decadal changes of the ENSO-monsoon relationship through subtropical dynamics.

  14. Natural gas in the Asian Pacific region: market behavior and the Japanese electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Bo

    2001-04-01

    This dissertation consists of four main chapters, all related to the Asian Pacific natural gas market, and the role of the Japanese electricity sector. The natural gas market in Asia Pacific is heavily dependent on the demand from Japan, which imports around 75% of the gas traded as LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the region. The demand for natural gas in Japan is, in turn, almost exclusively driven by the electricity industry that consumes around 70 % of the imported natural gas. On the supply side we find seller concentrations with only six countries exporting LNG in the region. The first main chapter analyzes the market structure of the Asian Pacific natural gas market, the next two relate to the usage of natural gas in the Japanese fossil-fueled electricity production, and the final study investigates the demand for electricity in the residential sector in Japan. The first chapter argues that the buyers in Japan, through cooperation, have the potential to exert the market power that their large market share provides them with. This could be offset by the monopoly power that the six present sellers have. In the chapter four, the solutions for the four imperfect competition cases of, monoposony, monopoly, bilateral monopoly, and the Cournot model are simulated. Neither of the model solutions comes close to both the actual market price, and the actual gas volumes. The model that best mimics the actual price is the bilateral monopoly model, while the monoposony model comes closest to the actual volumes. Giving some mixed evidence of how the Asian LNG market works. Given the indication of market power, the second study analyzes the fossil-fuel mix efficiency in the power sector in Japan. If the power sector is able to exert the alleged market power, it may be the case that they minimize costs according to shadow prices instead of actual market prices. Such behavior could cause the fossil-fuel mix used for power generation to be inefficient. The analysis is based on a

  15. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  16. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term

  17. Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effectiveness Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities. Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans #15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith Wen-Chu, Ed.; Omatsu, Glenn, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The legitimization of Asian American Studies as an academic discipline has led to the publication of new research, policy reports, and creative writing. Despite the plethora of new scholarship, many significant findings and critical ideas have failed to effectively reach college and high school students or the general American public. "Teaching…

  18. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  19. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  20. Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center for the Asian Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaduray, G.; Anderson, R.N.; Goldstein, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of an Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center (ISAFE) for the Asia-Pacific Basin is examined. The geography and nuclear capabilitiy of the countries that comprise the Asia-Pacific Basin is described in full length. The incentives and the limitations for the establishment of the ISAFE center in the Asia-Pacific Basin are discussed in detail. 34 refs

  1. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  2. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  3. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  4. Comprehensive Review of Preschool Age Anemia in the Pacific Island Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tiffany F; Huang, James N; Cash, Haley L

    2017-12-01

    Anemia can be an indicator of poor nutrition and health, and it can have significant consequences. Children are disproportionately affected by anemia. This comprehensive review summarizes the available literature on anemia prevalence in young children in the islands of the Oceania region. The anemia prevalence, the criteria used for diagnosis, the date the data was reported, and the types of samples collected were reviewed. Anemia prevalence estimates were reported for eighteen of the Pacific Island Jurisdictions. From the fifteen data sources that were evaluable, anemia prevalence ranged from 12.3% to over 70%. A major limitation in the data is a lack of representative primary data from many of the jurisdictions in the region. Prevalance estimates reported for those jurisdictions are estimated by regression analysis from the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the primary data available does not use standardized reporting criteria. Nevertheless, this review serves as a new baseline for further investigations on the prevalence of anemia and a baseline for evaluating public health prevention and treatment measures to detect and improve anemia prevalence in the Pacific.

  5. The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard P C; Connell, John

    2004-06-01

    Little is known of the structure of the international migration of skilled health professionals. Accelerated migration of doctors and nurses from the Pacific island states of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to the Pacific periphery is part of the globalization of health care. The findings from a recent survey of 251 doctors and nurses from the three island countries are reported here. Key determinants of both present migration status and future migration intentions were analyzed using econometric methods. Nurses' and doctors' propensities to migrate are influenced by both income and non-income factors, including ownership of businesses and houses. Migrants also tend to have more close relatives overseas, to have trained there, and so experienced superior working conditions. Migration propensities vary between countries, and between nurses and doctors within countries. Tongan nurses have a higher propensity to migrate, mainly because of greater relative earnings differentials, but are also more likely to return home. The role of kinship ties, relative income differentials and working conditions is evident in other developing country contexts. Remittances and return migration, alongside business investment, bring some benefits to compensate for the skill drain. National development policies should focus on encouraging return migration, alongside retention and recruitment, but are unlikely to prevent out migration.

  6. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Octocoral densities and mortalities in Gorgona Island, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the decrease of reef organisms in general, it has become essential to study populations that are prone to marine diseases, with the purpose of developing accurate survivorship predictions and in turn alarm on triggers and drivers of disease outbreaks. In this study, we quantified the octocorals of Gorgona island, Tropical Eastern Pacific (Colombia, during 2007 and 2009 documenting a mass mortality occurred during 2008. We recorded 16 octocoral species with densities that ranged between 2 and 30 colonies m-2. Most abundant octocorals were Leptogorgia alba and Pacifigorgia spp. (Gorgoniidae: Octocorallia. During 2009 we noticed a mass mortality involving Pacifigorgia irene, P. adamsi, P. rubicunda and P. eximia, with a reduction of 70% of the colonies between 12 and 20 m in water depth. Around 5% of seafans during 2007 had an epizootic disease similar to aspergillosis, which seems the cause of the mass octocoral mortality. This disease outbreak observed in Gorgona island, and other nearby areas of the Colombian Pacific during 2007-2010, corresponded to extended periods of anomalous elevated seawater surface temperatures and thermal anomalies during the upwelling season of 2008. Constant monitoring of seawater temperatures and octocoral populations are urgently needed in this area to understand the nature of this new disease outbreak. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 209-219. Epub 2014 February 01.

  8. Why There Still Aren't Enough Asian-American College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Roy H.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 10 years ago, the author wrote an essay for "The Chronicle" on the underrepresentation of Asian-Americans in academic leadership, especially in institutions and disciplines that have a high percentage of students and faculty members of Asian or Pacific Island ancestry. There have been changes over the past 10 years, but not so much for…

  9. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Dewi Thedja

    Full Text Available Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG. This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  10. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  11. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  12. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  13. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003-08-22 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0129066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  14. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  16. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  17. Social Ecology and Diabetes Self-Management among Pacific Islanders in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl Anna; Moore, Ramey; Woodring, David; Purvis, Rachel S; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Hudson, Jonell; Kohler, Peter O; Goulden, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases disproportionately affect ethnic and racial minorities. Pacific Islanders, including the Marshallese, experience some of the highest documented rates of type 2 diabetes. Northwest Arkansas is home to the largest population of Marshallese outside of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and many migrants are employed by the local poultry industry. This migrant population continues to increase because of climate change, limited health care and educational infrastructure in the Marshall Islands, and the ongoing health effects of US nuclear testing. The US nuclear weapons testing program had extensive social, economic, and ecological consequences for the Marshallese and many of the health disparities they face are related to the nuclear fallout. Beginning in 2013, researchers using a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach began working with the local Marshallese community to address diabetes through the development and implementation of culturally appropriate diabetes self-management education in a family setting. Preliminary research captured numerous and significant environmental barriers that constrain self-management behaviors. At the request of our CBPR stakeholders, researchers have documented the ecological barriers faced by the Marshallese living in Arkansas through a series of qualitative research projects. Using the Social Ecological Model as a framework, this research provides an analysis of Marshallese health that expands the traditional diabetes self-management perspective. Participants identified barriers at the organizational, community, and policy levels that constrain their efforts to achieve diabetes self-management. We offer practice and policy recommendations to address barriers at the community, organizational, and policy level.

  18. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Mackay, Andrew J; Santiago, Gilberto A; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

  19. Allopatric speciation of Meteterakis (Heterakoidea: Heterakidae), a highly dispersible parasitic nematode, in the East Asian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Naoya

    2018-04-25

    To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna. In contrast, the phylogenetic pattern within the A-group was discordant with host biogeography and implied diversification by repeated colonization. In addition, the mosaic distribution pattern of a J-group and an A-group species in the Japanese Archipelago, along with comparison of population genetic parameters and the genetic distance from their closest relatives, suggested the initial occurrence of a J-group lineage followed by exclusion in the western part of this region caused by invasion of an A-group lineage. Thus, the present study suggested that the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites including Meteterakis is formed not only by co-divergence with host faunal vicariance but also by peripatric speciation and exclusive interactions between species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tristan L; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Burdin, Alexander; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Tuomi, Pamela; Smith, Woutrina A; Goldstein, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.

  1. Dust Deposition and Migration of the ITCZ through the Last Glacial Cycle in the Central Equatorial Pacific (Line Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi Sipala, M. A.; Marcantonio, F.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dust can be used to record climate change in addition to itself playing a role in several key climate processes, such as affecting Earth's albedo, fomenting rain coalescence, encouraging biological productivity, and enhancing carbon export though particle sinks. Using deep sea sediments, it is possible to quantify and locate the sources and sinks of atmospheric dust. A key area of research is the shift in the inter-tropical converge zone (ITCZ), a thermally influenced area that shifts according to the northern and southern hemisphere temperature gradient. This ongoing project focuses on the changes of the ITCZ over the Central Equatorial Pacific (CEP) over the past ~25000 years. The research focuses on two cores taken from the Line Islands Ridge at 0° 29' N (ML1208-18GC), and 4° 41' N (ML1208-31BB). The main aim is to quantify the magnitude and provenance of windblown dust deposited in the CEP, and to address questions regarding the nature of the variations of dust through ice-age climate transitions. Radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb) have been successfully used to distinguish between different potential dust sources in the aluminosilicates fractions of Pacific Sediments. Our preliminary Pb isotope ratios suggest that, for modern deposition, the northern core's (31BB) detrital sediment fraction is likely sourced from Asian Loess (average ratios are 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.69, 208Pb/204Pb = 39.06). The equatorial core's (18GC) detrital fraction has a less radiogenic Pb signature, which is consistent with South American dust sourcing (206Pb/204Pb = 18.62, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.63, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.62). This is indicative of a strong modern ITCZ that acts as an effective barrier for inter-hemispheric dust transport. Prior to Holocene time, the changes in Pb isotope ratios in both cores appear to be in anti-phase; the northern core becomes less radiogenic up to the LGM, while the southern core becomes more radiogenic. This is potentially due to a

  2. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. 76 FR 10621 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... any of the following methods. For information on viewing or obtaining the documents, see ``Public... species in their natural setting on the Atoll. The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument... eliminate black rats from Palmyra Atoll. Public Availability of the DEIS The DEIS is available for viewing...

  4. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  5. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, James Russell; Xie, Bin; Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-07

    Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) system capable of measuring cigarette use among Pacific Islanders in Southern California. This system integrated the ubiquity of text messaging, the ease of use associated with mobile phone apps, the enhanced functionality offered by Internet-based Cell phone-optimized Assessment Techniques (ICAT), and the high survey completion rates exhibited by EMA studies that used electronic diaries. These features were tested in a feasibility study designed to assess whether Pacific Islanders would respond to this method of measurement and whether the data gathered would lead to novel insights regarding the intrapersonal, social, and ecological factors associated with cigarette use. 20 young adult smokers in Southern California who self-identified as Pacific Islanders were recruited by 5 community-based organizations to take part in a 7-day EMA study. Participants selected six consecutive two-hour time blocks per day during which they would be willing to receive a text message linking them to an online survey formatted for Web-enabled mobile phones. Both automated reminders and community coaches were used to facilitate survey completion. 720 surveys were completed from 840 survey time blocks, representing a completion rate of 86%. After adjusting for gender, age, and nicotine dependence, feeling happy (P=technology-based assessments of tobacco use among Pacific Islanders. Such systems can foster high levels of survey completion and may lead to novel insights for future research and interventions.

  6. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  7. Doctor William Gunn (1804-1890): From the South Pacific Islands to Chatham Royal Dockyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Richard

    2016-11-24

    Doctor William Gunn had a long and varied career in the Royal Navy. After spending time on anti-slavery patrols along the west coast of Africa, he was posted to the south Pacific. At Pitcairn Island, he treated the inhabitants during an influenza epidemic, proving himself to be a determined and dedicated practitioner. Subsequently, he was appointed head of the medical department at Chatham Royal Dockyard (1859-1865), an appointment that coincided with the final stages of the Royal Navy's transition from sail and wood to steam and iron. The impact of these changes on the health of dockworkers was quickly felt at Chatham, and Gunn found himself in charge during the building of the first iron warship in a royal dockyard. His story thus offers a window through which to observe a practitioner confronting the health issues and medical uncertainties thrown up by technological change in the Victorian era. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  9. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  10. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-11-02

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce inequalities for Pacific people. Published by the BMJ

  11. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  12. Acoustic occurrence detection of a newly recorded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Jianchen; Li, Songhai

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were recorded for the first time in waters southwest of Hainan Island, China. In this paper, the temporal occurrence of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in this region was detected by stationary passive acoustic monitoring. During the 130-day observation period (from January to July 2016), 1969 click trains produced by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were identified, and 262 ten-minute recording bins contained echolocation click trains of dolphins, of which 70.9% were at night and 29.1% were during the day. A diurnal rhythm with a nighttime peak in acoustic detections was found. Passive acoustic detections indicated that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins frequently occurred in this area and were detected mainly at night. This information may be relevant to conservation efforts for these dolphins in the near future.

  13. Performance of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Revised Race and Ethnicity Categories in Asian Populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Joan L; Press, Nancy; Vollmer, William M; Harris, Emily L; Vogt, Thomas M; Chen, Chuhe

    2007-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity information recently divided the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category into "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander". The OMB's decision to disaggregate the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category was the first step toward providing these communities with information to better serve their needs. However, whether individuals who formerly made up the combined group categorize themselves as the new guidelines intend is a question analyzed in this report. METHODS: A subset of adults participating in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study completed both the OMB-minimum and the expanded race and ethnicity measure used in the National Health Interview Survey. We compared responses on the expanded measure contained within the OMB "Asian" definition (Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Chinese, and/or Other Asian) to "Asian" responses on the OMB-minimum measure. RESULTS: Mixed heritage Asians less often marked "Asian". Among mixed heritage Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos, 27%, 49%, and 52% did not mark "Asian" on the OMB measure, respectively. Eleven percent of single-heritage Filipinos did not mark "Asian." CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals formerly making up the combined "Asian or Pacific Islander" group do not categorize themselves as the revised OMB guidelines intend. This is particularly evident among Filipinos and among Asians of mixed heritage. This research illuminates the reliability and utility of the broad "Asian" category and points to possible consequences of collapsing groups into a single category, i.e., missed information and/or erroneous generalization.

  14. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  15. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  17. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)], E-mail: choongck@utar.edu.my

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  18. Growth and oil price. A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, T.K. [School of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of the South Pacific, Laucala Bay Road, Suva (Fiji); Choong, Chee-Keong [Department of Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak Campus), Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations. (author)

  19. Growth and oil price: A study of causal relationships in small Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, T.K.; Choong, Chee-Keong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and oil price in small Pacific Island countries (PICs). Except Papua New Guinea, none of the 14 PICs has fossil any fuel resources. Consequently, the other 13 PICs are totally dependent on oil imports for their economic activities. Since PICs have limited foreign exchange earning capacities, as they have a very narrow range of exports and are highly dependent on foreign aid, high oil prices in recent months have seriously tested their economic resilience. This paper applies the ARDL bounds testing methodology to four selected PICs, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu, which have consistent and reliable time series of data, with a view to assess the impact of oil price on economic growth. The findings are that oil price, gross domestic product and international reserve are cointegrated in all the four PICs. Further, both in the long and short runs, we observe that there is a uni-directional relationship as causality linkage runs only from oil price and international reserves to economic growth. The paper makes some policy recommendations.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverages in Pacific Island countries and territories: problems and solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W

    2014-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases are a major problem in the Pacific Islands, with poor diets an important contributing factor. Available data suggests high levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) across the region, and particularly in adolescents. Due to concerns about the risks to health of high intakes, efforts have been made across the region to reduce the intake of SSBs. French Polynesia, Nauru, Cook Islands, Tonga and Fiji have implemented sales or excise taxes on SSBs to increase the price to the consumer. Many countries in the region have adopted school food policies which intend to limit or ban access to SSBs in schools. Guam also adopted legislation to ensure that healthier foods and beverages were available in all vending machines in schools. Efforts to control advertising and sponsorship of SSBs have been limited to-date in the region, although some school food policies do restrict advertising and sponsorship in schools, school grounds and school vehicles. Efforts around education and awareness raising have shown mixed success in terms of changing behaviour. Greater attention is needed to evaluate the impact of these measures to ensure that actions are effective, and to increase the evidence regionally of the most effective approaches to tackle SSBs.

  1. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  2. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Sharp

    Full Text Available Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4. Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI. To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT, and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population were reported. Of 867 (54% laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24% had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7% had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future

  3. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  4. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  5. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  6. Revising the American Dream: How Asian Immigrants Adjust After an HIV Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Wei-Ti; GUTHRIE, Barbara; SHIU, Cheng-Shi; WANG, Lixuan; WENG, Zhongqi; LI, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; EMIKO, Kamitani; FUKUDA, Yumiko; LUU, Binh Vinh

    2015-01-01

    Aim We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Background Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the US. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. Design A mixed-methods study was conducted. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyze the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January - June 2013. Discussion Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their ‘American dreams’. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could ‘make their dreams come true.’ Conclusion Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower-acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should

  7. Revising the American dream: how Asian immigrants adjust after an HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2015-08-01

    We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to

  8. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  9. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  10. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  11. Shallow CTD profiles collected from NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell and NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette, near tropical pacific islands, atolls and shoals of the NE Pacific from 2000 to 2010 (NODC Accession 0039382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  12. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  13. Exploring the role of Micronesian islands in the maintenance of coral genetic diversity in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S W; Treml, E A; Kenkel, C D; Matz, M V

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity is maintained across patchy marine environments remains a fundamental problem in marine biology. The Coral Triangle, located in the Indo-West Pacific, is the centre of marine biodiversity and has been proposed as an important source of genetic diversity for remote Pacific reefs. Several studies highlight Micronesia, a scattering of hundreds of small islands situated within the North Equatorial Counter Current, as a potentially important migration corridor. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the population genetic structure of two ecologically important congeneric species of reef-building corals across greater Micronesia, from Palau to the Marshall Islands. Genetic divergences between islands followed an isolation-by-distance pattern, with Acropora hyacinthus exhibiting greater genetic divergences than A. digitifera, suggesting different migration capabilities or different effective population sizes for these closely related species. We inferred dispersal distance using a biophysical larval transport model, which explained an additional 15-21% of the observed genetic variation compared to between-island geographical distance alone. For both species, genetic divergence accumulates and genetic diversity diminishes with distance from the Coral Triangle, supporting the hypothesis that Micronesian islands act as important stepping stones connecting the central Pacific with the species-rich Coral Triangle. However, for A. hyacinthus, the species with lower genetic connectivity, immigration from the subequatorial Pacific begins to play a larger role in shaping diversity than input from the Coral Triangle. This work highlights the enormous dispersal potential of broadcast-spawning corals and identifies the biological and physical drivers that influence coral genetic diversity on a regional scale. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Distribution of macroinvertebrates on intertidal rocky shores in Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Londoño-Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisms found on rocky shores must endure harsh environmental conditions during tidal changes but scientific studies on tropical rocky shores are scarce, particularly in Colombian shores. Here we describe the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrates associated to the intertidal rocky ecosystems of Gorgona Island, Colombia (Tropical Eastern Pacific. Sampling was carried out in four localities around the Island: La Ventana and La Camaronera (sampled during October 2010 and La Mancora and El Muelle (sampled during March 2011. Two methodologies were used: rapid ecological assessments for qualitative data and quadrats for quantitative data. The richness, abundance, diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’, and evenness (Pielou J’ of macroinvertebrates were determined for and compared between, using one way ANOVA, each locality and the three intertidal zones of La Ventana (see methods. One hundred twenty-one species of macroinvertebrates were found during the sampling period. In all localities, Mollusca was the richest and most abundant taxon (46% of the species and 59% of the individuals, followed by Crustacea (32% of the species and 33% of the individuals. The other groups accounted for the remaining 22% of the richness and 8% of the abundance. Several studies have demonstrated that mollusks and crustaceans are the richest and most abundant taxa in marine benthic communities. Most of the abundant species found were herbivores. The species composition varied among zones. The results of dominant species for each zone are consistent with the ones observed in other tropical rocky intertidal shores. All response variables showed a decreasing pattern from the low to the high intertidal (in La Ventana. Post-hoc results indicated that the high intertidal, the zone with the harshest environmental conditions, had significantly lower values than the other two zones for all response variables. Comparisons between the low intertidal zones of the different localities

  15. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    direct American participation, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ( ASEAN ), chartered by Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines...Broadly speaking, the United States’ foreign policy with China and the direction set forth by Washington policy makers progressed through three...more emphasis on the importance of economics, foreign investment ,

  16. Estimating international interindustry linkages : Non-survey simulations of the Asian-Pacific economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.; Stelder, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates a recently published semi-survey international input-output table for nine East-Asian countries and the USA with four non-survey estimation alternatives. A new generalized RAS procedure is used with stepwise increasing information from both import and export statistics as

  17. NOAA/NMFS/CRED Deep CTD profiles from 15 cruises near islands, atolls and shoals in the central tropical Pacific 1999-2012 (NODC Accession 0115299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99118, Lat: -00.36291 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00816, Lat: -00.36887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.60m; Data Date Range: 20100405-20100708.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.62134, Lat: 00.80661 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.30m; Data Date Range: 20100203-20120312.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Variability of Atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific: Influence of Asian outflow during March-April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Kiley, C.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Nolf, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    We report here tropospheric CO2 measurements made as part of the airborne component of NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission during March and April in 2001. CO2 mixing ratios, sampled in the subtropics (23.5-45.5° N) west of 150° E, exhibited a decreasing trend with height (0.5-12 km), were highly correlated with latitude showing a distinct north to south gradient, and peaked between 35-40° N within the planetary boundary layer. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 4 km contained up to 393.6 ppmv CO2 and were augmented with the combustion and industrial tracers CO, C2H6, C3H8, CH3Cl, C2Cl4, and C6H6. A chemically based air mass classification scheme using the combustion products CO and C2H2 as tracers of continental source emissions was employed in this analysis. Results show an excellent positive correlation for CO2 (r2=0.98) with respect to this ratio in the lower to mid free troposphere (4-8 km) providing evidence of continental outflow. South of the Tropic of Cancer, mean and median CO2 values derived from samples obtained below 8 km are less than those calculated for the subtropics. However, within the upper troposphere (UT) of both regions, similar values were determined and enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-12 km altitude range were observed. The relationship revealed between CO2 and the C2H2/CO ratio, particularly for the tropics, suggests recent inputs from the surface to the UT. In order to elucidate the processes determining the variations of CO2 in the Asian Pacific rim region during TRACE-P, a CO2 emissions data base developed for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5 day backward trajectories in an attempt to link CO2 enhancements observed in pollution plumes to source regions. From these data acquired downwind of the Asian continent when CO2 concentrations at the surface were approaching their seasonal maximum, we estimate a net export flux on the

  8. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  9. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  10. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  11. Comparing Asian American Women's Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Risk of Heart Attack to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: The mPED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p Asian/Pacific Islander women had significantly lower total scores for knowledge of heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.

  12. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    projected itself in regional cooperative diplomacy “focused on selling the idea that China [would] not be a threat to other nations . . . [and...Studies [database online ]. Washington, D.C. 17 October 2013 [cited 2015]. Available from http://csis.org/publication/chinas-charm-offensive-signals-new...process will be arduous and likely to stir Asian nationalistic grievances, but “[l]ack of strategic coordination is a luxury that the democracies can no

  13. 78 FR 32996 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The intent of this rule is to implement fishery management... Islands Monument, and Proclamation 8337 established the Rose Atoll Monument. The Proclamations define the...

  14. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2011 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We will...

  15. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS) - Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2013 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  16. 77 FR 54572 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...) strategies to increase public and private-sector collaboration, and community involvement in improving the... strategies to help meet the Commission's charge as outlined in E.O. 13515. Additional Information Individuals... services, assistive listening devices, or material in alternative format) should notify Shelly Coles at...

  17. 76 FR 18202 - Applications for New Awards; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent (including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea... living in poverty, who are English learners, who are far below grade level or who are not on track to...

  18. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onward)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year...

  19. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family to get tested for HBV because hepatitis B is one of the KNOW greatest health threats ... Ask your doctor for these blood tests: HBV Hepatitis B sur face antigen (HBs Ag) : Tells if you ...

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    military service when the Women's Army Corps, or WAC, recruited 50 Japanese American and Chinese American competition. In August 2008, he earned his Juris Doctor and became a member of the Texas bar. In March of 2009 he served as branch head for legal assistance and military justice. In March 2012, Lt. Sham deployed

  1. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  2. The use Pb- and Sr- isotopes for the study of Pacific Islander population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, P.; Gulson, B.L.; Montgomery, J.; Rainbird, P.; Thomas, R.G.; Young, S.

    1997-01-01

    Lead isotope measurements of dental enamel are regularly used as a means of determining information as to the source of the lead burden in modern human populations (Gulson and Wilson 1994). Lead ions have a considerable propensity to replace calcium ions in skeletal hard tissue; principally composed of hydroxy-apatite. The lead isotopic composition of teeth in adult humans has been shown to relate directly to the subject's exposure to the element at the time of eruption of their adult teeth and is unaffected by changes in the lead burden of an individual in latter life. In children, the analogous lead burden relates to the lead exposure of the mother during pregnancy and in the neo-natal period. Moreover due to its high crystallinity and density dental enamel does not undergo post-mortem recrystallization. This fact raised the exciting possibility that isotopic measurements of hard tissue could be used as a means of determining whether and individual is a migrant to a particular region. Despite a number of complications, briefly described, this paper presents the results of the ongoing study which uses measurements of Sr and Pb isotopes within dental enamel to determine the origin of Pacific Islander populations

  3. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.-O. Pettersson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS (which includes microcephaly and Guillain-BarrÅèôÉééééÅèé syndrome (GBS have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

  4. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Mapping Precipitation in the Lower Mekong River Basin and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sutton, J. R. P.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying precipitation across varying temporal and spatial scales is of utmost importance in understanding, monitoring, and predicting flooding and drought. While there exists many in-situ precipitation gages that can accurately estimate precipitation in a given location, there are still many areas that lack in-situ gages. Many of these locations do not have precipitation gages because they are rural and/or topographically complex. The purpose of our research was to compare different remotely sensed satellite precipitation estimates with in-situ estimates across topographically complex and rural terrain within the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB). We utilize the publicly available Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) Climate Data Record (CDR) from NOAA and two remotely sensed precipitation products from NASA; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). These precipitation estimates were compared with each other and to the available in-situ precipitation estimates from station gages. We also utilize NASA Landsat data to determine the land cover types of these study areas. Using the precipitation estimates, topography, and the land cover of the study areas, we were able to show areas experiencing differing amounts of rainfall and their agreement with in-situ estimates. Additionally, we study the seasonal and spatial trends in precipitation. These analyses can be used to help understand areas that are experience frequent flood or drought.

  6. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July 16-20, 1990; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Raynor; Roger R. Bay

    1993-01-01

    Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

  8. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  9. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  10. Analysis of global warming stabilization scenarios. The Asian-Pacific Integrated Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, Mikiko; Morita, Tsuneyuki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and climatic impacts of the EMF 19 emission scenarios. A reference scenario, three emission scenarios targeting 550 ppmv atmospheric concentration, and three tax scenarios are analyzed. The profiles of energy consumption and economic losses of each policy scenario are compared to the reference scenario. The model also estimates that global mean temperature will increase 1.7-2.9 C in 2100, and the sea level will rise 40-51 cm, compared to the 1990 levels under the EMF scenarios. Impacts on food productivity and malaria infection are estimated to be very severe in some countries in the Asian region

  11. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  12. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place.

  13. Palaeo island-affinities revisited--biogeography and systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Cethosia Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C J; Beheregaray, L B

    2010-10-01

    The Indo-Pacific is a very complex region encompassing several micro-continents with unique tectonic and geomorphologic histories. Unsurprisingly, the biogeographic history of Indo-Pacific biota is generally poorly known, especially that of organisms found in the heart of the region, the biodiversity hotspot known as Wallacea. Here, we explore the biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific butterfly genus Cethosia using all known species and many distinctive subspecies. Cethosia butterflies span the Indo-Pacific tropics, including several lineages with localized endemism that are critically important when reconstructing biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific and, in particular, of Wallacea. A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed, based on sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), and the nuclear wingless gene. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the genus is monophyletic and consistently recovered seven, generally very well supported, clades, namely the cydippe, leschenault, biblis, nietneri, hypsea, penthesilea and cyane clades. Species group relationships are largely concordant with general morphology (i.e., wing pattern and colouration) and, based on the phylogeny, we propose a revised systematic classification at the species level. The evolution of the genus appears associated with the inferred geological history of the region, in particular with respect to the expanding Wallacea theory, whereby ancient connected terranes were fragmented during the mid Miocene to early Pliocene, approximately 14-3 Mya. Recent diversification events in Cethosia were likely promoted by climatic fluctuations during the Pliocene and, to a lesser extent, the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that, while dispersal has been important for Cethosia throughout much of the region, the high levels of island endemism and the essentially allopatric radiations recovered in Cethosia in Wallacea are

  14. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... indicates that the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or... businesses and small governments). Unless information is obtained to the contrary during the public notice..., http://www.cnic.navy.mil/PMRF/ , and Facebook Web site, http://www.facebook.com/PacificMissileRange...

  15. Growth of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in povi masima, a traditional Pacific island food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T L; Whyte, R J; Graham, C G; Saunders, D; Schumacher, J; Hudson, J A

    2004-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. The povi masima were divided into two lots each containing two uninoculated control and an inoculated container. Lot 1 was incubated at room temperature (20 degrees C) and lot 2 under refrigeration (4-5 degrees C) for up to 98 days. During storage, samples were removed and tested for aerobic plate count, coagulase-producing Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, staphylococcal enterotoxin and various chemical parameters of the food. Coagulase-producing Staphylococci and aerobic plate counts grew to high levels in both the inoculated and uninoculated lots stored at room temperature, but enterotoxin was only detected at one time point in these lots and this may represent a false positive result. The concentration of NaCl in the meat increased with time as concentrations equilibrated, and nitrite was rapidly lost in those lots stored at room temperature. Storage at 4-5 degrees C prevented proliferation of coagulase-producing Staphylococci. For safe curing and storage, this food should be kept under refrigeration as this prevented growth of staphylococci. Optimum storage would also be achieved with improved attempts to ensure equal distribution of NaCl prior to storage. Under conditions traditionally used to cure and store this food, enterotoxigenic staphylococci can grow to numbers where toxigenesis might occur, especially during the early stages of curing where the salt has not diffused from the brine into the meat.

  16. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  17. South Asian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Variability and Trend: Its Links to Indo-Pacific SST Anomalies and Moist Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V.

    2016-06-01

    The warm (cold) phase of El Niño (La Niña) and its impact on all Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall (AISMR) relationship is explored for the past 100 years. The 103-year (1901-2003) data from the twentieth century reanalysis datasets (20CR) and other major reanalysis datasets for southwest monsoon season (JJAS) is utilized to find out the simultaneous influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-AISMR relationship. Two cases such as wet, dry monsoon years associated with ENSO(+) (El Niño), ENSO(-) (La Niña) and Non-ENSO (neutral) events have been discussed in detail using observed rainfall and three-dimensional 20CR dataset. The dry and wet years associated with ENSO and Non-ENSO periods show significant differences in the spatial pattern of rainfall associated with three-dimensional atmospheric composite, the 20CR dataset has captured the anomalies quite well. During wet (dry) years, the rainfall is high (low), i.e. 10 % above (below) average from the long-term mean and this wet or dry condition occur both during ENSO and Non-ENSO phases. The Non-ENSO year dry or wet composites are also focused in detail to understand, where do the anomalous winds come from unlike in the ENSO case. The moisture transport is coherent with the changes in the spatial pattern of AISMR and large-scale feature in the 20CR dataset. Recent 50-year trend (1951-2000) is also analyzed from various available observational and reanalysis datasets to see the influence of Indo-Pacific SST and moist processes on the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trend. Apart from the Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), the moisture convergence and moisture transport among India (IND), Equatorial Indian Ocean (IOC) and tropical western pacific (WNP) is also important in modifying the wet or dry cycles over India. The mutual interaction among IOC, WNP and IND in seasonal timescales is significant in modifying wet and dry cycles over the Indian region and the seasonal anomalies.

  18. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1607 (CAPSTONE Wake Island PRIMNM (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-08-25 to 2016-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in and around the Wake Island Unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). Operations...

  19. Evolutionary history of a vanishing radiation: isolation-dependent persistence and diversification in Pacific Island partulid tree snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwan; Li, Jingchun; Churchill, Celia K C; Foighil, Diarmaid Ó

    2014-09-24

    Partulid tree snails are endemic to Pacific high islands and have experienced extraordinary rates of extinction in recent decades. Although they collectively range across a 10,000 km swath of Oceania, half of the family's total species diversity is endemic to a single Eastern Pacific hot spot archipelago (the Society Islands) and all three partulid genera display highly distinctive distributions. Our goal was to investigate broad scale (range wide) and fine scale (within-Society Islands) molecular phylogenetic relationships of the two widespread genera, Partula and Samoana. What can such data tell us regarding the genesis of such divergent generic distribution patterns, and nominal species diversity levels across Oceania? Museum, captive (zoo) and contemporary field specimens enabled us to genotype 54 of the ~120 recognized species, including many extinct or extirpated taxa, from 14 archipelagoes. The genera Partula and Samoana are products of very distinct diversification processes. Originating at the western edge of the familial range, the derived genus Samoana is a relatively recent arrival in the far eastern archipelagoes (Society, Austral, Marquesas) where it exhibits a stepping-stone phylogenetic pattern and has proven adept at both intra-and inter- archipelago colonization. The pronounced east-west geographic disjunction exhibited by the genus Partula stems from a much older long-distance dispersal event and its high taxonomic diversity in the Society Islands is a product of a long history of within-archipelago diversification. The central importance of isolation for partulid lineage persistence and diversification is evident in time-calibrated phylogenetic trees that show that remote archipelagoes least impacted by continental biotas bear the oldest clades and/or the most speciose radiations. In contemporary Oceania, that isolation is being progressively undermined and these tree snails are now directly exposed to introduced continental predators

  20. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  1. The Influence of Basaltic Islands on the Oceanic REE Distribution: A Case Study From the Tropical South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Molina-Kescher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Earth Elements (REEs have been widely used to investigate marine biogeochemical processes as well as the sources and mixing of water masses. However, there are still important uncertainties about the global aqueous REE cycle with respect to the contributions of highly reactive basaltic minerals originating from volcanic islands and the role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD. Here we present dissolved REE concentrations obtained from waters at the island-ocean interface (including SGD, river, lagoon and coastal waters from the island of Tahiti and from three detailed open ocean profiles on the Manihiki Plateau (including neodymium (Nd isotope compositions, which are located in ocean currents downstream of Tahiti. Tahitian fresh waters have highly variable REE concentrations that likely result from variable water–rock interaction and removal by secondary minerals. In contrast to studies on other islands, the SGD samples do not exhibit elevated REE concentrations but have distinctive REE distributions and Y/Ho ratios. The basaltic Tahitian rocks impart a REE pattern to the waters characterized by a middle REE enrichment, with a peak at europium similar to groundwaters and coastal waters of other volcanic islands in the Pacific. However, the basaltic island REE characteristics (with the exception of elevated Y/Ho ratios are lost during transport to the Manihiki Plateau within surface waters that also exhibit highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. Our new data demonstrate that REE concentrations are enriched in Tahitian coastal water, but without multidimensional sampling, basaltic island Nd flux estimates range over orders of magnitude from relatively small to globally significant. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW loses its characteristic Nd isotopic signature (−6 to −9 around the Manihiki Plateau as a consequence of mixing with South Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Water (SEqPIW, which shows more positive values (−1 to

  2. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Actual and potential renewable energy uptake in South Pacific countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Survey was conducted on the present situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system and the potential installation in Pacific Island countries. As to the preset situation of the introduction of photovoltaic power system, systems installed in Melanesia were 1,699 sets and 529,450 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Micronesia were 1,352 sets and 107,224 Wp in capacity. Systems installed in Polynesia were 2,942 sets and 1,171,420 Wp in capacity. By country, the number of those installed in French Polynesia was the largest, 1,749 sets. The number in each of the other countries was approximately 0-500 sets. The amount of the potential installation was calculated from the number of households with no electricity service and the average electricity consumption amount per household. As a result, the amount of the potential installation was 74,328 kWh/d in Papua New Guinea, 11,045 kWh/d in the Fiji Islands, 8,136 kWh/d in the Solomon Islands, 2,870 kWh/d in New Caledonia, and 2,708 kWh/d in Tonga. However, schools, remote health clinics, etc. were excluded in the calculation. Further, all the rural households with no electricity service were converted to those to be served by photovoltaic power system, but in some locations the use of hydroelectric power generation and diesel generator may be more appropriate. (NEDO)

  3. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  4. Issues associated with the emergence of coeliac disease in the Asia–Pacific region: a working party report of the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makharia, Govind K; Mulder, Chris J J; Goh, Khean Lee; Ahuja, Vineet; Bai, Julio C; Catassi, Carlo; Green, Peter H R; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Lundin, Knut E A; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha; Rawat, Ramakant; Sharma, Hanish; Sood, Ajit; Watanabe, Chikako; Gibson, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    Once thought to be uncommon in Asia, coeliac disease (CD) is now being increasingly recognized in Asia–Pacific region. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. In recognition of such heterogeneity of knowledge and awareness, the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology commissioned a working party to address the key issues in emergence of CD in Asia. A working group consisting of members from Asia–Pacific region, Europe, North America, and South America reviewed relevant existing literature with focus on those issues specific to Asia–Pacific region both in terms of what exists and what needs to be done. The working group identified the gaps in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CD in Asian–Pacific region and recommended the following: to establish prevalence of CD across region, increase in awareness about CD among physicians and patients, and recognition of atypical manifestations of CD. The challenges such as variability in performance of serological tests, lack of population-specific cut-offs values for a positive test, need for expert dietitians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, need for gluten-free infrastructure in food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations were also emphasized. Although absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years or decades. It is thus appropriate that medical community across the Asia–Pacific region define extent of problem and get prepared to handle impending epidemic of CD.

  5. Species richness of squamate reptiles from two islands in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Salinas, Uriel; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Mata-Silva, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Cocinas and San Pancho Islands, located in the Bay of Chamela, Jalisco, México, are two of the few remaining island ecosystems with little ecological disturbance. We studied both islands aiming to assess their reptile richness. Because the environment in Chamela is seasonal, we conducted biodiversity surveys during six samplings: three in the dry season and three in rainy season. We found a total of seven reptile species on Cocinas and San Pancho Islands representing the first description of ...

  6. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  7. Invasive exotic plants in the tropical Pacific Islands: Patterns of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Denslow; J.C. Space; P.A. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic islands are good model systems with which to explore factors affecting exotic species diversity. Islands vary in size, topography, substrate type, degree of isolation, native species diversity, history, human population characteristics, and economic development. Moreover, islands are highly vulnerable to exotic species establishment. We used AICc analyses of...

  8. A systems-based approach to transform climate education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. English is the common language of instruction in all jurisdictions, but is not the language spoken at home for most students outside of Hawai'i. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. PCEP has developed a regional network, tools, and an emerging plan to systemically transform K-14 climate education in the USAPI. More than 50 organizations and networks have joined the partnership. These partners include all of the region's state departments of education, major universities, and community colleges, and a wide range of local partners, particularly conservation organizations. One of PCEP's major tools is general, multidisciplinary K-14 climate science education framework that organizes major underlying concepts and skills within appropriate grade-span progressions. This framework is based largely upon prior national science and climate literacy work and the National Research Council's recent document "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The PCEP climate education framework has an Earth System Science foundation that is directly applicable in all locations, and it also has orientations that are

  9. Assessment of Gestational Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors and Outcomes in the Pacific Island Nation of Palau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mindy S; Cash, Haley L; Roseveare, Christine; Reklai, Rumi; Basilius, Kliu; Madraisau, Sherilynn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Palau and across the Pacific Islands is a serious public health issue that is currently understudied. Methods This study was a retrospective cohort study that included 1730 women with a single live birth in Palau between January 2007 and December 2014. Results The overall prevalence of GDM among women in Palau was 5.5%. Women who were older (≥30 years) or obese (BMI ≥30) were more likely to have GDM than women who were younger (monitoring and treatment of women with GDM should be evaluated and strengthened in order to reduce neonatal mortality rates in Palau.

  10. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  11. Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of Dengue in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Maite; Roche, Claudine; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Aaskov, John; Viallon, Jérôme; Marfel, Maria; Lalita, Paul; Elbourne-Duituturaga, Salanieta; Chanteau, Suzanne; Musso, Didier; Pavlin, Boris I; Harrison, Dustin; Kool, Jacob L; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2012-09-01

    In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  13. Wintertime component of the THORPEX Pacific-Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Toth, Z.; Asuma, Y.; Reynolds, C.; Lngland, R.; Szunyogh, I.; Colle, B.; Chang, E.; Doyle, C.; Kats, A.

    2009-04-01

    The winter component of the T-PARC is an international field project that aims at improving high impact weather event forecasts for North America. The main objective is to understand how perturbations from the tropics, Eurasia and polar fronts travel through waveguide and turn into high impact weather events. Through adaptive observations by using manned aircrafts (NOAA G-IV and US Air force C-130s) and Russian rawinsonde network over data sparse regions, it is expected that accurate initial conditions will improve the numerical weather forecasts. Non-adaptive aircraft measurements over the Pacific Rim and part of India are also deployed through E-AMDAR program, which is expected to improve the background field over Asia where perturbations are initiated. The campaign is led by NOAA and joined by agencies and universities from US, Canada, Mexico, Japan, ECWMF, and Russia. While most observational data will be assimilated by operational centers to improve real time numerical weather predictions, post field studies will focus on aspects such as: data impact on forecast and analysis, dry and moist processes that affect the formation and propagation of perturbations, meso-scale storm structure, error growth, forecast "busts" under certain atmospheric regimes, and socio-economic applications such as costs and benefits of improved forecasts and their use by the public for high impact weather events. In particular, a Winter Olympics demonstration project (February 12 - February 28) is expected to be a test bed during winter T-PARC for real user outreach and application purposes. Effectiveness of existing targeting methods as well as new targeting methods in the 3-5 day lead time range will be pursued and other aspects related to data assimilation and numerical forecasts (both deterministic and ensemble forecasts) will be investigated within this project as well.

  14. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  15. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  16. Increasing persistent haze in Beijing: potential impacts of weakening East Asian winter monsoons associated with northwestern Pacific sea surface temperature trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Beijing, the capital city of China, has encountered increasingly frequent persistent haze events (PHE. While the increased pollutant emissions are considered as the most important reason, changes in regional atmospheric circulations associated with large-scale climate warming also play a role. In this study, we find a significant positive trend of PHE in Beijing for the winters from 1980 to 2016 based on updated daily observations. This trend is closely related to an increasing frequency of extreme anomalous southerly episodes in North China, a weakened East Asian trough in the mid-troposphere and a northward shift of the East Asian jet stream in the upper troposphere. These conditions together depict a weakened East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM system, which is then found to be associated with an anomalous warm, high-pressure system in the middle–lower troposphere over the northwestern Pacific. A practical EAWM index is defined as the seasonal meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa in winter over North China. Over the period 1900–2016, this EAWM index is positively correlated with the sea surface temperature anomalies over the northwestern Pacific, which indicates a wavy positive trend, with an enhanced positive phase since the mid-1980s. Our results suggest an observation-based mechanism linking the increase in PHE in Beijing with large-scale climatic warming through changes in the typical regional atmospheric circulation.

  17. Decadal trends in tropospheric ozone over East Asian Pacific rim during 1998-2007: Implications for emerging Asian emissions impacts and comparison to European and North American records (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, H.; Ohara, T.; Uno, I.

    2010-12-01

    We examine springtime ozone trends at nine remote locations in East Asian Pacific rim during the last decade (1998-2007). The observed decadal ozone trends are relatively small at surface sites but are substantially larger at a mountainous site. The level and increasing rate of ozone at the mountainous site are both higher than those observed at background sites in Europe and North America. We use a regional chemistry-transport model to explore the observed changes and how changes in Asian anthropogenic emissions have contributed to the observed increasing trends. The model with yearly-dependent regional emissions successfully reproduces the levels, variability, and interannual variations of ozone at all the surface sites. It predicts increasing trends at the mountainous site, suggesting that increasing Asian anthropogenic emissions account for about half the observed increase. However, the discrepancy between the observation and model results after 2003 (the time of largest emission increase) suggests significant underestimation of the actual growth of the Asian anthropogenic emissions and/or incompleteness in the modeling of pollution export from continental Asia. These findings imply that improving emissions inventory and transport scheme is needed to better understand rapidly evolving tropospheric ozone in East Asia and its potential climatic and environmental impacts.

  18. Phytoplankton growth response to Asian dust addition in the northwest Pacific Ocean versus the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Shi, Zongbo; Shi, Jinhui; Yu, Yang; Meng, Ling; Guo, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, five on-board microcosm experiments were performed in the subtropical gyre, the Kuroshio Extension region of the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO), and the Yellow Sea (YS) in order to investigate phytoplankton growth following the addition of artificially modified mineral dust (AM dust) and various nutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), N + P, and N + P + Fe). The two experiments carried out with AM-dust addition in the subtropical gyre showed a maximum chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration increase of 1.7- and 2.8-fold, while the cell abundance of large-sized phytoplankton ( > 5 µm) showed a 1.8- and 3.9-fold increase, respectively, relative to the controls. However, in the Kuroshio Extension region and the YS, the increases in maximum Chl a and cell abundance of large-sized phytoplankton following AM-dust addition were at most 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold larger than those in the controls, respectively. A net conversion efficiency index (NCEI) newly proposed in this study, size-fractionated Chl a, and the abundance of large-sized phytoplankton were analysed to determine which nutrients contribute to supporting phytoplankton growth. Our results demonstrate that a combination of nutrients, N-P or N + P + Fe, is responsible for phytoplankton growth in the subtropical gyre following AM-dust addition. Single nutrient addition, i.e., N in the Kuroshio Extension region and P or N in the YS, controls the phytoplankton growth following AM-dust addition. In the AM-dust-addition experiments, in which the increased N-P or P was identified to determine phytoplankton growth, the dissolved inorganic P from AM dust (8.6 nmol L-1) was much lower than the theoretically estimated minimum P demand (˜ 20 nmol L-1) for phytoplankton growth. These observations suggest that additional supply augments the bioavailable P stock in incubated seawater with AM-dust addition, most likely due to an enhanced solubility of P from AM dust or the remineralization of the dissolved

  19. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  20. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  3. "Chinese-Mexicans" and "Blackest Asians": Filipino American Youth Resisting the Racial Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Erica D.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…

  4. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  5. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis in the Pacific...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  8. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  9. Scurvy in a tropical paradise? Evaluating the possibility of infant and adult vitamin C deficiency in the Lapita skeletal sample of Teouma, Vanuatu, Pacific islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hallie R; Kinaston, Rebecca; Halcrow, Siân E; Foster, Aimee; Spriggs, Matthew; Bedford, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The Neolithic colonisation of the Pacific islands was one of the most challenging migration events in human history. The regions east of the Solomon Islands were colonised relatively recently by a people known as the Lapita. The Lapita brought with them a 'transported landscape' of domesticated plants and animals that had to be established upon arrival for the survival of these fledgling communities. Colonisation of these previously uninhabited islands was potentially perilous, and could leave colonisers vulnerable to periods of resource stress. The largest cemetery sample of Lapita people from the site of Teouma in Vanuatu offers a unique opportunity to assess the impact of colonisation on the health of pioneering populations. This paper explores the possibility that Teouma people experienced vitamin C deficiency as one of the consequences of the agricultural subsistence practices during the initial phases of island colonisation. Skeletal lesions in infants and adults indicative of scurvy suggest that initial colonisation phases in the Pacific islands involved precarious times involving deficiencies of key nutrients. Colonisation of the Pacific islands may share similar frameworks and problems as periods of subsistence transition in other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific. General dietary overlap (GO was quantified and relative biomass, relative frequency and the leaf litter percentage in the guts were used to establish the relative importance of each taxon in the shredding guild. Various indices were used to identify the spatial arrangement (i.e. contagious or random of each taxon and shredding guild among streams. We identified 31 shredding taxa that were divided into specialist-shredders (14 taxa, generalist-shredders (10, and collector-shredders (7. There was a complete GO (0.75, p<0.001 for the guild. Cockroaches (Epilampra were the most represented shredders due to the greatest contribution to guild total biomass and to the highest content of leaf litter in their guts. These organisms were more important than shrimps and crabs in terms of abundance and biomass in leaf pack samples. Potimirin shrimps ranked second and Stenochironomus midges ranked third. Among aquatic insects, other secondarily important species were Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera, Macrelmis, Anchytarsus and Tetraglosa (Coleoptera. Ten taxa exhibited contagious spatial pattern and twenty-one exhibited a random distribution. Resource distribution (i.e., leaf packs between streams was random too. The guild was contagiously distributed, but this result could be highly influenced by the taxa with contagious distribution. Mean abundance, richness and mean biomass of shredders were not significantly correlated with any of the environmental variables

  11. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  12. Patterns at Multi-Spatial Scales on Tropical Island Stream Insect Assemblages: Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Eastern Pacific island streams (TEPis differ from other neotropical streams in their rainy climate, mixed sedimentary-volcanic geology and faunal composition. Yet, their relationships between environmental characteristics and stream biota remain unexplored. We analyzed the environmental subject at three spatial scales using a fully nested sampling design (6 streams, 2 reaches within each stream, 2 habitats within each reach, and 4 replicates per habitat on Gorgona Island (Colombia. Sampling was carried out in two months with contrasting rainfall during early 2009. We studied the spatial variation of assemblage composition and density along with 27 independent variables within two contrasting rainfall conditions. Five stream-scale variables, two reach-scale variables, and five habitat-scale variables were selected using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A partial CCA showed that the total variance explained was 13.98%, while stream- and habitat-scale variables explained the highest proportion of the variance (5.74 and 5.01%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen (as affected by rainfall, high-density use zone (a management category, and sedimentary geology were the best descriptors of insect assemblages. The two latter descriptors affected fine-scale variables such as total benthic organic matter and gravel substratum, respectively. A Nested ANOVA showed significant differences in total density and richness among streams and habitats, and significant differences between the two sampling months regardless of the spatial scale. The evenness showed a significant stream- and habitat-dependent temporal variability. These results suggested that rainfall regime in Gorgona Island might be a driver of insect assemblage dynamics mediated by water chemistry and substratum properties. Spatial assemblage variability here is greater within habitats (among samples, and a minor fraction occurs at habitat- and stream-scales, while no longitudinal

  13. Aloha Teachers: Teacher Autonomy Support Promotes Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Students' Motivation, School Belonging, Course-Taking and Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Among 110 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, teacher autonomy support in 9th grade significantly predicted intrinsic motivation for math in 9th grade as well as math course-taking over the next 2 years, both of which in turn significantly predicted math achievement by 11th grade. In a second model, teacher autonomy support was positively…

  14. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Maori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, M.; Bosman, A.; Wagemakers, A.; Kira, A.; Paton, C.; Cowie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Maori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a

  15. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  16. Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schemm, Jae Kyung E. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Long-lead prediction of waxing and waning of the Western North Pacific (WNP)-East Asian (EA) summer monsoon (WNP-EASM) precipitation is a major challenge in seasonal time-scale climate prediction. In this study, deficiencies and potential for predicting the WNP-EASM precipitation and circulation one or two seasons ahead were examined using retrospective forecast data for the 26-year period of 1981-2006 from two operational couple models which are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Center (BMRC) Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). While both coupled models have difficulty in predicting summer mean precipitation anomalies over the region of interest, even for a 0-month lead forecast, they are capable of predicting zonal wind anomalies at 850 hPa several months ahead and, consequently, satisfactorily predict summer monsoon circulation indices for the EA region (EASMI) and for the WNP region (WNPSMI). It should be noted that the two models' multi-model ensemble (MME) reaches 0.40 of the correlation skill for the EASMI with a January initial condition and 0.75 for the WNPSMI with a February initial condition. Further analysis indicates that prediction reliability of the EASMI is related not only to the preceding El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but also to simultaneous local SST variability. On other hand, better prediction of the WNPSMI is accompanied by a more realistic simulation of lead-lag relationship between the index and ENSO. It should also be noted that current coupled models have difficulty in capturing the interannual variability component of the WNP-EASM system which is not correlated with typical ENSO variability. To improve the long-lead seasonal prediction of the WNP-EASM precipitation, a statistical postprocessing was developed based on the multiple linear regression method. The method utilizes the MME prediction of the EASMI and

  17. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  18. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  19. Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 2 Years - U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands, April-October, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippins, Ashley; Murthy, Neil; Meghani, Mehreen; Solsman, Amy; Apaisam, Carter; Basilius, Merlyn; Eckert, Maribeth; Judicpa, Peter; Masunu, Yolanda; Pistotnik, Kelsey; Pedro, Daisy; Sasamoto, Jeremy; Underwood, J Michael

    2018-05-25

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).* CDC collaborates with USAPI immunization programs to monitor vaccination coverage. In 2016, † USAPI immunization programs and CDC piloted a method for estimating up-to-date status among children aged 2 years using medical record abstraction to ascertain regional vaccination coverage. This was the first concurrent assessment of childhood vaccination coverage across five USAPI jurisdictions (American Samoa; Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia [FSM]; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands [CNMI]; Republic of the Marshall Islands [RMI]; and Republic of Palau). § Differences in vaccination coverage between main and outer islands ¶ were assessed for two jurisdictions where data were adequate.** Series coverage in this report includes the following doses of vaccines: ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); ≥3 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); ≥3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine; ≥3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine; and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); i.e., 4:3:1:3:3:4. Coverage with ≥3 doses of rotavirus vaccine was also assessed. Completion of the recommended series of each of these vaccines †† was <90% in all jurisdictions except Palau. Coverage with the full recommended six-vaccine series (4:3:1:3:3:4) ranged from 19.5% (Chuuk) to 69.1% (Palau). In RMI and Chuuk, coverage was lower in the outer islands than in the main islands for most vaccines, with differences ranging from 0.9 to 66.8 percentage points. Medical record abstraction enabled rapid vaccination coverage assessment and timely dissemination of results to guide programmatic decision-making. Effectively monitoring vaccination coverage, coupled with implementation of data-driven interventions

  20. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese