WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian pacific islanders

  1. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  2. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  3. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  4. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Hispanic or Latino Population Health of Mexican American Population Health of White non-Hispanic Population More data Health, United States, trend tables with data for Asian or Pacific Islander population Tables of Summary Health Statistics from ...

  5. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  6. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  7. Dual identity among gay Asian Pacific Islander men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Han, Chong-Suk; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the complexity associated with having two potentially conflicting social identities in the USA: being Asian Pacific Islander and being gay. Twenty-five gay Asian Pacific Islander men completed individual interviews regarding their racial and sexual identities and the intersection between the two. Data analysis revealed diversity in ways by which individuals integrated their dual identities and expressed themselves to others; pathways by which individuals combined their race and sexuality into a coherent self-concept; and strategies for maintaining harmony and balance in self understanding. Findings emphasized the role of situational factors in determining the salience and relevance of each component of identity. Their experiences are discussed in the light of theoretical models of psychosocial development and frameworks for understanding self-concept complexity.

  8. Vulnerability in the Asian or Pacific Islander immigrant child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambol, Patricia; Gambol, Mary

    2002-12-01

    The influx of Asian or Pacific Islander immigrants has created a challenge for United States public schools. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it elucidates the unique situation the Asian or Pacific Islander child faces in public schools by using a case study and a vulnerability model. Its second purpose is to provide school nurses with important tools to guide them in caring for these vulnerable children. The tools consist of an assessment questionnaire for school nurses to use when they measure a child's vulnerability level and tips to improve communication with non-English-speaking children. School nurses can use the information obtained from these tools to initiate primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention.

  9. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low HDL-C than Hispanic adults. ©2016 American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. Asian/ ... online publication at www.heart.org/statistics The American Heart Association requests that this document be cited as follows: ...

  10. Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses workforce: issues and challenges for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, A; Louie, K B

    1996-01-01

    The trend of high incidence of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, Hepatitis B, and tuberculosis among the Asian/Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) will significantly affect the increased need for culturally competent care for this particular ethnic group. There is a need to increase the numbers of Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses in the future workforce to meet the health needs of this heterogenous and diversified population. Current workforce data on the Asian/Pacific Islander American nurses is misleading, since data collection aggregates all APIAs into a single category, with disregard to the various subgroupings of this large ethnic group.

  11. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem Alcohol abuse is a common problem in the ... were APIs. Among all admissions, 60 percent named alcohol as a problem. However, among API admissions, 64 percent named alcohol ...

  12. Asian American and Pacific Islander Students: Equity and the Achievement Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valerie Ooka Pang; Peggy P. Han; Jennifer M. Pang

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied more than 1 million Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) and White seventh graders in a statewide California testing program between 2003 and 2008, examining their reading and math achievement...

  13. Body image and self-esteem among Asian, Pacific Islander, and White college students in Hawaii and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latner, Janet D; Knight, Tess; Illingworth, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    Body image and its relationship to self-esteem was examined among Asian, Pacific Islander, and White women and men from Hawaii and Australia (n = 172). Although Pacific Islander and White participants had higher body mass indices than Asians, Pacific Islanders were more satisfied than Asians with their health and more satisfied than Asians and Whites with their appearance. Thus, higher body weight and greater body satisfaction may co-occur among Pacific Islanders, whereas lower weight and lower body satisfaction may co-occur among Asians. The findings suggest different levels of risk for body image dissatisfaction, and its associated psychological consequences, across ethnic groups.

  14. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  15. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  16. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dân Á Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis B: Tips for Asian & Pacific Islander Americans Did ... to liver failure and liver cancer? What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease spread ...

  17. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Bratton, Sally I.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed were the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander (API) California community college students who took the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey. This was done to identify characteristics related to sexual behavior and choice of birth control and examine the association between condom use and history…

  18. Breaking the Model Minority Stereotype: An Exploration of Asian American and Pacific Islander Student Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…

  19. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  20. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of screening and vaccinating Asian and Pacific Islander adults for hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, David W; Tan, Daniel; So, Samuel K; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2007-10-02

    As many as 10% of Asian and Pacific Islander adults in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and up to two thirds are unaware that they are infected. Without proper medical management and antiviral therapy, up to 25% of Asian and Pacific Islander persons with chronic HBV infection will die of liver disease. To assess the cost-effectiveness of 4 HBV screening and vaccination programs for Asian and Pacific Islander adults in the United States. Markov model with costs and benefits discounted at 3%. Published literature and expert opinion. Asian and Pacific Islander adults (base-case age, 40 years; sensitivity analysis conducted on ages 20 to 60 years). Lifetime. U.S. societal. A universal vaccination strategy in which all individuals are given a 3-dose vaccination series; a screen-and-treat strategy, in which individuals are given blood tests to determine whether they are chronically infected, and infected persons are monitored and treated; a screen, treat, and ring vaccinate strategy, in which all individuals are tested for chronic HBV infection and close contacts of infected persons are screened and vaccinated if needed; and a screen, treat, and vaccinate strategy, in which all individuals are tested and then vaccinated with a 3-dose series if needed. In all cases, persons found to be chronically infected are monitored and treated if indicated. Costs (2006 U.S. dollars), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness. Compared with the status quo, the screen-and-treat strategy has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $36,088 per QALY gained. The screen, treat, and ring vaccinate strategy gains more QALYs than the screen and treat strategy and incurs modest incremental costs, leading to incremental cost-effectiveness of $39,903 per QALY gained compared with the screen and treat strategy. The universal vaccination and screen, treat, and vaccinate strategies were weakly dominated by the other 2

  2. Cultural considerations in understanding family violence among Asian American Pacific Islander families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Jennifer M; Lee, Hwayun H

    2004-01-01

    There has been much research conducted in the area of family violence, however, there is a paucity of research specifically addressing family violence in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. Because AAPIs are regarded as the model minority, many have the misconception that family violence does not exist in this population. This article examines Asian cultural beliefs and values to gain a better understanding of Asian attitudes towards family violence. A more in-depth exploration of the Cambodian and Vietnamese cultures regarding attitudes towards violence is included because of the higher tolerance of family violence among these 2 cultures than other Asian cultures. Public health nurses working with AAPI families can provide culturally appropriate care by taking Asian attitudes, values, and beliefs into account when developing nursing interventions with victims of abuse.

  3. Asian and Pacific Island elders: issues for social work practice and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C; Broderick, A

    1994-05-01

    The highly diverse Asian and Pacific Island population in the United States doubled in size from 1980 to 1990 and is now the nation's fastest-growing minority group. This article describes the Asian and Pacific Island elderly population and its ethnic diversity, geographic location, gender ratios, income and poverty, health status, service utilization, and cultural values and beliefs. Also presented are the specific challenges for social workers in practice settings in designing and providing culturally relevant services and programs. A number of suggestions for social work education to meet the needs of this growing aging population are offered, including the development of an ethnogerontological and multicultural social work curriculum and the critical need for data on this population.

  4. Drinking patterns and drinking problems among Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makimoto, K

    1998-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly investigating the drinking behavior and associated consequences among Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States. Among adolescents, APIs generally have lower rates of alcohol consumption and appear to be at lower risk for alcohol abuse compared with other ethnic groups. Similarly, the rates of drinking and heavy drinking have been found to be lower among API college students than among other ethnic groups. Among adult Asian-Americans, Japanese-Americans have the highest and Chinese-Americans have the lowest lifetime prevalence of drinking and heavy drinking. Southeast Asians (e.g., Vietnamese) living in the United States appear to be at high risk for heavy drinking. Numerous factors help determine the drinking patterns of APIs, including their economic status, educational attainment, and degree of acculturation as well as genetic and environmental factors, such as drinking norms and alcohol availability.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  7. The burden of liver cancer in Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Keegan, Theresa H M; Gomez, Scarlett L; Le, Gem M; Clarke, Christina A; So, Samuel K S; Glaser, Sally L

    2007-05-15

    To the authors' knowledge, no previous U.S. study has examined time trends in the incidence rate of liver cancer in the high-risk Asian/Pacific Islander population. In this study, liver cancer incidence trends were evaluated in Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese men and women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area of California between 1990 and 2004. Populations at risk were estimated by using the cohort-component demographic method. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in age-adjusted incidence rates of primary liver cancer among Asians/Pacific Islanders in the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were calculated by using joinpoint regression analysis. The incidence rate of liver cancer between 1990 and 2004 did not change significantly in Asian/Pacific Islander men or women overall. However, the incidence rate declined, although the decline was not statistically significant, among Chinese men (APC, -1.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -3.4-0.3%), Japanese men (APC, -4.9%; 95% CI, -10.7-1.2%), and Japanese women (APC, -3.6%; 95% CI, -8.9-2%). Incidence rates remained consistently high for Vietnamese, Korean, and Filipino men and women. Trends in the incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma were comparable to those for liver cancer. Although disparities in liver cancer incidence between Asians/Pacific Islanders and other racial/ethnic groups diminished between the period from 1990 through 1994 and the period from 2000 through 2004, the disparities among Asian subgroups increased. Liver cancer continues to affect Asian/Pacific Islander Americans disproportionately, with consistently high incidence rates in most subgroups. Culturally targeted prevention methods are needed to reduce the high rates of liver cancer in this growing population in the U.S. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society

  8. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  9. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  11. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  12. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... centuries, America's story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed... honor all Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands, we must acknowledge the...

  13. Exploring access to cancer control services for Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Foong, Heng L; Lee, Susan W; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen Ngoc; Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jennifer S

    2004-01-01

    During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.

  14. Hearing our voices: assessing HIV prevention needs among Asian and Pacific Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, L S; Maula, E C; Bush, E

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on the Asian-Pacific Islander (API) community and changes in their behavior due to AIDS, (b) identify perception of risk, HIV risk behaviors, factors contributing to those behaviors, barriers to HIV prevention, and the types of prevention programs that would benefit their community, and (c) describe culturally appropriate considerations when designing HIV prevention strategies for API women. Thirty API adults participated in three different groups. Focus group interviewing methods were used, guided by the Health Belief Model. The women had numerous concerns about HIV that placed them at risk for infection, such as their inability to talk with their sexual partners about condom use due to the cultural and taboo nature of sexual topics. All groups concluded that for HIV prevention interventions to be successful, they must be tailored to the cultural and specific needs of API women.

  15. Medicaid Expansion and Healthcare Access: Lessons from Asian American and Pacific Islander Experiences in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; John, Iyanrick; Chung, Corina; Tseng, Winston; Lee, Juliet P

    2017-08-01

    Medicaid coverage increases access to care and improves health outcomes for disadvantaged populations. Yet disparities in enrollment and access to care persist. To understand the facilitators and barriers of Medicaid enrollment and accessing care under the Affordable Care Act for disadvantaged Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted. Informational barriers to accessing care were pervasive among most new enrollees. Immigrants with limited English proficiency experienced disproportionate difficulties in enrolling and accessing care post enrollment. The simplified, income-based Medicaid eligibility streamlined the enrollment process, but system errors in determining Medicaid eligibility denied coverage for some eligible individuals. To improve access to care, health plans, government agencies, and community organizations might coordinate more closely. Federal and state laws that mandate language assistance by health plans might be enforced to improve access to care for linguistic minorities.

  16. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander health: national organizations leading community research initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Corina, Chung; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations. Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research.

  17. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  18. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  19. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  20. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  1. PTSD and postpartum mental health in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Morland, Leslie; Matsu, Courtenay; Wright, Tricia

    2009-12-01

    To better understand the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postpartum health, this study investigates the relationship of PTSD and associated perinatal behavioral risk factors in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 54 women (18-35 years of age) were interviewed at their postpartum clinic visit for PTSD, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance use. PTSD and subclinical PTSD during the postpartum period were associated with behavioral health risks, with PTSD at the onset of pregnancy being a predictor of postpartum PTSD by a factor of three. Women with PTSD and subclinical PTSD were more likely to also experience stress (73%), anxiety (64%), and depression (73%) during the postpartum period compared to those without PTSD. No significant differences were found by ethnicity for postpartum PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity or PTSD status, one in four women in the sample had a probable mental health disorder or risk behavior of some type during the postpartum period. Given the rates of associated mental health risks with PTSD, these findings suggest further research examining the fluctuations of PTSD symptomatology throughout each pregnancy trimester to determine its role as a potential mediator during the perinatal period. Further research is also needed to elucidate the role of ethnic or cultural differences in trauma and PTSD and perinatal health.

  2. Cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander college students: implications for college health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans (AA) and Pacific Islanders (PI) are an understudied population for health and tobacco use, which is alarming for a fast growing U.S. population. Research in smoking among AA and PI college students is limited, despite 50% of AA and 20% of PI having obtained a college degree. A cross-sectional tobacco survey was administered in a large racially diverse Southern California university (N = 490) that examined smoking behavior, psychosocial, and perceptual factors related to smoking among AA and PI compared with Caucasians. Overall, 19% of participants were smokers. The prevalence of current smoking by race was 26% PI, 19% AA, and 17% Caucasian. AA and PI are light, infrequent smokers who smoke mainly for social reasons and in social locations. Most AA and PI made quit attempts and reported intention to quit smoking. Low to moderate risk perceptions for addiction, disease and difficulty in quitting were observed. Social norms center on family influences, therefore it is recommended that cessation approaches target cigarette smoking norms within this social environment to increase perceptual risks of smoking. Smoking cessation should be placed in college health outreach programs based on culturally tailored approaches for AA and PI that target their unique smoking characteristics.

  3. Predicting the Use of Campus Counseling Services for Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White Students: Problem Severity, Gender, and Generational Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T.; Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; McIver, Stephanie D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of counseling center use among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White college students. Findings indicated that female and 2nd-generation students report the most severe difficulties. Problem severity and gender predicted counseling center use for White and Asian/Pacific…

  4. Increasing Awareness of Gynecologic Cancer Risks and Symptoms among Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Women in the US-Associated Pacific Island Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novinson, Daniel; Puckett, Mary; Townsend, Julie; Reichhardt, Martina; Tareg, Aileen; Palemar, Jennifer; Wichilib, Ritchie; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-08-27

    Background: Gynecologic cancers are common among Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (A/NH/PI) women. Prevention is important in United States associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPIJ) because there are limited resources to treat cancer. The objective of this study was to educate A/NH/PI women and providers about evidence-based interventions to prevent and control gynecologic cancers in Yap, one of four major islands comprising the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This was done through a partnership between Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer national campaign and the Yap comprehensive cancer control program, both funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Methods: Inside Knowledge educational materials were obtained from the CDC website and used in facilitated educational sessions. Sessions were planned according to leading health education theories, and were implemented and led by local Yap public health practitioners. Pre- and post-session surveys were used to assess changes in gynecologic cancer awareness, confidence and behavioral intentions related to prevention/early detection for gynecologic cancer. Results: Twenty-nine providers and 326 adult women participated in sessions. All participants demonstrated significant increases in knowledge across all measured domains post-session. Public knowledge that HPV causes cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer increased from 4.9% pre-session to 51.4% post-session (pwomen identified smoking as a cervical cancer risk factor post-session (increased from 53.8% to 98.7% [pconfident in their gynecologic cancer knowledge pre-session compared to 91.7% post-session. Conclusion: Targeted education about gynecologic cancer symptoms and risk factors can be effective at increasing awareness, behavioral intention, confidence and knowledge. These increases can lead to more widespread prevention of these five cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  6. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  7. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

  8. Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non–Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n =43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1,332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. PMID:21238989

  9. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  10. HIV risk and prevention among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: listen to our stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don; Soma, Toho; Bao, Daniel; Vajrabukka, Alberto; Crisostomo, Vincent

    2003-02-01

    Despite increasing need for HIV prevention research and intervention programs, the voices and stories of Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) have remained absent from HIV prevention literature. Five focus groups with API MSM (N = 38) were conducted to identify psychological, social, and cultural factors related to HIV risk and protection. Six themes were identified based on focus group discussion: (a) dual-identity status, (b) coming out and disclosure issues, (c) relationships and dating, (d) substance use, (e) sexual risk reduction strategies, and (f) health and social services. Narrative data indicate that multilevel HIV prevention intervention strategies are necessary for addressing the unique psychosocial and behavioral HIV risk factors among API MSM, such as dual stigma stemming from homophobia and racism, discomfort with sexuality, power dynamics and stereotypes in relationships with White men, substance use, and low utilization of health and social services.

  11. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  12. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  13. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by...

  14. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... overcome obstacles of unemployment, poverty, and language barriers or face significant education, economic... moved across the Pacific. In today's globalized world, these bonds remain critical, reminding the United...

  15. The effect of a cognitive–behavioral intervention on diet and exercise among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Yomogida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% to 95% of all diabetic cases with Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders particularly at risk. The purpose was to assess the effects of a cognitive–behavioral intervention (CBI on diet and exercise among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. Using a double-blinded, two-arm randomized clinical trial (n = 207, data on diet and exercise were analyzed before and after a 6-week CBI. Over time, treatment group showed a decrease in kcals and increase in steps compared with control group; however, results were not statistically significant. Treatment group had lower kcals of trans-fat, saturated fat, sugar, alcohol, caffeine, and dietary fiber compared with the control group. Older subjects and females had significantly lower caloric intake (p < .01. Females exercised less and took fewer steps compared with males (p < .05. CBI may be effective in lowering calorie intake and increasing physical activity among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. Significant differences in gender and age point to the need for individualized research and treatment targeting this group.

  16. Cancer Statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2015: Convergence of incidence between males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Goding Sauer, Ann M.; Chen, Moon S.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30%–40% lower incidence and mortality rates than NHWs for all cancers combined, they have higher rates for some infection-related cancers (stomach, liver, nasopharynx).The aggregation of AANHPI subgroups conceals the diversity of these heterogeneous populations. AANHPI cancer rates vary by subgroup, with the lowest rates generally in Asian Indians/Pakistanis and the highest in Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Japanese (except for infection-related cancers). The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 due to declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. Liver cancer death rates among AANHPIs declined from 2003 to 2012, in contrast to increases in NHWs. Variation in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to risk factors including lifestyle factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. PMID:26766789

  17. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  18. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M E; Pollay, R W; Lew, R; Joseph, A M

    2002-09-01

    The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. /methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use.

  19. Validating Stages of Change for Obesogenic Behaviors Across Filipino and Other Asian-American and Pacific Islander Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A; Tagorda, M; Kim, S; Rathke, M; Nigg, C R

    2017-06-29

    Filipino adolescents are underrepresented in obesity research, although Filipinos are the second largest Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subpopulation in the USA. An understanding of how well the theories of behavior change apply to Filipino and other AAPI adolescents is critical to addressing obesogenic behaviors in these groups. This study aimed to validate the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) for physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable intake (FV) among a majority Filipino adolescent population. Adolescents in grades 9-11 (N = 159, 82.4% female) completed measures of PA and FV behaviors and PA and FV stages of change. One-way ANOVAs and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests were computed to assess the validity of the PA and FV stages of change with the respective behaviors. There was a significant effect for fruit (action > contemplation, preparation) and vegetable (maintenance, action > contemplation) intakes across the FV stages of change. There was a significant effect of strenuous PA (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation < action < maintenance) and moderate PA (precontemplation/contemplation < action, maintenance) across the PA stages of change. Some variability in associations emerged when the sample was stratified by gender. This study provides validity evidence for the TTM stages of change for FV and PA among Filipino and other AAPI adolescents. This validation, in turn, extends the generalizability of the stages of change construct to include this ethnic group and replicates other adolescent studies.

  20. The role of medical interpretation on breast and cervical cancer screening among Asian American and Pacific Islander women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women.

  1. Out and Asian: How Undocu/DACAmented Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Youth Navigate Dual Liminality in the Immigrant Rights Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Thi Dao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI represent the fastest-growing racial category in the U.S., largely due to its increasing immigration from the Asia-Pacific region (AAJC 2015. Of the 10.9 million undocumented immigrants residing in the U.S., 14% (1.5 million are from Asia (Migration Policy Institute 2014. In response to immigrant youth organizing, President Barack Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation to approximately 2 million undocumented childhood arrivals (Ibid. Yet, the unique perspectives of AAPI youth have gone unheard, and their political activities have been rendered invisible in public discourse on undocu/DACAmented youth in the immigrant rights movement. This study aims to capture political identity formation through what I coin “dual liminality” that leads to political participation for undocu/DACAmented AAPI youth. It considers how their status as undocumented or DACA, as being marginalized from both mainstream and co-ethnic claims to belonging, helped them form a collective political identity and engage in political activities. The use of strategic storytelling (Polletta 2006 throughout the process of their political development also led to their return to organize co-ethnic communities against internalized stereotypes of both “Model Minority” and “Yellow Peril”. This study involves 12 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with politically active AAPI, ages 20–26, from four major cities on the East Coast, conducted between 2014 and 2015. The interviews demonstrate how these youths’ choices to reveal their status shape their collective identity formation that leads to their political engagement. Through strategic storytelling, they use their dual liminality to shape their narrative framing in both the immigrant rights and in AAPI communities, enhancing their political participation across inter-racial boundaries.

  2. Key Factors in Obstetric Delivery Decision-Making among Asian and Pacific Islander Women by English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chevelle Ma; Guo, Mary; Miyamura, Jill; Chang, Ann; Nelson-Hurwitz, Denise C; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-10-01

    Childbirth is the most common reason women are hospitalized in the United States. Understanding (1) how expectant mothers gather information to decide where to give birth, and (2) who helps make that decision, provides critical health communication and decision-making insights. Diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) perspectives on such topics are understudied, particularly among those with limited English proficiency (LEP). LEP is defined as having a limited ability to read, write, speak, or understand English. To address this research gap, we interviewed 400 women (18+ years) with a recent live birth on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Participants completed a 1-hour, in-person interview in English (n=291), Tagalog (n=42), Chinese (n=36), or Marshallese (n=31). Women were asked (1) what information was most important in deciding where to deliver and why; and (2) who participated in the decision-making and why. Responses were compared by LEP (n=71; 18%) vs English-proficient (n=329; 82%) in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Both LEP and English-proficient participants reported their obstetrician as the most important source of health information. Significantly more LEP participants valued advice from family or acquaintances as important sources of information compared to English-proficient participants. The top three health decision-makers for both those with LEP and English-proficient participants were themselves, their obstetrician, and their spouse, which did not differ significantly by language proficiency. These findings provide insights into health information sources and decision-making across diverse AA/PI populations, including those with LEP, and can help direct health interventions such as disseminating patient education and healthcare quality information.

  3. Asian/Pacific Islander youth violence prevention center: interpersonal violence and deviant behaviors among youth in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeda, David T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Mark, Gregory Y

    2006-08-01

    This study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai'i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for this study's focus due to their over-representation in Hawai'i's juvenile justice system. Data for this study were gathered collaboratively by researchers, community groups, and school officials who agreed that youth violence was a community concern worthy of deeper understanding and community response. The study's process included three phases: a focus group consultation phase, field-testing, and the final risk and protective factor study. For the final study, 326 randomly selected students representing three Hawai'i public high schools were surveyed on a one-on-one basis.A smaller sample of Japanese students was also included in the study, serving as a control group. Findings illustrate the importance of disaggregating specific ethnic and gender groups within the AAPI ethnic category when examining adolescent issues. As examples, Samoan youth reported significantly higher rates of violence than other ethnic groups surveyed, and Hawaiian girls reported higher rates of substance use than Hawaiian boys, which was not commensurate with other ethnic groups. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan youth all reported significantly higher rates than Japanese on overall deviant behavior. Implications for further research and community development include enhancing minority youths' bicultural self-efficacy.

  4. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  5. Calories and sugars in boba milk tea: implications for obesity risk in Asian Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jae Eun; Green, David B; Kim, Loan

    2017-01-01

    In the last several decades, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions, and increases the risk for a host of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain kinds of cancers. Boba milk tea, first became popular in the 1990s throughout Asia, and has gained more popularity in the United States and in Europe since 2000. Currently, available nutrition data from online sites suggest this beverage contains high amounts of sugar and fat. One published nutrition study suggests that boba tea drinks are part of the larger group of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) because these beverages are usually sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This study experimentally determined the sugar composition (sucrose, fructose, glucose, and melezitose) and calorific values of boba milk tea drinks and their components. Results suggested that boba drinks fit the US Dietary Guidelines definition of a SSB. One 16-ounce boba drink exceeds the upper limit of added sugar intake recommended by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The high caloric and sugar content of boba beverages pose public health concerns as they have the potential to further exacerbate the childhood obesity epidemic. Nutrition education targeting Asian populations should give special attention to boba tea as a SSB. Also, prudent public health recommendations should be suggested for moderate consumption of these beverages. With the growing popularity of boba beverages in the United States, the findings from this study provide public health practitioners with valuable data on how boba beverages compare with other SSBs.

  6. Substance Use and Dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders and Asian Ethnic Groups in the United States: Contrasting Multiple- and Single-Race Prevalence Rates from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiian(NH), Other Pacific Islander(OPI) and Asians on a national level. Utilizing the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we compared multiple-race NH/OPI/Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug ...

  7. Psychosocial and Clinical Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Li, Dongmei; Davis, James; Arakaki, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. The objective was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life, general health perceptions, depressive symptoms, and glycemia in Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to diabetes education and support for six weekly sessions. Participants were recruited from two endocrinology practices; 207 were enrolled. The cognitive behavioral therapy group was provided self-management tools which included biofeedback, breathing exercises, and stress relievers, while the diabetes education and support group included diabetes education and group discussions. Assessments of psychosocial and clinical outcomes were obtained before and after sessions and 12 months PostSession. Differences between the two groups were examined using linear mixed-effects models with linear contrasts. The cognitive behavioral therapy group had improved depressive symptom scores from PreSession to EndSession compared to the diabetes education and support group (P < .03), but the improvement did not extend to 12 months PostSession. Similar results were observed with misguided support scores in the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (P < .03) and susceptibility in health beliefs (P < .01), but no significant differences in HbA1c improvement were found between the two groups. Both interventions improved outcomes from baseline but were not sustained for 1 year.

  8. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  9. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  10. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  11. Cigarette smoking, binge drinking, physical activity, and diet in 138 Asian American and Pacific Islander community college students in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliss, Rebecca M

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet in the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community has been neglected. A questionnaire was used to investigate these health risk behaviors in 466 students at an urban community college and results for the 138 AAPI study participants were compared to the 328 non-Asians. Results for AAPI study participants showed that twenty percent (20.3%) were current cigarette smokers and 7.7% smoked eleven or more cigarettes per day. Ten percent (10.7%) reported binge drinking on one to two days per month and 17.3% reported binge drinking on three or more days per month. With regard to physical activity, 28.8% participated in stretching, 23.6% in strength and toning, 29.4% in moderate exercise, and 25.4% in vigorous exercise. Results indicated that on the day preceding the survey, only 11.9% consumed five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, 88.4% ate no more than two servings of high-fat foods, and 37.6% consumed tofu, soymilk, or other soy food. AAPI study participants were more likely to frequently binge drink (p < .05), less likely to participate in strength and toning exercises (p < .05), and more likely to consume soy foods daily (p < .01) than non-Asian study participants. Recommendations are presented for health promotion program planning.

  12. Possible barriers to enrollment in substance abuse treatment among a diverse sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: opinions of treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2013-03-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived discrimination and its associations with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.

  14. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-06-15

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  15. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  16. US acculturation is associated with health behaviors and obesity, but not their change, with a hotel-based intervention among Asian-Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Chen, Chuhe; Williams, Andrew E; Albright, Cheryl L; Nigg, Claudio R; Oshiro, Caryn ES; Stevens, Victor J

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigration to the United States has been associated with obesity, yet the relationship of acculturation with obesity and energy balance (i.e., physical activity/dietary intake) in adults is a complex issue. Limited longitudinal data is available on immigrant Asians and Pacific Islanders. Design Analyses were conducted on baseline data and change data from baseline to 24 months in the hotel-based cluster-randomized Work, Weight and Wellness (3W) trial involving 15 control and 15 intervention hotels on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Sample Participants were adult employees of predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander ancestry who were assessed one or more times over the course of 24 months. The full sample consisted of 4236 hotel workers (about 40% of hotel workforce) at baseline, 3502 hotel workers at year one and 2963 hotel workers at the 24-month follow up. 1115 hotel workers had at least two measurements, and were included in the analysis. Intervention The 3W intervention was designed to promote weight loss via motivation and support for increases in physical activity and increased access to and consumption of healthy low fat/low calorie foods. The measure of acculturation consisted of a score that was a compilation of a participant’s age when he or she immigrated to the US/Hawaii, country of birth, language spoken at home, and years of education. Statistical Analyses We used mixed effect regression models for cross-sectional baseline models and longitudinal multilevel regression analysis of change in diet and physical activity behaviors and obesity over time using a fixed intercept. Estimates of the intervention effect are expressed as an annual rate of change for all study outcomes. Results At baseline acculturation was positively associated with body mass index, physical activity level; and fruit, meat, and sweetened drink intake level. In analyses of change over 24-months, acculturation did not significantly influence change in dietary intake or

  17. US acculturation is associated with health behaviors and obesity, but not their change, with a hotel-based intervention among Asian-Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Chen, Chuhe; Williams, Andrew E; Albright, Cheryl L; Nigg, Claudio R; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Stevens, Victor J

    2012-05-01

    Immigration to the United States has been associated with obesity, yet the relationship of acculturation to obesity and energy balance (ie, physical activity/dietary intake) in adults is a complex issue. Limited longitudinal data are available on immigrant Asians and Pacific Islanders. Analyses were conducted on baseline data and change data from baseline to 24 months in the hotel-based cluster-randomized Work, Weight and Wellness trial involving 15 control and 15 intervention hotels on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Participants were adult employees of predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander ancestry who were assessed one or more times over the course of 24 months. The full sample consisted of 4,236 hotel workers (about 40% of hotel workforce) at baseline, 3,502 hotel workers at Year 1 and 2,963 hotel workers at the 24-month follow up. One thousand one hundred fifteen hotel workers had at least two measurements, and were included in the analysis. The Work, Weight, and Wellness trial was designed to promote weight loss via motivation and support for increases in physical activity and increased access to and consumption of healthy low-fat/low-energy foods. The measure of acculturation consisted of a score that was a compilation of a participant's age when he or she immigrated to the United States, country of birth, language spoken at home, and years of education. We used mixed effect regression models for cross-sectional baseline models and longitudinal multilevel regression analysis of change in diet and physical activity behaviors and obesity over time using a random intercept. Estimates of the intervention effect are expressed as an annual rate of change for all study outcomes. At baseline acculturation was positively associated with body mass index; physical activity level; and fruit, meat, and sweetened drink intake level. In analyses of change across 24 months, acculturation did not significantly influence change in dietary intake or indexes of obesity (ie, body

  18. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... territories, all possess the common purpose of the fulfilling the American dream and leading a life bound by... discrimination—yet they excelled. Even in the darkness of the Exclusion Act and Japanese internment, Asian...

  19. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  20. Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E

    2013-05-01

    We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men's Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM.

  1. Prospective Effects of Parenting on Substance Use and Problems Across Asian/Pacific Islander and European American Youth: Tests of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.

  2. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  3. STRIVE, San Diego! Methodology of a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Enhance Healthy Dining at Asian and Pacific Islander Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, Sarah; Sadile, Mary Grace; Phung, Chantine Nguyen; Cabiles, Moana; Spackman, Sandy; Abuan, Myleen; Seligman, Fe; Araneta, Maria Rosario

    2017-12-15

    Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) populations have elevated prevalence of dietary-related chronic conditions; however, culturally relevant dietary interventions are lacking. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity, San Diego! aims to increase access to healthy food in AANHPI restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors. AANHPI restaurants in San Diego County, CA. Twenty restaurants and 600 diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1,800 diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including (1) analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; (2) providing nutrition labels on selected food items; (3) marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and (4) offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments. Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Program evaluation consists of assessment of the nutritional environment in 20 participating restaurants and surveys of customers' opinions and behaviors at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention. Fifteen restaurants have been recruited to date. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlates of sexual, ethnic, and dual identity: a study of young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri

    2011-10-01

    Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy.

  5. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged interracial differences in treatment needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chen Shi; Voisin, Dexter R.; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men’s unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social–ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social–ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. PMID:25563383

  7. Stress and Coping with Racism and Their Role on Sexual Risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, is well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (n = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 393), and Latino (n = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008–2009. Almost two-thirds (65%) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51% of the sample reported having UAI in the prior six months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI. PMID:25060122

  8. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  9. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  10. Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of racism on a wide range of health outcomes, including HIV risk, are well documented among racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. However, little is known about how men of color who have sex with men (MSM) cope with stress from racism and whether the coping strategies they employ buffer against the impact of racism on sexual risk for HIV transmission. We examined associations of stress and coping with racism with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of African American (N = 403), Asian/Pacific Islander (N = 393), and Latino (N = 400) MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, CA during 2008-2009. Almost two-thirds (65 %) of the sample reported being stressed as a consequence of racism experienced within the gay community. Overall, 51 % of the sample reported having UAI in the prior 6 months. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, nativity, marital status, sexual orientation, education, HIV serostatus, and lifetime history of incarceration, the multivariate analysis found statistically significant main effects of stress from racism and avoidance coping on UAI; no statistically significant main effects of dismissal, education/confrontation, and social-support seeking were observed. None of the interactions of stress with the four coping measures were statistically significant. Although stress from racism within the gay community increased the likelihood of engaging in UAI among MSM of color, we found little evidence that coping responses to racism buffered stress from racism. Instead, avoidance coping appears to suggest an increase in UAI.

  11. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  12. Tracing atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in the East Asian outflow to the North Pacific Rim by using hydroxy fatty acids: Year-round observations at Gosan, Jeju Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kariya, Tadashi; Bikkina, Srinivas; Fu, Pingqing; Lee, Meehye

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric transport of soil microorganisms and higher plant waxes in East Asia significantly influences the aerosol composition over the North Pacific. This study investigates the year-round atmospheric abundances of hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), tracers of soil microorganisms (β-isomers), and plant waxes (α- and ω-isomers), in total suspended particles collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during April 2001 to March 2002. These hydroxy FAs showed a pronounced seasonality, higher concentrations in winter/spring and lower concentrations in summer/autumn, which are consistent with other tracers of soil microbes (trehalose), resuspended dust (nss-Ca2+), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of total carbon. The molecular distributions of β-hydroxy FAs (predominance of C12 and C16 in winter/spring and summer/autumn, respectively) are consistent with those from a remote island (Chichijima) in the North Pacific and Asian dust standards (CJ-1 and CJ-2). This observation together with back trajectories over Gosan reveal that desert sources in China during winter and arid regions of Mongolia and Russian Far East during spring are the major contributors of soil microbes over the North Pacific. Predominance of ω-isomers (83%) over β-hydroxy FAs (16%) revealed a major contribution of terrestrial lipids from higher plant waxes over soil microbes in the East Asian outflow.

  13. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  15. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  16. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  17. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  18. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  19. A Comparison of Telecollaborative Classes between Japan and Asian-Pacific Countries--Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Pack, Dwayne; Kano, Mikio; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamura, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the effects of "telecollaborative classes" between students in Japan and those in Asian-Pacific countries such as Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States (Hawaii). The telecollaborative classes are part of the Asian-Pacific Exchange Collaboration (APEC) project, a 4-year project involving students…

  20. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  1. Asthma prevalence disparities and differences in sociodemographic associations with asthma, between Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Asian, and White adults in Hawaii - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, H; Li, D; Katz, A R; Hurwitz, E L

    2017-03-30

    Despite high asthma prevalence, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of asthma in Hawaii or among Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). We sought to better characterize racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence and in sociodemographic factors associated with asthma among Hawaii adults. We conducted multivariable logistic regression using 2001-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Hawaii, and computed adjusted prevalence and ratios. Asthma prevalence markedly varied between self-identified census categories of race in Hawaii, with NHOPI having the highest estimates of both lifetime (20.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.5%-22.4%) and current (12.2%, CI: 11.2%-13.3%) asthma. Highest asthma prevalence among NHOPI persisted after controlling for potential confounders and within most sociodemographic categories. Among females Asians reported the lowest asthma prevalence, whereas among males point estimates of asthma prevalence were often lowest for Whites. Females often had greater asthma prevalence than males of the same race, but the degree to which gender modified asthma prevalence differed by both race and sociodemographic strata. Gender disparities in asthma prevalence were greatest and most frequent among Whites, and for current asthma among all races. Sociodemographic factors potentially predictive of adult asthma prevalence in Hawaii varied by race and gender. Asthma disproportionately affects or is recognized more often among women and NHOPI adults in Hawaii, and occurs less or is under-reported among Asian women. The sociodemographic characteristics included in this study's model did not explain asthma disparities between races and/or gender. This investigation provides a baseline with which to plan additionally needed prevention programs, epidemiological investigations, and surveillance for asthma in Hawaii.

  2. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  3. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  4. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  5. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... Recent data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  6. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  9. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  10. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  11. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  14. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  15. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  17. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  18. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  19. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer, heart disease, unintentional injuries (accidents), stroke and diabetes. Some other health conditions and risk factors that are prevalent among Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Other Health Concerns: It is significant to note ...

  20. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Wendy; Raj, Astika; Reeve, Erica; Guerrero, Rachael L T; Fesaitu, Jioje; Cateine, Katia; Guignet, Charlene

    2013-10-25

    There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Processed foods in stores. The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging.

  1. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 APIAHF Statement for Energy Commerce Hearing Supporting CHIP Health Center and Prevention Fund Funding [ Testimony and ... Policy Network Development Policy and Advocacy Research and Data Capacity ...

  2. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... 260.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] At a glance – Death Rate: Age-Adjusted Heart Disease Death Rates per ...

  3. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... diabetes/statistics/prevalence_national.htm At a Glance – Death Rate: Age-Adjusted Diabetes Death Rates per 100, ...

  4. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  5. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  7. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  8. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  9. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...

  10. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  11. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  12. Making to Taste: Culinary Experimentalism in Asian Pacific American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Stephanie H.

    2014-01-01

    This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...

  13. Characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L; Young, Lisa M; Hopkins, Raewyn; Cornere, Megan

    2017-02-01

    Ethnicity is strongly associated with variable clinical presentation in sarcoidosis but the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics has not previously been described in patients of Polynesian ancestry, Maori and Pacific Islander (PI). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and PI patients and determine if those were different to European patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 406 patients (69 Maori/PI) attending a specialist interstitial lung disease (ILD) clinic. The population (207 females, mean age at presentation: 36) reflected the current New Zealand census data (2013) with only people of Indian ethnicity over-represented. Parenchymal lung involvement was uncommon in Maori and PI patients (21% Scadding stage 2, 2% stage 3), and no patient had extensive pulmonary fibrosis (stage 4). Computed tomography (CT) patterns of sarcoid parenchymal lung involvement were less commonly reported for Maori/PI. There were no differences in respect of baseline lung function or requirement for treatment. Ocular and skin involvement occurred more frequently in Maori and PI (P = 0.0045, P = 0.03), and erythema nodosum was more common in Caucasians (P = 0.0008). People of Polynesian ancestry appear to have less pulmonary and more extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis. This adds to our knowledge that sarcoidosis heterogeneity is influenced by ethnicity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Asian/Pacific Librarians Career Choices: A Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    周堅中 Jianzhong Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a mixed method study of Asian/Pacificlibrarians career choices related to leadershippositions. The statistical analyses are based ondata from 91 librarians in survey Q1 distributedto 600+ CALA and APALA members. Thecorrelation, prediction of association, cross-tabbing,and ANOVA tests were applied to the survey.The result shows that the leadership position iscorrelated with number of years worked in thelibrary profession, number of publications,number of voluntary job changes, and nationalprofessional association’s involvement. Therewas a suggested correlation between leadershippositions and additional advanced degrees andover half of librarians with a doctoral degree arein chief librarian positions. The study also nullifiesthe hypothesis that achieving leadership position is less likely for first generation immigrants orimmigrants who did not receive k-12 orundergraduate education in the North America.In addition, the differences in professional,community, and political involvement areexamined among professional librarians,supervising librarians and chief librarians.The comments from the quantitative surveyQ1 contain rich data which can’t be interpretedby existing statistical methods. The Q1 commentsbecame the first section of a follow-up qualitativestudy using situation coding and subjectperspective coding method. A separate qualitativesurvey Q2 was sent to 12 Asian/Pacific chieflibrarians only. Eight chief librarians completedQ2 covering biographical information andin-depth questions on perceptions of leadershipachievement gap among Asian/Pacific Americanlibrarians. Comparison of comments of Q1for professional librarians and Q2 for chieflibrarians suggested many similar themesemerged. The triangulation from differentAsian/Pacific librarian population validatedthe finding.

  15. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  16. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  17. Recent progress in Pacific-Asian Marginal Seas (PAMS) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Takeshi; Hirose, Naoki; Zhang, Jing; Cho, Yang-Ki; Chen, Dake; Yuan, Dongliang; Hung, Chin-Chang; Jan, Sen

    2017-07-01

    Marginal seas which represent the buffer zones between land and the pelagic ocean are being increasingly influenced by human activity. The role of the marginal seas is important for many reasons, among which are biological resources and climate change. In East Asia, we have marginal seas between the Asian Continent and the Pacific Ocean, where various countries and areas form complicated territories and EEZ. To understand the marine environment of marginal seas, international cooperative scientific activities are necessary, and it is essential to share the latest information and knowledge.

  18. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  19. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  20. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  1. Reframing the Immigration Debate. The State of Asian Pacific America Series. A Public Policy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Bill Ong, Ed.; Lee, Ronald, Ed.

    This book responds to public interest in immigration issues by providing a comprehensive empirical analysis of contemporary Asian Pacific American immigration experience. It focuses on four highly significant, but largely misunderstood, aspects of the contemporary Asian Pacific experience: patterns of demographic growth and diversification; high…

  2. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    , Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although......The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island...... there are indications of soil degradation in the centre of the island. However, there are no signs that the traditional shifting cultivation system in Bellona may become unsustainable in the near future and extreme land use transformations seen in other Pacific islands are not found here...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Wake Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Republic of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  15. Precipitation Frequency for Wake Island, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  20. Precipitation Frequency for Northern Mariana Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  1. Three phases of the Pacific Islands Project (1995-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, David A K; Ewing, Hamish; McCaig, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Islands Project (PIP), funded by AusAid and managed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS), has progressed through three phases from 1995 to 2010. During this time, it has sent over 520 teams to 11 Pacific Island Countries, providing over 60,000 consultations and some 16,000 procedures. In addition to this delivery of specialist medical and surgical services that were not previously available in-country, the project has contributed as a partner in capacity building with the Fiji School of Medicine and Ministries of Health of the individual nations. By 2011, Fiji School of Medicine, which began postgraduate specialist training in 1998, had awarded 51 doctors a diploma in surgery (1 year), 20 of whom had completed their Masters in Medicine (4 years). PIP was independently evaluated on completion of every phase, including the bridging Phase III (2006-2010). The project delivered on its design, to deliver services, and also helped build capacity. The relationship established with the RACS throughout the project allowed Pacific Island graduates to access the Rowan Nicks scholarship, and the majority of MMed graduates received International Travel Grants to attend the Annual Scientific Meeting. PIP has been a highly successful partnership in delivering and building specialist medical services. Although AusAid contributed some $20 million over 16 years, the value added from pro bono contributions by Specialist Teams, Specialty Coordinators and the Project Directors amounted to an equivalent amount. With the emergence of Pacific Island-trained specialists, PIP is ready to move into a new phase where the agendas are set, monitored and managed within the Pacific, and RACS fulfils the role of a service provider. A critical mass of Pacific Island surgeons has been trained, so that sub-specialization will be an option for the general surgeons of the larger island nations. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of

  2. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  5. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  6. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  9. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  10. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. Decision Making for Pap Testing among Pacific Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; DeGuzman Lacsamana, Jasmine; Quitugua, Lourdes; Park Tanjasiri, Sora

    2016-01-01

    This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and…

  14. Barriers, Springboards and Benchmarks: China Conceptualizes the Pacific Island Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    special island groups in the north-west Pacific Ocean waters to suppress and block socialist countries at the time, such as the Soviet Union and China. On...understanding of the airpower dimension hinges on understanding the PLAN/PLAAF overwater division of labour . China’s November 2013 rollout of an East China

  15. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  16. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  17. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  18. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1989: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  19. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1988: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  20. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument: Narrative Report: 1987: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuges (including Johnston Atoll, Rose Atoll, Howland Island, Baker Island, and Jarvis...

  1. Viruses of freshwater finfish in the asian-pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P K; Goodwin, A E

    2012-09-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in global demand for marine and freshwater fish to meet the protein needs of our expanding human population. However, due to the limited capacity of the wild-capture sector and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture, particularly freshwater aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. A large number of aquatic animal species are farmed in high density in freshwater, brackish and marine systems, where they are exposed to new environments and potentially new diseases. Further, environmental stress factors, the use of manufactured feeds, and prolific global trade has led to the emergence and spread of new diseases. Viral pathogens, established for decades or newly emerging as disease threats, are particularly challenging since there are few efficacious treatments. Vaccines have been developed for some viral fish pathogens in salmonids, but vaccines are not available for many of the viral pathogens important in Asia. Control and eradication programs are difficult because many viral infections remain latent until adverse environmental conditions, such as overcrowding or poor water quality, trigger the onset of disease. Here, we review the more significant viral pathogens of finfish in the Asia-Pacific including both those with a long history in Asian aquaculture and emerging pathogens including betanodaviruses and koi herpes virus that have caused massive losses in the freshwater aquaculture and ornamental fish industries.

  2. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2017-08-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  3. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Axford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes "success" is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way "outsiders" perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involvement; and sustainability. Multivariate analysis distinguished two groups, a Big picture group and a Locally focused group. These differ in how they define success, as well as their organizational alignment. The Big picture group, largely from funder agencies and international NGOs, were focused on the broad issues of success, especially the sustainability of CCAs. The Locally focused group was concerned with the practical workings and needs of successful CCAs in the Pacific; many in this group were based with Pacific island governments and NGOs or CCAs. The study concludes that success in CCAs should not be defined solely on project objectives, especially when these have been developed by an external entity or under their guidance. If they are, high rates of failure are to be expected.

  4. Asian/Pacific American Librarians: A Cross Cultural Perspective. Papers of the Program of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (Dallas, Texas, June 25, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, Lourdes Y., Ed.

    Six symposium papers are included in this document. The first paper, by Henry Chang, is a brief profile of Asian/Pacific American (APA) librarians, emphasizing the need for more data on this group and the need for the group to become more assertive of their rights to equal opportunity in the field. The second paper, by Jane Katayama, addresses…

  5. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  6. Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dominic Crewe

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.

  7. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  8. CRED Simrad em3002d multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  9. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  10. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  11. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  12. Breast cancer in Pacific Islander women: overcoming barriers to screening and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounga, Va; Maughan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This literature review identifies the health beliefs and practices that affect breast cancer screening and care among Pacific Islander women-specifically native Hawaiian, Samoan and Tongan women living in the continental United States-and provides suggestions for how nurses can address these issues. Several themes emerged in the literature regarding culture, language, health beliefs and health care access among Pacific Islander women. Nurses will be more successful in assisting Pacific Islander women to obtain timely breast cancer screening and treatment when they better understand Pacific Islander culture and provide culturally appropriate education materials on breast cancer. © 2012 AWHONN.

  13. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1985: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  14. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1978-1980: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  15. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1981: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  16. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1983-1984: Calendar Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  17. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1975: Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, Jarvis,...

  18. Depth Contours for select locations across the U.S. Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are depth contours (isobaths) derived at 50 meters for most islands and reefs in the Mariana Archipelago, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  19. The Pacific Islands Internet Project (PIIP) in UNDP, Suva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M

    2000-09-01

    The Pacific Islands Internet Project (PIIP) aims to expose interested parties to emerging technologies by creating initial, core national Internet-based information systems, and by training users on how to take advantage of such systems for sustainable development purposes. PIIP works closely with Small Islands Development States Network SIDSNET (http://www.sidsnet.org) and Asia and Pacific Development Information Programme APDIP (http://www.apdip.net), both UNDP initiatives in this field. The Target Beneficiaries are 15 countries in the sub-region including Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau which are still without Internet access. PIIP will assist these three countries in their connectivity needs and all other countries in other components of the project. Priority is given to the smaller island states. There are four components to the project. These are: Connectivity (WWW access for Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau); Training and Awareness (through national seminars and training programmes); Internet Applications (in areas such as telemedicine, distance education, SIDSnet and other fields in the private sector); and Policy (work with telecom and regional organisations in facilitating national telecommunications policies that provide a basis for development of an ICT strategy). Some of the progress made since the inception of PIIP are covered in this paper.

  20. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420..., Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by a...

  1. Trends in malaria research in 11 Asian Pacific countries: an analysis of peer-reviewed publications over two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleo George

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative data are lacking on published malaria research. The purpose of the study is to characterize trends in malaria-related literature from 1990 to 2009 in 11 Asian-Pacific countries that are committed to malaria elimination as a national goal. Methods A systematic search was conducted for articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 in PubMed/MEDLINE using terms for malaria and 11 target countries (Bhutan, China, North Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vanuatu. The references were collated and categorized according to subject, Plasmodium species, and whether they contained original or derivative data. Results 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2009 related to malaria in the target countries. The annual output of malaria-related papers increased linearly whereas the overall biomedical output from these countries grew exponentially. The percentage of malaria-related publications was nearly 3% (111/3741 of all biomedical publications in 1992 and decreased to less than 1% (118/12171; p Conclusions The proportion of malaria-related publications out of the overall biomedical output from the 11 target Asian-Pacific countries is decreasing. The discovery and evaluation of new, safe and effective drugs and vaccines is paramount. In addition the elimination of malaria will require operational research to implement and scale up interventions.

  2. Contributions of Asian pollution and SST forcings on precipitation change in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; So, Jihyeon; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Park, Rokjin J.

    2017-08-01

    East Asia has a significant concentration of pollutant aerosols, mostly due to rapid industrialization. Previous research indicates that the aerosol effect from Asian pollution outflow could account for the trend of increasing deep convective clouds, as well as an intensification of the storm track, over the North Pacific Ocean in winter since the mid-1990s. However, it is not clear whether such change is solely due to Asian pollutant forcings or not. To understand the relative roles of Asian pollutant aerosols and sea surface temperature (SST) forcings on the precipitation change in the North Pacific, we examine the interannual variation of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) simulated in the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and the idealized experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) for 1986-2010. The composite analysis indicates that the changes in precipitation amount and storm track intensity in the southwestern North Pacific might be associated with the increase in PM2.5 concentration in East China. However, El Niño-like warming during the years of high PM2.5 concentration may also influence the precipitation amount, as well as the storm track intensity in the central and eastern North Pacific. Model experiments also indicate that the El Niño-like warming and the Asian pollutant aerosols have different effects on precipitation amounts in the North Pacific. Therefore, the precipitation changes, as well as the intensification of the storm track, in the North Pacific might be attributed to both Asian pollutant aerosols and SST forcing in the tropics.

  3. The State of Asian Pacific America: Transforming Race Relations. A Public Policy Report, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul M., Ed.

    The papers in this collection respond to the importance of race in U.S. society by providing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary empirical analysis of the diverse ways in which Asian Pacific Americans are redefining and transforming contemporary U.S. race relations. Following a preface by Don T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama, the chapters are: (1)…

  4. Cancer epidemiology in the small nations of Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Foliaki, Sunia; Bray, Freddie; Roder, David

    2017-10-01

    Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) comprise 20,000-30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. PICTs face challenges in relation to small population sizes, geographic dispersion, increasing adoption of unhealthy life-styles and the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, including cancer. This study reviews data on cancer incidence and mortality in the PICTs, with special focus on indigenous populations. PICTs with populations of GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Scientific and grey literature was narratively reviewed for publications published after 2000. Of the 21 PICTs, seven countries were included in the GLOBOCAN 2012 (Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu). The highest cancer incidence and mortality rates were reported in New Caledonia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 297.9 and 127.3 per 100.000) and French Polynesia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 255.0 and 134.4 per 100.000), with relatively low rates in other countries. Literature indicated that cancer was among the leading causes of deaths in most PICTs; thus they now experience a double burden of cancers linked to infections and life-style and reproductive factors. Further, ethnic differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been reported in some PICTs, including Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia and Northern Mariana Islands. Cancer incidence in the PICTs was recorded to be relatively low, with New Caledonia and French Polynesia being exceptions. Low recorded incidence is likely to be explained by incomplete cancer registration as cancer had an important contribution to mortality. Further endeavors are needed to develop and strengthen cancer registration infrastructure and practices and to improve data quality and registration coverage in the PICTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shallow-water Ascidians from Matua Island (central Kuril Islands, NW Pacific), part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya

    2017-10-17

    The paper reports several ascidians, previously not known from central group of Kurile Islands, including two new species, Synoicum polyzoinum n. sp. and Aplidium matua n. sp. In order to systematize our knowledge on numerous members of these genera, reported from NW Pacific, we provide an overview of all Synoicum and Aplidium species, known from Far Eastern Seas of Russia, including comments on the species erroneously identified in the past.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. 334.1400 Section 334.1400 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  9. Ukrainian Crisis: Perspectives from Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G I Ganshina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the latest developments in Ukraine in 2013-2014. Different point of views of the Asia-Pacific region and countries like China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia will be considered in this topic. During this period, the country is experiencing a political crisis, that affects the Ukraine itself, as well as international relations in the described region. The point of view on these matters by the countries of the Asia-Pacific rim must be taken into account too.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  11. Asian Pacific Islander Community Based Organizations and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    This paper will examine these issues based on a review of the existing literature and the analysis of a survey of forty-eight Los Angeles based API CBOs. The paper is organized into five sections. Section I provides an overview of API CBOs, describing their growth over the last two decades, the scope of services they provide and recent shifts in organizational service and constituency focus. Section II addresses efforts by CBOs under welfare reform to provide effective welfare-to-work and o...

  12. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply with...

  13. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  14. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    OpenAIRE

    Nafanua Braginsky; Merle Kataoka-Yahiro; Jillian Inouye

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the...

  15. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  16. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  17. Modeling Ordnance Movements into the Asian Pacific Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    focuses on the ordnance operations that occur at the United States Navy Base, Guam. The base sits on Orote Peninsula near the mouth of Apra Harbor...located on the south central part of the island, southeast of the Apra Harbor Naval Complex. This section will describe both locations and their...roles in ordnance operations on Guam. a. Kilo Wharf Kilo Wharf is located at the entrance to Apra Harbor on the north side of Orote peninsula. It is

  18. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Paterson, Janis

    2011-05-12

    The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after adjusting for maternal age

  19. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Purcell

    Full Text Available Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1 appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  20. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  1. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    and Singapore , was established with the purpose of regional cooperation in economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields...COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL BRIDGING THE SAN FRANCISCO SYSTEM : 21st CENTURY STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE ASIAN-PACIFIC By...the disproportionate security and economic burdens of key bilateral alliances that grew to embody the “San Francisco System .” The United States

  2. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations.

  3. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  4. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  5. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  7. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  9. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island.

  10. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-02-28

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach.

  11. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  16. Precipitation Frequency for Woleai, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  17. Precipitation Frequency for Pingelap, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  18. Precipitation Frequency for Nukuoro, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  19. Precipitation Frequency for Ulithi, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  20. Precipitation Frequency for Guam, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  1. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  2. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  3. 10m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  6. 10 m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (10 m cell size) bathymetry of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  7. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Yap, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  12. Precipitation Frequency for Palau, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  13. Precipitation Frequency for Chuuk, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the NWS...

  14. Guadalupe Island, Mexico as a new constraint for Pacific plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; Agnew, D.

    2003-08-01

    We use GPS data collected on Isla de Guadalupe and in northern Baja California, Mexico, to estimate site velocities relative to Pacific plate motion. The velocities of all three geodetic monuments on Guadalupe fit a rigid Pacific plate model with residuals of 1 mm/yr. Using the Guadalupe data and data from five IGS stations on the Pacific plate (CHAT, KOKB, KWJ1, MKEA, and THTI) we estimate an angular velocity for this plate that is consistent with other recently-published estimates. Our results indicate that Isla de Guadalupe lies on the Pacific plate, and that GPS data collection on the island usefully constrains Pacific plate motion and rigidity.

  15. Climate Convention Implementation: An Opportunity for the Pacific Island Nations to Move Toward Sustainable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu; Taplin; Gilmour

    1997-07-01

    / The impacts of global warming are among the more serious environmental threats for the Pacific Island countries. These nations justifiably argue that developed countries should give immediate priority to the implementation of climate change mitigation policies because of the severe nature of potential greenhouse impacts for the Pacific Islands. Another immediate priority acknowledged by these nations is the need for development of adaptation policies that plan for adjustment or adaptation, where possible, to the foreshadowed impacts of climate change. This article does not focus on adaptation or mitigation policy directly but on an allied opportunity that exists for the Pacific Islands via the auspices of the Climate Convention, because the existing very costly energy systems used in the Pacific Island region are fossil-fuel dependent. It is argued here that efforts can be made towards the development of energy systems that are ecologically sustainable because Pacific Island nations are eligible to receive assistance to introduce renewable energy technology and pursue energy conservation via implementation mechanisms of the Climate Convention and, in particular, through transfer of technology and via joint implementation. It is contended that assistance in the form of finance, technology, and human resource development from developed countries and international organizations would provide sustainable benefits in improving the local Pacific Island environments. It is also emphasized that mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is not the responsibility of the Pacific Islands as they contribute very little on a per capita global scale and a tiny proportion of total global greenhouse gas emissions.KEY WORDS: Pacific Islands; Climate change; Renewable energy; Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  16. 8 CFR 215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 215.6 Section 215.6 Aliens... FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.6 Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific... alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an...

  17. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 1215.6 Section 1215.6 Aliens... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... United States, any alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific...

  18. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  19. Using Indicators as a Catalyst for Inclusive Education in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris; Marella, Manjula; Jitoko, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are committed to promoting disability-inclusive education through enactment of the Pacific Education Development Framework. To support this move, key stakeholders have identified the need for developing local and contextually appropriate indicators for measuring progress of disability-inclusive education. This paper…

  20. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  1. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  2. Potentials of integrating spice crops with forestry in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Gnanaratnam

    1993-01-01

    The forest is an integral part of the island ecosystem, and any indiscriminate destruction is bound to cause a shift in the climatic conditions, increased soil erosion, and other effects. The conservation of existing forestry is of great importance. Future patterns of agricultural development in the Pacific Islands should aim to integrate with the forest cover rather...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  4. One third of the world - A review of Pacific islands telecommunications requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the Pacific Basin Communications Study, an assessment of Pacific islands telecommunications requirements, recently completed by the Public Service Satellite Consortium under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The study describes extant and planned telecommunications systems in the region, examines user needs in terms of the development of governmental, social and commercial activities, and proposes and describes alternative technological solutions to communications problems. Questions of financing, implementation, management, costs and benefits of a regional telecommunications system are discussed. This paper describes user requirements based on six months of field investigation and technological options for improving telecommunications in the Pacific islands.

  5. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... include problems of achieving land tenure security outside the home island, unresolved issues of housing of migrants, problems of finding proper jobs, and expensive and irregular ship connections to the islands. It is argued that if these barriers are overcome, voluntary migration may be considered...

  6. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  7. Pedagogic "Hegemonicide" and the Asian American Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, James K.

    1989-01-01

    Asian American students are called a "model minority" for their scholastic success. Few studies focus on their educational concerns. This study surveyed students of Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Island decent and found they were generally pleased with college experiences. Attitudes toward education and the impact of…

  8. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. Methods The evaluation includes children in three conditions: (1) three times per school year topical fluoride varnish; (2) varnish plus twice per day toothbrushing; and (3) intervention 2 plus three times per day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. Results One year after project implementation, mean deft was 10.3 (SD=4.3) teeth for group 1 and 8.2 (SD=4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (p.05). Conclusions Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish. PMID:19486466

  9. Western Pacific Tropospheric Ozone and Potential Vorticity: Implications for Asian Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Newell, Reginald E.; Davis, Douglas D.; Liu, Shaw C.

    1997-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (03) cross sections measured with lidar from a DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific correspond closely with potential vorticity (PV). Both are transported from the middle latitude stratosphere, although this is not the only source of 03, and both have sinks in the tropical boundary layer. 03 and PV are good indicators of photochemical and transport process interactions. In summer, some Asian pollution, raised by convection to the upper troposphere, passes southward into the tropics and to the Southern Hemisphere. In winter, subsidence keeps the pollution at low altitudes where it moves over the ocean towards the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with photochemical destruction and secondary pollutant generation occurring en route. Convection raises this modified air to the upper troposphere, where some re may enter the stratosphere. Thus winter Asian pollution may at have a smaller direct influence on the global atmosphere than it would if injected at other longitudes and seasons.

  10. Challenges and strategies for climate change adaptation among Pacific Island nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahany, Mollie J; Keim, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    Few regions of the world are at higher risk for environmental disasters than the Pacific Island countries and territories. During 2004 and 2005, the top public health leadership from 19 of 22 Pacific Island countries and territories convened 2 health summits with the goal of developing the world's first comprehensive regional strategy for sustainable disaster risk management as applied to public health emergencies. These summits followed on the objectives of the 1994 Barbados Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and those of the subsequent Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World. The outputs of the 2004 and 2005 Pacific Health Summits for Sustainable Disaster Risk Management provide a detailed description of challenges and accomplishments of the Pacific Island health ministries, establish a Pacific plan of action based upon the principles of disaster risk management, and provide a locally derived, evidence-based approach for many climate change adaptation measures related to extreme weather events in the Pacific region. The declaration and outputs from these summits are offered here as a guide for developmental and humanitarian assistance in the region (and for other small-island developing states) and as a means for reducing the risk of adverse health effects resulting from climate change.

  11. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  12. Hospital pharmacy services in the Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2015-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases have become an increasing problem in the Pacific Island countries (PICs). With the medical supply system often attached to hospitals in PICs, the training of hospital pharmacy staff has become increasingly important. This study aimed to explore hospital pharmacy services in the PICs using these validated surveys (BS26-27 and BS28-31 surveys) focusing upon hospital pharmacists' influence on prescribing and quality use of medicines. The BS26-27 and BS28-31 surveys were distributed online to pharmacy directors in hospitals in the PICs in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Surveys were made available in both English and French. In total, data from 55 hospitals were received (77% of the hospital sample in PICs) for either the BS26-27 or BS28-31 survey. From the responses received, 97% (36/37) of hospitals had a formulary, with 81% (26/32) of hospitals having a Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) committee. Furthermore, 67% (24/36) of respondents stated that they provided some sort of clinical pharmacy service. On average, hospitals had two pharmacists involved in clinical pharmacy services. In BS28-31, over 75% (n=27) of respondents believed having a strong relationship with other health care professionals, having effective communication skills and taking professional responsibility for the medicines prescribed as 'mostly' or 'strongly' facilitating clinical services. Hospital pharmacists' participation on P&T committee and clinical services is common in the PICs. Such services enhance medication selection and reduce wastage. Although there are still too few hospital pharmacists in PICs, additional support aimed at enhancing their team building and communication skills will allow them to expand their roles and continue to improve patient health outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. A Southern California Perspective of the April, 1998 Trans-Pacific Asian Dust Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratt, David M.; Frouin, Robert J.; Westphal, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) coherent CO2 backscatter lidar has been in almost continuous operation since 1984 and has now accumulated a significant time-series database tracking the long-term and seasonal variability of backscatter from the atmospheric column above the Pasadena, Calif. locale. A particularly noteworthy episode observed by the lidar in 1998 was a particularly extreme instance of incursion by Asian-sourced dust during the closing days of April. Such events are not uncommon during the northern spring, when strong cold fronts and convection over the Asian interior deserts loft crustal material into the mid-troposphere whence it can be transported across the Pacific Ocean, occasionally reaching the continental US. However, the abnormal strength of the initiating storm in this case generated an atypically dense cloud of material which resulted in dramatically reduced visibility along the length of the Western Seaboard. These dust events are now recognized as a potentially significant, non-negligible radiative forcing influence. The progress of the April 1998 dust cloud eastward across the Pacific Ocean was initially observed in satellite imagery and transmitted to the broader atmospheric research community via electronic communications. The use of Internet technology in this way was effective in facilitating a rapid response correlative measurement exercise by numerous atmospheric observation stations throughout the western US and its success has resulted in the subsequent establishment of an ad hoc communications environment, data exchange medium, and mechanism for providing early-warning alert of other significant atmospheric phenomena in the future.

  15. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  16. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  17. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper ...

  18. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  19. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTRA) Study: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    The mission of Pacific Resources for Education and Learning includes maintaining cultural literacy and strengthening educational programs for American-affiliated Pacific Islanders. On islands where no substitute teacher pool is available, students' educational opportunities may be seriously compromised. Policymakers and program managers in all 10…

  20. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  1. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  2. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  3. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  4. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Pelagic Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The estimated millions of seabirds breeding at national wildlife refuges in the central Pacific Ocean are primarily pelagic feeders that obtain the fish and squid...

  5. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  6. Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific plasma theory conference APPTC'97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Takaya [eds.

    1998-08-01

    This issue is the proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference (APPTC'97), which was held on September 24-26, 1997 at National Institute for Fusion Science (Toki, Japan) under the auspices of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research and the National Institute of Fusion Science. A part of APPTC'97 was a joint session with Japan-Australia fusion theory workshop and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas. The conference covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasmas, and dusty plasma, etc. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Fish Monitoring Brief: Pacific Remote Island Areas 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two-page summary outlines reef fish and benthic habitat survey efforts conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) at Howland Island, Baker Island,...

  8. Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Joo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Sutradhar, Santosh; Yunis, Carla; Westergaard, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Background Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA) populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL) trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin) resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared with usual care (UC) among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC) among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Methods This subanalysis of the CRUCIAL trial compared treatment-related changes in calculated CHD risk among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Sensitivity analyses were conducted among men and women and those with and without diabetes. Results Overall, 448 patients (31.6%) resided in the PA region and 969 patients (68.4%) resided in non-PA regions. The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated CHD risk versus UC in both PA (−37.1% versus −3.5%; P<0.001) and non-PA regions (−31.1% versus −4.2%; P<0.001); region interaction P=0.131. PA patients had slightly greater reductions in total cholesterol compared with non-PA patients. PA patients without diabetes had slightly greater reductions in CHD risk compared with non-PA patients. Treatment effects were similar in men and women and those with diabetes. Conclusion The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk compared with UC among men and women with and without diabetes residing in the PA and non-PA region. PMID:24707184

  9. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Hui-Wang; Shi, Guang-Yu; Yue, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the dust sources and many sea areas, suggesting a link between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in those seas. However, the correlation coefficients were highly variable. In general, the correlation coefficients (0.54-0.63) for the Sea of Japan were highest, except for that between the subarctic Pacific and the Taklimakan Desert, where it was as high as 0.7. For the >50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  10. Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cvitanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a major threat to food security in Pacific Island countries, with declines in food production and increasing variability in food supplies already evident across the region. Such impacts have already led to observed consequences for human health, safety and economic prosperity. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island communities is one way to reduce vulnerability and is underpinned by the extent to which people can access, understand and use new knowledge to inform their decision-making processes. However, effective engagement of Pacific Island communities in climate adaption remains variable and is an ongoing and significant challenge. Here, we use a qualitative research approach to identify the impediments to engaging Pacific Island communities in the adaptations needed to safeguard food security. The main barriers include cultural differences between western science and cultural knowledge, a lack of trust among local communities and external scientists, inappropriate governance structures, and a lack of political and technical support. We identify the importance of adaptation science, local social networks, key actors (i.e., influential and trusted individuals, and relevant forms of knowledge exchange as being critical to overcoming these barriers. We also identify the importance of co-ordination with existing on-ground activities to effectively leverage, as opposed to duplicating, capacity.

  11. 75 FR 2158 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact...

  12. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  13. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  14. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  15. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  16. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel operator...

  17. Eden in Peril: Impact of Humans on Pacific Island Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Rapaport

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands have often been cited as models of human impact upon the environment. With high rates of endemism and other unique characteristics, island ecosystems are subject to dramatic perturbation. The arrival of humans in Near Oceania during the Pleistocene led swiftly to a series of fauna extinctions. In the New Guinea Highlands clearing and tending of wild plants gave rise to tree and root crop agriculture, intensive cultivation technology, and anthropogenic grasslands. By 3600 BP (Before Present, Lapita settlers had reached Remote Oceania, leading to deforestation and declines in birds and other species. European contact introduced new biota and new technology, with significant consequences for island environments and societies. Questions have been raised concerning the impact of climate change on island ecosystems. Population growth plays a significant role in environmental degradation, though not necessarily as a proximate cause. The Tikopian arboriculture system provides one of several Oceanic models of sustainability.

  18. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Although the islands of the western Pacific comprise a hotspot of species, including fungi, a large number of these species have not been catalogued or documented in the scientific literature on an island to island basis. Butt- and root-rot fungi were collected from infected wood and fruiting bodies of diverse tropical trees from forest, agricultural, and...

  19. Development on the periphery: monitoring science, technology and innovation for sustainable development among Pacific Island Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaradasa, R.; Turpin, T

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of science, technology and innovation indicators in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries. Data are drawn from interviews with senior officials in Fiji, regional policy documents, and data held at the University of the South Pacific. The limited data available is mostly held in separate national agencies with little national or regional collaboration. The paper argues that the paucity of S&T data available for policy making or analysis is symptomatic of the nature of development in the region and the inappropriateness of indicators designed primarily for industrialised economies. It concludes with an observation that the drive toward sustainable development is steering a regional move toward development of an S,T&I indicator hub located across one or more Pacific Island countries. (Author)

  20. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dalla Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.

  1. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  2. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  3. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  4. The Pacific experience: supporting small island countries and territories to meet their 2012 International Health Regulations (2005) commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jacob; Nilles, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Issue By 15 June 2012, States Parties to the International Health Regulations (2005), or IHR (2005), were required to have established the core capacities required to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005). Context The Pacific is home to 10 million people spread over 21 Pacific island countries and territories. Seven of those have populations of less than 25 000 people; 14 of the 21 Pacific island countries and territories are States Parties to the IHR (2005). Action The World Health Organization Division of the South Pacific embarked on an initiative to support Pacific Island States Parties meet their 15 June 2012 IHR obligations. We adapted the 2012 IHR Monitoring Questionnaire (IHRMQ) to assist Pacific island countries and territories determine if they had met the capacities required to implement Annex 1 of the IHR (2005). If a Pacific island country or territory determined that it had not yet met the requirements, it could use the assessment outcome to develop a plan to address identified gaps. Outcome Direct support was provided to 19 of 21 (91%) Pacific island countries and territories including 13 of 14 (93%) States Parties. Twelve of 14 (86%) fulfilled their requirements by 15 June 2012; those that had not yet met the requirements requested extensions and submitted plans describing how the IHR core capacities would be met. Discussion Adapting the 2012 IHRMQ for this purpose provided an efficient tool for assessing national capacity to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005) and provided clear indication of what capacities required strengthening. PMID:24319608

  5. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Isolation of compound microsatellite markers in Begonia fenicis (Begoniaceae) endemic to East and Southeast Asian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koh; Huang, Chiun-Jr; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Leong, Wai-Chao; Kono, Yoshiko; Yang, Hsun-An; Peng, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    We developed compound microsatellite markers for Begonia fenicis, a species endemic to eastern and southeastern Asian islands, to investigate geographical genetic structure. Using the compound microsatellite marker technique, 21 markers were developed and six polymorphic markers were characterized for samples from four islands in Taiwan and southern Japan. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six (mean = 4.33). Observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.125-0.725 (0.383) and 0.498-0.719 (0.641), and polymorphic information content was 0.371-0.664 (0.567). The interspecific transferability of the 21 markers was evaluated for eight species of the section Diploclinium from the Philippines; 15 markers were successfully amplified in one to eight species. These results indicate the utility of the six microsatellite markers in B. fenicis to investigate geographical genetic structure. The transferable markers are potentially useful for other species of the section.

  7. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Luke; Cooper, Robert D.; Chow, Weng K.; Davis, Joseph B.; Muzari, Mutizwa O.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Hasty, Jeomhee M.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Bangs, Michael J.; Reimer, Lisa J.; Butafa, Charles; Lobo, Neil F.; Syafruddin, Din; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Ahmad, Rohani; Beebe, Nigel W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. Methodology/Principal findings We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia’s Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. Conclusions/Significance There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species’ native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the

  8. Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Andrew J; Ambrose, Luke; Cooper, Robert D; Chow, Weng K; Davis, Joseph B; Muzari, Mutizwa O; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Burkot, Thomas R; Bangs, Michael J; Reimer, Lisa J; Butafa, Charles; Lobo, Neil F; Syafruddin, Din; Maung Maung, Yan Naung; Ahmad, Rohani; Beebe, Nigel W

    2017-04-01

    Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian

  9. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  10. Ecological monitoring 2012-2013 - reef fishes and benthic habitats of the main Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and Pacific Remote Island Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a subset of the reef fish and benthic survey data collected by the NOAA Pacific islands Fisheries Science Center Coral Reef Ecosystem Division...

  11. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D'Arcy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  12. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  13. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  14. Type 2 diabetes in native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Jill K; Look, Mele A

    2005-09-01

    There is significant disparity between the prevalence of diabetes in Native Hawaiians and Pacific People (includes Pacific Islanders and Filipinos) in comparison with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. In this article, prevalence, risk factors, complications and intervention studies are reviewed. Native Hawaiians and Pacific People have significantly higher prevalence rates of diabetes in comparison to other ethnic groups in Hawaii. They also have higher prevalence rates for the risk factors and complications associated with diabetes, such as obesity and end stage renal disease, respectively. Although the reasons for these disparities are complex and not clearly understood, literature suggests that genetics, acculturation, lifestyle, and cultural beliefs may be related. There is also a lack of specific research on diabetes in Native Hawaiians and Pacific people. Future research needs to include the collection of more comprehensive data on age, ethnic group and socioeconomic status.

  15. Reliability and validity of maternal recall of injuries in Pacific children: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather; Schluter, Philip J; Sundborn, Gerhard

    2011-09-01

    Childhood injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many epidemiological studies use self-report injury data to understand the pattern of injury, and to identify risk factors and potential injury countermeasures, but the veracity of these data is not without question. To investigate the reliability and validity of the use of maternal recall of childhood injuries in a birth cohort study of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. As part of the Pacific Islands Families Study (PIFS), this study included 1,354 Pacific children born in Auckland in 2000 whose mothers completed a questionnaire at 6-weeks, 1-year, 2-years, 4-years, and 6-years postpartum. Maternal reports of child injuries and medical attendance events reported were matched to listings held within the National New Zealand Health Information Service's National Medical Discharge Summary (NMDS) database. Overall, 120 child injury events were listed in the NMDS database and 139 in the PIFS questionnaires. Kappa statistics demonstrated a modest level of agreement between the NMDS database listings and the mothers reporting of childhood injuries over the six years postpartum. However, McNemar's test of symmetry revealed no systemic under-reporting by the mothers, suggesting that the use of maternal proxy reporting of childhood injuries is a valid measure in this population. While maternal proxy reporting of Pacific childhood injuries was found to be a valid measure, some evidence of misinterpretation of questions was found; suggesting continued vigilance and development of maternal completed childhood injury questionnaires is warranted.

  16. A 3-D Model Analysis of The Impact of Asian Anthropogenic Emissions on the Sulfur Cycle Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Thornton, Donald; Bandy, Alan; Huebert, Barry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on the SO2 and sulfate aerosol levels over the Pacific region is examined in the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. We focus on the analysis of the data from the NASA Pacific Exploratory Missions (PEM) over the western North Pacific and the tropical Pacific. These missions include PEM-West A in September-October 1991, when the Asian outflow was at the minimum but the upper atmosphere was heavily influenced by the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, and PEM-West B in March-April 1994 when the Asian outflow was at the maximum, and PEM-Tropics A in August-September at a region relatively free of direct anthropogenic influences. Specifically, we will examine the relative importance of anthropogenic, volcanic and biogenic sources to the SO2 and sulfate concentrations over the Pacific, and quantify the processes controlling the distributions of SO2 and sulfate in both the boundary layer and the free troposphere. We will also assess the global impact of SO2 emission in Asia on the sulfate aerosol loading.

  17. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Chun Tan

    Full Text Available A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the 50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36. These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  18. Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho EJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eun Joo Cho,1 Jae Hyung Kim,1 Santosh Sutradhar,2 Carla Yunis,2 Mogens Westergaard2On behalf of the CRUCIAL trial investigators1Department of Cardiology, St Paul's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 2Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USABackground: Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk compared with usual care (UC among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.Methods: This subanalysis of the CRUCIAL trial compared treatment-related changes in calculated CHD risk among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions. Sensitivity analyses were conducted among men and women and those with and without diabetes.Results: Overall, 448 patients (31.6% resided in the PA region and 969 patients (68.4% resided in non-PA regions. The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated CHD risk versus UC in both PA (−37.1% versus −3.5%; P<0.001 and non-PA regions (−31.1% versus −4.2%; P<0.001; region interaction P=0.131. PA patients had slightly greater reductions in total cholesterol compared with non-PA patients. PA patients without diabetes had slightly greater reductions in CHD risk compared with non-PA patients. Treatment effects were similar in men and women and those with diabetes.Conclusion: The PMI approach was more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk compared with UC among men and

  19. Pacific Islanders and Amerindian relatedness according to HLA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Departament of Immunology, University Complutense, Madrid Regional Blood Center, Madrid, Spain. 2Departament of Haematology .... tools used 20,000 years ago in Spanish Solutrean culture (Holden, 1999; Stanford &. Bradley, 2012). In the present work, ...... Late colonization of Easter Island. Science 311: 1603-1606.

  20. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  1. The role of the Picasso phone system in distance consultation for remote Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, V M

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. affiliated Pacific Island nations spend an average of over 10% of total health budget on off-island referral care to tertiary centers. Tripler Army Regional Medical Center (TAMC) has been the major provider of this service for many years. Prior to 1995 communication to consultants at TAMC was by long distance telephone, fax and regular mail. Connecting to a specialist sometimes took hours and clearly a better communication link was needed. The AT&T Picasso phone, an instrument the size of a small briefcase was developed to reliably transmit still images over the regular phone. Freeze-frame images captured at the sending end by a cam recorder were transmitted to a remote receiver unit, where they were displayed and stored. A typical medical consultation involved about three images, with each transmission over the 28.8 Kbps modem taking about one minute. A separate consultation form submitted by fax to TAMC was attached to the transferred images. Four Picasso phones were used to test their usefulness in linking isolated Pacific islands to a metropolitan medical center. For the first time ever, coloured patient images, data, X-rays etc were transmitted with a faxed written medical report. The Picasso phone was the spark of the Telemedicine development in the US affiliated Pacific islands.

  2. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  3. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  4. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  5. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  6. Cloud condensation nuclei characteristics of Asian dust particles over the western and central North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.; Furutani, H.; Kawata, R.; Nakayama, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine aerosols, such as sea salt particles, and sulfate and organic particles originated from marine biotas, exist in the marine atmosphere. Additionally, continental aerosols, such as dust and anthropogenic substances are transported over the open oceans. Variation of number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) depends on the number-size distribution and chemical compositions of aerosols, and affects the lifetime and the reflectivity of clouds over the open oceans. During the R/V Hakuho Maru KH-12-1 cruise from Callao to Tokyo via Honolulu in the Pacific Ocean (23 January - 7 March 2012), aerosol number-size distribution and CCN number concentration were continuously measured, and the marine aerosols for chemical analysis were collected on shipboard. In the marine atmosphere over the Pacific, averaged aerosol total number concentration (TN) was 280 cm-3. Bimodal number-size distributions were observed frequently with peaks at 40-60 nm (Aitken mode) and 160-230 nm (accumulation mode). CCN concentrations were categorized by assuming three types of particles by chemical compositions (i.e., NaCl; a major component of sea salt particles, (NH4)2SO4; a sulfur oxide originated from the marine biotas, and Oxalic acid; a major component among organic carbon (OC) originated from the marine biotas). Activation Rate (AR), which is defined as the ratio of the number concentrations of CCN against TN, varied mainly because of the number-size distribution. Chemical composition was the factor that determined AR values. However, the AR variations caused by changes of the chemical composition were much smaller than those caused changes of the particle size distribution even when Asian dust were observed over the region on 27-29 February. During the long range transport, rapid coagulation among mineral dust, organics and sea salt particles may accelerate the gravitational setting of marine aerosols and supplies the terrestrial substances to the ocean environment.

  7. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  8. Dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific and Asian adults living in Auckland: the Diabetes, Heart and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Patricia A; Scragg, Robert R K; Schaaf, David; Dyall, Lorna; Black, Peter N; Jackson, Rod

    2008-10-01

    To compare dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific, and Asian men and women living in Auckland. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire from participants in a cross-sectional health screening study carried out between 2002 and 2003. Participants were 4,007 Māori, Pacific, Asian and European people (1,915 men, 2,092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Compared with Europeans, Māori and Pacific men had higher total energy intakes per day, while Asians had lower intakes. A similar pattern was observed for carbohydrate and fat consumption. While protein and cholesterol consumption tended to be lower in Europeans than the other three ethnic groups, alcohol consumption and calcium intakes were highest among Europeans. Many of the differences between ethnic groups were attenuated when nutrient consumption was expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intake suggesting that total food consumption was the major determinant of ethnic differences in nutrient intakes. There were substantial differences in dietary habits, food selections and cooking practices between European, Māori, Pacific and Asian participants. However, the observed differences were in the area of serving sizes and frequency of consumption of certain foods than to major differences in the range of foods and nutrients consumed or the percentage contribution of carbohydrate, fat or protein to total energy intake. The development of strategies to reduce serving sizes and the frequency of consumption of certain foods will be required to help address the major nutrition-related health problems in New Zealand.

  9. Pacific Islands Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) algae species lists (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quadrats were sampled along consecutively placed transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at sites in American Pacific Islands: CRED REA...

  10. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  12. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  13. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  14. A culturally adapted family intervention for rural Pacific Island veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealin, Julia M; Yoneda, Athena C; Nelson, Dawna; Hilmes, Todd S; Kawasaki, Michelle M; Yan, Oscar H

    2017-08-01

    The Veterans Affairs mission to provide equitable, accessible, and patient-centered care necessitates that culturally appropriate interventions are available when cultural differences may jeopardize engagement in care. However, within the VA, wounded warriors residing in rural areas in the Pacific Islands have been offered interventions that were developed and tested using largely urban mainland populations. The objectives of this article were to (a) document the cultural adaptation of a cognitive-behavioral clinical intervention for use by rural Pacific Island veterans, and (b) report feasibility data for the intervention. The 5-stage Map of the Adaptation Process (assessment, selection, preparation, piloting, and refinement) was used to structure the work. The resultant intervention, called "Koa," is a multisession family psychoeducational program that integrates selected Pacific Islander values, beliefs, and healing traditions with an empirically based mainstream U.S. To pilot Koa, rural Pacific Island dyads (28 veterans and 28 family members) participated via video teleconference and completed pre- and post- intervention measures. Outcome data indicated that participants perceived the intervention to be highly acceptable, useful, and relevant. Relationship quality scores substantially improved postintervention as measured by the Dyadic Relationship Scale (95% CI [-10.97, -1.84], t(22) = -2.9, p = .008, d = -0.53 for veterans; 95% CI [-11.06, -2.47], t(21) = -3.28, p = .004, d = -0.68 for family members). Family caregiving burden also improved significantly. The positive results of this investigation support the development of culturally adapted mental health interventions for culturally distinct subgroups of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Variability in the Correlation between Asian Dust Storms and Chlorophyll a Concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Hui-Wang; Shi, Guang-Yu; Yue, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997–2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the China seas because atmospheric deposition is commonly believed to exert less impact on coastal seas. Significant correlations existed between dust sources and many sea areas, suggesting a link between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in those seas. However, the correlation coefficients were highly variable. In general, the correlation coefficients (0.54–0.63) for the Sea of Japan were highest, except for that between the subarctic Pacific and the Taklimakan Desert, where it was as high as 0.7. For the >50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32–0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36). These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas. PMID:23460892

  16. Increasing synoptic scale variability in atmospheric CO2 at Hateruma Island associated with increasing East-Asian emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma Island (24.05° N, 123.80° E, 47 m a.s.l, Japan shows large synoptic scale variations during a 6-month period from November to April, when the sampled air is predominantly of continental origin due to the Asian winter monsoon. Synoptic scale variations are extracted from the daily averaged values for the years between 1996 and 2007, along with the annual standard deviations (σCO2 and σCH4 for CO2 and CH4, respectively for the relevant 6-month period. During this 6-month period the absolute mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 at Hateruma are also elevated compared to those at two sites in the central North Pacific Ocean. The temporal change in σCO2 shows a systematic increase over the 12-year period, with elevated excursions in 1998 and 2003; there is no clear increase in σCH4. We also find that the σCO2/σCH4 ratio increases gradually from 1996 to 2002 and rapidly after 2002 without any extreme deviations that characterised σCO2. The σCO2/σCH4 ratio correlates closely with the recent rapid increase in fossil carbon emissions from China, as indicated in the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC database. This methodology can be applied to multiple chemical tracers of sufficient lifetime, for tracking overall changes in regional emissions.

  17. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  18. Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Gastón O; Castro, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times. We hypothesize that, in the time between these periods, extinction of local plant species and addition of exotic plants modified phylogenetic-α-diversity at different levels (deeper and terminal phylogeny) and increased phylo-β-diversity among islands. Based on floristic studies, we assembled a phylogenetic tree from occurrence data that includes 921 species, of which 165 and 756 were native or exotic in origin, respectively. Then, we studied change in the phylo-α-diversity and phylo-β-diversity (1 -Phylosor) by comparing pre-European and current times. Despite extinction of 18 native angiosperm species, an increase in species richness and phylo-α-diversity was observed for all islands studied, attributed to introduction of exotic plants (between 6 to 477 species per island). We did not observe significant variation of mean phylogenetic distance (MPD), a measure of the 'deeper' phylogenetic diversity of assemblages (e.g., orders, families), suggesting that neither extinctions nor introductions altered phylogenetic structure of the angiosperms of these islands. In regard to phylo-β-diversity, we detected temporal turnover (variation in phylogenetic composition) between periods to flora (0.38 ± 0.11). However, when analyses were performed only considering native plants, we did not observe significant temporal turnover between periods (0.07 ± 0.06). These results indicate that introduction of exotic angiosperms has contributed more notably than extinctions to the configuration of plant assemblages and phylogenetic diversity on the studied islands. Because phylogenetic diversity is closely related to functional diversity (species trait variations and roles performed by organisms), our results suggests that the introduction of exotic

  19. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites around Jarvis Island in...

  20. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-06-02

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n.

  1. Amphidromy links a newly documented fish community of continental Australian streams, to oceanic islands of the west Pacific.

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    Paul A Thuesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76, than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared, than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics

  2. Networking Island Societies under Globalization The Case of the Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Kakazu, Hiroshi; 嘉数, 啓

    2006-01-01

    Network activities are particularly important in the context of small, remote island societies where the benefits from network externalities are greater than one might think. The intensity of networking depends on several factors including: geographical location, culture, socio-economic interdependence, political affiliations and information and communication technology (ICT), all which are examined in this paper. This paper has focused on external and internal networking of Okinawa's islands...

  3. Shallow-water Ascidians from Matua Island (central Kuril Islands, NW Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya

    2017-02-16

    Fifteen species of ascidians were identified in the material collected at Matua Island. Two species are new, Botryllus flavus n. sp. and Distaplia matua n. sp. The first species occurs also at Kamchatka waters, while the second is probably an endemic of Kuril Islands. The genus Macrenteron Redikorzev, 1927 is synonymized with Aplidium Savigny, 1816 and a new name Aplidium macrenteron nom. nov. is proposed for its type species.

  4. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring-time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  5. Insurance mechanisms for tropical cyclones and droughts in Pacific Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baarsch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One group of locations significantly affected by climate-related losses and damage is the Small Island Developing States (SIDS. One mechanism aiming to reduce such adverse impacts is insurance, with a wide variety of products and models available. Insurance for climate-related hazards affecting Pacific SIDS has not been investigated in detail. This article contributes to filling this gap by exploring how insurance mechanisms might be implemented in the Pacific SIDS for tropical cyclones and droughts. The study examines opportunities and constraints or limitations of some existing insurance mechanisms and programmes as applied to the Pacific SIDS. Eight insurance mechanisms are compared and discussed regarding the premium cost compared to the gross domestic product per capita, the amount of payout compared to the damage cost, the reserve and reinsurance, and the disaster risk reduction incentives. As such, this article offers a decision-making tool on insurance development for the Pacific SIDS. Ultimately, implementing disaster insurance for the Pacific SIDS depends on political will and external technical and financial assistance.

  6. Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dornan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed.

  7. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  8. The incidence, diagnostic clinical manifestations and severity of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children: the Starship experience (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, A; Rudge, S; Yan, J; Reed, P

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence, diagnostic clinical manifestations and severity of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE) in a cohort of New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children compared to European children. A chart review was conducted of children with jSLE seen by the Starship paediatric rheumatology and/or renal services between January 2000 and November 2010. Diagnostic clinical data and lupus nephritis data at anytime were collated while classic British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores were derived retrospectively. Thirty-two children were diagnosed with jSLE with an annual incidence of 0.52 per 100,000 per year. Compared with European children (0.31 per 100,000 per year) the incidence of jSLE was higher among Maori and Pacific (0.67 per 100,000 per year, p=0.06) and significantly higher among Asian children (1.17 per 100,000 per year, p=0.01). Compared with European children, Maori and Pacific children were more frequently diagnosed with lupus nephritis (80% vs 40%, p=0.09) and severe (WHO class 4 or 5) renal lesions (60% vs 40%, p=0.43) at presentation. Similarly, at any time during the study, lupus nephritis (100% vs 40%, p=0.001) and severe (WHO class 4 or 5) renal lesions (73.3% vs 40%, p=0.12) were more frequent among Maori and Pacific compared with European children. Furthermore, retrospective BILAG assessment of diagnostic disease severity demonstrated that Maori and Pacific children experienced the majority of severe "Category A" disease (56.8% vs 22.7%, p=0.17) which was predominantly renal (73.3% vs 40%, p=0.12) in nature. This is the first description of the incidence and clinical manifestations of jSLE in a cohort of New Zealand children. Although limited by the small numbers involved it confirmed anecdotal suspicions that the incidence of jSLE among Maori, Pacific and Asian children is higher than European children. Lupus nephritis is also more frequent and severe

  9. Integration of Russia in Asian Pacific Educational Space (the Case of Russian-Chinese Cooperation

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    Tatiana Leonidovna Guruleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the formational processes of APR educational space and role of Russia in educational integration of the region. Participation of Russia in cooperation of Asia-Pacific countries in the higher education is studied. The author proves the formation of the new international polycultural educational region of Siberia and the Far East of Russia and the Northeast provinces of China, and investigates prerequisites of its formation. The author identifies the following prerequisites specificity of the modern education system in China, the similarity of the higher education systems of Russia and China, China's interest in the study and use the experience of Russia in the organization of higher education, the desire and the willingness of the Russian and Chinese counterparts to identify and solve the problems arising in the process of international educational cooperation, the strategic interest of Russia and China in the economic recovery and development of Siberia and the Russian Far East and north-eastern provinces of China. Particular attention is paid to the role of the Forum of rectors of higher educational institutions of the Far East and Siberia of Russia and north-eastern provinces of China. The author concludes that currently there are processes of convergence of the EHEA and educational area of APR. This can be illustrated by the initiative of establishing a bridge between the countries of the EHEA and the participating countries of the Tokyo Convention on the recognition, which was approved by the political and economic forum of European and Asian countries (Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM.

  10. Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, A.C.; Loher, Timothy; Norcross, Brenda L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

  11. Variation of the Tropical Upper-tropospheric Trough and Its Linkage to the Asian-Pacific-North American Summer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaiqiang; Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    The tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) is one of the most prominent features in Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer, which peaks at 200-150 hPa in July and August. It is found that the TUTT varies largely from year to year, which indicates that the TUTT may exert great effects on the NH summer climate. In order to explore the causes that lead to the interannual variations of the TUTT, an area-weighted empirical orthogonal function decomposition analysis was applied to. The first mode reflects the northeastward-southwestward displacement of the TUTT, which is significantly related to the planetary wave originating from the Indo-western Pacific during a developing La Niña. The second mode presents the intensity change of the TUTT, which is attributed to the enhanced convection over the central Pacific where the anomalous warming sea surface temperature is appearing. The third mode shows the northwestward-southeastward displacement of the TUTT, which is correlated well with the north-south direction shift of east Asian westerly jet. Anomalous warming over the midlatitudes and cooling over the subtropics suggests a decreased meridional temperature gradient, which results in the northward displacement of westerly jet. The variations of TUTT's location and strength have distinct effects on the variation of South Asian high, the northwestern Pacific subtropical high, and the Mexican high, which subsequently modulate the climate anomalies in different regions.

  12. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  13. Relationship of the South Asian Monsoon and Regional Drought with Distinct Equatorial Pacific SST Patterns on Interannual and Decadal Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.; Ummenhofer, C.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Asian monsoon system influences the lives of over 60% of the planet's population, with widespread socioeconomic effects resulting from weakening or failure of monsoon rains. Spatially broad and temporally extended drought episodes have been known to dramatically influence human history, including the Strange Parallels Drought in the mid-18th century. Here, we explore the dynamics of sustained monsoon failure using the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas - a high-resolution network of hydro-climatically sensitive tree-ring records - and a 1300-year pre-industrial control run of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Spatial drought patterns in the instrumental and model-based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during years with extremely weakened South Asian monsoon are similar to those reconstructed during the Strange Parallels Drought in the MADA. We further explore how the large-scale Indo-Pacific climate during weakened South Asian monsoon differs between interannual and decadal timescales. The Strange Parallels Drought pattern is observed during March-April-May primarily over Southeast Asia, with decreased precipitation and reduced moisture fluxes, while anomalies in June-July-August are confined to the Indian subcontinent during both individual and decadal events. Individual years with anomalous drying exhibit canonical El Niño conditions over the eastern equatorial Pacific and associated shifts in the Walker circulation, while decadal events appear to be related to anomalous warming around the dateline in the equatorial Pacific, typical of El Niño Modoki events. The results suggest different dynamical processes influence drought at different time scales through distinct remote ocean influences.

  14. Mapping the Forgotten Colony: The Ogasawara Islands and the Tokugawa Pivot to the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rüegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1862, Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate claimed the Ogasawara Islands, a small archipelago between Honshu and Guam, as a part of Japan. In the manageable setting of the islands, the shogunate undertook a colonial experiment that revealed changing attitudes toward non-Japanese ethnicities, modern technologies, and maritime space. Through an examination of four maps, this article shows that Japanese intellectuals had been discussing plans for settler colonialism in the Pacific almost a century before Tokugawa leaders began exploring the open sea as an economic space. In the shogunate’s two-tiered strategy, agriculture assimilated the land, and law subjected its earlier settlers. This approach provided a foothold for offshore whaling, which transformed the surrounding seas into a space of production. However, expanding the sphere of Tokugawa influence necessitated a redefinition of the Japanese realm. Geographical notions were reshaped to make the overseas territory a part of the Izu archipelago some 700 kilometers farther north, and the presence of Western settlers was countered with narratives of earlier possession and relocation of Japanese individuals. Officials were particularly intrigued by formerly unknown plant and animal species found on the islands. Exploring economic opportunities in the Pacific sphere, they prepared a geopolitical shift that is often associated with Japan’s modern empire. This article, by contrast, locates the origins of modern Japan’s “pelagic empire” well before the Meiji Reform and shows how expansionism was reconciled with earlier perceptions of geography.

  15. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  17. Community capacity for cancer control collaboration: Weaving an islander network for cancer awareness, research and training for Pacific Islanders in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Addressing cancer health disparities constitutes a national priority in this country, with funding for Pacific Islander efforts initiated seven years ago by the National Cancer Institute. In 2005, the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) was launched in Southern California by a collaboration of community and university organizations to build upon past efforts to decrease cancer health disparities for Chamorros, Native Hawaiians, Marshallese, Samoans and Tongans. Methods To assess community organizational capacity to participate in collaborative cancer control for Pacific Islanders, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis was undertaken. Two staff members per community organization (CBO) performed the SWOT analyses, with grids analyzed for commonalities and differences between all organizations. Results Staff informants provided many examples of what they perceived as organizational strengths and weaknesses with regards to promoting cancer control for their respective Pacific Islander populations. CBO strengths included strong leadership and extensive community experience. Challenges included limited resources, lack of staff skills in some areas, and difficulty recruiting volunteers. In addition, many external opportunities and threats to cancer control promotion were identified. Conclusion Results from the SWOT analyses have been used to identify topics for community organizational trainings and supports within WINCART, with the goals of increasing their participation in the development and implementation of collaborative, community-university driven efforts to decrease cancer disparities for Pacific Islanders in Southern California. PMID:18359580

  18. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  19. Perspectives on Visual Impairment: An Asian American Woman Shares Her Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts from an interview with an Asian-American woman about her views on aspects of her life illustrate key issues related to the cultural implications of having a visual impairment. Suggestions for professionals who work with Asian-American or Pacific-Islander clients are also presented. (Author/CR)

  20. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Dewi Thedja

    Full Text Available Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG. This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  1. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  2. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  3. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  4. Pacific Islanders in College Football: Getting In, Staying In, and Moving On

    OpenAIRE

    Kukahiko, Keali'i Troy

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, the American College Testing (ACT) reported that 81% of Pacific Islander (PI) high school students aspire to earn a bachelor’s degree or higher (the national average is 82%), but in 2014, only 38% of PIs left high school to attend college, and only 18% actually graduated with their bachelor’s degree. This suggests that PI communities have bought into the promise of higher education, but barriers exist that complicate their matriculation. This dissertation is a study of PI college foo...

  5. The use of home brew in Pacific Islands countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Duffy, Shavonne; Singh, Debbie; Lavelio, Save; Amber, Uma; Homasi-Paelate, Avanoa; Alfred, Julia

    2018-01-01

    This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew. Finally, policy implications of the findings are included in this article.

  6. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  7. The THORPEX-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign and Affiliated Field Campaigns over the Tropical Western North Pacific during August-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, P.

    2008-12-01

    The THORPEX (THe Observing Research and Predictability EXperiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) is a multi-national field campaign that addresses the shorter-range dynamics and forecast skill associated with high-impact weather events of one region (Eastern Asian and the western North Pacific) and their downstream impacts on the medium-range dynamics and forecast skill of another region (in particular, the eastern North Pacific and North America). Although many significant weather events occur over eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, the focus of T-PARC is on various aspects of typhoon activity, which include formation, intensification, structure change, motion, and extratropical transition. Because of the significant impact of typhoon activity on the region of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, T-PARC is comprised of several affiliated programs. These programs and their national sponsor include: - Tropical Cyclone Structure-2008 (TCS-08) [United States]; - Typhoon Hunter-2008 (TH-08) [Japan]; - Predictability and Observation Experiment (PROBEX) [South Korea]; - Tibetan Plateau Experiment [China]; - The South China Sea Experiment [China]; - Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) [Taiwan]. In addition to the above list of field campaigns, a significant international component existed via contribution of specific observation platforms. A high-altitude jet aircraft (FALCON) will be operated by the Deutches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Driftsonde balloon operations will be conducted by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France. Although the region of the western North Pacific plays an important and unique role in defining many characteristics of the midlatitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere, the near-global participation in T-PARC is an indication that the scientific principles being examined with respect to the impacts on downstream weather by significant events

  8. Advance care planning for Māori, Pacific and Asian people: the views of New Zealand healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Rosemary; Raphael, Deborah; Bellamy, Gary; Gott, Merryn

    2014-05-01

    Despite the benefits of advance care planning (ACP), international research has suggested that in pluralistic and multicultural societies such as New Zealand, significant differences exist in the uptake of ACP between European-based populations and other cultural groups [Crawley (2005)]. The purpose of this study was to therefore explore the views of generalist palliative care providers in both the community and hospital settings regarding the barriers to ACP adoption as well as methods to increase knowledge about ACP among Māori, Pacific and Asian cultural groups within New Zealand society. Eleven individual interviews, two joint interviews and three focus groups were conducted with health and social care professionals with a wide range of knowledge and experience in palliative care. Challenges were related to a number of issues based on culture, including family decision-making style, a need to 'do everything' and a reluctance to discuss issues surrounding dying and death. Suggestions to increase the knowledge of ACP included techniques to improve information access and the utilisation of shared norms and values to assist with discussions between Māori, Pacific and Asian health professionals and their patients and families/whānau. Findings indicate a need for more family/whānau-centred models of ACP, addressed much earlier in the healthcare process and within the community setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tristan L; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Burdin, Alexander; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Tuomi, Pamela; Smith, Woutrina A; Goldstein, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.

  10. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified – one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS. Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.. As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l. and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l., consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three. This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is

  11. Will the effects of sea-level rise create ecological traps for Pacific Island seabirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of

  12. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to

  13. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  14. Confronting death: Tuvaluan Islanders, in the South Pacific, and the rising sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tuvalu Group is made of nine small low-lying coral atoll and reef islands, located in the South Pacific, about 1,100 km north of Fiji. With a total area of 26 km2, it has about 11,000 residents, generally fishermen and breadfruit, taro, pulaka and coconut subsistence farmers. The people of Tuvalu are mostly of Polynesian origin, their culture and physical type being quite homogeneous. In order to develop an ethno-geographic study, during the month of February 2010, the Portuguese Tropical Research Institute has conducted a scientific mission to the atoll of Funafuti, widely known to be endangered due to the rising sea level. The objectives of the project were twofold: to evaluate the Pacific people's awareness to climate change and, consequently, to evaluate their perception of death. The survey consisted of fifty-eight semi-structured interviews. Results have shown that nearly two thirds of the remote islanders fear not the rising sea levels, as they are mostly Christians and therefore fearless of death. They emphatically trust that Divine Providence will bet on their survival.

  15. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program: supporting climate science and enhancing climate services in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Jones, David; Hendon, Harry; Charles, Andrew; Shelton, Kay; de Wit, Roald; Cottrill, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Seuseu, Sunny; Kaniaha, Salesa

    2013-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant progress in developing climate science for the Pacific has been achieved through a number of research projects undertaken under the Australian government International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI). Climate change has major impact on Pacific Island Countries and advancement in understanding past, present and futures climate in the region is vital for island nation to develop adaptation strategies to their rapidly changing environment. This new science is now supporting new services for a wide range of stakeholders in the Pacific through the National Meteorological Agencies of the region. Seasonal climate prediction is particularly important for planning in agriculture, tourism and other weather-sensitive industries, with operational services provided by all National Meteorological Services in the region. The interaction between climate variability and climate change, for example during droughts or very warm seasons, means that much of the early impacts of climate change are being felt through seasonal variability. A means to reduce these impacts is to improve forecasts to support decision making. Historically, seasonal climate prediction has been developed based on statistical past relationship. Statistical methods relate meteorological variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) to indices which describe large-scale environment (e.g. ENSO indices) using historical data. However, with observed climate change, statistical approaches based on historical data are getting less accurate and less reliable. Recognising the value of seasonal forecasts, we have used outputs of a dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia), to develop web-based information tools (http://poama.bom.gov.au/experimental/pasap/index.shtml) which are now used by climate services in 15 partner countries in the Pacific for preparing seasonal climate outlooks. Initial comparison conducted during 2012 has shown that the

  18. Distribution of a 27-bp deletion in the band 3 gene in South Pacific islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masako; Tamam, Moedrik; Soemantri, Augustinus; Nakazawa, Minato; Ataka, Yuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Ishida, Takafumi

    2003-01-01

    Distribution of a 27-bp deletion in the band 3 gene (B3Delta27) that causes Southeast Asian/Melanesian ovalocytosis has scarcely been studied in remote insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Here the presence of the B3Delta27 was surveyed among a total of 756 subjects from the indigenous populations inhabiting New Guinean islands and remote insular Southeast Asia by using a polymerase chain reaction method. In remote insular Southeast Asia where Austronesian-speaking peoples inhabit, the B3Delta27 frequency ranged between 0.04 and 0.15. In New Guinea Island, hinterland or Papuan groups showed the absence of the B3Delta27 or a very low gene frequency (0.01 in the Gidra) of the B3Delta27. However, groups of the coastal regions (Asmat, Sorong, and others) and of the nearby islands (Biak and Manus) where Austronesian infiltration had occurred showed substantial frequencies of the deletion (0.02-0.09). It is likely that the B3Delta27 was introduced into this region about 3,500 years ago with the arrival of Austronesian-speaking peoples. Once being introduced, the B3Delta27 may have been selected because of its resistance against malaria, while founder effect and genetic drift might have occurred in the New Guinean tribes with small population size, which helped to generate a variety of the B3Delta27 frequencies.

  19. A practical strategy for responding to a case of lymphatic filariasis post-elimination in Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Humpress; Asugeni, James; Jimuru, Christopher; Gwalaa, John; Ribeyro, Elmer; Bradbury, Richard; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) due to Wuchereria bancrofti is being eliminated from Oceania under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis Programme. LF was endemic in Solomon Islands but in the 2010-2020 Strategic Plan of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF, Solomon Islands was listed as non-endemic for LF. In countries now declared free of LF an important question is what monitoring strategy should be used to detect any residual foci of LF? This paper describes how a new case ...

  20. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  1. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program Rapid Ecological Assessment Quadrat Surveys of Corals around the Marianas Islands from 2003-08-22 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0129066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science...

  2. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  4. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J.; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries—Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Objective: We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. Methods: This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a “likelihood versus impact” matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. Results: The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Conclusion: Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate

  5. U-Pb ages of zircons from Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Yanbian area, Jilin Province, NE China: Transition of the Paleo-Asian oceanic regime to the circum-Pacific tectonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Guang; Sun, De-You; Gou, Jun; Hou, Xue-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Geology in the Yanbian area, NE China, is a key to understanding the relationship between the Paleo-Pacific tectonic regime and the older Paleo-Asian oceanic regime, especially the transition between the regimes during the Mesozoic. A compilation of 131 U-Pb zircon ages, including 18 obtained in the present study, shows that the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic magmatism in the Yanbian area took place from 285 to 105 Ma (mainly 205-160 Ma) and that there was a peak of activity at ∼175 Ma and a hiatus from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (150-130 Ma). Provisionally, we subdivide the magmatic activity into four dominant stages: Middle Permian to Middle Triassic (280-240 Ma), Late Triassic (230-205 Ma), Early to Middle Jurassic (205-160 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (130-105 Ma). Middle Permian intrusive rocks, including pyroxenite, gabbro, diorite, granodiorite, tonalite and monzogranite, are interpreted to have been emplaced along an Andean-style continental margin in association with the subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate. The Late Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive rocks are mainly quartz monzonite, monzogranite and syenogranite, and are considered to have been the result of syn-orogenic/post-collisional activities. The Late Triassic magmatism involved not only the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks, but also coeval I- and A-type granitoids, indicating an extensional environment after the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Since the Jurassic, the tectonic setting has been dominated by subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate. Previously published data for the Yanbian area and age data from surrounding regions show that the entire region from the Yanbian area to the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Islands experienced peaks in igneous activities that ranged from 200 to 165 Ma during the Jurassic, and 120 to 110 Ma and 90 to 65 Ma during the Cretaceous. The Jurassic intrusive rocks were emplaced mainly in the west and Cretaceous

  6. Human-assisted invasions of pacific islands by litoria frogs: a case study of the bleating tree frog on Lord Howe Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Lynette Plenderleith

    Full Text Available There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area.

  7. Human-assisted invasions of pacific islands by litoria frogs: a case study of the bleating tree frog on Lord Howe Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, T Lynette; Smith, Katie L; Donnellan, Stephen C; Reina, Richard D; Chapple, David G

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI) is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata) is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area.

  8. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  9. Advance directive preferences among subpopulations of Asian nursing home residents in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, G; Kiyasu, E; McCormick, W C

    2000-05-01

    To study advance directives (code status) among subgroups of Asian nursing home residents. Cross-sectional design. A total of 423 residents of Asian descent (aged >55) from two ethnic nursing homes in Seattle, Washington. Chart review was conducted on 423 residents (199 discharged between 1995 and 1998 and 244 current residents) to ascertain code status, age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidity (using the Charlson Index), and religion. Seventy percent of the residents were women, median age was 83 +/- 9, 43% were Chinese, 40% Japanese, and 17% other Asian (Korean, Filipino, Southeast Asian). The majority of the patients in any subgroup (72% overall) were 'no code'. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, increased age, and comorbidity were correlated with no code status. In multivariable logistic regression, Japanese residents were more likely to be no code (OR 4.1 (95% CI, 3.1- 5.4)) controlling for age, comorbidity, gender, and religion. Chinese were more likely to be full code (OR 3.3 (95% CI, 2.6-4.2)). Code status differs significantly among Asian subgroups in these ethnic nursing homes. Whereas the majority of residents are no code, Japanese residents are more likely than Chinese or others to be no code. Higher age and comorbidity are also correlated with no code status.

  10. 3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which the reef slope descends steeply to great depths. Deep coral forests occur below photic zones of... of the ancient volcano on which the island rests. Johnston is a genetic and larval stepping stone... atoll has one of the best remaining examples of Pisonia grandis forest found in the Pacific region. This...

  11. HIV Testing Behavior among Pacific Islanders in Southern California: Exploring the Importance of Race/Ethnicity, Knowledge, and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…

  12. 76 FR 24047 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory... directional manner to all potential rat territories within a short operational period. Special measures to...

  13. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... stability and local food production. This objective would be supported through the following projects: (a... CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office, 808-944-2108... H. Menashes, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  14. Revising the American dream: how Asian immigrants adjust after an HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2015-08-01

    We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to

  15. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  16. Longitudinal Prediction of Suicide Attempts for a Diverse Adolescent Sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific Peoples, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Smith, Myra D; McCarthy, Kayne; Lee, Mark; Goebert, Deborah A; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Andrade, Naleen N; Philip, Jacques B; Chung-Do, Jane J; Hamamoto, Reid S; Andrade, Joy K L

    2017-01-10

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal predictors of past-6-month suicide attempts for a diverse adolescent sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific peoples, and Asian Americans. The study used longitudinal data from the Hawaiian High Schools Health Survey (N = 2,083, 9th to 11th graders, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 school years). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was conducted. The final model consisted of three statistically significant predictors: (1) Time 1 suicide attempt, odds ratio = 30.6; (2) state anxiety, odds ratio = 4.9; and (3) parent expectations, odds ratio = 1.9. Past suicide attempt was by far the strongest predictor of future suicide attempts. Implications are discussed, including the need for screening of prior suicide attempts and focused interventions after suicide attempts.

  17. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in

  18. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, Christopher; Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-09-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the 'dollar a day' measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda.

  19. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  20. Distinguishing transient versus stable aspects of depression in New Zealand Pacific Island children using Generalizability Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Janis; Medvedev, Oleg N; Sumich, Alexander; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Krägeloh, Christian U; Sisk, Rose; McNamara, Robert K; Berk, Michael; Narayanan, Ajit; Siegert, Richard J

    2017-11-16

    The distinction between temporary versus enduring or state/trait aspects of depression is important. More precise distinction would improve understanding of the aetiology of depression and those aspects most amenable to intervention thus identifying more homogeneous, dynamic targets for clinical trials. Generalizability Theory has been proposed as useful for disentangling state and trait components of psychopathology. We applied Generalizability Theory to determine the relative contributions of temporary and enduring aspects of depression in a widely used screening measure of depression the - 10-item Children's Depression Inventory (CDI-10; Kovacs, 1985). Participants were children of Pacific Island descent living in New Zealand (n = 668). Data were collected at ages - 9, 11, and 14 years. The CDI-10 demonstrated acceptable generalizability across occasions (G = 0.79) with about one third of variance in total scores attributed to temporary and two thirds to more enduring aspects of depression. There were no other significant sources of error variance. Two items were identified as more sensitive than the remaining eight to more dynamic symptoms. Studies with briefer test-retest intervals are warranted. Use of this Pacific Island cohort limits generalizability of findings to other cultures and ethnicities. No data were collected on whether participants had received intervention for depression. While the CDI-10 reliably measures both stable and transient aspects of depression in children, the scale does not permit clear distinction between them. We advocate application of Generalizability Theory for developing state/trait depression measures and determining which existing measures are most suitable for capturing modifiable features of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological variables related to weight loss in native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Townsend, Claire K M; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka' imi A; Mau, Marjorie K; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ≥3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) 'Ohana Project. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n = 49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n = 51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (P ≤ .05) with ≥3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR = 6.04; CI = 1.14-32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR = 1.47; CI = 1.22-1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR = 4.50; CI = 1.50-15.14) were more likely to achieve ≥3% weight loss [model; χ(2) (7, N = 100) = 45.50, P importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Reef Island Evolution and Dynamics: Insights from the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Perspectives for the Spermonde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kench

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along southwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, the Spermonde Archipelago comprises some 120 islands of variable size and degree of anthropogenic modification. Comparable to adjacent areas in Southeast Asia, the Spermonde Archipelago is characterized by the congregation of a naturally high marine biodiversity and, at the same time, a high population density influencing the surrounding environmental conditions. As a consequence, during the last decades, research projects that have been carried out in the Spermonde mainly focused on social, ecological, political and economic interactions. However, geological and geomorphological aspects of the coral reef islands are less well understood and there have been few studies undertaken since the pioneering work of Umbgrove, Kuenen, and Verstappen in the Indonesian archipelago in the early to mid-twentieth century. Here we review the existing studies, with a focus on the Spermonde Archipelago, and reconcile them with more recent works on reef island evolution and dynamics from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This synthesis shows that reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago are well suited for geomorphological investigations, and provides perspectives for future reef island research in that area that will have global interest. We identify four research priorities: (1 To identify the timing and chronology of island formation; (2 Improved understanding of carbonate budgets and sediment generation that contribute to island building; (3 Document morphological changes in reef islands at seasonal to decadal timescales, and; (4 Quantify the process regime that drives sediment transport and island change with particular focus on the role of different monsoon seasons.

  3. Interviewing techniques for the Asian-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sue

    2006-05-01

    The cultures of racial and ethnic minorities influence many aspects of mental illness, including communication styles, symptoms, coping strategies, family and community support, and willingness to seek treatment. This article presents the effects of Asian American/Pacific Islanders' beliefs and behaviors related to mental health. Strategies to enhance the process and outcomes of the psychiatric interview with members of this populatior are addressed.

  4. Asian American Resources: An Annotated Bibliography. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Gloria L., Comp.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography is a list of resource materials available at the Asian American Resource Center, St. Paul, Minnesota. It was compiled in order to provide information to classroom teachers and other public school personnel about Chinese, Japanese, Indochinese, Korean, Pacific Island, and Pilipino Americans. Many of the items described…

  5. Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

  6. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  7. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  8. Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific; it is part of the largest national park of Costa Rica and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island has been visited since the 16th Century due to its abundance of freshwater and wood. Marine biodiversity studies of the island started in the late 19th Century, with an intense period of research in the 1930’s, and again from the mid 1990’s to the present. The information is scattered and, in some cases, in old publications that are difficult to access. Here I have compiled published records of the marine organisms of the island. At least 1688 species are recorded, with the gastropods (383 species, bony fishes (354 spp. and crustaceans (at least 263 spp. being the most species-rich groups; 45 species are endemic to Isla del Coco National Park (2.7% of the total. The number of species per kilometer of coastline and by square kilometer of seabed shallower than 200m deep are the highest recorded in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Although the marine biodiversity of Isla del Coco is relatively well known, there are regions that need more exploration, for example, the south side, the pelagic environments, and deeper waters. Also, several groups of organisms, such as the flatworms, nematodes, nemerteans, and gelatinous zooplankton, have been observed around the Island but have been poorly studied or not at all.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; es parte del Parque Nacional más grande de Costa Rica y es un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial. La isla ha sido visitada desde el Siglo XVI por su abundancia de agua dulce y árboles. Estudios de biodiversidad marina de la isla empezaron a finales del Siglo XIX, con un intenso período de investigación en la década de 1930, y de nuevo desde mediados de la década de 1990 al presente. La información sobre organismos marinos se encuentra dispersa y en algunos casos en publicaciones

  9. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuges; Units of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Howland Island, Baker...

  10. Spatial and temporal variabilities of spring Asian dust events and their impacts on chlorophyll-a concentrations in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joo-Eun; Kim, Kitae; Macdonald, Alison M.; Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Yoo, Kyu-Cheul; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yang, Eun Jin; Jung, Jinyoung; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Choi, Tae-Jun; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Il-Nam

    2017-02-01

    As the western North Pacific Ocean is located downwind of the source regions for spring Asian dust, it is an ideal location for determining the response of open waters to these events. Spatial analysis of spring Asian dust events from source regions to the western North Pacific, using long-term daily aerosol index data, revealed three different transport pathways supported by the westerly wind system: one passing across the northern East/Japan Sea (40°N-50°N), a second moving over the entire East/Japan Sea (35°N-55°N), and a third flowing predominantly over the Siberian continent (>50°N). Our results indicate that strong spring Asian dust events can increase ocean primary productivity by more than 70% (>2-fold increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations) compared to weak/nondust conditions. Therefore, attention should be paid to the recent downturn in the number of spring Asian dust events and to the response of primary production in the western North Pacific to this change.

  11. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland Island, Hul `ia, James Campbell, Jarvis Island, Johnston... completed wilderness inventories and subsequent WSA studies for the Baker Island, Howland Island, and Jarvis.... possible wilderness proposal submitted to recommendation. Congress. Howland Island\\1\\ September 2008, WSA...

  12. NOAA/NMFS/CRED Deep CTD profiles from 15 cruises near islands, atolls and shoals in the central tropical Pacific 1999-2012 (NODC Accession 0115299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  14. Two new species of Gnathia Leach from coral reefs at Moorea, Society Islands, with redescription of Gnathia margaritarum Monod, 1926 from Panama Pacific (Isopoda: Cymothoidea: Gnathiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    1989-01-01

    Gnathia cooki n. sp. and Gnathia galzini n. sp. from fringing reefs at Moorea, Society Islands are described, Gnathia margaritarum Monod, 1926 from Panamá Pacific is redescribed. Its affinities to the other members of the genus are discussed.

  15. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000 meters....

  16. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from the submarine slope environment at Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Rose Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. These data provide coverage between 20 and 5000...

  17. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Social Security Disability Insurance Claimants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Disability insurance benefits from federal...

  18. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family to get tested for HBV because hepatitis B is one of the KNOW greatest health threats ... Ask your doctor for these blood tests: HBV Hepatitis B sur face antigen (HBs Ag) : Tells if you ...

  19. 77 FR 26643 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Nation's most successful and dynamic enterprises. AAPI men and women are leaders in every aspect of... Washington, D.C., an enduring symbol of the friendship shared between the United States and Japan and a...

  20. Disassembling the Model Minority: Asian Pacific Islander Identities and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empleo, Arlene C.

    2006-01-01

    When I was in kindergarten, I was always in trouble. During recess I either sat on the benches or stood up against the wall. I had few friends; I always seemed to get into arguments with my classmates no matter if they were Filipino American like me, or European American, or African American, or Latinos. I always caused problems for my teacher.…

  1. Yearly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Aged Applicants (2016 Onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits from federal fiscal year...

  2. 76 FR 18202 - Applications for New Awards; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486) (Supplemental NFP). Competitive Preference... are new immigrants, or who have disabilities. (See Supplemental NFP.) Privacy requirements means the... local requirements regarding privacy. (See Supplemental NFP.) Program Authority: 20 U.S.C 1067q(b)(2)(D...

  3. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... history--reaching and sweating and scraping to give their children something more. Their story is the... hardworking AAPI families face disparities in health care, education, and employment that keep them from... outcomes in health and education. We are fighting for commonsense immigration reform so America can...

  4. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS) - Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2013 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  5. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  6. Social Security Administration Yearly Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Representation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Federal employees self-identify their race and ethnicity by completing OPM'S Standard Form 181, "Ethnicity and Race Identification". We input the information into...

  7. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for fiscal year 2011 onward. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We will...

  8. 76 FR 61348 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... efforts to improve the quality of life of AAPIs through increased participation in Federal programs in... Individuals who will need accommodations for a disability in order to attend the meeting (e.g., interpreting... individuals with disabilities. Records are kept of all Commission proceedings and are available for public...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00813, Lat: -00.36903 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.00m; Data Date Range: 20100401-20101114.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99114, Lat: -00.36324 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.80m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47587, Lat: 00.20539 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.40m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -160.00807, Lat: -00.36902 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.40m; Data Date Range: 20100401-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. Pacific Island landbird monitoring report, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, 2015-2016: Tract groups 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Camp, Rick; Sedgwick, Daniel; Squibb, Carine; Hart, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) was surveyed for landbirds and landbird habitat from February through April 2015 and February through April 2016. This information provides the second datum in the time-series of Pacific Island Network (PACN) monitoring for long term trends in landbird distribution, density, and abundance. Initial PACN surveys were conducted in 2010 and are repeated every five years. The entire survey area was comprised of eight tracts in forest, woodland, and shrub habitat, totaling

  15. Cost-effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the Pacific Islands: protocol for a before and after intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Viali, Satu; Schultz, Jimaima; Bell, Colin; Land, Mary-Anne; Downs, Shauna; Christoforou, Anthea; Dunford, Elizabeth; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2014-02-04

    There is broad consensus that diets high in salt are bad for health and that reducing salt intake is a cost-effective strategy for preventing chronic diseases. The World Health Organization has been supporting the development of salt reduction strategies in the Pacific Islands where salt intakes are thought to be high. However, there are no accurate measures of salt intake in these countries. The aims of this project are to establish baseline levels of salt intake in two Pacific Island countries, implement multi-pronged, cross-sectoral salt reduction programs in both, and determine the effects and cost-effectiveness of the intervention strategies. Intervention effectiveness will be assessed from cross-sectional surveys before and after population-based salt reduction interventions in Fiji and Samoa. Baseline surveys began in July 2012 and follow-up surveys will be completed by July 2015 after a 2-year intervention period.A three-stage stratified cluster random sampling strategy will be used for the population surveys, building on existing government surveys in each country. Data on salt intake, salt levels in foods and sources of dietary salt measured at baseline will be combined with an in-depth qualitative analysis of stakeholder views to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce salt intake. Salt reduction is a global priority and all Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed on a target to reduce salt intake by 30% by 2025, as part of the global action plan to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases. The study described by this protocol will be the first to provide a robust assessment of salt intake and the impact of salt reduction interventions in the Pacific Islands. As such, it will inform the development of strategies for other Pacific Island countries and comparable low and middle-income settings around the world.

  16. Small islands, valuable insights: systems of customary resource use and resilience to climate change in the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Heather L. McMillen; Tamara Ticktin; Alan Friedlander; Jupiter, Stacy D.; Randolph Thaman; John Campbell; Joeli Veitayaki; Thomas Giambelluca; Salesa Nihmei; Etika Rupeni; Lucille Apis-Overhoff; William Aalbersberg; Dan F. Orcherton

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how social-ecological systems are and can be resilient to climate change is one of the world's most crucial problems today. It requires knowledge at local and global scales, the integration of natural and social sciences, and a focus on biocultural diversity. Small Pacific Islands and the knowledge-practice-belief systems of their peoples have a long history of resilience to environmental variability and unpredictability, including in areas with marginal habitats and with period...

  17. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  18. Health literacy and obesity among native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassetter, Jane H; Clark, Lauren; Morgan, Sharla E; Brown, Lora Beth; VanServellen, Gwen; Duncan, Katrina; Hopkins, Elizabeth S

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to describe relationships between demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and health literacy among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs). In this cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 364 NHPI adults. We used Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a health literacy tool; measured heights and weights; and demographic questions. According to participants' NVS scores, 45.3% had at least a possibility of low health literacy. Lower NVS scores were associated with increased BMI (r = -0.12, p = .027) and increased age (r = -0.26, p Higher NVS scores were associated with higher incomes (r = 0.21, p = .001) and higher education (r = 0.27, p literacy are complex; however, age, income, education, and BMI explained a modest 19.95% of the combined variance in NVS scores. Public health nurses working to improve health literacy could include review of critical information on nutrition facts labels, frequently used calculations, and application of this information when making food choices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pacific island tropical cyclones are more frequent and globally relevant, yet less studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in 2013 and illuminates the fact that the majority of tropical cyclone (TC research has focused on the Atlantic Basin, continental socio-ecological systems, affluent regions where the resilience attributes of the human element differ from that of the of majority the world’s population, and organized countries where research and relief capacities are among the best worldwide. I contend that this collective international bias minimizes the usefulness of global TC research in light of global change forecasts, which predict increased frequency of intense TCs. Moreover, paleoecological studies indicate ecosystem resilience following a TC is greatly increased within habitats that experienced a prior history of frequent TCs. When these retrospective and future visions are connected, science-based analysis of the influences of climate change on TC disturbance argues for an increase in contemporary research on TCs of developing island nations in the western Pacific where TCs are already relatively frequent. Otherwise the current research trajectory may further widen the disconnect between best available science and future management decisions.

  20. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.-O. Pettersson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS (which includes microcephaly and Guillain-BarrÅèôÉééééÅèé syndrome (GBS have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

  1. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  2. Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Evans-Locke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Forum has long held the title of the most dominant regional association with links in trade, politics and regional security. Following two political coups in the region the PIF was forced to shift its approach to regional governance opting for a more active and hands-on role with its first such mission being the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI. The role undertaken by the PIF within RAMSI is noteworthy for its shifts and changes with an initially minimalist role morphed into an intermediary role as tensions rose between the major funding donor, Australia, and the host state, Solomon Islands in 2006-07. Although the PIF acted in a mediator role in this instance this has not been the normal role for the institution. This article examines the role the PIF has adopted in managing regional democratic stability through targeted development activities, whether their adopted role is applicable on a wider regional-level scale, and further, through examining key human-security related challenges, such as climate change, where the PIF fits into regional power-sharing institutions in the Pacific Islands of the future.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July 16-20, 1990; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Raynor; Roger R. Bay

    1993-01-01

    Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

  4. The dependence on atmospheric resolution of ENSO and related East Asian-western North Pacific summer climate variability in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Guijie; Huang, Gang; Wang, Pengfei; Yan, Bangliang

    2017-08-01

    The authors present results for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and East Asian-western North Pacific climate variability simulated in a new version high-resolution coupled model (ICM.V2) developed at the Center for Monsoon System Research of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (CMSR, IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The analyses are based on the last 100-year output of a 1000-year simulation. Results are compared to an earlier version of the same coupled model (ICM.V1), reanalysis, and observations. The two versions of ICM have similar physics but different atmospheric resolution. The simulated climatological mean states show marked improvement over many regions, especially the tropics in ICM.V2 compared to those in ICM.V1. The common bias in the cold tongue has reduced, and the warm biases along the ocean boundaries have improved as well. With improved simulation of ENSO, including its period and strength, the ENSO-related western North Pacific summer climate variability becomes more realistic compared to the observations. The simulated East Asian summer monsoon anomalies in the El Niño decaying summer are substantially more realistic in ICM.V2, which might be related to a better simulation of the Indo-Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO).

  5. The Energy Challenge for Pacific Island Countries: Sustainable Development and Energy Security through Bio-fuel Substitution for Remote Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, M.J.

    2006-10-15

    Pacific Island Countries (PICs) face a number of development challenges as a result of their small size and geographically-remote locations. One of the most prominent is access to affordable energy supplies. The high cost of petroleum products affects all sectors, impacting islanders' day to day life and undermining achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Measures are needed that can support energy security and fair pricing in PICs, through improved regulatory frameworks and the substitution of local energy resources for imported fuels wherever possible. At the macro level, regional bulk procurement contracts offer one option to address the challenge of expensive imported petroleum products. At the micro level, biofuel substitution may offer another opportunity. Coconut biodiesel, produced from locally-harvested coconuts, may enable these remote island populations to develop their own sustainable energy supplies, and provide sustainable livelihoods for their people.

  6. Transformation from Paleo-Asian Ocean closure to Paleo-Pacific subduction: New constraints from granitoids in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Qiao, Shi-Lei

    2017-08-01

    The eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt (EJHB) of NE China is a unique orogen that underwent two stages of evolution within the tectonic regimes of the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific oceans. 158 available zircon U-Pb ages, including 26 ages obtained during the present study and 132 ages from the literature, were compiled and analyzed for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids from the EJHB and the adjacent Russian Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (SAOB), to examine the temporal-spatial distribution of the granitoids and to constrain the tectonic evolution of the East Asian continental margin. Five stages of granitic magmatism can be identified: Early Triassic (251-240 Ma), Late Triassic (228-215 Ma), latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic (213-158 Ma), Early Cretaceous (131-105 Ma), and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene (95-56 Ma). The Early Triassic granitoids are restricted to the Yanbian region along the Changchun-Yanji Suture, and show geochemical characteristics of magmas from a thickened lower crust source, probably due to the final collision of the combined NE China blocks with the North China Craton. The Late Triassic granitoids, with features of A-type granites, represent post-collisional magmatic activities that were related to post-orogenic extension, marking the end of the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The latest Triassic to Paleocene granitoids with calc-alkaline characteristics were NE-trending emplaced along the EJHB and SAOB and young towards the coastal region, and represent continental marginal arc magmas that were associated with the northwestwards subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two periods of magmatic quiescence (158-131 and 105-95 Ma) correspond to changes in the subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate from oblique relative to the continental margin to subparallel. Taking all this into account, we conclude that: (1) the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred along the Changchun-Yanji Suture during the Early Triassic; (2) the

  7. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  8. Crustal strain phenomena in the Solomon Islands, constraints from field evidence, and relationship to the India-Pacific plates' boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, W. R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The Solomon Islands lie along the India-Pacific plates' margin and have recorded a history of deformation resulting from the interaction of these two plates. Various kinematic models have been proposed for the Solomons and these have involved a variety of plate tectonic processes. It is pointed out that almost without exception these models have been based on a provincial geological classification of the island group in which it is assumed that two of these provinces—Pacific and Central provinces—commenced their geological development in regions distant from one another. Invariably such models require that Santa Isabel represents part of a collision zone between these two provinces, though field evidence from Santa Isabel for such a collision has in the past been largely lacking. These various kinematic models are examined in the light of more recent field evidence, and a premise on which they have been based—initial separate development for two of the provinces—is questioned. Rather it is here suggested that the Central and Pacific provinces developed in roughly similar positions, one with the other as they occur today, and that they were at least in part separated from Oligocene time onward by a linear peridotite-gabbro ridge, Korighole-Florida high, which acted as a sediment barrier to much of the coarser clastic and volcanogenic sedimentation. The initial development of the Solomon Islands began in an oceanic environment with the extrusion of extensive submarine tholeiitic 'flood basalts' and intrusion of associated gabbroic and ultramafic rocks at depth, during the Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary. This igneous phase occurred with the whole of the island group representing the western margin of the Ontong Java Plateau. Subsequent asymmetric development of the Solomons during the Eocene and Oligocene resulted in uplift, shearing, and the initiation of arc volcanism, plutonism, and arc-related sedimentation in the Central province to the west. In contrast

  9. Issues associated with the emergence of coeliac disease in the Asia–Pacific region: a working party report of the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makharia, Govind K; Mulder, Chris J J; Goh, Khean Lee; Ahuja, Vineet; Bai, Julio C; Catassi, Carlo; Green, Peter H R; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Lundin, Knut E A; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan Siddartha; Rawat, Ramakant; Sharma, Hanish; Sood, Ajit; Watanabe, Chikako; Gibson, Peter R

    2014-04-01

    Once thought to be uncommon in Asia, coeliac disease (CD) is now being increasingly recognized in Asia–Pacific region. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. In recognition of such heterogeneity of knowledge and awareness, the World Gastroenterology Organization and the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology commissioned a working party to address the key issues in emergence of CD in Asia. A working group consisting of members from Asia–Pacific region, Europe, North America, and South America reviewed relevant existing literature with focus on those issues specific to Asia–Pacific region both in terms of what exists and what needs to be done. The working group identified the gaps in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CD in Asian–Pacific region and recommended the following: to establish prevalence of CD across region, increase in awareness about CD among physicians and patients, and recognition of atypical manifestations of CD. The challenges such as variability in performance of serological tests, lack of population-specific cut-offs values for a positive test, need for expert dietitians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, need for gluten-free infrastructure in food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations were also emphasized. Although absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years or decades. It is thus appropriate that medical community across the Asia–Pacific region define extent of problem and get prepared to handle impending epidemic of CD.

  10. Progress on salt reduction in the Pacific Islands: from strategies to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Anthea; Snowdon, Wendy; Laesango, Nevalyn; Vatucawaqa, Seta; Lamar, Daniel; Alam, Lawrence; Lippwe, Kippier; Havea, Iemaima Lise; Tairea, Karen; Hoejskov, Peter; Waqanivalu, Temo; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-05-01

    Most populations are consuming too much salt which is the main contributor of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. The South Pacific Office of the World Health Organization has been facilitating the development of salt reduction strategies in Pacific Island Countries and areas (PICs). The objective of this analysis was to review progress to date and identify regional actions needed to support PICs and ensure they achieve the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Relevant available national food, health and non-communicable disease (NCD) plans from all 22 PICs were reviewed. NCD co-ordinators provided updates and relayed experiences through semi-structured interviews. All activities were systematically categorised according to an existing salt reduction framework for the development of salt reduction strategies. Salt reduction consultations had been held in 14 countries and final strategies or action plans developed in nine of these, with drafts available in a further three. Three other countries had integrated salt reduction into NCD strategic plans. Baseline monitoring of salt intake had been undertaken in three countries, salt levels in foods in nine countries and salt knowledge, attitude and behaviour surveys in four countries. Most countries were at early stages of implementation and identified limited resources as a barrier to action. Planned salt reduction strategies included work with food industry or importers, implementing regional salt reduction targets, reducing salt levels in school and hospital meals, behaviour change campaigns, and monitoring and evaluation. There had been good progress on salt reduction planning in PICs. The need for increased capacity to effectively implement agreed activities, supported by regional standards and the establishment of improved monitoring systems, were identified as important steps to ensure the potential cardiovascular health benefits of salt

  11. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Gallego Volcanic Field, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific and geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, M. G.; Haldane, M. I.; Smith, D. J.; Billy, D.; Jordan, N. J.

    2011-08-01

    The Upper Miocene to present day Gallego Volcanic Field (GVF) is located in northwest Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific, and potentially includes the offshore Savo volcano. The GVF is a multi-centred complex covering an area of ~ 800 km 2 on Guadalcanal and a further ~ 30 km 2 on the island of Savo, north of west Guadalcanal. GVF volcanism is characterised by effusive eruptions of lava, intrusion of sub-volcanic plutons, as well as pyroclastic flow and fall deposits dominated by block and ash flow deposits. Geochemical analysis of a representative suite of samples from the GVF demonstrates that the GVF comprise largely a 'main suite' of basalts to andesites and minor trachyandesites. The predominant mineralogy of the GVF comprises plagioclase, amphibole, clinopyroxene and magnetite-ilmenite. Associated with the 'main suite' are cognate nodules composed of hornblendite, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite. Interpretation of major and trace element geochemistry and petrographic studies suggests that fractionation was dominated by early clinopyroxene, and later amphibole + clinopyroxene + minor plagioclase. Geochemical features such as the incompatibility of Sr suggest that plagioclase largely crystallised en-masse late in the fractionation sequence. The presence of amphibole and late fractionation of plagioclase is suggestive of derivation from initially water-rich magmas. The region is characterised by strong geographically-related geochemical variations as evidenced by the Woodlark (and Manus) basins: basalts become more arc-like within the ocean basins with decreasing distance to the subducting trench. The GVF-Savo volcanoes are spatially and geochemically affected by deep N-S fractures that show some evidence of sympathetic geochemical variations with distance from the trench (e.g. Sr/Y ratios). Comparison with a range of international data for Th/Nb vs Pb/Nb and Dy/Yb vs SiO 2 indicate that: amphibole was indeed a strong controlling phase on magmatic evolution

  12. Wintertime component of the THORPEX Pacific-Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Toth, Z.; Asuma, Y.; Reynolds, C.; Lngland, R.; Szunyogh, I.; Colle, B.; Chang, E.; Doyle, C.; Kats, A.

    2009-04-01

    The winter component of the T-PARC is an international field project that aims at improving high impact weather event forecasts for North America. The main objective is to understand how perturbations from the tropics, Eurasia and polar fronts travel through waveguide and turn into high impact weather events. Through adaptive observations by using manned aircrafts (NOAA G-IV and US Air force C-130s) and Russian rawinsonde network over data sparse regions, it is expected that accurate initial conditions will improve the numerical weather forecasts. Non-adaptive aircraft measurements over the Pacific Rim and part of India are also deployed through E-AMDAR program, which is expected to improve the background field over Asia where perturbations are initiated. The campaign is led by NOAA and joined by agencies and universities from US, Canada, Mexico, Japan, ECWMF, and Russia. While most observational data will be assimilated by operational centers to improve real time numerical weather predictions, post field studies will focus on aspects such as: data impact on forecast and analysis, dry and moist processes that affect the formation and propagation of perturbations, meso-scale storm structure, error growth, forecast "busts" under certain atmospheric regimes, and socio-economic applications such as costs and benefits of improved forecasts and their use by the public for high impact weather events. In particular, a Winter Olympics demonstration project (February 12 - February 28) is expected to be a test bed during winter T-PARC for real user outreach and application purposes. Effectiveness of existing targeting methods as well as new targeting methods in the 3-5 day lead time range will be pursued and other aspects related to data assimilation and numerical forecasts (both deterministic and ensemble forecasts) will be investigated within this project as well.

  13. A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

  14. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  15. Growth of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in povi masima, a traditional Pacific island food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T L; Whyte, R J; Graham, C G; Saunders, D; Schumacher, J; Hudson, J A

    2004-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data on the microbiology and hurdles to pathogen growth in the traditional Pacific Island food, povi masima, which is essentially beef brisket cured in brine. Six containers of povi masima were prepared and two were inoculated with five enterotoxigenic strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. The povi masima were divided into two lots each containing two uninoculated control and an inoculated container. Lot 1 was incubated at room temperature (20 degrees C) and lot 2 under refrigeration (4-5 degrees C) for up to 98 days. During storage, samples were removed and tested for aerobic plate count, coagulase-producing Staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, staphylococcal enterotoxin and various chemical parameters of the food. Coagulase-producing Staphylococci and aerobic plate counts grew to high levels in both the inoculated and uninoculated lots stored at room temperature, but enterotoxin was only detected at one time point in these lots and this may represent a false positive result. The concentration of NaCl in the meat increased with time as concentrations equilibrated, and nitrite was rapidly lost in those lots stored at room temperature. Storage at 4-5 degrees C prevented proliferation of coagulase-producing Staphylococci. For safe curing and storage, this food should be kept under refrigeration as this prevented growth of staphylococci. Optimum storage would also be achieved with improved attempts to ensure equal distribution of NaCl prior to storage. Under conditions traditionally used to cure and store this food, enterotoxigenic staphylococci can grow to numbers where toxigenesis might occur, especially during the early stages of curing where the salt has not diffused from the brine into the meat.

  16. Probabilistic versus deterministic skill in predicting the western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability with multimodel ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Qun; Yang, Dejian; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Yaocun; Ren, Xuejuan; Tang, Youmin

    2017-04-01

    Based on historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multi-model ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiority of coupled MME over contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability. The probabilistic and deterministic forecast skills are measured by Brier skill score (BSS) and anomaly correlation (AC), respectively. A forecast-format dependent MME superiority over SMEs is found. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is always significantly better than that of each SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME can be lower than that of some SMEs. The MME superiority arises from both the model diversity and the ensemble size increase in the tropics, and primarily from the ensemble size increase in the subtropics. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the dramatic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonic resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively explained, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability arises from an effective reduction of the overconfidence in forecast distributions. Moreover, it is examined that the seasonal predictions with coupled MME are more skillful than those with the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, since the coupled MME has better predicted the SST anomaly evolution in three key regions.

  17. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  18. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone. AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD..., Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts weapon systems testing and other military testing and training activities... Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal Register (78 FR...

  19. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in the SE Pacific. The Raraku Lake sedimentary record (Easter Island, 27°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Pueyo, Juan J.; Hernández, Armand; Casas, David

    2009-12-01

    Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate changes in the South Pacific region based on terrestrial archives. Although the general climate evolution of the south Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is coherent with terrestrial records in southern South America and Polynesia, the details of the dynamics of the shifting Westerlies, the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Anticyclone during the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene, and the large scale controls on precipitation in tropical and extratropical regions remain elusive. Here we present a high-resolution reconstruction of lake dynamics, watershed processes and paleohydrology for the last 34 000 cal yrs BP based on a sedimentological and geochemical multiproxy study of 8 cores from the Raraku Lake sediments constrained by 22 AMS radiocarbon dates. This multicore strategy has reconstructed the sedimentary architecture of the lake infilling and provided a stratigraphic framework to integrate and correlate previous core and vegetation studies conducted in the lake. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake between 34 and 28 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical evidences support previously reported pollen data showing a relatively open forest and a cold and relatively humid climate during the Glacial period. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including the LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The coherent climate patterns in subtropical and mid latitudes of Chile and Eastern Island for the LGM (more humid conditions) suggest stronger influence of the Antarctic circumpolar current and an enhancement of the Westerlies. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major flood events and erosion of littoral sediments. Deglaciation (Termination

  20. Curriculum as Colonizer: (Asian) American Education in the Current U.S. Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…

  1. "Chinese-Mexicans" and "Blackest Asians": Filipino American Youth Resisting the Racial Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Erica D.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…

  2. A systems-based approach to transform climate education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. English is the common language of instruction in all jurisdictions, but is not the language spoken at home for most students outside of Hawai'i. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. PCEP has developed a regional network, tools, and an emerging plan to systemically transform K-14 climate education in the USAPI. More than 50 organizations and networks have joined the partnership. These partners include all of the region's state departments of education, major universities, and community colleges, and a wide range of local partners, particularly conservation organizations. One of PCEP's major tools is general, multidisciplinary K-14 climate science education framework that organizes major underlying concepts and skills within appropriate grade-span progressions. This framework is based largely upon prior national science and climate literacy work and the National Research Council's recent document "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The PCEP climate education framework has an Earth System Science foundation that is directly applicable in all locations, and it also has orientations that are

  3. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  4. It Can Be Done: With Advocacy, Libraries Can Thrive on Pacific Islands. Selected Papers from PIALA 2007, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (17th, Tinian and Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, November 12-17, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2007 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Pre-Conference Workshop…

  5. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  6. Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Daniel W.; Molnar, Peter H.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2016-06-01

    A P wave speed tomogram produced from teleseismic travel time measurements made on and offshore the South Island of New Zealand shows a nearly vertical zone with wave speeds that are 4.5% higher than the background average reaching to depths of approximately 450 km under the northwestern region of the island. This structure is consistent with oblique west-southwest subduction of Pacific lithosphere since about 45 Ma, when subduction beneath the region began. The high-speed zone reaches about 200-300 km below the depths of the deepest intermediate-depth earthquakes (subcrustal to ~200 km) and therefore suggests that ~200-300 km of slab below them is required to produce sufficient weight to induce the intermediate-depth seismicity. In the southwestern South Island, high P wave speeds indicate subduction of the Australian plate at the Puysegur Trench to approximately 200 km depth. A band with speeds ~2-3.5% lower than the background average is found along the east coast of the South Island to depths of ~150-200 km and underlies Miocene or younger volcanism; these low speeds are consistent with thinned lithosphere. A core of high speeds under the Southern Alps associated with a convergent margin and mountain building imaged in previous investigations is not well resolved in this study. This could suggest that such high speeds are limited in both width and depth and not resolvable by our data.

  7. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

  8. First record and impact of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (Spinulosida: Acanthasteridae on corals of Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupskaya Narváez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a major coral predator widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, where population outbreaks have caused dramatic impacts on coral reefs. In the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP A. planci occurs at low population densities; it has been significantly abundant only in Panama and Cocos Island. We have recently found two individuals of A. planci at Malpelo Island, a small oceanic island with significant coral communities located off the Colombian Pacific coast. The recent discovery of A. planci at Malpelo is significant in light of recent reports of its increased frequency of observation at Cocos Island and occurrence at the Galapagos Islands. The individuals found at Malpelo have been repeatedly sighted since 2004, actively feeding on nine species of coral. Although densities of A. planci are low at Malpelo and other oceanic islands of the TEP, these islands may act as stepping stones for the colonization of other coral reef areas in the region. However, the low densities of A. planci suggest that it currently poses no threat to coral reefs in the TEP. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 139-143. Epub 2010 May 01.

  9. Development and use of a research productivity assessment tool for clinicians in low-resource settings in the Pacific Islands: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Shulruf, Boaz; McCowan, Lesley; Hill, Andrew G; Kenealy, Tim

    2016-01-29

    Research performance assessments have proliferated, but research indicators for use amongst clinicians in poorly resourced countries have been ill-defined. The aims of the present paper were to determine a set of indicators as determined by clinician participants from the Pacific Islands and a panel of research experts for use in the performance assessment of clinicians. Two focus group discussions, one for nurses and one for doctors, were used to obtain the views of 28 Pacific Island clinicians of the BRRACAP Study about what the research indicators should be. A modified Delphi survey was used to obtain a consensus amongst 19 research experts, with Pacific Island research experience, as to what the indicators should be and then to rank these in terms of importance. A survey of the participants obtained data on the research tasks/actions performed 20 months after the initial research workshop. A resultant tool comprising of 21 indicators was used to assess the performance of 18 Pacific participants. The Pacific Island clinicians determined that research was important and that performance should be measured. They identified research indicators that could be used in their settings and ranked their importance using a points system. The panel of experts identified implementation of research findings, collaborations and actual change in practice as more important, with bibliometric measurements low down in the scale. Although only 64% of the 28 BRRACAP Study participants returned the questionnaire, 39% of those performed more than half of the 21 indicators used. Of the 18 Pacific clinicians assessed, 7 (39%) performed 10 or more tasks. A research performance assessment tool was developed using process and output indicators identified by Pacific clinicians and a panel of research experts. The tool, which placed emphasis on process and outputs that were not bibliometric based, proved useful in assessing the performance of Pacific clinicians working in a low

  10. Polynesian Subsistence, Nutrient Flows, and Long-Term Socio-Ecosystem Dynamics: Insights from Stable Isotope Analysis of the Pacific Rat (Rattus exulans) in Island Foodwebs

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Jillian Amy

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation applies stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis to archaeological specimens of the human-transported Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) to investigate prehistoric patterns of subsistence, site use, and long-term socio-ecosystem dynamics on Polynesian Islands. The Pacific rat is a small commensal species characterized by low dietary selectivity and a limited home range. Its close association with past Polynesian peoples—and ubiquity in Polynesian archaeological si...

  11. Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region. Appendix A: Exploration for a Geothermal System in the Lualualei Valley, Oahu, Hawaii. Appendix B: Exploration on Adak Island Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    VA 22203. AUTHORITY ONR ltr, 11 Dec 1975 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED ..-*~* .-- . .... ’NJ Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region ; I L. T. Grose and...Appendix A accompanies a report entitled " Geothermal Energy in the Pacific Region" by L. T. Grose and G. V. Keller, May, 1975. This project has been...Islands comprise an area of active to recently active volcanism which should be favorable for the occurrence of geothermal energy . Adak Naval Base is an

  12. Biological oceanography, biogeochemical cycles, and pelagic ecosystem functioning of the east-central South Pacific Gyre: focus on Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Dassow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.

  13. Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schemm, Jae Kyung E. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Long-lead prediction of waxing and waning of the Western North Pacific (WNP)-East Asian (EA) summer monsoon (WNP-EASM) precipitation is a major challenge in seasonal time-scale climate prediction. In this study, deficiencies and potential for predicting the WNP-EASM precipitation and circulation one or two seasons ahead were examined using retrospective forecast data for the 26-year period of 1981-2006 from two operational couple models which are the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS) and the Bureau of Meteorology Research Center (BMRC) Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA). While both coupled models have difficulty in predicting summer mean precipitation anomalies over the region of interest, even for a 0-month lead forecast, they are capable of predicting zonal wind anomalies at 850 hPa several months ahead and, consequently, satisfactorily predict summer monsoon circulation indices for the EA region (EASMI) and for the WNP region (WNPSMI). It should be noted that the two models' multi-model ensemble (MME) reaches 0.40 of the correlation skill for the EASMI with a January initial condition and 0.75 for the WNPSMI with a February initial condition. Further analysis indicates that prediction reliability of the EASMI is related not only to the preceding El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but also to simultaneous local SST variability. On other hand, better prediction of the WNPSMI is accompanied by a more realistic simulation of lead-lag relationship between the index and ENSO. It should also be noted that current coupled models have difficulty in capturing the interannual variability component of the WNP-EASM system which is not correlated with typical ENSO variability. To improve the long-lead seasonal prediction of the WNP-EASM precipitation, a statistical postprocessing was developed based on the multiple linear regression method. The method utilizes the MME prediction of the EASMI and

  14. Observations of heterogeneous reactions between Asian pollution and mineral dust over the Eastern North Pacific during INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Flocke

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In-situ airborne measurements of trace gases, aerosol size distributions, chemistry and optical properties were conducted over Mexico and the Eastern North Pacific during MILAGRO and INTEX-B. Heterogeneous reactions between secondary aerosol precursor gases and mineral dust lead to sequestration of sulfur, nitrogen and chlorine in the supermicrometer particulate size range.

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions and weak-acid soluble calcium result in an estimate of 11 wt% of CaCO3 for Asian dust. During transport across the North Pacific, ~5–30% of the CaCO3 is converted to CaSO4 or Ca(NO32 with an additional ~4% consumed through reactions with HCl. The 1996 to 2008 record from the Mauna Loa Observatory confirm these findings, indicating that, on average, 19% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form CaSO4 and 7% has reacted to form Ca(NO32 and ~2% has reacted with HCl. In the nitrogen-oxide rich boundary layer near Mexico City up to 30% of the CaCO3 has reacted to form Ca(NO32 while an additional 8% has reacted with HCl.

    These heterogeneous reactions can result in a ~3% increase in dust solubility which has an insignificant effect on their optical properties compared to their variability in-situ. However, competition between supermicrometer dust and submicrometer primary aerosol for condensing secondary aerosol species led to a 25% smaller number median diameter for the accumulation mode aerosol. A 10–25% reduction of accumulation mode number median diameter results in a 30–70% reduction in submicrometer light scattering at relative humidities in the 80–95% range. At 80% RH submicrometer light scattering is only reduced ~3% due to a higher mass fraction of hydrophobic refractory components in the dust-affected accumulation mode aerosol. Thus reducing the geometric mean diameter of

  15. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  16. Multiple Distant Origins for Green Sea Turtles Aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Dutton, Peter H.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:22319635

  17. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  18. Responses of heterotrophic bacteria abundance and activity to Asian dust enrichment in the low nutrients and low chlorophyll (LNLC) region of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongwan; Li, Kuiran; Tian, Yanzhao; Zhang, Xiaohao; Bai, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria, as an essential part of microbial food web, play a significant role in the marine ecosystem. Dust deposits into the surface ocean carrying with vital nutrient such as Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus etc., which has an important influence on the life activities of heterotrophic bacteria. The microcosm experiments with Asian dust deposition was carried out on board in the station K3 (26.18°N, 136.73°E) in April 2015, aiming to estimate the impact of dust deposition on the oligotrophic Northwestern pacific Sea, the main goal of the present paper was to assess how dust deposition events affect the abundance and activity of heterotrophic bacteria in low nutrient and low chlorophyll (LNLC) sea area. Station K3 located in the central northwestern Pacific Ocean, which has the characteristic of low nutrient and low chlorophyll. The study shows that there was an N-P co-limitation in station K3, and the deposition of Asian dust can increase the abundance, and promote the activity of heterotrophic bacteria in the station K3.

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis in the Pacific...

  20. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  2. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  3. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Jarvis in the Pacific...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  5. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species: Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Steven C. Hess; Susan Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts...

  6. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  7. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  8. Patterns at Multi-Spatial Scales on Tropical Island Stream Insect Assemblages: Gorgona Island Natural National Park, Colombia, Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Eastern Pacific island streams (TEPis differ from other neotropical streams in their rainy climate, mixed sedimentary-volcanic geology and faunal composition. Yet, their relationships between environmental characteristics and stream biota remain unexplored. We analyzed the environmental subject at three spatial scales using a fully nested sampling design (6 streams, 2 reaches within each stream, 2 habitats within each reach, and 4 replicates per habitat on Gorgona Island (Colombia. Sampling was carried out in two months with contrasting rainfall during early 2009. We studied the spatial variation of assemblage composition and density along with 27 independent variables within two contrasting rainfall conditions. Five stream-scale variables, two reach-scale variables, and five habitat-scale variables were selected using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A partial CCA showed that the total variance explained was 13.98%, while stream- and habitat-scale variables explained the highest proportion of the variance (5.74 and 5.01%, respectively. Dissolved oxygen (as affected by rainfall, high-density use zone (a management category, and sedimentary geology were the best descriptors of insect assemblages. The two latter descriptors affected fine-scale variables such as total benthic organic matter and gravel substratum, respectively. A Nested ANOVA showed significant differences in total density and richness among streams and habitats, and significant differences between the two sampling months regardless of the spatial scale. The evenness showed a significant stream- and habitat-dependent temporal variability. These results suggested that rainfall regime in Gorgona Island might be a driver of insect assemblage dynamics mediated by water chemistry and substratum properties. Spatial assemblage variability here is greater within habitats (among samples, and a minor fraction occurs at habitat- and stream-scales, while no longitudinal

  9. Aloha Teachers: Teacher Autonomy Support Promotes Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Students' Motivation, School Belonging, Course-Taking and Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Among 110 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, teacher autonomy support in 9th grade significantly predicted intrinsic motivation for math in 9th grade as well as math course-taking over the next 2 years, both of which in turn significantly predicted math achievement by 11th grade. In a second model, teacher autonomy support was positively…

  10. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Maori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, M.; Bosman, A.; Wagemakers, A.; Kira, A.; Paton, C.; Cowie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Maori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a

  11. Cryptic variation and recent bipolar range expansion within the Stumped-Toed Gecko Gehyra mutilata across Indian and Pacific Ocean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, S.; Ineich, I.; Harris, D. James

    2009-01-01

    With an impressively wide distribution, Gehyra mutilata is present on almost all Indian and Pacific Ocean islands and in large regions of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Mitochondrial sequence data (~500 bp) from individuals covering large parts of its (mainly insular) distribution reveals deep

  12. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  13. Dating Violence Victimization: Associated Drinking and Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian High School Students in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Goebert, Deborah; Nishimura, Stephanie; Caetano, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups such as Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs) and native populations in Hawaii are seldom studied in the area of intimate relationships. Using the 1999 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study examined gender and ethnic differences in experiencing physical dating violence and whether drinking (early initiation, binge…

  14. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Plant Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the terrestrial plant observations survey is to document vegetation species presence/absence and distribution on the island unit of the refuge. The...

  15. Cedros: Origin and permanence of the place names in a Mexican Pacific Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Israel Baxin Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Toponymy is a field of knowledge pertaining to geography, as it contributes to the naming of geographical space and its parts, and is a sign of the appropriation of territories by human groups. Mexican toponymy has diverse linguistic origins: most stem from indigenous languages and Spanish, and their combinations, both on continental and island soils. The geographical names used to designate natural elements and places of itinerant or permanent occupation on island territories have been arbitrarily assigned in different historical eras. This paper analyzes the toponyms of the island of Cedros (Baja California, Mexico, their historical denominations, and the names assigned by its contemporary inhabitants. The toponyms discussed here are compared with some geographical names from the western shore of the Baja California peninsula and from other Mexican islands.

  16. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  17. The Global International Waters Assessment for the Pacific Islands: aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and coastal fisheries issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, G Robin; Skelton, Posa A; Veitayaki, Joeli; Resture, Alan; Carpenter, Clive; Pratt, Craig; Lawedrau, Alena

    2004-02-01

    Aspects of transboundary, water shortage, and fisheries issues are discussed in the context of the recently completed Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) for the Pacific Islands. The region encompasses some 30 million km2 and approximately 12% of the world's ocean space, and features great geographic, demographic and developmental diversity. Global change, especially sea level rise and sea surface temperature increases, is the dominant transboundary concern as it impacts all aspects of life. Water shortage and unsustainable fishing issues are selected for discussion, as they will dominate the region into the foreseeable future, and they are illustrated with examples from Fiji, Kiribati, and Tonga. The environmental impacts are exacerbated by socioeconomic issues such as high population growth rates, urban drift, the breakdown of traditional life styles and the rapid adoption of the cash economy. Policy options that may assist in addressing these issues are proposed.

  18. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  19. Development of an Online Smoking Cessation Curriculum for Pacific Islanders: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Patchareeya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie; Lee, Cevadne; Lepule, Jonathan; Pang, Victor; Pike, James; Santos, Lola; Tanjasiri, Sora; Toilolo, Tupou; Tui One May, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Palmer, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Pacific Islanders (PIs) have one of the highest rates of cigarette use, but evidence-based smoking cessation programs designed specifically for PIs are practically nonexistent. This paper reports on the development of a culturally tailored smoking cessation curriculum designed specifically for young adult PIs using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. This paper demonstrates the shared leadership and equal contribution of community and academic partnerships. Together community and academic partners conceptualized and developed a smoking cessation curriculum. Data from formative studies shaped the various components of the educational modules. Eight educational modules were developed through CBPR. Information on the dangers of cigarettes, benefits to cessation, and ways to cope with cravings and stress through cognitive behavioral therapy were offered in both narrative and non-narrative formats. Use of CBPR is critical in the development of the curriculum because it allowed for the sharing of ideas and knowledge between academics and community members.

  20. Factors affecting learning and teaching for medicines supply management training in Pacific Island Countries--a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew N; Ward-Panckhurst, Liane; Cooper, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Limited human resources are a major impediment to achieving the UN health-related Millennium Development Goals in a number of Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Lack of education capacity to support competency development in medicine supply management is one of the main issues affecting workforce development in this region, which is characterised by disparate service delivery due to the range of environments in which supply occurs (ie urban, rural and remote), geographical challenges and cultural practices associated with teaching and learning. The supply of medicines, and an adequate pharmacy workforce with appropriate competencies is crucial to ensuring a well-functioning pharmaceutical system. In this region approximately 80% of patients access healthcare in rural areas without a pharmacist, thus local health personnel must be competent in pharmaceutical management relevant to the local context and culture. A new approach involves a partnership between the UN Population Fund Suva Sub-Regional Office, University of Canberra, Ministry of Health officials and the heath personnel within identified PICs, starting with the need to understand local culture and its impact on learning and teaching, and the mapping of competency requirements and an understanding of currently available information and materials. This information will be used to develop and trial new pedagogical approaches to training health personnel involved in essential medicines supply management, to improve medicines availability for patients in their own environment. The focus of this review was to determine what cultural and learning factors need to be considered when developing a curriculum for South Pacific pharmaceutical health personnel who work across a range of practice environments. A 'realist methodology' consisting of a systematic investigation of the published literature and a targeted review of the 'grey' literature was used. All relevant literature was retrieved and coded manually using